كتاب Make - Electronics - Learning by Discovery
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


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 كتاب Make - Electronics - Learning by Discovery

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Make - Electronics - Learning by Discovery
A hands-on primer for the new electronics enthusiast
Burn things out, mess things up - that’s how you learn.
Second Edition
Charles Platt

كتاب Make - Electronics - Learning by Discovery  M_e_l_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
What’s New in the Second Edition . vii
Preface: How to Have Fun with This Book ix
1. The Basics 1
Necessary Items for Chapter One . 1
Experiment 1: Taste the Power! . 7
Experiment 2: Let’s Abuse a Battery! . 12
Experiment 3: Your First Circuit 18
Experiment 4: Variable Resistance . 22
Experiment 5: Let’s Make a Battery 34
2. Switching 41
Necessary Items for Chapter Two 41
Experiment 6: Very Simple Switching 50
Experiment 7: Investigating a Relay 60
Experiment 8: A Relay Oscillator . 66
Experiment 9: Time and Capacitors 75
Experiment 10: Transistor Switching . 84
Experiment 11: Light and Sound 91
3. Getting Somewhat More Serious 99
Necessary Items for Chapter Three 99
Experiment 12: Joining Two Wires Together 109
Experiment 13: Roasting an LED 121
Experiment 14: A Wearable Pulsing Glow . 124
Experiment 15: Intrusion Alarm, Part One . 132
4. Chips, Ahoy! . 141
Necessary Items for Chapter Four 142
Experiment 16: Emitting a Pulse 145
Experiment 17: Set Your Tone 155
vExperiment 18: Intrusion Alarm (Almost) Completed 163
Experiment 19: Reflex Tester . 178
Experiment 20: Learning Logic . 191
Experiment 21: A Powerful Combination . 201
Experiment 22: Race to Place . 210
Experiment 23: Flipping and Bouncing . 218
Experiment 24: Nice Dice 223
5. What Next? 237
Tools, Equipment, Components, and Supplies 237
Customizing Your Work Area . 237
Labeling 240
On the Bench 240
Reference Sources Online 242
Books . 242
Experiment 25: Magnetism 243
Experiment 26: Tabletop Power Generation 247
Experiment 27: Loudspeaker Destruction . 252
Experiment 28: Making a Coil React 255
Experiment 29: Filtering Frequencies . 258
Experiment 30: Make It Fuzzy 267
Experiment 31: One Radio, No Solder, No Power 271
Experiment 32: Hardware Meets Software 278
Experiment 33: Checking the Real World . 290
Experiment 34: Nicer Dice . 297
6. Tools, Equipment, Components, and Supplies . 311
Kits . 311
Searching and Shopping Online . 311
Checklists of Supplies and Components 316
Buying Tools and Equipment . 324
Suppliers 326
Index 327
Index
Numbers &
Symbols
1N4001 diode, 108
1N4148 diode, 108
2N2222 transistor, 49, 84
4026B decade counter, 182, 184
(see also counter)
555 timer
applications, 152
astable, 149, 155, 264
audio frequency source, 260
audio test, 156
basics, 145
bipolar version, 154
bistable, 152, 184, 213
buying guide, 323
calibration, 189
capacitor values, 150
combinations, 159
connected with counter, 184
control pin, 150, 159
delayed initial response, 165
diode, 158
discharge pin function, 148
frequency, 157, 159
history, 153
internal function, 151, 157
monostable, 149, 186
pin numbering, 146
pinouts, 146
pulse duration, 149, 150
pulse suppression, 152, 161,
168
reset pin function, 149
resistor values, 150
retriggering, 149
siren sound, 162
specifications, 154
test circuit, 147, 155
trigger pin function, 147
TTL and CMOS versions, 154
unequal cycles, 158
556 timer, 163
7402 quad 2-input OR, 198
7404 hex inverter NOT, 198
7410 triple 3-input NAND, 198
7411 triple 3-input AND, 198
7420 dual 4-input NAND, 198
7421 dual 4-input AND, 198
7427 triple 3-input NOR, 198
7432 quad 2-input OR, 198, 217
744002 dual 4-input NOR, 198
744075 triple 3-input OR, 198
747266 quad 2-input XNOR, 198
7486 quad 2-input XOR, 198
74HC00 quad 2-input NAND, 192,
222
74HC08 quad 2-input AND, 204
74HC393 binary counter, 223
74xx family (see chip, 74xx family)
A
AC (alternating current)
basics, 16
symbol, 57
through a coil, 258
with capacitors, 84
AC adapter
basics, 99
buying guide, 322
modification, 116
single voltage type, 99
universal type, 99
alarm system project (see
intrusion alarm)
alligator clip
copper, 106, 122, 123
test leads, 5, 102
alternating current (see AC)
ambient pressure, 264
amp (see ampere)
amperage (see current)
ampere, 14
(see also current)
basics, 14, 15
conversion table, 15
measurement, 25, 37
Ampère, André-Marie, 14, 17
amplifier chip LM386, 259, 276
AND
7408 quad 2-input, 204
7411 triple 3-input, 198
3277421 dual 4-input, 198
74HC08 quad 2-input, 193
demo, 193
symbol, 196
truth table, 196
anode, 137
anti-static wrist strap (see wrist
strap)
Arduino
advantages and disadvantages,
289
analog input, 290
blink test, 284
clock, 300
comment line, 285
dice simulation program, 297,
302
errors, 303
IDE, 280, 281
installation, 282
integers, 304
introduction, 278
language reference, 297
Mac installation, 283
protoshield, 293
pseudocode, 298
random function, 297, 305
setup, 280
sketch, 285
summary, 287
thermostat simulation
program, 294
unlicensed copies, 281
Windows troubleshooting, 283
Atmel, 279, 289
atomic structure, 35
audio (see sound)
autoranging in multimeter (see
multimeter, autoranging)
B
Bardeen, John, 90
base of a transistor, 86
BASIC Stamp, 308
battery
attaching to breadboard, 68
basics, 4
buying guide, 320
car, 12, 32
carrier, 4, 13
connector, 4
electrolyte, 13
how it works, 10, 13
internal resistance, 32
lemon juice, 34
lithium, 12, 32
parallel, 39
primary, 36
secondary, 36
series, 39
short circuit, 12, 13, 32
symbol, 57
Bell, Alexander Graham, 253
bias, 88
binary code, 226
binding posts, 176
board
cut-board, 107
perforated, 107, 126, 170
perforated errors, 172
perforated, buying guide, 317
bolts, 107
bolts buying guide, 317
books recommended, 242
Boole, George, 194
boolean logic, 195
box, project, 107, 173
Brattain, Walter, 90
breadboard
basics, 43, 66
bus, 44, 68
buying guide, 321
component depiction, 66
dual-bus, 44
fault tracing, 73
interior connections, 68
mini, 44
single-bus, 44
break-to-make circuit, 133
bubble, 196
button blocker
breadboarded, 216
phase 1, 211
phase 2, 211
phase 3, 212
phase 4, 212
phase 5, 212
schematic, 213
sequence, 213
C
C language, 285
calipers, 105
Camenzind, Hans, 153
capacitance, 4
capacitor
AC application, 84
basics, 49, 72
buying guide, 318
bypass, 96
ceramic, 50, 72
charge-discharge demo, 71, 76
coupling, 80, 96
DC blocking, 76
displacement current, 82
electrolytic, 50, 72
filtering audio frequencies, 262
measuring the value, 4
polarity, 71, 73
polyester, 266
RC network, 76
shock hazard, 72
symbol, 73
tantalum, 73
test circuit, 75
time constant, 77
variable, 276
car battery, 12, 32
carrier frequency, 277
cathode, 137
ceramic capacitor (see capacitor,
ceramic)
checklists of supplies and
components, 316
chip
4000 series, 197
74xx family, 142
buying guide, 323
dual-inline package, 142
HC, 143
history, 145, 197
LS series, 197
package, 142
328 Indexpart number, 142, 198
pin numbering, 146
size, 146
socket, 143
static discharge damage, 178
surface-mount, 142, 143
through-hole, 142
TTL and CMOS, 197
clipping, 268
clocked flip-flop, 222
CMOS output current, 182
coil
AM radio, 272, 277
audio filter, 262, 262, 266
compared with capacitor, 257
inductance, 245
inductive reactance, 257
iron core, 246
loudspeaker, 253
power generation, 247
symbol, 246
tap, 273
transformer, 246
voltage spike, 139
collector of a transistor, 86
combination lock
breadboarded, 202, 204
computer interface, 207
enhancements, 209
installation, 207
introduction, 201
logic diagram, 202
schematics, 202
testing, 206
common anode, 181
common cathode, 181
comparator, 151
components
checklist, 317
vendors, 311
conductor definition, 9
connector, 108
contacting the author, x
continuity testing, 3, 53
conventional current (see current,
conventional)
coulomb, 37
counter
4026B, 182
74HC393, 223
binary, 223
carry out, 184
clock disable, 183
clock input, 183
coded outputs, 182
decade, 182, 223
edge-triggered, 226
modulus, 227
reset pin, 227
crossover network, 266
current
basics, 14, 16
conventional, 55
danger, 32
displacement, 82
flow direction, 36
measurement, 25
resistance, relationship, 14
uniform in a simple circuit, 26
D
Darlington array, 182
datasheet, LED, 29
DC (direct current)
basics, 16
plug-and-socket, 108
DeArmond, Harry, 270
debouncing (see switch, bounce)
deburring tool, 105
decimal points, 31
desk lamp, 127
desoldering braid, 104
desoldering pump, 101, 103
desoldering wick, 104
dice simulation
introduction, 223
logic diagram, 229
randomicity, 234
schematic, 231
slowdown effect, 235
two dice, 233
diode
1N4001, 108
1N4148, 108
555 timer, 158
anode, 137
basics, 108, 137
buying guide, 322
cathode, 137
germanium, 274
germanium buying guide, 324
protection, 139
radio, 278
rectifier, 136, 251
symbol, 137
voltage drop, 137
with logic chip, 206
DIP (see chip, dual-inline package)
direct current (see DC)
displacement current, 82
display, numeric
seven-segment display, 144
distortion, 268
double-throw switch (see switch,
configurations)
DPDT (see switch, configurations)
drilling holes in plastic, 174
Dummer, W. A., 145
E
earphone, 274
earphone buying guide, 323
edge-triggered counter, 226
electricity and magnetism, 243
electrolyte, 13
electrolytic capacitor (see
capacitor, electrolytic)
electromagnet, 244
electron holes, 35
electrons, 10, 13, 32, 35, 36, 37
emitter of a transistor, 86
Encyclopedia of Electronic
Components, 242
errata reports, xi
error notifications, x
F
farad
basics, 72
conversion table, 72
Faraday, Michael, 72, 75, 246
fault tracing, x, 73, 173
Index 329feedback
from author to reader, x
from reader to author, x, xi
filtering audio frequencies, 262
flip-flop, 151, 153, 207, 213, 219,
222
floating pin, 149, 183
flush cutters, 42
forward current, 20
forward voltage, 20
Franklin, Benjamin, 36
fuse
automotive, 5, 15
buying guide, 320
cartridge, 5, 15
how to blow, 15
suitable types, 5
G
gauge of wire (see wire, gauge)
germanium, 145, 274
glasses, safety (see safety glasses)
ground
grounding yourself, 178
power outlet, 16
radio, 274, 275
symbol, 57
H
Hammond organ, 270
harmonics, 264
HC generation (see chip, HC)
headers, 108
headers buying guide, 322
heat gun, 103, 115
heat sink, 123
heat transfer, 114, 122, 123
heat-shrink tubing, 106, 114, 117,
119, 120
heat-shrink tubing buying guide,
317
helping hand, 101, 109, 119, 122
henry (unit of inductance), 245
Henry, Joseph, 245, 246
hertz, 157
Hertz, Heinrich, 157
holes (positive charges), 35
hookup wire (see wire, hookup)
hysteresis, 294
I
IC (see chip)
inches
conversion of fractions, 129
conversion to metric, 129
inductance
basics, 28
created by a coil, 245
inductive reactance, 257
insulator definition, 9
integers, 304
integrated circuit (see chip)
internal resistance of a battery, 32
intrusion alarm
arming, 167
breadboard layout, 139
complete circuit, 168
installation, 176
part one, 132
part two, 163
soldering, 170
usage, 167
wish list, 132
inverter (see NOT)
J
jack plug, 54
jam-type flip-flop, 222
Jeopardy game, 210
joule, 32
jumper wire
basics, 46
how to make, 67
precut, 46
precut buying guide, 316
with plugs, 5, 46, 261
K
keypad encoding, 209
Kilby, Jack, 145
kilohm, 9
kilovolt, 15
kilowatt, 33
knife switch (see switch, knife)
L
latch, 153
leads, test (see test leads)
learning methods, ix
LED
basics, 6, 20
buying guide, 320
datasheet, 29
display, 181
forward current, 20
forward voltage, 20
generic, 6
heat damage, 121
indicator, 181
installation, 128
low-current, 6, 144
low-current buying guide, 320
polarity, 20
series resistor, 24, 30
symbol, 55, 58
test circuit, 20
threshold voltage, 24
through-hole, 181
lemon battery, 34
light-emitting diode (see LED)
lightning, 37
lithium battery (see battery,
lithium)
LM386 amplifier chip, 259, 276
LM7805 voltage regulator, 144,
191
logic chip (see chip)
logic diagram
combination lock, 202
dice simulation, 229
NAND demo, 193
logic gate, 192
(see also AND, NAND, OR, NOR,
XOR, XNOR, and NOT)
rules, 200
voltages, 200
logic probe, 142
330 Indexlogic symbols, 196
logic-high, 193
logic-low, 192
loudspeaker
basics, 50
coil, 253
disassembly, 252
enclosure, 259
history, 253
mounting in a tube, 98
loupe, 102
M
machine screws, 107
machine screws buying guide, 317
magnet
buying guide, 323
cautions, 250
charging a capacitor, 251
power generation, 247
wire, 248
magnet wire, 267
magnetic field, 257
magnetic sensor (see switch,
magnetic sensor)
magnetism and electricity, 243
magnifying lens, 102, 127
Make: More Electronics, xi, 222,
235, 242, 294
Marconi, Guglielmo, 277
measurement units, 129
megawatt, 33
megohm, 9
meter (see multimeter)
metric system
conversion to inches, 129
origins, 129
microamp, 15
microcontroller
applications, 279
ATmega, 279
history, 288
options, 308
microfarad, 72
microphone, 254
milliamp, 15
millivolt, 15
milliwatt, 33
minigrabbers, 102
modulus of a counter, 227
Moore, Gordon, 145
multimeter
autoranging, 3
basics, 3, 4, 8
best, 2
better, 2
BK, 2
buying options, 2
cheapest, 2
continuity testing, 3
current measurement, 26
Extech, 2
probes, 8
purpose, 2
ranging, 3
recommended, 2
setup, 7
sockets, 8
N
NAND
7410 triple 3-input, 198
7420 dual 4-input, 198
74HC00 quad 2-input, 192
demo, 192
gate, 193
switch debouncing, 220, 222
symbol, 196
truth table, 195, 196
nanofarad, 72
newton, 38
nicerdice Arduino program, 302
NOR
7402 quad 2-input, 198
7427 triple 3-input, 198
744002 dual 4-input, 198
switch debouncing, 220
symbol, 196
truth table, 196
NOT
7404 hex inverter, 198
inverter, 196
symbol, 196
Noyce, Robert, 145
numeric display (see sevensegment display)
O
ohm
conversion table, 9
definition, 8
European notation, 9
named after, 9, 11
Ohm's law
applications, 29, 30, 31
basics, 28
units, 28
Ohm, Georg Simon, 9, 11
omega symbol, 9
OR
7432 quad 2-input, 198, 217
744075 triple 3-input, 198
symbol, 196
three or more inputs, 213
truth table, 196
oscillator, two-transistor, 94
P
P2N2222 transistor, 49
part numbers for chips (see chip,
part number)
PDIP (see chip, dual-inline
package)
perforated board (see board,
perforated)
PICAXE, 289, 308
picofarad, 72
pinouts
4026B counter, 182
555 timer, 146
7402 quad 2-input NOR, 198
7404 hex inverter NOT, 198
7410 triple 3-input NAND, 198
7411 triple 3-input AND, 198
7420 dual 4-input NAND, 198
7421 dual 4-input AND, 198
7427 triple 3-input NOR, 198
7432 quad 2-input OR, 198, 217
744002 dual 4-input NOR, 198
7440750 triple 3-input OR, 198
Index 331747266 quad 2-input XNOR,
198
7486 quad 2-input XOR, 198
74HC00 quad 2-input NAND,
193
74HC08 quad two-input AND,
193
74HC393 binary counter, 223
LM386 amplifier chip, 259
LM7805 voltage regulator, 191
seven-segment display, 181
pliers (see tools)
plug and socket, 108
plywood, 107
point-to-point wiring, 126
pole of switch (see switch, pole)
potential difference
definition, 25
measuring, 25, 28
potentiometer
basics, 5
buying guide, 320
internal parts, 22
symbol, 58
test circuit, 22, 23
track, 23
trimmer, 49, 86
wiper, 23
power
basic requirements, 4
connector, 108
generation with magnet and
coil, 247
outlet, 16
supply, 99, 100, 128
symbol, 57
power cord, shortening, 118
power, watts, 32
printed circuit, 124
program
Arduino IDE environment, 285
code, 285
compile, 285, 286
pseudocode, 298
storage, 288
upload, 285, 287
programmable unijunction
transistor (see PUT)
project box, 107, 173
project box buying guide, 317
protection diode, 139
prototyping board (see
breadboard)
pseudocode, 298
pulldown resistor (see resistor,
pulldown)
pullup resistor (see resistor,
pullup)
pulsing glow project, 124
pushbutton, 47
(see also switch, tactile)
switch, 144
symbol, 58
PUT, 95
R
radio
AM, 271, 275, 277
amplifier, 276
antenna, 273
coil, 272, 277
crystal, 271
enhancements, 276
ground, 274
history, 277
randomicity, 234, 298, 305
ranging in multimeter (see
multimeter, ranging)
RC network, 76, 95, 149
reactance, 257
reed switch (see switch, reed)
reference books, 242
reference sources online, 242
reflex tester
basics, 178
calibration, 189
circuit malfunction, 188
enhancements, 190
operation, 187
wish list, 184
registering for updates, x
relay
basics, 48
buying guide, 321
buzzer circuit, 70
coil voltage, 65
combination lock, 204
datasheets, 63
inductive load, 66
internal parts, 62, 65
intrusion alarm, 134, 165
latching, 48, 63, 135
LED flasher, 67
opening it up, 63
operating current, 65
oscillator, 66, 70
pin functions, 63
polarity of coil, 48, 60
power requirements, 209
resistive load, 66
self-locking, 135
set voltage, 65
small-signal type, 63
switching capacity, 66
symbols, 63
terminology, 65
test circuit, 60
transistor comparison, 91
resistance
basics, 14
current, relationship, 14
parallel, 28
series, 28, 30
skin, 10
tongue, 9, 10
water, 11
wires and heat, 31
resistor
basics, 6
buying guide, 317
color codes, 19
power rating, 33
pulldown, 149, 183
pullup, 149
standard multipliers, 21
storage, 18
symbol, 58
value measurement, 18, 21
rosin core, 101
S
safety glasses, 4
saw, miniature, 104
332 Indexschematic
basics, 55, 56
color-coded, 59
crossovers, 59
layout, 58, 150
pin-shuffling, 150
screwdrivers, 41
Scribner, Charles E., 54
search techniques, 312
self-inductance, 257, 258
semiconductor, 89
seven-segment display, 144, 180,
181
seven-segment display buying
guide, 323
Shannon, Claude, 195
Shockley, William, 90, 145
shopping online, 311
short-circuit a battery, 12, 32
Siemens, Ernst, 253
Signetics, 153
sine wave, 263
single-throw switch (see switch,
configurations)
skin resistance, 10
slide switch (see switch, slide)
socket for IC (see chip, socket)
solder, 100, 101, 105, 109
solder buying guide, 316
soldering
alternatives, 112
errors, 111
myths, 111
technique, 109, 113, 116, 120,
171
wave-soldering, 112
soldering iron
basics, 100
general duty, 101, 109, 122
low-power, 100, 113, 122
pencil type, 101
pistol grip, 101
stand, 104
Weller, 101
solderless breadboard (see
breadboard)
sound
and electricity, 254
distortion, 268
filtering frequencies, 262
frequency, 157
microphone, 254
siren, 162
waves, 254
sound synthesizer, 91
SPDT (see switch, configurations)
speaker (see loudspeaker)
SPST (see switch, configurations)
square wave, 264, 268
static electricity (see chip, static
discharge damage)
stomp box, 269
storage boxes, 238
subwoofer, 266
suppliers, 326
supplies checklists, 316
switch
bounce, 218
configurations, 51
continuity testing, 53
domestic lighting, 56
jack-knife, 54
knife, 51
magnetic sensor, 133, 144, 177
momentary, 53
pole, 51, 175
reed, 133
screw terminals, 47
slide, 144
slider buying guide, 322
soldering, 175
sparking prevention, 53
symbol, 56
table of configurations, 53
tactile, 47
tactile buying guide, 321
tactile symbol, 58
telephone systems, 54
test circuit, 50
toggle, 47, 51
toggle buying guide, 321
T
tactile switch (see switch, tactile)
test leads, 5, 102
Texas Instruments, 145
thermistor, 290, 291
thermistor buying guide, 324
Thomson, J. J., 36
time constant, 77
timer, 555 (see 555 timer)
toggle switch (see switch, toggle)
tongue
resistance, 9, 10
test with 9V battery, 7
tools
buying guide, 324
flush cutters, 42
pliers, long-nosed, 41
pliers, sharp-nosed, 42, 122
screwdrivers, 41
vendors, 312
wire cutters, 42
wire strippers, 43
transformer, 246
transistor
2N2222 substitutions, 49, 84
amplifying current, 88
base, 86
basics, 49
bipolar, 86
collector, 86
damage, 90
emitter, 86
fingertip demo, 85
history, 90
measuring the value, 4, 90
NPN vs. PNP, 86
P2N2222, 49
principle, 85, 88
relay comparison, 91
summary, 89
tremolo, 270
trimmer (see potentiometer,
trimmer)
truth table, 195, 195, 196
tweeter, 266
U
uncontrolled variable, 11, 80
units of measurement, 129
Index 333V
vendors
components, 311
tools, equipment, 312
URLs, 326
Venn diagram, 194
vibrato, 270
volt
conversion table, 15
named after, 13
Volta, Alessandro, 17
voltage
basics, 13, 14, 15, 37
drop, 137
regulator, 99, 144, 191
W
wafer, 142
water, 11
resistance, 11
watt
basics, 32, 38
conversion table, 33
formula, 32
power, 32
Watt, James, 33
waveform, 263, 264, 268
Wheeler's approximation, 245
wire
bulk, 45
color-coded, 46, 59
gauge, 43, 45, 67
hookup, 45, 109
hookup buying guide, 316
joining two pieces, 117
magnet, 248, 267
solid, 45
spools, 45
stranded, 45, 47, 175
stranded buying guide, 316
wire cutters, 42, 43
wire strippers, 43
wire, jumper (see jumper wire)
wire-wrap, 112
woofer, 266
work area layout, 237
work bench configuration, 238
wrist strap, 178
X
XNOR
747266 quad 2-input, 198
symbol, 196
truth table, 196
XOR
7486 quad 2-input, 198
symbol, 196
truth table, 196


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