كتاب Tribological Aspects of Additive Manufacturing
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Tribological Aspects of Additive Manufacturing

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كتاب Tribological Aspects of Additive Manufacturing  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Tribological Aspects of Additive Manufacturing    كتاب Tribological Aspects of Additive Manufacturing  Emptyالأربعاء 15 مايو 2024, 2:52 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Tribological Aspects of Additive Manufacturing
Edited by
Rashi Tyagi, Ranvijay Kumar, and Nishant Ranjan

كتاب Tribological Aspects of Additive Manufacturing  T_a_o_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface xii
Editors’ Brief Bios . xiii
List of Contributors xv
Chapter 1 Tribological Study of 3D-Printed Thermoplastic Polymers 1
Vishal Thakur, Rupinder Singh, and Ranvijay Kumar
1.1 Introduction .1
1.2 Background 3
1.3 Tribological Properties of 3D-Printed Polymers .3
1.4 Lubrication Techniques to Reduce Wear Rate and
Friction Behaviour .6
1.4.1 Solid Lubricants .6
1.4.2 Liquid Lubricants .7
1.4.3 Self-lubricating Thermoplastic Materials 7
1.4.4 Use of Composite Materials .7
1.5 Sustainability Aspects Related to Tribological
Properties of 3D-Printed Polymers .7
1.6 Conclusion .8
Acknowledgements 8
References 8
Chapter 2 Investigation on Tribology of Additively Manufactured
Metal Part . 11
Kumar Ujjwal, Raushan Kumar, Rashi Tyagi,
and Alok Kumar Das
2.1 Introduction . 11
2.2 Different AM Processes 11
2.2.1 Directed Energy Deposition (DED) . 11
2.2.2 Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) 12
2.2.3 Material Extrusion 12
2.2.4 Binder Jetting . 14
2.2.5 Material Jetting 14
2.2.6 Sheet Lamination . 14
2.2.7 Vat Photopolymerization 15
2.3 Basic Tribology 16
2.3.1 Surfaces and Contacts 16
2.3.2 Friction . 18
2.3.3 Wear . 21vi Contents
2.4 Influence of Different Factors on Tribological
Properties of Additively Manufactured
(AMed) Materials 24
2.4.1 The Influence of Surface Finish .24
2.4.2 The Influence of Microstructure 24
2.5 Tribological Behaviour of Additively Manufactured
Titanium Alloys .26
2.5.1 Characteristics of Titanium Alloys 26
2.5.2 Categories and Grades 27
2.5.3 Factors Influencing the Additive
Manufacturing of Ti Alloys .28
2.5.4 Wear Analysis of Ti Alloys 28
2.6 Tribological Behaviour of Additively Manufactured
Aluminium Alloys .29
2.6.1 Categories .29
2.6.2 Wear Analysis of Aluminium Alloys . 31
2.7 Tribological Behaviour of Additively Manufactured
Stainless Steel 31
2.7.1 Properties and Characteristics 32
2.7.2 Types and Grades . 33
2.7.3 Wear Analysis of AMed Steel Alloys 34
2.8 Conclusions 35
Acknowledgements 35
References 35
Chapter 3 Tribological Properties of Polymer-Reinforced Matrix
Composite Prepared by Additive Manufacturing 39
Ankan Shrivastava, Jasgurpeet Singh Chohan,
Ranvijay Kumar, and Vinay Kumar
3.1 Introduction .39
3.2 Literature Survey on Polymer Composites 40
3.3 Methods and Experimentation 42
3.3.1 Materials . 42
3.3.2 Preparation of Composite Filament . 43
3.3.3 Manufacturing of 3D-Printed Samples 43
3.3.4 Wear Testing . 43
3.4 Result and Discussion 44
3.5 Conclusion .46
Acknowledgment 46
References 46Contents vii
Chapter 4 Tribocorrosion Properties of Additively Manufactured Parts 49
Gaurav Parmar, Mukul Anand, Harish Bishwakarma,
Nitesh Kumar, Rashi Tyagi, and Alok Kumar Das
4.1 Introduction .49
4.2 Additive Manufacturing 50
4.2.1 Industrial Applications of AM . 51
4.3 Tribocorrosion . 53
4.4 Tribology of Additive Manufactured Orthopedic Implants 55
4.4.1 Friction and Wear . 55
4.4.2 Lubricating Behavior 56
4.5 Orthopedic Uses for Texturing AM Parts . 57
4.6 AM Orthopedic Components’ Corrosion Behavior 58
4.7 Obstacles with AM Orthopedic Implants 59
4.8 Conclusions 60
Acknowledgments 60
References 60
Chapter 5 Future Trends in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process
for Tribological Applications .65
Nishant Ranjan
5.1 Introduction .65
5.2 Fundamentals of LPBF for Tribological Applications 67
5.2.1 Introduction to LPBF 68
5.2.2 Material Selection and Characteristics
for Tribology .68
5.2.3 Tribological Challenges Addressed by LPBF .68
5.3 State of the Art in LPBF for Tribological Applications 69
5.3.1 Case Studies .70
5.4 Design Considerations for Tribological Performance . 71
5.4.1 Topology Optimization for LPBF Components . 71
5.4.2 Lattice Structures and Their Tribological
Benefits . 71
5.4.3 Surface Texturing and Its Impact on Friction
and Wear . 71
5.5 Challenges and Future Directions .72
5.5.1 Residual Stresses and Microstructural Defects 72
5.5.2 Standardization and Testing Protocols .72
5.5.3 Multi-Material Printing and Integration 72
5.6 Industry Applications and Case Studies 72
5.7 Conclusions 73
Acknowledgements 73
References 73viii Contents
Chapter 6 Role of Natural Fiber-Based Composite on Wear
and Friction Resistance 76
Rajnish P. Modanwal, Dan Sathiaraj, Pradeep K. Singh,
Rashi Tyagi, and Ashwath Pazhani
6.1 Introduction . 76
6.2 Natural Fibers 79
6.3 Tribology .82
6.3.1 Pin on Drum .82
6.3.2 Pin on Disk .83
6.3.3 Block on Ring .83
6.3.4 Block on Disk .84
6.3.5 Linear Tribo Machine 84
6.3.6 Dry Sand Rubber Wheel 85
6.4 Description of AM 3DP Technique .85
6.4.1 Fused Filament Fabrication 86
6.4.2 Direct Write 87
6.4.3 Stereolithography .87
6.4.4 Selective Laser Sintering 88
6.4.5 Binder Jetting .89
6.5 Wear Performance of 3D AM Composites 89
6.5.1 Biogenic Carbon/PLA Composite 89
6.5.2 Flex Yarn/PLA Composite .90
6.5.3 Grewia/Nettle/Sisal/PLA Composite . 91
6.5.4 Corn Cob/PLA Composite . 91
6.5.5 Date Particle/PLA Composite 91
6.6 Conclusion .93
Acknowledgments 94
References 94
Chapter 7 Study on the Effect of Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced
Composites on Tribological Properties 97
Shalini Mohanty, Adrian Murphy, and Rashi Tyagi
7.1 Introduction .97
7.2 Tribological Analysis of Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced
Composites 99
7.3 Case Studies . 101
7.4 Applications and Future in 3D-Printed Carbon Fiber
Composites 103
7.5 Conclusions 104
Acknowledgments 105
References 105Contents ix
Chapter 8 Impact of 3D Printing Process Parameters on Tribological
Behaviour of Polymers . 109
Sehra Farooq and Nishant Ranjan
8.1 Introduction . 109
8.2 Types of 3D Printing . 110
8.2.1 Fused Deposition Modelling Printing 110
8.2.2 Stereolithography . 110
8.2.3 Selective Laser Sintering 112
8.2.4 3D Inkjet Printer . 112
8.2.5 Binder Jetting Printer . 113
8.3 3DP Process Parameters 113
8.4 Polymer Additive Manufacturing 115
8.5 Metal Additive Manufacturing 116
8.6 Composite Additive Manufacturing 116
8.7 Materials Used in 3D Printing . 117
8.8 Tribological Properties of Polymers
and Composites . 119
8.9 Parameters Affecting the Tribological Properties
of Polymers 120
8.9.1 Structure of the Polymer 120
8.9.2 Viscoelasticity 120
8.9.3 Transfer Film 120
8.9.4 Polymer Wear .120
8.10 Significance of Tribological Properties in Additive
Manufacturing . 121
8.11 Effect of Post-Processing on Tribological
Properties . 122
8.12 Conclusion and Future Scope 124
Acknowledgements 124
References 124
Chapter 9 Effect of the Tribological Properties on Structural
Applications of 3D-Printed Thermoplastic Composites 129
Vinay Kumar
9.1 Introduction . 129
9.2 Research Gap and Problem Formulation . 134
9.3 Experimentation 139
9.4 Results and Discussion 139
9.5 Summary . 146
Acknowledgments 146
References 146x Contents
Chapter 10 Effect of Surface Texturing on Tribological Behavior
of Additively Manufactured Parts 149
Alireza Hajialimohammadi and Rashi Tyagi
10.1 Introduction . 149
10.2 Tribological Behavior of Polymer Parts 150
10.3 Tribological Behavior of Metal Parts 152
10.4 Conclusion . 153
Acknowledgments 154
References 154
Chapter 11 Trends of Tribology in Biomedical Application of
Additively Manufactured Parts 156
Pratik Kumar Shaw, Suryank Dwivedi, Amit Rai Dixit,
and Rashi Tyagi
11.1 Introduction . 156
11.2 Additive Manufacturing Techniques and Tribology
Tests for Biomedical Components . 156
11.3 Parameters Influencing the Tribological Properties
of AM Parts for Biomedical Application 158
11.3.1 Material Section . 158
11.3.2 Surface Modification Techniques . 163
11.4 In Vitro Wear Study of AM Parts . 170
11.5 Future Perspectives and Challenges 172
11.6 Conclusion . 172
References 173
Chapter 12 Tribological Effect of 3D Printing in Industrial Applications . 177
Harpreet Kaur Channi
12.1 Introduction . 177
12.2 Overview of 3D Printing Technology . 178
12.2.1 Materials . 178
12.2.2 Printing Technologies . 178
12.3 Applications . 179
12.3.1 Tribological Effect of 3D Printing in Industrial
Applications 179
12.4 Influence of Manufacturing Parameters on Tribological
Behaviour . 181
12.5 Real-Life Applications of 3D Printing and Tribology . 182
12.5.1 Customized Prosthetics 182
12.5.2 Transradial 182
12.5.3 Transhumeral 183
12.5.4 Transtibial . 183Contents xi
12.5.5 Transfemoral . 184
12.5.6 Bearings and Bushings . 184
12.5.7 Aerospace Components 185
12.5.8 Tooling and Mold Manufacturing 185
12.5.9 Automotive Applications 186
12.6 Biomedical Devices . 188
12.7 Robotics and Mechanisms . 189
12.7.1 Anisotropy in 3D-Printed Components and Its
Tribological Effects 190
12.8 Future Directions and Research Opportunities of
Tribological Effect of 3D Printing . 191
12.9 Global Status of Tribological Effect of 3D Printing in
Research 192
12.10 Conclusion . 194
Acknowledgements 199
References 200
Chapter 13 Emerging Applications of 3D-Printed Parts
with Enhanced Tribological Properties 203
Ratnesh Raj, Annada Prasad Moharana, Vishal Kumar,
Rashi Tyagi, and Amit Rai Dixit
13.1 Introduction .203
13.2 Friction and Wear 204
13.3 Tribology and Lubrication .207
13.4 Tribology and 3D Printing .208
13.5 3D Printing Techniques .208
13.5.1 Extrusion-Based Technique 209
13.5.2 Vat Photopolymerization 210
13.5.3 Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) 210
13.5.4 Material Jetting 210
13.5.5 Binder Jetting . 211
13.5.6 Sheet Lamination . 211
13.5.7 Direct Energy Deposition . 211
13.6 Industrial Applications 212
13.6.1 Classical and Open Systems Tribology 212
13.6.2 Biotribology 214
13.6.3 Nanotribology . 217
13.6.4 Tribotronics 220
13.6.5 Aerospace Tribology 221
13.7 Conclusions 223
Acknowledgments 224
References 224
Index 231xii
Index
ability 27, 33, 44, 72, 85, 102, 116, 118, 214, 218
abrasion 2, 7, 21, 22, 44, 45, 53, 54, 90, 121, 150,
206, 216
acoustic 17
acrylonitrile 1, 37, 63, 74, 75, 86, 100, 105, 107,
110, 127, 129, 155, 175, 212
affordable 117, 179, 201, 211
aluminum 84, 103, 104, 128, 155, 212
ASTM 11, 22, 27, 33–35, 50, 51, 82–85, 156, 157,
170, 209, 211
austenitic 32–34, 74, 122
binder 11, 14, 52, 85, 89, 113, 114, 125, 146, 157,
159, 173, 208, 211
bioactive 61, 86, 118, 163, 165, 175, 189
biocarbon 89, 90
biocompatible 8, 33, 58, 70, 119, 160, 163–165,
188, 202
biodegradable 8, 61, 95, 163
blending 40, 72, 97, 132, 139
calcium 1, 6, 170
carbide 24–26, 152, 154
cartilage 160, 170, 174, 176
ceramic 36, 55, 60, 105, 109, 113, 118, 122, 125,
126, 149, 165, 175, 211, 216
chamber 14, 87, 88, 212
chitosan 119
cladding 29, 38, 63, 64, 108, 155, 211, 228
cohesive 22, 120
combine 26, 211
compatibility 150, 172, 189, 208, 210, 224, 227
composition 5, 29, 40, 42, 65, 68, 80, 81, 165, 169,
170, 181, 191, 203, 204
conductivity 29, 30, 32, 40, 99, 119, 205
copper 30, 32, 42, 74, 220
coupling 35, 61, 85, 94, 128, 216
crystallinity 120, 121
damage 21, 49, 58, 89, 115, 150, 165, 189, 192,
206, 214, 216, 217, 222
defect 74, 134
degradation 53, 61, 77, 82, 93, 95, 172, 205,
215, 227
density 1, 28, 32, 34, 42, 44, 46, 56, 77, 82, 115,
118, 139–146, 152–154, 170, 181, 222
denture 171, 174–176
dependability 54, 66, 68, 77, 177
digestive 216
droplets 52, 210, 211
drug 159, 163, 165, 172, 173, 189, 226
durability 7, 31, 32, 49, 60, 70, 119, 122, 156, 164,
172, 178, 186, 199, 204, 208, 214, 218,
221–223
dynamic 21, 41, 94, 109, 135, 201, 206, 213,
222–224
elastomer 80, 86, 106, 147
electrochemical 53, 54, 59–63, 70, 150, 191
electronic 6, 51, 98, 104, 186, 187, 220
element 14, 26, 29, 30, 36, 37, 77, 181, 201, 223
entropy 170, 174
equipment 6, 18, 26, 27, 46, 51, 73, 82, 84, 119,
214, 217, 221
erosion 2, 37, 53, 54, 100, 105, 107, 150
extraction 95
extruder 38, 43, 87, 114, 139
extrusion 11–13, 52, 86, 90, 95, 99, 139, 157,
209, 228
fabricate 28, 35, 66, 79, 85, 86, 102, 115
factor 17, 55, 68, 130, 152, 169
fatigue 2, 21, 23, 35, 37, 54, 73, 74, 90, 121,
162, 206
feedstock 11, 12, 37, 43, 63, 70, 74, 85–87, 93,
107, 122, 127, 139, 155, 175, 228
ferrite 33, 34
flexible 39, 178
flexural 81, 101, 136
fluids 55, 57, 165, 170, 172
fluoride 216, 228
frequency 51, 123, 193, 199
fusion 12, 52, 53, 59, 65, 67, 68, 73–75, 88, 99,
125, 149, 174, 176, 208–210, 212, 218,
226, 227
genetics 193
gentile 201
geometry 50, 59, 75, 115, 124, 150, 185, 208, 210,
217, 219, 222
graphite 1, 6, 41, 47, 48, 100, 105, 136, 178, 180
healing 165, 175, 215, 225
health 55, 59, 107, 118, 134, 147, 193
healthcare 51, 65, 115, 178–180, 202
heritage 131, 132, 134, 139, 146–148
homogeneous 24
honeycomb 101, 115
horizontal 18, 21, 83, 190
hybrid 9, 62, 68, 71, 72, 105, 136, 163, 186,
191, 220
hydrodynamic 58, 70, 174, 207, 214, 223, 225232 Index
hydrogel 62, 86, 87, 228
hydrophobic 218
hydroxyapatite 86, 163, 165
identical 59
impingement 23, 54
implant 55–59, 61, 94, 119, 130, 160, 161, 163,
165, 170, 172–175, 202, 215, 225
inclination 18
injectable 169, 170, 174
innovation 38, 99, 201, 217, 218, 224
interlocking 20, 21, 181
intricate 51, 60, 67, 99, 156, 170–172, 189, 203,
204, 214, 217, 218, 223, 224
isometric 168
isotropic 21
joint 55–57, 60–62, 70, 73, 94, 107, 158–160, 167,
169, 174, 221, 225, 227
jute 77, 79, 81, 82, 94
ketone 6, 63, 86, 100, 117, 135, 163, 174, 175, 206
kinetic 18, 205
lamination 11, 14, 52, 157, 211
landscape 51, 67, 218
lifespan 16, 56, 58, 97, 134, 169, 172, 186, 189,
208, 220, 221, 224
linear 2, 43, 82, 84, 85, 120, 157, 158, 205
liquefier 14
lubricant 7, 57, 68, 70, 71, 100, 102, 152, 169, 181,
189, 207, 213, 217, 226, 227
machinability 26, 28, 35, 36, 38
machinery 16, 18, 65, 119, 184, 212
magnesium 30, 31, 170, 200, 206
manufacture 1, 11, 36, 38, 51, 99, 104, 109, 147,
186, 194, 199, 221, 222
measurement 17, 18, 44, 220
mechanics 47, 106, 124, 177, 192, 229
membrane 126
metallic 11, 12, 24, 40, 55, 57, 59, 60, 74, 106,
110, 115, 117, 122, 123, 163, 165, 173,
206, 225–227
metallurgical 35
metastable 27, 74
microcrack 23
mobility 55, 184
moderate 30, 211
modification 47, 57, 125, 150, 163, 167, 172, 181,
191, 225
moisture 32, 81, 89, 93, 95, 98, 202, 204
molybdenum 6, 8, 70, 178, 180, 181
morphological 38, 63, 75, 108, 128, 139–147, 155,
176, 228
multidirectional 61
multidisciplinary 193, 223, 224
nanoclay 95
nanocomposite 47, 163, 173, 200
nanofiller 146
nanoscale 70, 71, 217, 218, 220, 224
nanotube 9, 105, 135, 227
nickel 26, 32–34, 118
nitride 173
non-toxicity 77
nozzle 12, 14, 39, 43, 52, 86, 93, 99, 110, 114, 139,
179, 209, 211, 222
nylon 42, 95, 101, 102, 106, 132, 150, 154, 178,
202, 214
occurrences 3, 5, 135, 136, 204
ongoing 55, 78, 189, 191, 194, 207
opensource 109
operates 79, 122, 210
optical 17, 74
optimize 66, 68, 70, 104, 180, 181, 189, 208, 221
organic 79, 98, 204, 216
orthogonal 37
orthopaedic 60–62, 73, 117, 174, 227
osteoblast 62
oxidation 22–24, 59, 60, 165, 167, 210
parameter 6, 59, 114, 146, 175, 180, 187, 228
partial 108, 162, 184, 207
particle 54, 91, 100, 107, 150, 207
patient 58, 172, 173, 180, 188, 189, 200
pattern 5, 43, 44, 46, 86, 101, 115, 139, 152,
168, 171
peaks 17, 19
PEEK 6, 8, 40, 41, 46, 56, 63, 86, 100, 106, 117,
119, 160, 163, 174, 200, 206
PETG 2, 101, 178, 213, 214
pharmaceutical 33, 156
plasma 52, 74, 165, 167, 170, 174, 211, 222, 227
plastic 9, 20, 22, 63, 73, 101, 110, 112, 162, 165,
168, 186, 202, 205, 206, 211, 214,
223, 227
platform 16, 74, 87–89, 110, 210
polyamide 1, 9, 86, 102, 107
polybutadiene 80
polycarbonates 86
polycrystalline 225
polyester 6, 79, 94, 95, 117
polylactic-acid 94, 174, 225
polyphenylene 2, 9, 212, 227
polypropylene 6, 8, 9, 86, 107, 147
porosity 35, 38, 63, 74, 123, 146, 211
porous 7, 10, 25, 38, 160, 169, 176
possibility 65, 66, 103, 122
potassium 170
precision 18, 32, 36–38, 61, 69, 87, 112, 155, 173,
179, 189, 218
prefabricated 171, 174
preparation 43, 48, 62, 92, 93, 123Index 233
prevent 22, 89, 212, 217
print 9, 15, 28, 43, 47, 71, 89, 104, 107, 110, 114,
118, 175, 185, 200, 210, 219, 228
prior 66, 99, 171
progress 70, 76, 107, 124–126, 148, 173, 177, 218,
224, 226
projection 21, 126
propylene 220
prosthesis 55, 182–184, 201
pure 30, 37, 90, 91, 102, 105, 165, 213
PVA 175, 217, 228
PVDF 131, 132, 136, 147
quality 59, 66–68, 70, 74, 89, 93, 103, 110,
122–124, 128, 172, 180, 185, 186, 192,
197, 200, 220, 227
quantity 18, 27, 66, 77, 192
rapidly 11, 39, 54, 68, 109, 149, 185
raster 1, 2, 100, 212, 213
ratio 26, 31, 34, 40, 79, 122, 205, 207
react 49
reaction 15, 21, 51, 54
reactive 85, 87, 209, 212
reagent 170
reciprocal 157, 227
recyclable 7, 33, 147
renewable 37, 77
repair 51, 131, 139, 146, 147, 222
replacement 51, 57, 182, 184, 216
replica 150, 154
requirement 7, 70, 99, 122, 192, 197
restoration 54, 57, 104, 215, 216
rough 20, 70
roughness 5, 17, 21, 22, 24, 28, 68, 70, 79, 120,
124, 146, 150, 159, 161, 173, 180, 181,
189, 190, 194, 202, 203, 206, 212
safety 27, 172, 187, 208, 220, 221, 223, 224
sample 19, 41, 43–46, 84, 90, 139–145, 152, 153,
160–162, 165, 176, 219
scaffolds 131, 159, 160, 163, 169, 174, 176, 189
scale 11, 51, 59, 79, 126, 130, 131, 193, 205
scanning 34, 72, 126, 135, 168, 193, 199, 202,
210, 218
schematic 26, 67, 83, 110–114, 152, 153, 157, 158,
167, 209
screw 43, 82, 84, 139, 148, 160, 209, 215, 227
self-lubricating 7, 10, 56, 67, 68, 70, 77, 119, 122,
150, 169, 180, 186, 189, 191, 214
SEM 168, 169, 171, 219
semicrystalline 86
sensor 146, 186, 187, 221, 229
shape 23, 58, 69, 85, 116, 117, 120, 150, 152, 170,
180, 185, 186, 211, 215, 224
SLA 50, 52, 56, 85, 86, 88, 110, 118, 125, 128,
159, 179, 208, 210
solution 27, 59, 87, 116, 129, 134, 147, 154, 160,
169, 170, 174, 219, 226
sophisticated 55, 156, 180, 185
specimen 18, 82–85, 165
stability 27, 58, 61, 70, 90, 165, 184, 201, 210,
215, 220, 221
stable 56, 101, 152, 160, 165, 185, 205
standard 17, 27, 34–36, 50, 57, 68, 82–85, 90, 114,
157, 202, 215
stereolithographic 110, 111, 126
stiffness 90, 99, 119, 206, 218, 224
stress 30, 34, 69, 81, 98, 103, 120, 168, 169,
181, 205
subsequent 21, 29, 57, 86–89, 110, 210, 218
substance 17, 68, 117, 120, 121, 123, 206
substrate 12, 39, 110, 163, 165, 209, 210
surgical 6, 27, 51, 132, 160, 163, 164, 189, 214, 216
sustainability 7, 8, 62, 63, 77, 101, 113, 179, 202,
225, 228
sustainable 8, 37, 94, 123, 129, 148, 201
synthetic 58, 77, 78, 97, 150, 178, 214
systematic 61, 63, 74, 132, 148, 154
technical 8, 34, 35, 46, 67, 73, 94, 98, 105, 114,
125, 126, 128, 185
technological 3, 65, 104, 119, 124, 127, 156,
202, 217
tensile 5, 82, 95, 98, 99, 101, 106, 122
texture 5, 35, 58, 149–155, 167, 168, 226
thermoplastics 5–7, 12, 79, 86, 99, 103, 104,
129–132
thermo-responsive 37, 63
thermosetting 79, 106, 129
tissue 57, 159, 165, 170, 172, 174–176, 189,
214, 216
titanium 1, 6, 8, 26–28, 34–38, 55–62, 64, 70, 72,
103, 104, 152, 154, 159, 160, 165, 173,
174, 206, 212
tolerance 123, 222
topological 185
transition 65, 66, 136, 148, 205–207, 209
treatment 26, 28, 31, 34, 35, 37, 38, 61, 92, 93, 95,
96, 100, 122, 123, 180, 181, 190
trend 90, 103, 151, 193, 196
tribometer 1, 5, 43, 83, 90, 157, 158, 214
ultrasonic 24, 52, 188, 202, 211
undesirability 51
unique 25, 26, 29, 31, 32, 68, 112, 116, 165,
170, 190
utilization 33, 76–79, 83–85, 89, 93, 109, 134,
163, 170, 215, 218, 220, 223
vacuum 210, 212, 214, 227
validation 171, 172, 180, 181, 227
vat-photopolymerization 175, 228
velocity 23, 82, 139, 207234 Index
versatile 26, 29, 98, 109, 110, 169
vibration 24, 119, 187, 188, 221
waste 7, 8, 66, 68, 95, 101, 106, 123, 149,
179, 197
water 80, 99, 101, 102, 106, 128, 154, 169,
177, 217
weight 21, 31, 39, 41, 43, 44, 51, 55, 58, 71, 90,
102, 122, 139, 182, 183, 185, 200, 216,
219, 222
welding 32, 34, 35, 128–130, 134, 146, 202, 211
wet 1, 2, 160
wide 29, 31, 33, 34, 69, 76, 86, 110, 116, 117, 130,
149, 188, 208, 212, 214, 222
width 1, 2, 88
worn 5, 23, 101, 121, 123, 139, 162, 168, 169, 206,
207, 216
yield 20, 21, 33, 34, 205
zirconia 6, 8, 55, 56, 118, 160, 167, 216
zone 22, 74, 121, 163, 167, 207


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