كتاب Fall Prevention and Protection - Principles, Guidelines, and Practices
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Fall Prevention and Protection - Principles, Guidelines, and Practices

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Fall Prevention and Protection - Principles, Guidelines, and Practices
Edited by Hongwei Hsiao

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Contents
Preface xi
Editor . xiii
Contributors .xv
Section I A Public Health View of Fall Problems and
Strategic Goals
1. Fall Prevention and Protection: A Public Health Matter 3
Hongwei Hsiao
2. The Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Falls among Older Adults 19
Judy A. Stevens, David A. Sleet, Grant T. Baldwin, and Rita K. Noonan
3. Fall Prevention in Nursing Homes .29
Laurence Z. Rubenstein and Rosalba Arauz Rivera
4. Fall Risk Characteristics in the Construction Industry 41
Xiuwen Sue Dong, Xuanwen Wang, Julie A. Largay, Bruce Lippy, Chris Trahan Cain,
Erich Pete Stafford, and James W. Platner
Section II Sciences behind Human Falls and Injury Risk
5. Vision Impairment and Fall Risk in the Elderly 65
Philippe Lacherez and Stephen R. Lord
6. Influence of Personal Protective Equipment Use on Fall Risk .77
Sharon S. Chiou and Paul R. Keane
7. Suspension Tolerance Time and Risk after a Fall 101
Anil Adisesh
8. Suspension Trauma and Fall-Arrest Harness Design . 109
Hongwei Hsiao
9. Fall Risk Associated with Restricted and Elevated Support Surfaces 119
Peter Simeonov
10. Role of Support Surfaces in Preventing Slip, Trip, and Fall Injuries 141
Kurt E. Beschorner and Mark S. Redfernviii Contents
Section III Research on Slips, Trips, and Falls
11. Hazard Concept and Falls . 159
Sylvie Leclercq
12. Friction Measurement: Methods and Applications . 175
Wen-Ruey Chang
13. Stairway Safety Research . 197
Hisao Nagata
14. Improving Balance Control: Current State and Practices 223
Kari Dunning, Ashutosh Mani, and Amit Bhattacharya
15. Ladder Safety: Research, Control, and Practice . 241
Peter Simeonov
16. Aerial Lift Safety Research and Practice . 271
Christopher S. Pan
17. Falls from Commercial Vehicles: Safety Research, Control, and Practice . 291
K. Han Kim and Matthew P. Reed
Section IV Practical Applications of Prevention
and Protection Tools and Methods
18. Fall Rescue: Training and Practice 313
Loui McCurley
19. Slip and Fall Controls for Pedestrian and Community Safety . 321
Steven Di Pilla
20. Research Approaches to the Prevention and Protection of Patient Falls 341
Janice Morse, Andrew Merry, and Don Bloswick
21. Slips, Trips, and Falls in the Firefighting Community . 369
David Hostler and Gavin Horn
Section V Fall Incident Investigation and Reconstruction
22. Fall Forensics: Principles and Applications 389
Harvey Cohen and Joseph Cohen
23. Case Studies of Falls on Stairs .403
Daniel JohnsonContents ix
24. Enhancing Safety Awareness among Roofing Workers . 415
Yu-Hsiu Hung
25. Case Studies on Fall from Elevated Devices among Fire Fighters .427
Timothy Merinar
Section VI Knowledge Gaps, Emerging Issues, and
Recommendations for Fall Protection Research and Fall Mitigation
26. Accident Causes and Prevention Measures for Fatal Occupational Falls in the
Construction Industry .443
Chia-Fen Chi
27. Knowledge Gaps and Emerging Issues for Fall Control in Construction 469
G. Scott Earnest and Christine M. Branche
28. Taking a Human Factors Systems Approach to Slips, Trips, and Falls Risks
in Care Environments 491
Sue Hignett, Laurie Wolf, and Ellen Taylor
29. Prevention of Slips, Trips, and Falls among Hospital Workers 509
James W. Collins, Jennifer L. Bell, and Christina Socias
Author Index . 523
Subject Index 529xi
A
Abeysekera, J., 298
Adams, P. S., 372
Adisesh, A., 115
Adkin, A. L., 133
Adlin, T., 495
Agashivala, N., 32
Alamgir, H., 511
Alexander, B. H., 19
Allcott, G. A., 201
Anderson, J. T., 46
Archea, J. C., 198, 404, 405
Aschan, C., 184
Ashley, L., 502
Aven, T., 160
Azhar, S., 485
B
Bakri, I., 376
Bariod, J., 110, 114
Barquins, M., 177
Bauby, C. E., 123
Bauer, J. M., 33
Becker, C., 30
Begg, R., 149
Behm, M., 484
Bell, J. L., 511, 512, 513, 515, 517
Benbow, D. W., 498
Benolken, M. S., 11, 123
Bentley, T. A., 170, 458, 459
Berry, S. D., 32, 347
Berthoz, A., 66, 123
Beschorner, K. E., 192
Bidanda, B., 180, 182
Bjornstig, U., 474
Black, A. A., 7, 51, 65, 66, 68, 69
Bles, W., 7, 122, 124
Bobick, T. G., 455, 459, 475, 476
Bogner, M. S., 495
Bosher, L., 495
Bouldin, E. L. D., 492
Braithwaite, R. S., 22
Brandt, T., 7, 122
Brinkley, J. W., 110
Brocklehurst, J. C., 67
Brogmus, G., 332, 518
Brown, L. A., 122, 133
Bukowski, T. J., 476
C
Caetano, M. J. D., 133
Calvert, G. M., 161
Cameron, I. D., 34, 35, 354
Campbell, A. J., 67, 70, 460
Capezuti, E., 349, 352
Carayon, P., 492
Carpenter, M. G., 133
Carson, D. H., 198, 201, 209, 404, 405
Casalena, J. A., 361
Catchpole, K. R., 491
Chaffin, D. B., 258
Cham, R., 177
Chambers, A. J., 299
Chang, W.-R., 143, 148
Chateauroux, E., 296
Chau, N. A., 381, 473
Chiou, S. S., 378
Choi, M., 34, 51, 475
Chrisman, M., 358
Christopher, D. A., 503
Clark, M., 11
Clarke, J. C., 122, 485
Clift, L., 247, 248, 251, 257, 261
Close, J., 71
Cloutier, E., 373
Cohen, H. H., 201, 203, 252, 292, 347, 390, 392,
394, 405, 458
Coleman, A. L., 67, 68, 69, 178, 183
Coleman, V., 67, 68, 69, 178, 183
Collins, J. W., 510, 514
Commissaris, D. A., 11
Corlett, E. N., 161, 215, 251
Cotnam, J. P., 293, 295
Crocker, T., 35
Cruz-Jentoft, A. J., 32, 33
Cumming, R. G., 71
Cummings, S. R., 67
Currie, L., 500
Cutlip, R., 477524 Author Index
D
Damian, J., 30
Dargent-Molina, P., 67
Davis, P. R., 123, 133
de Boer, M. R., 68
Deandrea, S., 31
DeGoede, 357
Delbaere, K., 133
Dellinger, A. M., 21
Delmonico, M. J., 32
Demling, R. H., 121, 122
Dennerlein, J. T., 266, 474
Deprey, S. M., 21
Dewar, M. E., 258, 460
Dhital, A., 66
DiDomenico, A. T., 266
Doig, A., 354
Dolinis, J., 67
Donaldson, L. J., 344, 492
Donelan, J. M., 123
Dong, X. S., 14, 46, 50, 51, 53, 54, 470, 472,
473, 487
Drebit, S., 510, 518
DuPree, E., 502
Dy, S. M., 504
Dyer, C., 34
E
Ejaz, F. K., 21
Eklund, J., 498
Elliott, D. B., 65, 71
Ellis, A. A., 21, 22, 123, 265, 266
Elrod, H. G., 178
Eng, J. J., 123
F
Fabio, A., 371
Fahmi, M., 318
Fahs, C. A., 374
Fahy, R. F., 370
Fathallah, F. A., 293, 295, 298
Feldstein, J., 114
Felson, D. T., 66, 67, 68
Ferlie, E. B., 504
Fitch, J. M., 198, 216, 217
Flora, G., 103, 115
Foss, A. J. E., 70
Foster, R. J., 405, 407
Frank, J. S., 122
Freeman, R., 32, 67, 68
Friedman, S. M., 20, 69
Frith, J., 32
G
Galavan, E., 292
Gallagher, M., 496
Gambatese, J., 135, 261, 484
Gangavati, A., 32
Gao, C., 298, 299
Garg, A. B., 356
Gauchard, G., 7
Gibson, E. J., 126, 162
Giguere, D., 304
Gillespie, L. D., 24, 354
Glaser, B., 418
Glinka, M. N., 151, 153
Glynn, R. J., 67, 68
Graafmans, W., 67
Grant, A., 252
Greenlee, T. A., 381
Griefahn, B., 376
Grimston, S. K., 293
Grönqvist, R., 124, 180, 183, 184, 185, 190, 513, 514
Guan, J., 298, 303
Guse, C. E., 67
H
Haddon, W., 162, 163
Hageman, P. A., 124, 180, 183, 184, 185, 190,
513, 514
Hakkinen, K. K., 258
Hall, S. E., 22
Hammer, W., 258, 450
Hanson, J. P., 142, 176, 190, 298, 471, 472
Haran, M. J., 71
Härlein, J., 495
Harper, F. C., 192
Harris, G. W., 183, 479
Hartel, C. E. J., 379
Hartman, M. J., 32
Harwood, R. H., 70
Haslam, R. A., 178, 458, 459, 463
Hay, T. F., 199, 201, 209
Hayes, W. C., 20, 22, 134
Healey, F. A., 347, 349, 353, 494
Heineman, E. F., 373, 376
Heitterachi, E., 32
Helmkamp, J. C., 292
Hempel, S., 492
Hendrich, A. L., 350
Hepburn, H. A., 251Author Index 525
Heshmat, H., 178
Hester, A. L., 24, 416
Hester, J. L., 24, 416
Hignett, S., 492, 493, 494, 495, 510
Hill, K. D., 24, 42, 51, 346, 350
Hinze, J., 252, 314, 416, 444
Hitcho, E. B., 347
Ho, M. T., 160, 165, 166, 167
Hodous, T. K., 370
Holden, R. J., 494
Hollnagel, E., 169
Holmes, N., 417
Hooper, A. J., 376
Horak, F. B., 121, 123
Horn, G. P., 374, 375, 381
Hostler, D., 375, 381
Hovden, J., 170
Hoyos, C. G., 161
Hsiao, H., 11
Huang, X., 302, 314, 416
Huck, J., 372, 376
Hur, P., 372, 375, 376, 379
I
Irvine, C. H., 217, 265
Ivers, R. Q., 66, 67, 68
J
Jack, C. I. A., 66, 275
Janicak, C. A., 122, 458
Johnson, L., 69, 350, 404, 405, 406
Jones, B. H., 293, 299, 405
Jorgensen, M. B., 170
K
Kalyani, R. R., 24, 354
Kannus, P., 492
Karter Jr., M. J, 370, 371, 379
Karter, M. J., 370, 371, 379
Kaskutas, V. K., 57, 483, 484
Keyserling, W. M., 372
Kim, D. H., 32, 183, 207, 357, 361
Kincl, L. D., 233, 234, 376
Kines, P., 170, 417
King, C. M., 381
Kivela, S. L., 66
Kjellén, U., 160, 161, 162, 163
Klein, B. E. K., 67, 68, 69
Knudtson, M. D., 7
Koehler, K. A., 161
Kong, P. W., 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 378
Koski, K., 67
Kosse, N. M., 34
Kulmala, J., 67
Kummer, H. W., 177
Kuo, A. D., 123
L
La Grow, S., 70
Lach, H., 37
Lacroix, D., 510
Laing, A. C., 151, 152
Lamb, P., 371, 412
Landi, F., 33
Lanshammar, H., 177, 178
Lasley, D. J., 11
Lassia, R., 315
Lau, G., 121
Lawshe, C. H., 423
Leclercq, S., 160, 164, 165, 167, 168, 170, 171, 180,
183, 186, 513
Lee, D. N., 123, 124
Lehane, P., 510
Lehmann, G., 215
Li, K. W., 184, 191, 513
Liao, H., 373, 379
Lieblich, M., 115
Liker, J. K., 498
Lin, L., 458
Linthicum, K., 316
Lipps, D. B., 293
Lipsitz, L. A., 31
Lishman, R. L., 123, 124
Llewellyn, M. G. A., 347
Lockwood, I. M., 203, 212
Lombardi, D. A., 253.254, 510, 511, 513
Lord, S. R., 66, 67, 68, 70, 129
Louhevaara, V. A., 376, 379
Luciano, G. L., 32
Lundstrom, W. J., 292
M
Macintosh, S., 344
MacKinnon, C. D., 123
Madsen, P., 105
Magnusson, M., 66
Maki, B. E., 122, 123, 360, 381, 406, 408
Manning, D. P., 299, 376
Marchand, D., 304
Martin, B. C., 298
Matz, S., 299, 513526 Author Index
Mayer, J. M., 381
McCann, M., 477, 478
McCarty, C. A., 66, 67
McCurley, L., 317
McDowell, M. A., 298
McGwin, G., 70
McVittie, D., 483
Menant, J. C., 69
Menendez, M. D., 347
Menz, H. B., 67, 129
Menzies, R. G., 122
Mesure, S., 7
Meuleners, L. B., 70
Miller, J. A., 201, 203, 212, 302, 357, 492
Mirabelli, M. C., 46
Mitchell, S. E., 199
Monnier, G., 302
Montante, W. M., 295.303
Monteau, M., 161, 171
Montero-Odasso, M., 32, 35
Moore, D. F., 177
Moreland, J. D., 33
Morley, J., 381
Murad, M. H., 24
Myers, A. H., 347
N
Nagata, H., 200, 201, 203, 207, 212, 213, 217, 219
Nashner, L. M., 123
Nevitt, M. C., 21, 67, 68
Neyens, J. C., 34
Noel, G., 110
Nullmeyer, R. T., 379
Nyberg, L., 21, 344, 351
O
Olazaran, J., 32
Oliver, D., 344, 350, 351, 492
Ooi, W. L., 32
Openshaw, S., 406
Orzech, M. A., 103
P
Pajala, S., 381
Pan, C. S., 479
Park, H., 372, 375, 376, 377
Parkkari, J., 20, 22
Parsons, J., 37
Patenaude, S., 296
Patino, C. M., 67, 68
Patla, A. E., 11, 69, 121, 122, 123
Paulus, W. M., 11, 66, 122
Peel, N. M., 19
Pendergrass, T. L., 374
Pennock, A. T., 202, 209
Perell, K. L., 34
Perkins, P. J., 176, 177, 299
Peterka, R. J., 11, 123
Petermeyer, M., 102
Petruzzello, S. J., 372, 375
Pfeiffer, E., 500
Poczynok, P. J., 265
Poe, S. S., 500
Porinsky, R., 67
Poston, W. S., 381
Priplata, A. A., 130
Proctor, T. D., 178, 183, 432
Pugh, E. N., 412
Punakallio, A., 374, 375, 376
Pyykko, I., 66
Q
Quan, X., 496
R
Radnor, Z., 503
Ragg, M., 199, 200, 201
Raj, S., 31
Rajendran, S., 485
Ramachandran, A. K., 378
Ramanathan, N. L., 215
Ramrattan, R. S., 68
Rapp, K., 30
Rasmussen, J., 161, 162, 459, 460
Rauser, E., 292
Redfern, M. S., 177, 180, 182, 298
Renn, O., 160
Rensing, M., 115
Rhoades, T. P., 302
Rhode, J. M., 21
Rietdyk, S., 233
Robbins, A. S., 67
Robertson, S., 7, 110
Robinovitch, S. N., 31, 152, 293, 357
Rochtchina, E., 66
Roeggla, M., 104
Roldos, I., 25
Rosengren, K. S., 373, 374
Rosenman, K., 50
Roys, M., 209, 216Author Index 527
Rubenstein, L. Z., 19, 21, 22, 23, 29, 30, 31, 34,
35, 361
Runyan, C. W., 162
S
Sa, J., 475
Sahyoun, N. R., 30
Saint Vincent, M., 171
Salgado, R. I., 492
Salonen, L., 66
Sanders, M. S., 298
Saul, E. V., 372
Scheffer, A. C., 20
Scheil, M., 183, 184
Schmalz, U., 258
Schultz, C. H., 356
Schulz, B. W., 149, 150
Scott, V., 23, 34, 351
Seddon, P., 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 315
Seliga, R., 11, 374
Selkirk, G. A., 375
Shannon, J., 110
Shaw, F. E., 21, 37, 183
Shepherd, G. W., 259
Shibuya, H., 292, 298
Shorti, R. M., 298
Sibley, K. M., 133
Silva, A. G., 34, 35
Silva, R., 34, 35
Silvia, C. E., 356
Simeonov, P., 7, 11, 14, 15, 124, 125, 127, 128, 130,
131, 262, 264, 471, 473, 474, 475, 487
Simpson, A., 151
Singh, G., 192
Smith, L. B., 292, 372, 375
Sobeih, T. M., 376
Socias, C., 242
Son, J. T., 32, 373, 399
Sorock, G. S., 444
Soteriades, E. S., 31, 381
Speechley, M., 7
Spielholz, P., 292
Steinke, C., 495
Stevens, J. A., 20, 21, 22, 23, 24
Stevenson, M., 179, 180, 183, 185
Stobbe, T. J., 258
Stoffregen, T. A., 123
Storer, T. W., 378
Strandberg, L., 177, 178, 183
Strauss, A., 418
Streeten, D., 110, 115
Sulankivi, K., 485
Sulowski, A. C., 134
Suruda, A., 122
Suyama, J., 371
Svedung, I., 161, 162, 459, 460
Switzer-McIntyre, S., 293
Szabo, S. M., 66
Szubert, Z., 373
T
Tabor, D., 177
Tak, S., 161
Tang, P. F., 121
Taylor, N. A., 372, 377, 406
Templer, J. A., 201, 209, 215, 216, 217, 220, 405, 412
Teno, J., 19
Tersteeg, M. C. A., 122, 133
Thapa, P. B., 30
Théry, B., 110, 114
Thiagalingam, S., 67
Thompson, D. A., 409
Tichon, D., 266
Tinetti, M. E., 7, 22, 32, 67, 354, 492
Tisserand, M., 180, 183, 184, 188
Toole, M. T., 135, 261
Toussaint, H. M., 11
Trueblood, P. R., 35
Tseng, V. L., 71
Turner, N. L., 110, 111, 114, 115, 279, 315, 372, 377
U
Uemura, H., 381
Ulrich, R. S., 496
V
Van Doorn, C., 32
Van Rensbergen, G., 33
Vejvoda, M., 265
Vellas, B. J., 20, 60, 381
Veluswamy, R., 503
Verma, S. K., 513
Vesely, W. E., 446, 447
Vickers, J. N., 69
Volckens, J., 161
W
Wade, L., 374, 375, 376
Walker, A., 353, 374
Waller, J. A., 201
Walton, S. M., 371528 Author Index
Wang, N., 302
Ward, J. S., 68, 215
Warner, K. G., 121, 122
Webber, G. M. B., 199, 201
Weber, P., 110, 112
Wee, R., 24
Wei, F., 24
Weil, D., 42
Weisgerber, F., 480
Whitaker, S. M., 477
Whitesitt, J. E., 447
Whitfield Jacobson, P. J., 298
Wild, D., 199, 201
Williams, J., 305, 375
Wilson, M., 180
Winter, D. A., 123, 357
Wojcik, L. A., 358
Wolf, L., 510
Wolinsky, F. D., 22
Wong, K. W. F., 471
Wood, J. M., 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 151
Woodson, W. E., 361, 390, 395
Woollacott, M. H., 121, 358
Wright, S., 480
Wu, W. K., 32, 444, 445, 448
Wyatt, J. P., 199, 201
Y
Yang, Y., 378
Yardley, L., 122
Yauk, S., 351
Z
Ziaei, M., 299
Zietz, D., 405
Zijlstra, G. A., 343, 345, 351
Zimolong, B., 122
Zohar, D., 11529
Subject Index
A
Accidental falls, 160, 344, 351
Accident causes and prevention measures for
fatal occupational falls, in construction
industry, 444
classification scheme, 444
database fault tree analysis, 446
discussion
fall protection measures, 455, 457–459
fault tree analysis qualitative and
quantitative application, 460, 463,
464–465
graphical fault tree, 459–462
unsafe behavior proportion, 459
fall cause, 444–445
falling site, 445
individual factors, 445–446
materials and methods
fatal falls accident reports, 446–447
fault tree analysis and Boolean algebra
representation, 447
standardized mortality ratios (SMRs),
447–448
results
Boolean algebra simplification,
451–455
falling height and posture, 450–451
frequency analysis, 447–450
Accident energy model, 162
Accusway, Advanced Mechanical Technologies,
Inc., 126
ACOF, see Available coefficient of friction
(ACOF)
Active fall protection systems, 134
Active partnerships, 12
ADA, see Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA)
ADAMS™, Version 2010, MSC Software
Corporation, 284
ADAMS/View computer model, 276
Adhesion friction, 144–145, 147, 177, 179
Advanced Dynamic Anthromorphic Manikin
(ADAM, Veridian), 279, 281, 283
Advanced practice nurse (APN), 500, 503
Aerial lift, 82, 135, 261, 267, 271, 478–479
ongoing research and practice, 288
research on, 271–272
boom lifts, 287–288
scissor lifts, 272–287
types of, 272
AFPV, Appareil de frottement à petite vitesse–
low velocity skidmeter
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
(AHRQ), 356, 359
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD),
66–67
AHRQ, see Agency for Healthcare Research and
Quality (AHRQ)
Air step, 408; see also Ghost step (air step)
ALI, see American Ladder Institute (ALI)
Aluminum ladders, lightweight, 245
AMD, see Age-related macular degeneration
(AMD)
American Academy of Neurology
Consensus, 32
American and British Geriatrics Societies, 33
Clinical Practice Panel on Fall Prevention, 35
American Autonomic Society, 32
American Ladder Institute (ALI), 243, 255, 257
American National Standards Institute (ANSI),
54, 112, 114, 144, 250, 255, 277, 279, 317,
328, 395, 463
standard label method, 262, 263
American Society for Testing and Materials
(ASTM) International, 142, 144, 149,
180, 181, 326, 327, 395, 398, 409, 412
Practice for Safe Walking Surfaces, 330
Standard Practice for Safe Walking Surfaces, 398
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 394
Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and
Facilities, 329, 331
Analyses of variance (ANOVAs), 86, 91
AND gate, 446, 447, 451, 455
Ankles, 81, 84–86, 91, 92, 123, 130, 151, 190, 204,
219, 226, 227, 231, 287, 292, 381, 409, 513
ANOVAs, see Analyses of variance (ANOVAs)
Ansell Sol-Vex gloves, 90
ANSI, see American National Standards
Institute (ANSI)
Anthropometry, 104, 113, 302, 306, 358, 482
ladder safety research and evaluation
methods and, 262–264
trucker drivers and, 298
Anticipated physiological falls, 344, 351, 361530 Subject Index
Anticipatory controls, 227
Anticipatory postural adjustments (APA), 225
Anxiety, 31, 37, 106, 122, 126, 132, 134
APA, see Anticipatory postural adjustments
(APA)
APN, see Advanced practice nurse (APN)
Appareil de frottement à petite vitesse–low
velocity skidmeter (AFPV), 181,
183, 187
Arthritis, 21, 30, 33, 35
Articulating ladders, 243, 246, 249
Asperity, 144–147, 177, 179
ASTM, see American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM) International
Audit tool, 266, 474
Available coefficient of friction (ACOF), 141–142,
246, 251, 298–299
B
Bail out, 432
Balance control, 66, 80, 82, 84, 120–124, 126,
128–130, 133, 223, 252, 358, 374, 405, 471
fall prevention need in workplace and, 224
future growth areas, 234
mechanism of, 226–228
recommendations and considerations to
increase intrinsic, 233–234
on step ladders, 266
strategies and recommendations to improve
intrinsic, 232–233
strategies to improve intrinsic, 228, 230
fall prevention and intrinsic balance
improvement in older adults, 230–231
healthy adults and athletes, 231
intrinsic balance improvement in
nonworker population, 232
neurophysiological balance training
targeting vision, vestibular and
proprioception systems, 230
support surface affecting, 123
workplace risk factors for falls and balance
capacity improvement need, 224–226
Base of support (BOS), 79–80, 82–83, 92, 120–123,
226, 243, 246, 248, 251, 258, 266
Bata Hazmax boots, 90
Bathrooms, 30, 352–355, 358, 360–361, 516
floor/standing surfaces, 361
hand rails, 361
Beaver Dam Eye study, 68, 69
Bed alarms, 346, 349–350, 352, 500
Bertec Corporation, Columbus, OH, 275
Bertec Dynamic CDP, 232
Bezier parameterization, 297
BIM, see Building information modeling (BIM)
Binocular depth perception, see Stereopsis
Bio-fidelity, 176, 190–193
Biolog Data Recorder (Biolog 3992, UFI), 126
Biomechanical effects, of restricted support
surfaces, 123
Biomechanics, 84, 85, 90, 91, 94, 113, 121, 161, 176,
177, 188, 190, 192, 224, 246, 251, 265, 342,
348, 362, 380, 398, 400, 472, 479
firefighting PPE effect on, 375–376
firefighting SCBA effect on, 376–377
parameters, research review related to,
355–356
elderly mobility and gait, 356–357
fall recovery/injury prevention for
elderly, 357–358
patient handling, 356
potential for injury in slips/falls of
elderly, 357
research application to hospital bed, hospital
room, and bathroom, 358
balance/support on standing, 358, 360
bed height and safe egress, 358–360
rails in patients’ room, 360
restricted support surfaces and, 123
Bipedal locomotion, 202, 212, 216, 218
Bishamon Lift-2 K®, Bishamon Industries
Corporation, 286
BLS, see U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
Blue-collar workers, 45, 46, 50
Blue Mountains Eye Study, 67
BMI, see Body mass index (BMI)
Body mass index (BMI), 298
Body size and shape and harness match level
effect, 114
Body weight and stature effects, 111–112
Boolean algebra, 446, 454, 457, 463
representation and fault tree analysis, 447
simplification, 451–455
Boom lifts, 135, 272, 439, 478–479
background and injury surveillance, 287
injury surveillance, 287–288
Boots, of firefighters, 84, 85, 93, 377, 381
design, and effects on gait and balance,
377–378
slip resistance properties of, 87–89
BOS, see Base of support (BOS)
BOT 3000E, 181, 187
Bottom of flight illusion causing fall off
stairway, case study of, 406
inadequate handrails, 407
inadequate visual information, 406Subject Index 531
Boundary lubrication, 145, 192
Box steps, 293, 294
BPST, see British portable skid tester (BPST)
Bradycardia, 103, 105, 106
British portable skid tester (BPST), 184, 188, 190
Broken nosing, case study of, 410
inadequate handrails, 411
inconsistent step geometry, 411
Brungraber Mark I, 181
Brungraber Mark II, 184
Brungraber Mark II Slip Meter, 88
Bubble-level method, 264
Building information modeling (BIM), 485
Bunker gear, 375
C
Cab-over-engine (COE), 301
California Nursing Outcome Coalition
(CalNOC), 346
CalNOC, see California Nursing Outcome
Coalition (CalNOC)
Canadian CAN/CSA-Z259.10-06 standard, 112
Canadian Standards Association (CSA), 278
Care environments, and human factors/
ergonomics (HFE) approach, 491
context, 492, 493
design model
DIAL-F, 492–495, 504
discussion, 503–504
safety risk assessment (SRA) tool for
healthcare architecture, 495–499
staff and patient engagement in STF
risk management through quality
improvement (QI) projects
lean, 499–502
QI and HFE, 496, 498–499
QI projects and embedded impact, 503
Six Sigma, 502–503
Cataracts, 66, 72, 405
surgery, 70–72
CAVE-type surround-screen virtual
reality (SSVR) system (MechDyne
Corporation), 125, 127, 129, 130
CBRN, see Chemical, biological, radiological, or
nuclear (CBRN) hazards
CDC, see Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC)
Celesco Transducer Products, Inc., 275, 277
Cement masons, 46
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI),
5, 49, 54, 59, 242, 272, 273, 287, 472,
477–479
Center for Construction Research and Training
(CPWR), 54, 59, 271, 273, 470, 480
Construction Solutions Database, 56, 58
fall-protection training program of, 56–57
hazard alert cards of, 57, 58
Center for Health Design (CHD), 495–497
Center for Innovation in Construction Safety
and Health (CICSH), 423
Center of mass (COM), 80, 82–83, 121, 122, 246,
247, 251, 276, 357, 376, 377
Center of pressure (COP), 133, 374
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC), 20–22, 510, 514
Central nervous system (CNS), 79–82, 121, 227
CFOI, see Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
(CFOI)
CHD, see Center for Health Design (CHD)
Chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear
(CBRN) hazards, 77, 78
Children, 162, 198, 201, 207, 208, 212, 351
Chrome steel box, 293, 294
CICSH, see Center for Innovation in
Construction Safety and Health
(CICSH)
Circumstantial hazard, 165, 169–171
Cochrane report, 34, 35
COE, see Cab-over-engine (COE)
Coefficient of friction (COF), 88, 93, 141, 151, 176,
179, 181, 184
adhesion, 144–145
correlation
with roughness, 148
with waviness, 148
decrease in, 225
dynamic, 180, 183, 472, 514
between footwear and flooring, 513
high, 361
hysteresis, 144–145, 147
measurement, 183, 190
of nontreaded shoe, 147
slipperiness and, 228
testing shoe–floor contaminant, 142–144, 147
COF, see Coefficient of friction (COF)
Cognitive impairment, 32, 35, 37, 227, 344, 348,
353, 360
Collective fall protection systems, 134, 135
COM, see Center of mass (COM)
Combination ladders, 243
Commercial roofing, 475
Commercial vehicles (trucks), 292
fall incidents
fall injuries characteristics, 292–293
injury prevalence, 292532 Subject Index
fall injuries risk factors
environmental factors, 298–299
ground reaction force, 293, 295–296
ingress–egress system configurations,
293–298
truck drivers’ anthropometric
characteristics, 298
practice and control
driver and worker training, 303–304
driver assessments, 302–303
footwear, 304–305
ingress–egress system design
improvement, 299–302
maintenance and retrofit, 305–306
virtual assessments, 302
Community-based multifactorial
interventions, 23
Community settings, 20–21
Compliant flooring, 151
Composite hazard in injury mechanism,
164–167
Compression, 102–103
Construction industry, 224; see also Accident
causes and prevention measures for
fatal occupational falls, in construction
industry; Knowledge gaps and
emerging issues for fall control, in
construction
construction trade workers and, STF
reduction in, 12
data sources, 59–60
definitions, 60
fall injuries in
among construction occupants, 53
among construction subsectors, 51–53
by demographics, 49–50, 51
by employment status, 50–51, 52
trends, 49, 50
types, 54, 55–56
fall prevention
national fall prevention campaign, 59
training materials and products, 54,
56–58
occupational injuries in
fatal and nonfatal trends, 48
leading causes, 48, 49
U.S. profile, 42, 43–44
fall hazards, 46–47
workforce, 42, 44–46
Consumer Product Safety
Commission (CPSC), 242
Contact area, 144, 145, 147, 164, 176, 178, 192, 212
Contact pressure, 147, 176, 177, 192
Content validity ratio (CVR), 423
Continuum model, 178
Contrast sensitivity, 66, 68, 70
Conventional sidewalks, 325–326
COP, see Center of pressure (COP)
County Business Patterns, 60
Coworker-assisted rescue, 317
CPSC, see Consumer Product Safety
Commission (CPSC)
CPWR, see Center for Construction Research
and Training (CPWR)
Cross-examination, 394
Crurifragium, 102
CSA, see Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
Curb cutouts, 328
Curbing, 327–328
Current Population Survey, 60
CVR, see Content validity ratio (CVR)
D
Damp mopping, 516
DBI/Sala (ISAFETM), 279
Define–Measure–Analyze–Improve–Control
(DMAIC), 498, 502–503
Delphi process, 496
Dementia, 21, 32, 33, 35, 207, 495
Deposition, 393, 394, 398
DIAL-F design model, 492–495, 504
Direct examination, 394
Discovery, in forensics, 393
Diverse populations, fall injury protection
among, 14
Dizziness, 30, 31, 33, 103, 110, 115
DMAIC, see Define–Measure–Analyze–
Improve–Control (DMAIC)
Door-mounted handholds, 301
Downton Index, 350
Drag testers, 142–144
Drainage grates, 329
Driver and worker training, in truck
industry, 303
inward-facing egress, 304
three points of contact (3PC), 303–304
use two hands (U2H), 304
DuPont Tychem® CPF3, 90
Dynamometer pull meter, 180, 181
E
EAL, see Energy-absorbing lanyard (EAL)
EAX series, Entran Devices Inc., 282
Elastomer, 177, 178, 183Subject Index 533
Elbows, 91, 165, 398, 411
ELCOSH, see Electronic Library of Construction
Occupational Safety and Health
(eLCOSH)
Elderly, 4, 29, 31–34, 37, 80–81, 120, 133, 349,
354–356, 359, 361; see also Older adults,
falls among
fall recovery/injury prevention for, 357–358
mobility and gait, 356–357
potential for injury in slips/falls of, 357
stairway safety and, 198, 199, 201, 207, 208,
212, 217
tripping and, 147
vision impairment and fall risk in
eye disease66–67
falls problem in older adults and, 65–66
functional assessment, 67–69
spectacle correction, 69–70
visual interventions for preventing falls,
70–71
Electro-adhesion technology, 474
Electronic Library of Construction
Occupational Safety and Health
(eLCOSH), 57
Electronic medical record (EMR), 500, 502, 503
Elevated devices among firefighters
career fire fighter’s death
falling from aerial ladder, 428
falling from elevated aerial platform,
430–431
falling from fire escape ladder, 434–435
falling from roof at apartment building
fire, 435–437
fire fighter’s death, after fall from ladder,
431–433
fire fighter fatality investigation and
prevention, 427–428
volunteer fire fighter’s death
after falling from rope, 429–430
after 9ft fall from ladder, 438–439
after ten-foot fall from engine, 433–434
volunteer training/safety officer death,
from injuries following training
exercise, 437
Elevated workplace virtual models, 126; see also
Virtual reality simulations of height,
fall prevention research with
evaluation studies
footwear effects on balance at restricted
and elevated surfaces, 128–130
vibration effects on balance at restricted
and elevated surfaces, 130–132
validation studies
real and virtual height effects
comparative evaluation and, 126–127
virtual scaffolding models with real
planks and, 127–128
Elk River (Construction PlusTM), 279
EMR, see Electronic medical record (EMR)
Encroaching tread causing trip and fall, case
study of, 410
inadequate handrail, 410
Energy-absorbing lanyard (EAL), 277–283
Energy and injury, 160–165, 167–170
Entryways
floor mats, 335
design, 335–336
importance, 334
in-service mats, 336
Environmental scan, 351–352
Environment-oriented interfaces, 134
EPA, see U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA)
EPICEA, see Prévention par l’Informatisation
desComptes rendus d’Enquêtes
d’Accidents (EPICEA) database
European EN 361standards, 112
European Working Group on Sarcopenia in
Older People, 32
Exercise, significance of, 35
Experimental stairways, 218
Extension ladder, 245–247, 249, 258, 262, 438, 474
electrocution risk control for, 259
safety, 259–260
anthropometric methods evaluation,
262–264
instrumental methods evaluation, 264
user stability enhancement, 265–266
Eye diseases
age-related macular degeneration (AMD),
66–67, 72
cataracts, 66, 72, 405
glaucoma, 67, 72
F
Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA), 502
Fall-arrest system, 107, 109, 134, 135, 262, 277–
279, 315; see also Suspension trauma
and fall-arrest harness design
Manikin drop tests and, 479
performance measurement, by dissipated
kinetic energy, 281–283
Fall injuries, in construction industry
among construction occupants, 53
among construction subsectors, 51–53534 Subject Index
by demographics, 49–50, 51
by employment status, 50–51, 52
trends, 49, 50
types, 54, 55–56
Fall Prediction Index, 351
Fall prevention and protection
incident surveillance, 5–7, 8–10
intervention and implementation, 11–12
public health approach, 4–5
risk identification, 7, 11
strategic goals to address global STF
burden, 12
emerging issues, 15
fall injuries reduction among
transportation and material-moving
occupations, 13
fall injury control among vulnerable
populations, 13–14
fall injury control in health service
industry, 12–13
fall injury protection among diverse
populations, 14
human characteristics understanding for
effective control measures, 14–15
STF reduction in construction industry
and among construction trade
workers, 12
STF reduction in retail trade settings, 13
Fall risk, with restricted and elevated support
surfaces, 120
fall causation theoretical considerations and,
121–122
fall prevention research with virtual reality
simulations of height, 124
elevated workplace virtual models
evaluation studies, 128–132
elevated workplace virtual models
validation studies, 126–128
methodological limitations and future
research, 132–133
NIOSH virtual reality laboratory, 125–126
preliminary studies at real height,
124–125
falls from elevation problem and, 120
hazard elimination measures, 135–136
physiological effects of exposure to elevation
and, 122–123
protection measures, 134–135
psychophysiological effects of exposure to
elevation and, 122
research using real height models, 133–134
restricted and elevated support surfaces
and, 120–121
restricted support surfaces biomechanical
effects and, 123
Fall risk assessment, 25, 33, 34, 36, 37, 69,
354, 501
Falls from Height: A Guide to Rescue Planning, 317
Fall tracker board (FTB), 500, 502
Fascia, 294
Fault tree analysis
Boolean algebra representation and, 447
qualitative and quantitative application, 460,
463, 464–465
FDA, see Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Fear of falling, 20, 30, 37, 70, 122, 123, 126,
132–134, 323, 343, 345, 351
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
(FMCSA), 301
Field-based devices, 176, 191
friction devices, 180
Fire apparatus, 428, 431, 434, 439
Firefighter PPE, 85, 94
effect on tripping risk, 85–87
slip resistance properties of boots and, 87–89
Firefighting community, 370; see also Elevated
devices among firefighters
environment of, 371
future research needs, 378
firefighter tasks in falls, 380
physical fitness and training in
prevention, 378
SCBA and PPE ergonomics, 378–379
situational awareness role in STF, 379–380
gait and balance among, 374
studies directly examining heat stress
and fatigue in, 374–375
studies examining protective ensemble
effect on, 375–378
individual characteristics, related to
STF, 373
age and experience, 373–374
fitness, 374
personal protective equipment (PPE) and
tools, 371–373
slips, trips, and falls among, 370
cost, 370–371
incidence, 370
theoretical model for STF among, 380–381
“Fireman” method, 262, 264
First-receiver PPE, 89–93
Fixed ladders, 243
Flesch–Kincaid readability test, 423
Floor mats, 335, 354
design, 335–336
Floor roughness, 144, 145, 147, 179Subject Index 535
FMCSA, see Federal Motor Carrier Safety
Administration (FMCSA)
FMEA, see Failure mode effects analysis
(FMEA)
Focus Four program, 57
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 348
Footholds, 115
Foot triplets, 247
Footwear, 88–89, 93, 176, 180, 181, 183, 184, 192,
201, 220, 292, 298–299, 334–335, 375,
471, 472, 517, 519
driver, 304–305
effects on balance, at restricted and elevated
surfaces, 128–130
friction characteristics, and flooring, 513–514
with high heels, 204, 212, 217–219
with low heels, 212, 217–218
protective, 84, 85, 94
Foreign-born workers, 46, 50
Forensics
applications, 396
fall from elevation, 399–400
misstep-and-fall, 398–399
slip-and-fall, 397–398
trip-and–fall, 396–397
in fall incident litigation, 392
consultation with client, 392–393
information review, 393
opinion expression, 393
opinion research and formulation, 393
site inspection, 393
fall opinions, basis for, 394
codes and law, 394
empirical study, 396
industry custom and practice, 395
professional guidelines, 395
professional judgment, 396
scientific literature, 396
voluntary consensus standards, 394–395
practice, nature of, 390–391
Frailty, 29, 33, 34
Friction demand, 190
Friction measurement, 175–176
discussion, 188, 190–192
measurement conditions, 176–177
mechanical devices summary
laboratory-based methods, 179–180
portable devices, 180–188
mechanisms, 177–179
validity of, 188
Front suspension duration, 104
FTB, see Fall tracker board (FTB)
FTEs, see Full-time equivalent workers (FTEs)
Full-face respirator and eyewear, 83
Full-time equivalent workers (FTEs), 48, 53, 60
Functional impairment, 20, 37, 495
G
Gait, 23, 30, 31, 33, 34, 81, 91, 92, 127, 149, 205
altered, 500
balance among firefighters and, 374
studies directly examining heat stress
and fatigue in, 374–375
studies examining protective ensemble
effect on, 375–378
balance impairments and, 35
elderly mobility and, 356–357
locomotion and rhythm, 203
stair users adjusting, 209
Gear, 381
bunker, 375
firefighting, 371, 372, 375
German Federal Post Office, 103
Get-Up-and-Go (GUG) test, 500
Ghost step (air step), 205
Glaucoma, 67, 72
Graphical fault tree, 459–462
Graphical icon, 460
Grating surface, 293, 294
GRF, see Ground reaction force (GRF)
Ground reaction force (GRF), 247, 293, 295–296,
298, 304, 377
Guardrails, 54, 80, 274, 283, 445, 455, 465,
472, 480
improper, 452–454
inadequate protection, allowing fall off
stairway, 408
OSHA on, 476
permanent, 484
pothole, 277
protection, 286, 451, 458–459, 475–477
slide guards and, 482–483
GUG, see Get-Up-and-Go (GUG) test
H
Haddon’s strategies, 162, 163, 169
for accidents triggered by movement
disturbance, 169–170
Handholds, 259, 265, 266, 292, 293, 296–298, 302,
304–306, 353, 355, 358, 360, 362
configurations, 294–295
door-mounted, 301
external, 300
internal, 300536 Subject Index
Handrails, 206, 216, 220, 252, 258, 259, 334, 337,
343, 353, 361, 393, 398–399, 405, 409, 412,
459, 472, 477; see also Visual cues
geometry, 332
graspability, 332–333
inadequate, 404, 406–408, 410–411, 413
ramps and, 333
safety, 519
Harness and fall-arrest system, 107; see also
Suspension trauma and fall-arrest
harness design
Hazard, 160; see also individual entries
concept, within accident prevention scope
multiple definitions, 161–162
and STF, 162–163
usage, 162
impact on prevention strategies and risk
assessment, 169
Haddon’s strategies for accidents
triggered by movement disturbance,
169–170
risk assessment for accidents, 170
injury mechanism in accidents and,
triggered by movement disturbance
composite hazard in injury mechanism,
164–167
in falls, 163–164
hazard variety in injury
mechanism, 167
representation of, 168–169
HCSA, see Health Care and Social Assistance
(HCSA)
Head injuries, 22, 107, 200, 220, 342, 357, 450
Health Care and Social Assistance (HCSA),
509–510, 518
Health service industry, fall injury control in,
12–13
Healthy adults and athletes, 231
Heel contact angle, 81, 190–191
Heel-strike distance, 86
Helmets, 353, 371, 451
Hendrix I, 350
HFE, human factors–ergonomics (HFE), 390
High-viscosity fluids, 147
Hip, 83, 91–92, 123, 149, 151–152, 226
fracture, 20, 22, 32, 35, 37, 67, 68, 199, 207,
345, 354
protectors, 353
Hispanics, in U.S. construction industry, 42,
44–46, 50, 60, 417–419, 473, 484
Horizontal pull slipmeter (HPS), 180, 181, 186
Hospital beds and falls, 346–348
Hospitals, 21
Hospital workers, STF prevention among,
509–510
work-related STF injury research in hospitals
and, 510
adequate lighting, 519
age group, employment length and
gender, 512
body part and injury nature, 512
floor maintenance as clean and dry,
515–516
friction characters of footwear and
flooring, 513–514
ice and snow removal, 518–519
occupations, 511–512
pedestrian access prevention to wet
floors, 516
risk factor study, 513
safer operating rooms, 518
slip-resistant shoes, 517
stairs and handrails safety, 519
STF circumstances, 513
STF hazards identification, 514
tripping hazards minimization,
517–518
written housekeeping program
creation, 515
HPS, see Horizontal pull slipmeter (HPS)
Human characteristics understanding, for
effective control measures, 14–15
Human Factors Design Handbook, 395
Human factors–ergonomics (HFE), 390
Human-oriented interfaces, 135
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 192
Hydrodynamic pressures, 147, 178
Hydrodynamic squeeze-film model, 178
Hysteresis friction, 144–145, 147, 177, 179
I
IBC, see International Building Code (IBC)
IEA, see International Ergonomics Association
(IEA)
IFSI, see Illinois Fire Service Institute (IFSI)
Illinois Fire Service Institute (IFSI), 370
Impact attenuation and postural balance,
design for, 149–153
Impact testers, 142, 143
Impairment, 81, 105, 356, 359
of balance, 35, 67, 227, 344, 350
of body system, 225, 227, 233
cognitive, 32, 35, 37, 227, 344, 348, 353, 360
functional, 20, 37, 495
of gait, 35, 344, 350, 358, 362Subject Index 537
of people, 70–72, 198–199, 207, 208, 227, 230,
333, 343
vision, see Vision impairment and fall risk in
elderly
Implementation, meaning of, 12
Individual fall protection systems, 134
Ingress–egress system configurations
handhold configurations, 294–295
step configurations, 293–294
tactics
inward-versus outward-facing egress,
295–296
motion kinematics and dynamics,
296–298
Ingress–egress system design improvement, in
truck industry
handholds, 300–301
standards and design guidelines, 301
FMCSA Part 399, Subpart L, 301
MILSTD-1472, 302
SAE J185, 302
TMC RP-404B, 301–302
step construction, 299–300
step layout, 300
step visibility, 300
Injuries, classification of, 344
Innovative mobile technology tools, 264–265
In-service mats, 336
Interface Inc., 283
International Association of Oil and Gas
Producers (OGP), 460
lifesaving rules, examples of, 462
International Building Code (IBC), 216, 331, 332,
394, 398
International Classification of Diseases, 199
International Ergonomics Association
(IEA), 491
International Organization of Standards (ISO),
112, 142, 302, 395
International Residential Code, 216
International Union of Operating Engineers, 57
Intervention, meaning of, 11
Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion
(IV-NIC), 285
ISO, see International Organization of
Standards (ISO)
IV-NIC, see Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion
(IV-NIC)
J
James machine, 179, 181
Japanese Institute of Standards, 144
Johns Hopkins risk assessment
methodology, 500
Journal of Safety Research, 323
K
Kaplan–Meier survival curve, 105
Kevlar boots, 377
Kinect, 232
Kinesthetic Ability Trainer, 232
Kinetic energy, in injury mechanism, 164, 167
Kistler™, 286
Knee, 81, 83, 91, 92, 102, 107, 165, 226, 227, 231,
287, 344, 359, 398, 409, 513
Knowledge gaps and emerging issues for fall
control, in construction, 470–471
building information modeling
(BIM) and, 485
discussion, 486–487
fall solutions aimed at prevention
control hierarchy, 480
fall protection measures, 480–483
fall solutions having own risks
aerial lifts, 478–479
mast climbing work platform (MCWP),
479–480
national fall prevention campaign and,
485–486
prevention through design (PtD) and,
484–485
risk factors influencing falls, 471
environmental factors, 471–472
falls from and through ladders, 474–475
falls from and through roofs, 475–476
falls from and through scaffolds, 476–477
falls from and through
telecommunication towers, 477–478
personal factors, 472–474
training and experience and, 483–484
L
LabINRS, 179, 180, 182, 190
Laboratory-based devices, 176, 177, 179–180, 191
Ladder
accessories and tools, 11, 46, 56–57, 82–83,
103–104, 259–261, 305, 370, 399, 419,
431–432, 434–439, 450, 458, 484, 487
belt, 428, 439
classification of, 243
common types of, 243
current measures to control falls from
design-based control, 257–261538 Subject Index
fall protection measures, 261–262
foreseeable misuse and design
improvements need, 257
hazard elimination and substitution, 261
proper use and need for education and
training, 257
design modifications and improvements,
258–259
fall injury problem, 242
falls
causes and mechanisms of
from and through, 474–475
portable ladders mechanical behavior,
246–248
theoretical considerations, 246
user–ladder direct interactions and
ladder-related fall mechanisms,
251–252
user–ladder indirect interactions, 248–250
portable, 243–244
characteristics, 244–246
recent research on safety of
extension ladder setup improvement,
262–264
hand-grip issues and three-point control,
265–266
innovative mobile technology tools,
264–265
step-ladder safety enhancement, 266
risk factors for falls from, 252–254
safety standards and regulations, 255–257
use, definition of, 251
LA Times newspaper, 316
Leaning ladders, see Non-self-supporting
ladders
Lean technique, 496, 498–502
LEAP, see Linking evaluation and practice
(LEAP)
Leather boots, 377
Liberty Mutual Research Institute for
Safety, 513
Liberty Mutual Workplace Safety
Index, 120, 224
LifeMOD Biomechanics Human Modeler
(Version 2010, LifeModeler, Inc., San
Clemente, California), 284
Lighting, 336
levels, and transitions, 336–337
Lighting Handbook, 395
Linking evaluation and practice (LEAP), 500
Liquid-contaminated surfaces, 177
Long-term care (LTC), 30–32, 34, 35, 37
falls and fall risk in, 36
Low-stiffness flooring, 149–152
LSC, see US Life Safety Code (LSC)
LTC, see Long-term care (LTC)
M
MAF, see Maximum arrest force (MAF)
Magnetic Products, Inc., 278
Manikin drop tests, 479
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control
Devices for Streets and Highways
(MUTCD), 330
Mast climbing work platform (MCWP),
479–480
Maximum arrest force (MAF), 279
MCS, see Minimal cut set (MCS)
MCWP, see Mast climbing work platform
(MCWP)
Measure of Man and Woman, The, 395
Mediolateral foot placement, 123
Melbourne Edge Test, 68
MFC, see Minimum foot clearance (MFC)
MFS, see Morse Fall Scale (MFS)
Minimal cut set (MCS), 446, 454, 455,
456, 463
Minimum foot clearance (MFC), 149
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
scores, 379
Misstep, 198, 204–207, 209–212, 217, 220,
251, 404
variable step geometry causing, and
fall, 407
inadequate handrails, 407–408
inadequate visual information, 407
inconsistent step geometry, 407
Mobile devices, 323
Morse Fall Scale (MFS), 359
Motionless suspension, 106, 107
Motor control, 66, 78–81, 93, 226, 227, 230, 232,
233, 357
MSA (WorkmanTM), 279, 281
MTS Systems Corporation, 275
Multifocal glasses, 69–71
Multimodal method, 264
Multiple sclerosis, 227, 228
Muscle strengthening, as therapy to reduce
falling risks, 354–355
Muscle weakness, 33
Musculoskeletal system, 226, 228, 233, 234,
381, 479
MUTCD, see Manual on Uniform Traffic
Control Devices for Streets and
Highways (MUTCD)Subject Index 539
N
National Electronic Injury Surveillance
System—Occupational supplement
(NEISS-Work), 242; see also US National
Electronic Inquiry Surveillance
System (NEISS)
National Fire Incident Reporting System
(NFIRS), 370
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA),
78, 85, 88, 316, 332–333, 370–372,
427–430, 437
National Floor Safety Institute (NFSI), 144
National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health (NIOSH), 15, 54, 57, 59,
78, 90, 94, 105, 271, 274, 275, 277, 279,
281, 285–287, 298, 428–439, 463, 474,
486, 510, 514
case studies
firefighter PPE, 85–89
fall prevention research program, 136
Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation
(FACE), 272, 273, 479, 484
Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and
Prevention Program (FFFIPP), 428
Ladder Safety app, 257, 264–265, 474
virtual reality laboratory, 125–126
National Instruments Corporation, 278
National Occupational Research Agenda
(NORA), 59, 486
National Safety Council (NSC), 271, 273, 322
Nausea, 103, 110, 115
Negotiable hazard, 168
NEISS, see US National Electronic Inquiry
Surveillance System (NEISS)
NEISS-Work, see National Electronic Injury
Surveillance System—Occupational
supplement (NEISS-Work)
Neolite© test foot, 398
Neurocom Balance Master, 232
Neuromotor control system, for postural
balance maintenance, 226
Neuromuscular training, 230
Neurophysiological balance training targeting
vision, vestibular and proprioception
systems, 230
NFIRS, see National Fire Incident Reporting
System (NFIRS)
NFPA, see National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA)
NFPA, see National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA)
NFSI, see National Floor Safety Institute (NFSI)
NHs, see Nursing homes (NHs)
Nintendo Wii Fit, 232
NIOSH, see National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses
database, 5
Nonmetal ladders, 245
Non-self-supporting ladders, 243–246, 249,
251, 266
proper angular positioning of, 250
risk factors for falls from, 253
setup of, 250
Nonworker population, intrinsic balance
improvement in, 232
NORA, see National Occupational Research
Agenda (NORA)
Nosings, 203–206, 209–210, 219, 299, 332,
397, 405, 407
broken, case study of, 410–411
inadequate handrails, 411
inconsistent step geometry, 411
slippery, case study of, 411–412
inconsistent step geometry, 412
unlit and camouflaged, 412
inadequate handrails, 413
inadequate visual information, 412, 413
inconsistent step geometry, 412
NSC, see National Safety Council (NSC)
Nursing homes (NHs)
falls in, 21
causes and risk factors, 30–33
epidemiology, 29–30
therapy and prevention programs in,
33–34
cognitive impairment, 35, 37
exercise, 35
fear of falling, 37
gait and balance impairments, 35
O
O*NET, see Occupational Information Network
(O*NET)
Obesity, 381
Obvious hazards, 165, 168, 171
Occupational Information Network (O*NET),
46, 59–60
Occupational injuries, in construction
industry
fatal and nonfatal trends, 48
leading causes, 48, 49
Occupational Injury and Illness Classification
System (OIICS), 49, 50540 Subject Index
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA), 42, 48, 53, 54,
59, 77, 79, 89, 90, 94, 102, 109, 114, 115,
250, 255, 261, 273, 277, 279, 314–316, 416,
420, 421, 463, 485
Fall Protection Directive STD 03-11-002, 134
fall-protection training needs
understanding, from safety training
requirements perspective of, 422
questionnaire, 422–423
results and discussion, 424, 425
Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation
(FACE), 287–288
General Industry Standard, 120, 121
guardrail system and, 476, 482
incident investigation records, 272
on mast climbing work platforms, 480
Safety and Health Regulations for
Construction, 120, 121
on safety nets, 483
Safety Standards for Steel Erection, 121
on slide guards, 483
in Taiwan, 446
on telecommunication tower workers, 477
OGP, see International Association of Oil and
Gas Producers (OGP)
OH, see Orthostatic hypotension (OH)
OIICS, see Occupational Injury and Illness
Classification System (OIICS)
Older adults, fall prevention and intrinsic
balance improvement in, 230–231
Older adults, falls among, 19; see also Elderly
epidemiology
fall risk factors, 22, 23
fatal falls, 21
nonfatal falls, 21–22
risk factor interactions, 22, 23
future directions, 24–25
prevention interventions, 23–24
public health burden, 20
community settings, 20–21
hospitals, 21
nursing homes, 21
Older workers, 14, 49, 225, 234, 487, 512; see also
Elderly
Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board
database, 292
Optotrak-3020 motion measurement system
(Northern Digital Inc.), 126
OR gate, 446, 451, 455
Orthostatic hypotension (OH), 31
definition of, 32
Orthostatic intolerance, 102, 110
OSHA, see Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA)
Overstepping, 204, 205
P
PAPR, see Powered air-purifying respirator
(PAPR)
Parking areas
drainage grates, 329
factors, 329
speed bumps, 330–331
tire stops, 329–330
Parkinson’s disease, 30, 32, 33, 35, 227–229, 232
Passive fall protection systems, 134, 135
PAST, see Portable articulated strut tribometer
(PAST)
Pathophysiology, 102, 106, 107
Patient falls, 342
bathrooms, 360–361
floor/standing surfaces, 361
hand rails, 361
biomechanical research application to
hospital bed, hospital room, and
bathroom, 358
balance/support on standing, 358, 360
bed height and safe egress, 358–360
rails in patients’ room, 360
consequences of, 344–345
repeated falls, 345
fall injuries and cost to health-care
system, 345
fall prevention historical approaches,
345–346
changes in fall rates over time, 346–350
meaning of, 342–343
present intervention programs, 350
environmental scan, 351–352
fall prevention strategies, 352–353
fall-prone patient triage, 350–351
fall protective strategies, 353–354
research review related to biomechanical
parameters, 355–356
elderly mobility and gait, 356–357
fall recovery/injury prevention for
elderly, 357–358
patient handling, 356
potential for injury in slips/falls of
elderly, 357
therapies to reduce risk of
muscle strengthening, 354–355
vitamin D, 354
types of, 343Subject Index 541
accidental falls, 344
anticipated physiological falls, 344
unanticipated physiological falls, 344
Peak Motion Analysis System™, 85
Pedestrian and community safety, 321
changes in level and, 331
distractions, 324
entryways
floor mats, 335–336
importance, 334
in-service mats, 336
environmental and operational controls
lighting, 336–337
signage, 337
snow removal, 337–338
expectation, 322–323
exterior walkways
conventional sidewalks, 325–326
curb cutouts, 328
curbing, 327–328
rubber and plastic sidewalks, 326–327
surface geometry level, 325
handrails
geometry, 332
graspability, 332–333
inspection, maintenance, and management
and, 324
parking areas
drainage grates, 329
factors, 329
speed bumps, 330–331
tire stops, 329–330
pedestrian behavior, anticipating and
influencing, 324–325
ramps, 333–334
stairways
design, 331–332
visibility, 332
trends, 323
aging population, 323
mobile devices, 323
walkway design, 323
water accumulation, 329
Pelli–Robson test, 68
Pelvis release experiments, 151, 152
Pendulum tribometers, 142
Perceived sense of postural sway and
instability (PSPSI), 228
Perforated step surface, 293, 294
Personal fall arrest and restraint systems,
481–482
Personality traits and injury risk, relationship
between, 379
Personal protective equipment (PPE), 14, 77–79,
228, 314, 374, 377–380, 419, 445, 449,
451–458, 464
dynamic balance control and maintenance,
80–81
firefighting
effects on biomechanics, 375–376
and tools, 371–373
first-receiver, 89–93
future directions, 93–94
NIOSH case studies
firefighter PPE, 85–89
postural balance control and, 79–80
postural stability affecting factors
environmental, 82
full-face respirator and eyewear, 83
job-task factors, 82–83
personal, 81–82
protective clothing and ensemble, 83–84
protective footwear, 84
SCBA and, 378–379
slips, trips, and falls and, 79
PFT, see Portable friction tester (PFT)
Pharmaceutical restraints, for patients, 349
Physical ergonomic hazard, 161
Physical restraints, for patients, 349
Physiological effects of exposure, to elevation,
122–123
PIAST, see Portable inclineable articulated strut
tribometer (PIAST)
Portable articulated strut tribometer (PAST),
180–181, 186
Portable devices, 180–188
Portable friction tester (PFT), 181, 186
Portable inclineable articulated strut tribometer
(PIAST), 142, 184, 188, 191
Portable ladders, 243–244, 251, 265, 266, 267
characteristics, 244–246
mechanical behavior, 246–248
slide-out risk reduction and, 258
Portable slip simulator, 142, 184
Post-fall anxiety, 30, 37
Postprandial hypotension, 32
Postural balance control and PPE, 79–80
Postural instability, 32, 78, 79, 81, 84, 93, 94, 122,
124–127, 132, 206, 207, 233, 273, 286,
287, 473
Postural stability, 72, 80, 92, 93, 121, 123, 124, 131,
132, 224, 230, 232–234, 246, 286
affecting factors and PPE
environmental factors, 82
full-face respirator and eyewear, 83
job-task factors, 82–83542 Subject Index
personal factors, 81–82
protective clothing and ensemble, 83–84
protective footwear, 84
Postural sway, 66, 80–84, 123, 124, 228, 374,
376, 377
Postural threat, 122, 132, 133
Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR), 89–90
PPE, see Personal protective equipment (PPE)
Presyncope, 105
symptoms, in suspended subject, 106–107
Prévention par l’Informatisation desComptes
rendus d’Enquêtes d’Accidents
(EPICEA) database, 160
Prevention through design (PtD), 484–485
interventions, in construction industry, 54
Probability of a slip, 141
Professional/municipal response, 318
Profilometer, 145
Programmable slip resistance tester (PSRT), 179,
180, 182
Proprioceptive system, 66, 78, 80, 81, 83, 84, 122,
128, 130, 151, 224–227, 230, 231, 233, 234
Protective clothing and ensemble, 83–84
PSPSI, see Perceived sense of postural sway and
instability (PSPSI)
PSRT, see Programmable slip resistance tester
(PSRT)
Psychophysiological effects of exposure, to
elevation, 122
PtD, see Prevention through design (PtD)
Public Relations Society of America, 486
R
Rails, 354; see also individual entries
Ramps, 149, 305, 328, 331, 333–334, 336, 459, 514
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 70–71
Range of motion (ROM), 91, 92, 94
Rapid Improvement Event (RIE), 500, 503
RCOF, see Required coefficient of friction
(RCOF)
RCTs, see Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
Reactive controls, 227
Real and virtual height effects comparative
evaluation, 126–127
Rear suspension duration, 104
Recross, 394
Redirect, 394
Repeated falls, 345
Required coefficient of friction (RCOF), 141, 246,
251, 298
Rescue, 313
fall of worker and, 314
risk conditions, 314–315
suspension intolerance, 315
from fall-protection system, planning for,
315–316
example, 316–317
rescue plan, 317–318
training, 318
safety and, 314
Research-to-practice actions, 12
Residential roofing, 475
Retail trade settings, STF reduction in, 13
Retrofitting, 305–306
RIE, see Rapid Improvement Event (RIE)
ROM, see Range of motion (ROM)
Roofers, 46, 51, 53, 122, 224, 233, 416–417, 421,
422, 470, 473, 475, 481; see also Roofs
Roofing workers, safety awareness
enhancement among, 416
current fall-prevention methods
understanding, among residential
roofing subcontractors, 416–417
field fall-prevention methods
deficiencies, 421
results and discussion, 418–421
semi-structured interview, 417–418
fall-protection training needs, from
OSHA’s safety training requirements
perspective, 422
questionnaire, 422–423
results and discussion, 424, 425
Roofs, 54, 59, 79, 85, 120, 125, 445, 450, 458–459,
471, 483, 484, 486, 487; see also Roofers
falls from and through, 224, 472–473,
475–476
planks, 121, 129
Rubber and plastic sidewalks, 326–327
Rubber boots, 377
Rubber-treated feet, 258
Rugged-terrain boom lifts, 478
S
SAE, see Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
Safety belts, 428, 444, 477
Safety flooring, 151–153
Safety harness, 114, 115, 359, 444, 445, 455, 458,
463, 472, 478
Safety nets, 134, 444, 445, 451–453, 458, 475,
480, 483
Safety risk assessment (SRA) tool, for
healthcare architecture, 495–499
SafeWaze (SafelightTM), 279
SAFR, see St. Louis Audit of Fall Risks (SAFR)Subject Index 543
St. Louis Audit of Fall Risks (SAFR), 57
Sarcopenia, 32, 33
SATRA STM, 142
Scaffolds, 46, 54, 79, 82, 127, 267, 449, 451–458,
464–465, 472, 487
cause combinations of falling from, 452
construction workers using, 476
falls from and through, 476–477
fault tree illustration of falling from, 453, 456
mast climbing, 479–480
mobile, 274
planks, 120, 121, 132
postural instability and, 233
unsafe climbing of, 445
virtual models, 127–128
SCBA, see Self-contained breathing apparatus
(SCBA)
Schuster, 181, 188
Scientific American, 198
Scissor lifts, 478, 479
background, 272–273
behavior, in hazardous condition, 274
dynamic lift behavior computer
simulations, 275–277
static lift behavior computer simulations,
274–275
drop tests, 277
personal fall arrest system performance
measurement, 281–283
results, 277–281, 283–286
future of, 286–287
injuries and deaths, contributing factors of,
273–274
Scott & White Risk Screener, 351
Scraper mats, 335
Second International Conference of Mountain
Rescue Doctors (1972), 102
Sectional ladders, 243
SEIPS, see Systems Engineering Initiative for
Patient Safety (SEIPS)
Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), 83,
372–373, 375, 377, 381
firefighting, effect on biomechanics, 376–377
PPE and, 378–379
Self-employment, 46, 50
Self-evacuation, 317
Self-supporting ladders, 243, 246; see also
Stepladders
Sensorimotor training, 230
Sensors, 259, 282, 361, 362
Sensory inputs, 66, 80, 81, 83, 121, 122, 128, 130,
136, 227
Sensory enhancement hypothesis, 130, 131
Sensory suppression hypothesis, 130–132
Shoe–floor COF, 142, 144, 147
Shoe–floor interface, 82, 141; 175–177, 188,
190–193, see also Available coefficient of
friction (ACOF)
Shoe soles, 88–89, 177, 192, 203, 210, 220, 228, 252,
300, 305, 514
Short flight causing fall, case study of, 408–409
Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire
(SPMSQ), 500
Shoulders, 91, 92, 103, 104, 292, 300, 345, 397, 411
Side rails, 348–349, 353
Sigler, 184, 188, 189
SIPOC, see Supplier/Input/Process/Output/
Customer (SIPOC)
Sitters, 346, 352
Situational awareness, 379–381
Six Sigma, 496, 498, 502–503
Skull injuries, 200
SkyJack Inc., 275, 277–279, 281, 283, 286, 288
Slide guards, 483–484
Slide out event, 248, 250, 251
Slip event, 225
Slipmeters, 188
portable, 177, 191
Slipperiness, 80–82, 85, 176, 188, 191, 226–228,
325, 338, 361, 373, 376, 397, 472, 496,
513–517; see also Slipping
workers’ perception of, 225
Slippery nosing, case study of, 411–412
inconsistent step geometry, 412
Slipping, 21, 31, 83, 141, 142, 147, 151, 153, 164,
178, 190, 205, 208, 251, 258, 259, 292–294,
338, 344, 411, 471, 474, 475, 477, 513, 516,
517; see also Slipperiness
Slip resistance, 84, 90, 94, 183, 326, 328, 332,
398, 518
flooring, 142, 147, 153, 249, 259, 334, 411,
514, 515
properties of boots, and firefighting PPE,
87–89
of shoes, 513, 514, 517
of steps, 293–294, 299–301, 305, 412
tests, 393
Slips, trips, and falls (STF); see also individual
entries
prevention
public health approach, 4–12
strategic goals to address global burden,
12–15
Slip simulator, 179, 180, 185
portable, 142, 184
Small establishments, 51544 Subject Index
Smart beds, 361
Smart ladder, 259
SMRs, see Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs)
Snow removal, 337
anti-icing, deicing, and sand, 338
priorities, 337–338
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 302
SOII, see Survey of Occupational Injuries and
Illnesses (SOII)
Somatosensory system 66, 81, 121, 123, 132
Spectacle correction, 69–70
Speed bumps, 330–331
SPMSQ, see Short Portable Mental Status
Questionnaire (SPMSQ)
Squeeze effect, 178
SRA, see Safety risk assessment (SRA) tool, for
healthcare architecture
SSVR, see CAVE-type surround-screen virtual
reality (SSVR) system (MechDyne
Corporation)
Staff and patient engagement in STF risk
management through quality
improvement (QI) projects
lean, 499–502
QI and HFE, 496, 498–499
QI projects and embedded impact, 503
Six Sigma, 502–503
Stairway falls
bottom of flight illusion causing fall off
stairway, case study of, 406
inadequate handrails, 407
inadequate visual information, 406
broken nosing, case study of, 410
inadequate handrails, 411
inconsistent step geometry, 411
due to defect in construction and
maintenance, 404
encroaching tread causing trip and fall, case
study of, 410
inadequate handrail, 410
inadequate guardrail protection allowing
fall off stairway, case study of, 408
short flight causing fall, case study of,
408–409
inadequate visual information, 409
slippery nosing, case study of, 411–412
inconsistent step geometry, 412
top of flight causing fall downstairs, case
study of, 404
inadequate visual information, 405
inconsistent step geometry, 405–406
unlit and camouflaged nosings, 412
inadequate handrails, 413
inadequate visual information, 412, 413
inconsistent step geometry, 412
variable step geometry causing misstep and
fall, case study of, 407
inadequate handrails, 407–408
inadequate visual information, 407
inconsistent step geometry, 407
Stairways, 198–199
design, 331–332
fatal falls on/from


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