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 كتاب Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Sensors - VOL. 3

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Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Sensors - VOL. 3
Charles Platt and Fredrik Jansson
Location n Presence n Proximity n Orientation n
Oscillation n Force n Load n Human Input n Liquid and
Gas Properties n Light n Heat n Sound n Electricity
Location , Presence , Proximity , Orientation , Oscillation , Force , Load , Human Input , Liquid and Gas Properties , Light , Heat , Sound , Electricity

كتاب Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Sensors - VOL. 3  M_w_o_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Preface . xix
1. GPS . 1
What It Does 1
Schematic Symbol 1
GPS Segments 1
How It Works . 2
Variants . 2
Values 3
How to Use It . 3
Pulse per Second Output . 4
What Can Go Wrong 4
Electrostatic Discharge 4
Failure to Ground Properly 4
Cold Joints . 4
Restricted Availability . 4
Inability to Detect Satellites . 4
Exceeding Maximum Velocity or Altitude 4
2. magnetometer 5
What It Does 5
Schematic Symbol 5
IMU 5
Applications 6
How It Works . 6
Magnetic Fields . 6
Earth’s Axes . 7
Coil Magnetometer . 8
Hall Effect and Magnetoresistance 8
Variants . 9
vHow to Use It . 9
What Can Go Wrong 9
Bias 9
Mounting Errors . 10
3. object presence sensor 11
What It Does . 11
Schematic Symbol . 12
Variants . 12
Optical Detection 12
Transmissive Optical Sensors . 13
Retroreflective Optical Sensors . 15
Magnetic Sensors 16
Reed Switch . 17
Reed Switch Variants 17
Reed Switch Values 18
How to Use a Reed Switch . 18
Hall-Effect Sensor 18
How a Hall-Effect Sensor Works 19
Hall-Effect Sensor Variants . 19
Other Applications 20
Values . 20
How to Use a Hall-Effect Sensor 20
Configuration of Object Presence Sensors 21
Linear Motion . 21
Sensing by Interruption 21
Angular Motion . 21
Sensor Comparisons . 22
Advantages of Optical Presence Sensors . 22
Disadvantages of Optical Presence Sensors . 22
Advantages of a Reed Switch 22
Disadvantages of a Reed Switch 22
Advantages of a Hall Effect Sensor . 22
What Can Go Wrong . 23
Optical Sensor Issues 23
Reed Switch Issues 23
4. passive infrared sensor 25
What It Does . 25
Schematic Symbols 25
Applications . 25
How It Works 26
Pyroelectric Detector 26
Elements 26
Lenses 27
Variants . 29
vi Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 3What Can Go Wrong . 30
Temperature Sensitivity 30
Detector Window Vulnerability 30
Moisture Vulnerability . 30
5. proximity sensor . 31
What It Does . 31
Schematic Symbols 31
Applications . 32
Variants . 32
Ultrasound 32
Infrared . 32
Relative Advantages . 33
Ultrasonic Examples . 33
Imports . 33
Individual Elements . 34
Infrared Examples 34
Trends in Infrared Proximity Sensing . 35
Capacitive Displacement Sensor 36
Applications . 37
How It Works 37
Sources of Error . 37
Values . 38
What Can Go Wrong with Optical and Ultrasound Proximity Sensors . 38
Object Too Close 38
Multiple Signals . 38
Inappropriate Surfaces 38
Environmental Factors . 38
Deterioration of LEDs 38
6. linear position sensor 39
What It Does . 39
Applications . 39
Schematic Symbol . 39
How It Works 39
Linear Potentiometer 40
Magnetic Linear Encoders . 41
Optical Linear Encoders 41
Linear Encoder Applications . 42
Linear Variable Differential Transformers . 42
What Can Go Wrong . 43
Mechanical Issues . 43
LED Longevity . 43
7. rotary position sensor 45
What It Does . 45
viiTable of ContentsApplications . 45
Schematic Symbol . 46
Potentiometers 46
Arc-Segment Rotary Potentiometer 46
End Stops . 46
Multiturn Rotary Potentiometer 46
Magnetic Rotary Position Sensor . 47
Rotary Position Sensing Chips . 48
Rotary Encoders . 48
Optical Rotary Encoders . 48
Optical Products . 49
Computer Mouse Principles 50
Rotational Speed 50
Absolute Position 51
The Gray Code 51
Magnetic Rotary Encoders . 52
How to Use It 53
What Can Go Wrong . 53
Wiring Errors 53
Coding Errors . 53
Ambiguous Terminology 54
8. tilt sensor 55
What It Does . 55
Schematic Symbol . 56
How It Works 56
Simplified Version . 57
Applications . 57
Variants . 58
Mercury Switches . 58
Pendulum Switch 58
Magnetization . 59
Tilt Sensors 59
Two-Axis Tilt Sensors 59
Values . 60
How to Use It 61
What Can Go Wrong . 61
Contact Erosion . 61
Random Signals . 61
Environmental Hazard . 61
Requirement for Gravity . 61
Requirement for Stability 62
9. gyroscope 63
What It Does . 63
Schematic Symbol . 63
viii Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 3IMU . 63
Applications . 63
How It Works 64
Vibrating Gyroscope . 64
Variants . 66
IMUs 66
Values . 67
How to Use It 67
What Can Go Wrong . 67
Temperature Drift . 67
Mechanical Stress . 68
Vibration 68
Placement 68
10. accelerometer 69
What It Does . 69
IMU . 69
Schematic Symbols 70
Applications . 70
How It Works 70
Gravity and Free Fall . 71
Rotation 71
Calculation 72
Variants . 72
Values . 73
What Can Go Wrong . 74
Mechanical Stress . 74
Other Problems . 74
11. vibration sensor 75
What It Does . 75
Schematic Symbols 75
Variants . 75
Pin-and-Spring 76
Piezoelectric Strip . 76
Chip-Based Piezoelectric . 77
“Mousetrap” Type . 77
Magnetic 77
Mercury . 78
Values . 78
Primary Variables 78
Dynamic Attributes 79
How to Use It 79
What Can Go Wrong . 79
Long Cable Runs 79
Interference . 79
ixTable of ContentsCorrect Grounding 80
Fatigue Failure 80
12. force sensor 81
What It Does . 81
Applications . 81
Schematic Symbol . 82
How It Works 82
Strain Gauge 82
Wheatstone Bridge Circuits 83
Wheatstone Bridge Errors 84
Strain-Gauge Amplification 84
Other Strain-Gauge Modules 85
Plastic-Film Force Sensors 85
How to Use It 86
Values . 87
Film-Based Force Sensors for User Input 87
Specifications for Film-Based Force Sensors 87
Strain Gauges . 88
What Can Go Wrong . 88
Soldering Damage 88
Bad Load Distribution . 88
Water Damage 88
Temperature Sensitivity 88
Leads Too Long 88
13. single touch sensor 89
What It Does . 89
Applications . 90
Schematic Symbols 90
How It Works 90
How to Use It 91
Obtaining Touch Pads . 91
Individual Touch Pad 91
Wheels and Strips . 92
Design Considerations . 92
What Can Go Wrong . 93
Insensitive to Gloves . 93
Stylus Issues . 93
Conductive Ink 93
14. touch screen . 95
What It Does . 95
Schematic Symbol . 95
Variants . 95
Resistive Sensing 95
x Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 3Capacitive Sensing 96
Screens Available as Components 97
15. liquid level sensor 99
What It Does . 99
Schematic Symbols 99
Applications . 99
How It Works . 100
Binary-Output Float Sensor . 100
Analog-Output Float Sensor 101
Incremental-Output Float Sensor . 101
Displacement Level Sensors 102
Ultrasonic Level Sensors 102
Reservoir Weight . 103
Pressure Sensing . 103
What Can Go Wrong 104
Turbulence . 104
Tilting . 104
16. liquid flow rate sensor 105
What It Does . 105
Schematic Symbols 105
Paddlewheel Liquid Flow Rate Sensors 105
Turbine Flow Rate Sensors 106
Limitations of Paddlewheels and Turbines 107
Thermal Mass Liquid Flow Rate Sensor 107
Sliding Sleeve Liquid Flow Switch . 108
Sliding Plunger Liquid Flow Switch 108
Ultrasonic Liquid Flow Rate Sensor 108
Magnetic Liquid Flow Sensor 108
Differential Pressure Liquid Flow Meter 109
What Can Go Wrong 109
Vulnerability to Dirt and Corrosive Materials . 109
17. gas/liquid pressure sensor . 111
What It Does . 111
Schematic Symbols 111
Applications . 111
Design Considerations . 112
Units . 112
How It Works . 112
Basic Sensing Elements . 112
Relative Measurement 113
Variants 114
Ambient Air Pressure . 114
Altitude 114
xiTable of ContentsGas Pressure . 115
What Can Go Wrong 116
Vulnerability to Dirt, Moisture, and Corrosive Materials 116
Light Sensitivity 116
18. gas concentration sensor . 117
What It Does . 117
Schematic Symbol . 117
Semiconductor Gas Sensors . 117
Oxygen Sensors 119
Humidity Sensors . 119
Dew-Point Sensor 120
Absolute Humidity Sensors . 120
Relative Humidity Sensors 120
Humidity Sensor Output 121
Analog Humidity Sensor 121
Design Considerations . 122
Digital Humidity Sensor 122
What Can Go Wrong 122
Contamination . 122
Recalibration . 123
Soldering 123
19. gas flow rate sensor 125
What It Does . 125
Applications . 125
Schematic Symbol . 125
How It Works . 126
Anemometer . 126
Mass Flow Rate Sensing 127
Applications . 128
Units . 128
Measuring Higher Volumes . 128
Output . 128
What Can Go Wrong 129
20. photoresistor . 131
What It Does . 131
Schematic Symbol . 131
How It Works . 132
Construction . 132
Variants 132
Photoresistors in Optical Isolators . 132
Values 133
Comparisons with a Phototransistor 133
How to Use It . 133
xii Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 3Choosing a Series Resistor 134
What Can Go Wrong 134
Overload . 134
Excessive Voltage 134
Confusion Among Components 134
21. photodiode 135
What It Does . 135
Schematic Symbols 135
Applications . 135
How It Works . 135
Variants 136
PIN Photodiodes . 136
Avalanche Diodes 136
Packages . 136
Wavelength Range . 137
Photodiode Arrays . 137
Output Options 137
Specific Variants 137
Values 138
How to Use It . 139
What Can Go Wrong 140
22. phototransistor . 141
What It Does . 141
Schematic Symbols 141
Applications . 142
How It Works . 142
Variants 142
Optional Base Connection 142
Photodarlington . 142
PhotoFET 142
Values 143
Behavior Compared to Other Light Sensors . 143
Binning 144
How to Use It . 144
Output Calculation . 145
What Can Go Wrong 145
Visual Classification Errors 145
Output Out of Range . 145
23. NTC thermistor . 147
What It Does . 147
Schematic Symbols 147
Applications . 148
How an NTC Thermistor Works 148
xiiiTable of ContentsOutput Conversion for Temperature Sensing 149
Choosing a Series Resistor 149
Wheatstone Bridge Circuit 150
Deriving the Temperature Value 150
Inrush Current Limiter 150
Restart . 151
Thermistor Values 152
Time and Temperature . 152
Resistance and Response . 152
Kilohms and Kelvin . 152
Reference Temperature . 152
Reference Resistance . 152
Dissipation Constant . 152
Temperature Coefficient 152
Thermal Time Constant . 152
Tolerance 153
Temperature Range 153
Switching Current 153
Power Limitations 153
Interchangeability 153
What Can Go Wrong 153
Self-Heating . 153
Heat Dissipation . 153
Lack of Heat 153
Addendum: Comparison of Temperature Sensors 153
NTC Thermistor 154
PTC Thermistor . 154
Thermocouple . 154
Resistance Temperature Detector . 154
Semiconductor Temperature Sensor 155
24. PTC thermistor . 157
What It Does . 157
Schematic Symbols 157
PTC Overview 158
Silistor for Temperature Measurement . 158
RTDs . 159
Nonlinear PTC Thermistors 159
Over-Temperature Protection . 159
Over-Current Protection 160
PTC Inrush Current Limiting 161
PTC Thermistor for Lighting Ballast 162
PTC Thermistor as a Heating Element . 162
What Can Go Wrong 163
Self-Heating . 163
Heating Other Components 163
xiv Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 325. thermocouple . 165
What It Does . 165
Schematic Symbol . 166
Thermocouple Applications . 166
How a Thermocouple Works 167
Thermocouple Details 168
How to Use It . 168
Types of Thermocouples . 169
Seebeck Coefficients . 169
Chips for Output Conversion . 170
Thermopile . 171
What Can Go Wrong 171
Polarity 171
Electrical Interference 171
Metal Fatigue and Oxidation 171
Using the Wrong Type 171
Heat Damage from Creating a Thermocouple . 172
26. RTD (resistance temperature detector) . 173
What It Does . 173
RTD Attributes 173
Schematic Symbol . 174
Applications . 174
How It Works . 174
Variants 175
Wiring . 175
RTD Probe . 176
Signal Conditioning 176
What Can Go Wrong 176
Self-Heating . 176
Insulation Affected by Heat . 176
Incompatible Sensing Element . 176
27. semiconductor temperature sensor . 177
What It Does . 177
Semiconductor Temperature Sensor Applications . 178
Schematic Symbol . 178
Attributes 178
How It Works . 179
CMOS Sensors . 179
Multiple Transistors 179
PTAT and the Brokaw Cell . 180
Variants 180
Analog Voltage Output . 181
Analog Current Output . 182
Digital Output . 183
xvTable of ContentsCMOS Semiconductor Temperature Sensors . 185
What Can Go Wrong 185
Different Temperature Scales . 185
Interference in Cable Runs 185
Latency 186
Processing Time 186
28. infrared temperature sensor 187
What It Does . 187
Applications . 188
Schematic Symbol . 188
How It Works . 188
Thermopile 189
Temperature Measurement . 190
Variants 190
Surface-Mount Specifications . 191
Sensor Arrays 191
Values 191
Temperature Range 191
Field of View . 192
What Can Go Wrong 192
Inappropriate Field of View . 192
Reflective Objects 192
Glass Obstruction 192
Multiple Heat Sources 192
Thermal Gradients . 192
29. microphone . 193
What It Does . 193
Schematic Symbol . 193
How It Works . 194
Carbon Microphone 194
Moving-Coil Microphone . 194
Condenser Microphone 194
Electret Microphone 195
MEMS Microphone . 195
Piezoelectric Microphone . 196
Values 196
Sensitivity 196
Directionality 197
Frequency Response . 197
Impedance . 198
Total Harmonic Distortion 198
Signal-to-Noise Ratio . 198
What Can Go Wrong 198
Cable Sensitivity . 198
xvi Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 3Noisy Power Supply 198
30. current sensor 199
What It Does . 199
Applications . 199
Ammeter . 199
Schematic Symbol . 200
Ammeter Wiring . 200
Series Resistor 200
Current-Sense Resistors 201
Voltage Measurement 202
Hall-Effect Current Sensing 202
What Can Go Wrong 203
Confusing AC with DC 203
Magnetic Interference 203
Incorrect Meter Wiring . 203
Current Out of Range . 203
31. voltage sensor 205
What It Does . 205
Applications . 205
Volt Meter 205
Schematic Symbol . 206
Volt Meter Wiring 206
How It Works . 206
Load-Related Inaccuracy . 207
Bar Graph 207
What Can Go Wrong 208
Confusing AC with DC 208
High Circuit Impedance 208
Voltage Out of Range . 208
Voltage Relative to Ground . 208
Appendix A. Sensor Output . 209
Glossary . 217
Index . 221
Index
A
absolute humidity, 119, 120
absolute magnetic encoder, 41
absolute pressure, 113
accelerometer
and gyroscope, 72
applications, 70
free fall, 71
gravity, 71
how it works, 70
IMU, 5, 63, 66, 69
Newton’s Second Law, 72
rotation, 71
schematic symbol, 70
spring, 70
values, 73
variants, 72
what can go wrong, 74
what it does, 69
ADC, 210, 217
air pressure, 114
alcohol vapor sensor (see gas concentration sensor, alcohol)
altimeter, 114
ammeter (see current sensor)
analog-to-digital conversion, 210,
217
anemometer, 125, 126
angle sensor (see rotary position
sensor)
angular motion, 21
angular position sensor (see rotary
position sensor)
Arduino-compatible
gas flow rate sensor, 127
gyroscope, 67
IMU, 67
magnetometer, 9
pressure sensor, 114
proximity sensor, 34
temperature sensor, 184, 185
touch screen, 97
touch sensor, 91
avalanche diode, 136
axis of the earth, 7
B
bandgap temperature sensor (see
semiconductor temperature
sensor)
barometer, 114
barometric pressure, 114
Beidou positioning system, 3
bin switch, 57
black-body radiation, 25
Bourdon tube, 112
breakout board, 217
breakover switch (see tilt sensor)
Brokaw cell, 180
C
capacitive displacement sensor,
36
capacitive proximity sensor (see
touch sensor)
capacitive touch screen, 96
capacitive touch sensor, 90
carbon microphone, 194
chip-based temperature sensor
(see semiconductor temperature sensor)
clinometer, 55
coil magnetometer, 8
communications satellites, 1
compass, 6, 8
condenser microphone, 194
contact bounce, 18, 23
contents
volume 1, xxi
volume 2, xxii
volume 3, xxii
crystal microphone, 196
current sensor
ammeter, 199-200
applications, 199
Hall effect, 202
how it works, 199
microcontroller, 201
panel meter, 199
schematic, 200
schematic symbol, 200
221series resistor, 200
voltage drop, 200
what can go wrong, 203
what it does, 199
current-sense resistor, 201
D
debouncing, 18, 48, 61, 217
decibels, 196, 217
declination, 7
detection sensor (see presence
sensor)
dew point, 119
dielectric, 90, 218
differential pressure, 113
diode temperature sensor (see
semiconductor temperature
sensor)
distance sensor (see proximity
sensor)
dual slope converter, 211
dynamic pressure, 111
E
electret microphone, 195
encoder
linear, 41
magnetic, 41
rotary, 48
errata, xxv
F
feedback to and from authors, xxv
flash converter, 211
float sensor, 100
float switch, 57
flux density, 6
flux, magnetic, 6
force sensor
applications, 81
deformative, 86
how it works, 82
how to use it, 86
piezoelectric, 82
plastic film, 82, 85-87
resistive, 82, 86
schematic symbol, 82
strain gauge, 82, 83, 85, 88
units of measurement, 82
values, 87
what can go wrong, 88
what it does, 81
wheatstone bridge, 83
four-wire touch screen, 96
frequency response, 197
fresnel lens, 27
G
Galileo positioning system, 3
gas concentration sensor
alcohol, 118
breakout board, 119
cross-sensitivity, 118
how it works, 117
humidity, 117, 119
oxygen, 119
propane, 118
schematic symbol, 117
semiconductor-based, 117
what can go wrong, 122
what it does, 117
gas flow rate sensor
anemometer, 125, 126
applications, 128
data output, 128
schematic symbol, 125
thermal mass, 127
thermopile, 127
units of measurement, 128
what can go wrong, 129
what it does, 125
gas pressure sensor (see pressure
sensor)
gas sensor (see gas concentration
sensor)
gauge pressure, 113
geographical meridians, 7
Global Positioning System (see
GPS)
GLONASS positioning system, 3
GPS
antenna, 2
definitions, 1
frequencies, 2
how to use it, 3
NMEA protocol, 3
satellites, 1
schematic symbol, 1
time-keeping, 4
tracker, 2
values, 3
what can go wrong, 4
what it does, 1
gray code, 51
gyroscope
and accelerometer, 72
applications, 63
axes, 64
how it works, 64
how to use it, 67
IMU, 5, 63, 66, 69
resonator (see gyroscope,
vibrating)
schematic symbol, 63
values, 67
variants, 66
vibrating, 64
what can go wrong, 67
what it does, 63
H
Hall effect
current sensor, 202
Hall effect sensor
advantages, 22
applications, xx, 52
float sensor, 100
how it works, 18
how to use, 20
magnetometer, 8
rotary position sensor, 48
variants, 19
hard-iron bias, 9
heading, navigational, 5
humidity sensor (see gas concentration sensor, humidity)
hygrometer, 120
hysteresis
222 Indexfloat sensor, 101, 218
reed switch, 17, 218
I
I2C, 214, 218
IC temperature sensor (see semiconductor temperature sensor)
IMU, 5, 63, 66, 69, 218
inclination, 7
inclinometer, 55
inertial measurement unit (see
IMU)
infrared proximity sensor, 32-34
infrared radiation, 188
infrared temperature sensor
advantages, 187
applications, 188
array, 191
compared with other temperature sensors, 153
how it works, 188
limitations, 188
schematic symbol, 188
thermopile, 189
values, 191
variants, 190
what can go wrong, 192
what it does, 187
inrush current limiter, 150, 161
interintegrated circuit bus (see
I2C)
K
Kelvin temperature scale, 218
L
light meter, 137
light-dependent resistor (see photoresistor)
linear displacement sensor (see
linear position sensor)
linear feedback shift register, 2
linear position sensor
absolute, 41
applications, 39, 42
how it works, 39
incremental, 41
linear potentiometer, 40
magnetic linear encoder, 41
optical linear encoder, 41
quadrature, 41, 218
schematic symbols, 39
what can go wrong, 43
what it does, 39
linear potentiometer, 40
linear variable differential transformer, 42
liquid displacement sensor, 102
liquid flow rate sensor
differential pressure, 109
magnetic, 108
paddlewheel, 105
reed switch, 105
rotor, 105
schematic symbols, 105
thermal mass, 107
turbine, 106
ultrasonic, 108
what can go wrong, 109
what it does, 105
liquid flow switch, 108
liquid level sensor
displacement, 102
float, 100
float switch, 57
how it works, 100
incremental output, 101
potentiometer, 101
pressure of liquid, 103
schematic symbols, 99
tilting, 104
turbulence, 104
ultrasonic, 102
weight of reservor, 103
what can go wrong, 104
what it does, 99
liquid pressure sensor (see pressure sensor)
load cell (see load sensor)
load sensor, 81
(see also force sensor)
applications, 82
deformative, 86
liquid level measurement, 103
schematic symbol, 82
strain gauge, 83, 85, 88
values, 87
what can go wrong, 88
what it does, 81
LVDT (see linear variable differential transformer)
M
magnetic
axis, 7
ball in tilt sensor, 59
declination, 7
encoder, 41, 52
field, 6
flux, 6
liquid flow rate sensor, 108
meridians, 7
presence sensors, 16
rotary position sensor, 47
magnetic, linear encoder, 41
magnetometer
breakout board, 6, 9
coil, 8
hard-iron bias, 9
heading, 5
how it works, 6
how to use it, 9
IMU, 5, 63, 69
magnetoresistance, 8
meridians, 7
placement, 10
scalar, 5
schematic symbol, 5
soft-iron bias, 9
vector, 5
what can go wrong, 9
what it does, 5
magnetoresistance, 8
mass flow rate sensor (see gas
flow rate sensor)
mathematical syntax, xxiv
membrane switch, 89
MEMS, xix, 218
MEMS microphone, 195
mercury switch, 58, 61, 78
223Indexmeridians, 7
metric system, xxiv
microelectromechanical devices
(see MEMS)
microphone
carbon, 194
condenser, 194
crystal, 196
directionality, 197
dynamic, 194
electret, 195
frequency response, 197
how it works, 194
impedance, 198
MEMS, 195
moving coil, 194
piezoelectric, 196
rolloff, 197
schematic symbols, 193
sensitivity, 196
signal-to-noise ratio, 198
total harmonic distortion, 198
units of measurement, 196
what can go wrong, 198
what it does, 193
motion sensor (see PIR)
mouse, 50
moving coil microphone, 194
N
navigational heading, 5
newton unit of force, 218
Newton’s Second Law, 72
NMEA protocol, 3
north pole, 7
NTC thermistor (see thermistor,
NTC)
O
object detector (see presence sensor)
object presence sensor (see presence sensor)
open collector output, 218
opt-pass sensor, 15
optical
linear encoder, 41
optical isolator, 132
optical presence sensor, 12
optical rotary encoder, 48, 53
optical switch, 13, 15, 50
optocoupler, 142
optointerrupter, 21
orthogonal, 218
output
analog current conversion, 213
analog voltage conversion, 210,
217
analog-to-binary conversion,
210
analog-to-digital conversion,
210
binary, 209, 210, 213, 217
digital, 209
dual slope converter, 211
flash converter, 211
frequency conversion, 214
I2C, 214, 218
open collector, 212, 218
options, 209
pullup resistor, 213, 218
PWM conversion, 209, 213
resistance-to-voltage conversion, 211
scaling, 211
SPI, 215
successive approximation converter, 211
voltage divider, 210
voltage-to-frequency converter, 211
over-current protection, 160
over-temperature protection, 159
oxygen sensor (see gas concentration sensor, oxygen)
P
paddlewheel flow rate sensor, 105
panel meter, 199, 205
pascal unit of pressure, 218
passive infrared motion sensor
(see PIR)
pendulum switch, 58
photocell (see photoresistor)
photoconductive cell (see photoresistor)
photodarlington, 142
photodiode
applications, 135
array, 137
avalanche diode, 136
band gap, 137
color sensing, 137
dark current, 135
how it works, 135
how to use it, 139
light meter, 137
photoconductive mode, 135
phototransistor comparison,
143
photovoltaic mode, 135
PIN type, 136
reverse bias, 135
schematic symbols, 135
ultraviolet, 137
values, 138
variants, 136-137
wavelength range, 137
what can go wrong, 140
what it does, 135
photointerruptor, 13
photomicrosensor, 15
photoresistor
availability, 131
how it works, 132
how to use it, 133
optical isolator, 132
phototransistor comparison,
133
schematic symbols, 131
sizes, 132
voltage divider, 134
wavelengths of sensitivity, 134
what can go wrong, 134
what it does, 131
phototransistor
applications, 142
base connection, 142
binning, 144
FET, 142
how it works, 142
how to use it, 144
224 Indexoptocoupler, 142
output current calculation, 145
photodarlington, 142
photodiode comparison, 143
photoresistor comparison, 133
schematic symbols, 141
values, 143
what can go wrong, 145
what it does, 141
photovoltaic effect, 135
piezoelectric
force sensor, 82
heat detector, 26
microphone, 196
ultrasonic transducer, 32
vibration sensor, 76
PIN photodiode, 136
pin-and-spring vibration sensor,
76
PIR
applications, 25
fresnel lens, 27
how it works, 26
schematic symbols, 25
variants, 29
what can go wrong, 30
what it does, 25
potentiometer
arc segment, 46
end stops, 46
float sensor, 101
logarithmic, 46
multiturn, 46
rotary position, 46
presence sensor
angular motion, 21
configuration, 21
linear motion, 21
magnetic, 16
optical, 12, 22, 23
optointerrupter, 21
reflective, 12
retroreflective, 12, 15
schematic symbol, 12
transmissive, 12-13
what can go wrong, 23
what it does, 11
pressure sensor
absolute pressure, 113
altitude, 114
ambient air, 114
applications, 111
barometric, 114
Bourdon tube, 112
diaphragm, 112
differential pressure, 113
dynamic, 111
gas and liquid behavior, 112
gases, 115
gauge pressure, 113
how it works, 112
schematic symbols, 111
sensing elements, 112
static, 111
units of measurement, 112
what can go wrong, 116
what it does, 111
propane sensor (see gas concentration sensor, propane)
proximity sensor
applications, 32
capacitive displacement, 36
infrared, 32-34
schematic symbols, 31
triangulation, 32
ultrasound, 32-33
what can go wrong, 38
what it does, 31
PTC thermistor (see thermistor,
PTC)
pullup resistor, 213, 218
pulse-width modulation (see
PWM)
PWM, 209, 213
pyroelectric detector, 26
Q
quadrature, 41, 49, 218
R
range finder (see proximity sensor)
reed switch
advantages, 22
alarm system, 17
float sensor, 100
how it works, 17
how to use it, 18
hysteresis, 17
liquid flow rate sensor, 105
values, 18
variants, 17
what can go wrong, 23
reference sources, xxvii
reference temperature, 218
reflective interrupter, 15
reflective object sensor, 15
reflective optical sensor, 15
reflective photointerrupter, 15
register, 218
relative humidity, 119, 120
resistance temperature detector
(see RTD temperature sensor)
resistance-to-voltage conversion,
211
resistive force sensor, 82, 86
resistive temperature device (see
RTD temperature sensor)
resistive touch screen, 95
retroreflective presence sensor,
12, 15
rotary encoder, 48, 52-53
rotary position sensor
absolute, 51
accelerometer, 71
applications, 45
gray code, 51
Hall Effect sensor, 48
incremental, 49
magnetic, 47
mouse, 50
optical encoder, 48
potentiometer, 46
quadrature, 49, 218
reflective optical, 48
rotary encoder, 48
schematic symbols, 46
sensing chips, 48
transmissive optical, 48
what can go wrong, 53
what it does, 45
rotary sensor (see rotary position
sensor)
rotating coil magnetometer, 8
225Indexrotation sensor (see rotary position sensor)
rotational encoder (see rotary
encoder)
rotational position sensor (see
rotary position sensor)
RTD temperature sensor
applications, 174
attributes, 173
compared with other temperature sensors, 153
how it works, 174
output conversion, 176
probe enclosure, 176
schematic symbol, 174
three-wire variant, 175
variants, 175
what can go wrong, 176
what it does, 173
S
Safari Books Online, xxvi
satellites, 1
scalar magnetometer, 5
schematic conventions, xxiv
schematic symbol
accelerometer, 70
current sensor, 200
force sensor, 82
gas concentration sensor, 117
gas flow rate sensor, 125
GPS, 1
gyroscope, 63
infrared temperature sensor,
188
linear position sensor, 39
liquid flow rate sensor, 105
liquid level sensor, 99
load sensor, 82
magnetometer, 5
microphone, 193
photodiode, 135
photoresistor, 131
phototransistor, 141
PIR, 25
presence sensor, 12
pressure sensor, 111
proximity sensor, 31
rotary position sensor, 46
RTD temperature sensor, 174
semiconductor temperature
sensor, 178
thermistor, NTC, 147
thermistor, PTC, 157
thermocouple, 166
tilt sensor, 56
touch screen, 95
touch sensor, 90
vibration sensor, 75
voltage sensor, 206
Seebeck effect, 167
semiconductor temperature sensor
analog current output, 182
analog voltage output, 181
applications, 178
attributes, 178
Brokaw cell, 180
CMOS type, 185
compared with other temperature sensors, 153
digital output, 183
how it works, 179
multiple transistors, 179
schematic symbol, 178
variants, 180
what can go wrong, 185
what it does, 177
sensor
categories, xx
chip-based, 217
multifunction, xx
output options, 209
suppliers, xxv
serial peripherals interface (see
SPI)
shift register, 2
silistor, 158
slider potentiometer, 40
soft-iron bias, 9
solar panel, 135
sound pressure, 196
sources, xxvii
south pole, 7
speed sensor, 45
SPI, 215
static pressure, 111
stomp box, 133
strain gauge, 82-83, 85, 88
successive approximation converter, 211
suppliers, xxv
surge limiter (see inrush current
limiter)
T
tactile switch, 89
target, 218
temperature coefficient, 147, 152,
218
temperature sensor
comparison of types, 153
infrared (see infrared temperature sensor)
noncontact type, 187
RTD (see RTD temperature sensor)
semiconductor (see semiconductor temperature sensor)
thermistor, NTC (see thermistor,
NTC)
thermistor, PTC (see thermistor,
PTC)
thermocouple (see thermocouple)
thermal mass flow rate sensor (see
gas flow rate sensor)
thermal mass liquid flow rate sensor, 107
thermistor, NTC
applications, 148
compared with other temperature sensors, 153
datasheet terminology, 152
how it works, 148
inrush current limiter, 150
output conversion, 149
schematic symbols, 147
values, 152
what can go wrong, 153
what it does, 147
wheatstone bridge, 150
thermistor, PTC
226 Indexcompared with other temperature sensors, 153
externally heated, 159
heating element, 162
inrush current limiter, 161
lighting ballast, 162
linear, 158
nonlinear, 158, 159
over-current protection, 160
over-temperature protection,
159
schematic symbols, 157
silistor, 158
starting current, 162
what can go wrong, 163
what it does, 157
thermocouple
applications, 166
compared with other temperature sensors, 153
how it works, 167
how to use it, 168
identifiers, 169
measurement junction, 168
output conversion, 170
reference junction, 168
schematic symbol, 166
Seebeck coefficients, 169
Seebeck effect, 167
thermopile, 171
what can go wrong, 171
what it does, 165
thermopile
gas flow rate sensor, 127
infrared temperature sensor,
189
overview, 171
tilt sensor
applications, 57
bin switch, 57
breakout board, 59
float switch, 57
how it works, 56
how to use it, 61
magnetic ball, 59
mercury switch, 58, 61
miniaturized, 59
pendulum switch, 58
schematic symbol, 56
two-axis, 59
values, 60
what can go wrong, 61
what it does, 55
tilt switch (see tilt sensor)
tip sensor (see tilt sensor)
tipover switch (see tilt sensor)
touch pad (see touch sensor)
touch screen
Arduino-compatible, 97
capacitive, 96
four-wire, 96
resistive, 95
schematic symbol, 95
variants, 95, 97
what it does, 95
touch sensor
applications, 90
breakout boards, 91
capacitive, 90
design considerations, 92
how it works, 90
how to use it, 91
schematic symbols, 90
tactile feedback, 90
touch pad availability, 91
what can go wrong, 93
what it does, 89
wheels and strips, 92
touch strip, 92
touch wheel, 92
triangulation, 32
turbine flow rate sensor, 106
U
ultrasonic anemometer, 126
ultrasonic flow rate sensor, 108
ultrasonic liquid level sensor, 102
ultrasonic proximity sensor, 32-33
units of measurement, xxiv
V
Vactrol, 132
vapor sensor (see gas concentration sensor)
vector magnetometer, 5
vibrating gyroscope, 64
vibration sensor
how to use it, 79
magnetic, 77
mercury switch, 78
mousetrap type, 77
piezoelectric, 76
pin-and-spring, 76
schematic symbols, 75
values, 78
variables, 78
variants, 75
what can go wrong, 79
what it does, 75
vibration switch (see vibration
sensor)
video display, 95
volt meter (see voltage sensor)
voltage divider, 210
voltage sensor
accuracy, 207
bar graph, 207
how it works, 206
panel meter, 205
schematic, 206
schematic symbol, 206
volt meter, 205
what can go wrong, 208
what it does, 205
voltage-to-frequency converter, 211
W
wheatstone bridge, 83, 150, 160, 219


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