كتاب Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Vol2 - Signal Processing
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 كتاب Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Vol2 - Signal Processing

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كتاب Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Vol2 - Signal Processing Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Vol2 - Signal Processing   كتاب Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Vol2 - Signal Processing Emptyالسبت 27 أبريل 2024, 3:17 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Vol2 - Signal Processing
Charles Platt with Fredrik Jansson
LEDs , LCDs , Audio , Thyristors , Digital Logic , Amplification

كتاب Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Vol2 - Signal Processing M_w_o_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of ContentsSymbol Variants . 11
How It Works . 12
Switching AC 13
Variants 13
Values 14
What Can Go Wrong 14
Unexpected Triggering Caused by Heat 14
Low-Temperature Effects 14
Manufacturing Tolerances . 14
3. triac . 15
What It Does 15
Symbol Variants . 15
How It Works . 17
Quadrants 17
Threshold, Latching, and Holding Current 18
Triac Testing 19
Breakover Voltage . 20
Switching AC 20
Triac Triggered by a Diac . 22
Other Triac Drivers 22
Charge Storage . 23
Variants 23
Values 23
What Can Go Wrong 24
Unexpected Triggering Caused by Heat 24
Low-Temperature Effects 24
Wrong Type of Load . 24
Wrongly Identified Terminals 24
Failure to Switch Off . 24
> INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
> > ANALOG
4. solid-state relay . 25
What It Does 25
Advantages . 25
Disadvantages 26
How It Works . 26
Variants 27
Instantaneous versus Zero Crossing 27
NC and NO Modes . 28
Packaging 28
Solid-State Analog Switch . 28
Values 29
How to Use It . 29
What Can Go Wrong 30
vi Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2Overheating Caused by Overloading . 30
Overheating Caused by Bad Terminal Contact 30
Overheating Caused by Changing Duty Cycle 30
Overheating Caused by Component Crowding . 30
Overheating in Dual Packaging 30
Reverse-Voltage Burnout 30
Low Voltage Output Current May Not Work 30
Inability to Measure AC Output 30
Relay Turns On but Won’t Turn Off . 31
Relays in Parallel Won’t Work . 31
Output Device Doesn’t Run at Full Power . 31
Solid-State Relays and Safety Disconnects 31
5. optocoupler . 33
What It Does 33
How It Works . 34
Variants 35
Internal Sensors . 35
Basic Optocoupler Types 36
Values 36
How to Use It . 36
What Can Go Wrong 37
Age . 37
LED Burnout 37
Transistor Burnout 37
6. comparator 39
What It Does 39
Hysteresis . 39
How It Works . 39
Differences from an Op-Amp 42
Variants 42
Values 43
How to Use It . 44
AND gate . 45
Bistable Multivibrator . 46
Relaxation Oscillator 46
Level Shifter . 46
Window Comparator 46
Other Applications 47
What Can Go Wrong 47
Oscillating Output . 47
Confused Inputs 48
Wrong Chip Type 48
Omitted Pullup Resistor . 48
CMOS Issues 48
Erratic Output . 48
Swapped Voltages 48
Heat-Dependent Hysteresis 48
Table of Contents vii7. op-amp 49
What It Does 49
How It Works . 49
Dual Inputs . 50
Negative Feedback 51
Op-Amps and Comparators 52
Variants 52
Values 52
How to Use It . 53
Controlling the Gain . 53
Calculating Amplification 53
Unintentional DC Voltage Amplification 54
Low-Pass Filter 54
High-Pass Filter . 55
Relaxation Oscillator 55
Single Power Source . 56
Offset Null Adjustment 56
What Can Go Wrong 57
Power Supply Problems . 57
Bad Connection of Unused Sections . 57
Oscillating Output . 57
Confused Inputs 58
8. digital potentiometer . 59
What It Does 59
Advantages . 59
How It Works . 60
Variants 61
Volatile and Nonvolatile Memory 61
Taper . 62
Data Transfer 62
SPI 62
I2C Protocol . 63
Up/Down Protocol 63
Other Control Systems 64
Connections and Modes . 64
Values 65
How to Use It . 66
Achieving Higher Resolution 66
What Can Go Wrong 67
Noise and Bad Inputs 67
Wrong Chip . 67
Controller and Chip Out of Sync . 67
Nonlinear Effects 67
Data Transfer Too Fast . 67
9. timer 69
What It Does 69
Monostable Mode . 69
viii Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2Astable Mode . 70
How It Works . 70
Variants 70
The 555 Timer . 70
555 Monostable Operation 71
555 Astable Operation . 72
556 Timer . 73
558 Timer . 73
CMOS 555 Timer 74
5555 Timer 74
7555 Timer 74
7556 Timer 74
4047B Timer 75
Dual Monostable Timers . 75
Values 76
555 Timer Values 76
Time Calculation in Monostable Mode . 77
Time Calculation in Astable Mode 77
Dual Monostable Timers . 77
How to Use It . 79
555 Monostable Mode 79
555 Astable Mode . 80
Separate Control of High and Low Output Times . 80
555 Fifty Percent Astable Duty Cycle: 1 . 80
555 Fifty Percent Astable Duty Cycle: 2 . 81
Use of the 555 Control Pin . 81
555 Flip-Flop Emulation . 82
555 Hysteresis . 83
555 and Coupling Capacitors 84
555 Loudspeaker Connection 84
Burst Mode . 84
“You Lose” Game Sound . 85
What Can Go Wrong 85
Dead Timer . 85
CMOS Confused with Bipolar 86
The Pulse that Never Ends . 86
Erratic Chip Behavior 86
Interference with Other Components 86
Erratic Behavior of Output Devices . 86
Fatal Damage Caused by Inductive Loads 87
> > DIGITAL
10. logic gate 89
What It Does 89
Origins 89
How It Works . 89
Inversion 90
Single-Input Gates 90
Table of Contents ixGates with More than Two Inputs 91
Boolean Notation . 91
Arithmetical Operations . 91
Other Operations . 92
Variants 93
Part Numbers . 94
Families . 95
Family Interoperability 96
Gates per Chip 96
Two Inputs, Single Gate . 96
Three Inputs, Single Gate 97
Single Gate, Selectable Function . 97
Two Inputs, Dual Gate . 98
Original 74xx 14-Pin Format . 98
Quad Two-Input 74xx Pinouts . 98
Triple Three-Input 74xx Pinouts 99
Dual Four-Input 74xx Pinouts . 100
Single Eight-Input 74xx Pinouts 100
74xx Inverters 101
Additional Variations . 102
Pinouts in the Original 4000 Series 102
4000 Series Inverters . 103
How to Use It 103
Which Family 103
Applications . 104
What Can Go Wrong . 105
Static 105
Floating Pins . 105
Family Incompatibilities 105
Overloaded Outputs . 105
Output Pulled Down . 105
Incorrect Polarity and Voltages . 105
Bent Pins 105
Unclean Input . 106
Analog Input . 106
11. flip-flop 107
What It Does 107
How It Works 107
NAND-Based SR Flip-Flop 108
NOR-Based SR Flip-Flop 109
Forbidden States . 110
The JK Flip-Flop 112
Master-Slave Flip-Flop 113
D-Type Flip-Flops 114
Summary 116
Variants . 116
Packaging . 117
Values . 117
x Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2How to Use It 118
What Can Go Wrong . 119
Ambiguous Documentation 119
Faulty Triggering . 119
Metastability . 119
Other Issues . 119
12. shift register . 121
What It Does 121
Schematic Representation 122
How It Works 122
Abbreviations and Acronyms . 123
Parallel Outputs and Inputs . 123
Variants . 124
Serial In, Serial Out . 124
Serial In, Parallel Out . 124
Parallel In, Serial Out . 124
Parallel In, Parallel Out 125
Universal 125
Values . 125
Power Considerations 126
Three-State Output 126
How to Use It 126
Dual Inputs 127
Preloading the Shift Register . 127
Polling a Keyboard . 127
Arithmetical Operations 127
Buffering 128
What Can Go Wrong . 128
Confusing Classification 128
Inadequate Setup Time 128
Unconnected Input 129
Output Enable Issues . 129
Floating Output Bus 129
13. counter . 131
What It Does 131
Schematic Representation 131
How It Works 132
Modulus and Modulo 132
Pin Identifiers 133
Variants . 134
Ripple versus Synchronous . 134
Ring, Binary, and BCD 134
Clock Sources 135
Rising Edge and Falling Edge . 136
Multiple Stages 136
Single and Dual 136
High-State, Low-State, and Three-State . 136
Table of Contents xiDescending Output 136
Programmable Counters . 137
Examples 137
Values . 137
What Can Go Wrong . 137
Lock-Out 137
Asynchronous Artifacts . 137
Noise 138
14. encoder 139
What It Does 139
Schematic Symbol . 139
Similar Devices . 140
How It Works 140
Variants . 141
Values . 142
How to Use It 142
Cascaded Encoders 142
What Can Go Wrong . 143
15. decoder 145
What it Does 145
Input Devices 145
LED Driver . 146
Schematic Symbol . 146
Similar Devices . 146
How It Works 148
Variants . 148
Values . 148
How to Use It 149
What Can Go Wrong . 149
Glitches 149
Unhelpful Classification 149
Active-Low and Active-High 149
16. multiplexer . 151
What It Does 151
Differential Multiplexer . 152
Similar Devices . 152
How It Works 153
Schematic Symbol . 153
Pin Identifiers 154
Variants . 155
Values . 155
How to Use It 156
Other Application Notes . 157
What Can Go Wrong . 157
Pullup Resistors 157
Break Before Make . 157
xii Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2Signal Distortion . 157
Limits of CMOS Switching 157
Transients . 157
> LIGHT SOURCE, INDICATOR, OR DISPLAY
> > REFLECTIVE
17. LCD 159
What It Does 159
How It Works 159
Variants . 160
Active and Passive Types . 161
Crystal Types . 161
Seven-Segment Displays . 161
Additional Segments . 162
Dot-Matrix Displays 163
Color 166
Backlighting Options . 167
Zero-Power Displays . 167
How to Use It 167
Numeric Display Modules 167
Alphanumeric Display Module . 168
What Can Go Wrong . 169
Temperature Sensitivity 169
Excessive Multiplexing . 170
DC Damage 170
Bad Communications Protocol . 170
Wiring Errors . 170
> > SINGLE SOURCE
18. incandescent lamp . 171
What It Does 171
History 172
How It Works 172
Spectrum 173
Non-Incandescent Sources . 174
Power Consumption . 175
Variants . 175
Miniature Lamps . 175
Panel-Mount Indicator Lamps 176
Halogen or Quartz-Halogen 176
Oven Lamps . 176
Base Variants 177
Values . 177
Power . 177
Illuminance 178
Table of Contents xiiiIntensity . 178
MSCP 178
Efficacy 179
Efficiency 179
How to Use It 179
Relative Advantages . 179
Derating . 180
What Can Go Wrong . 180
High Temperature Environment 180
Fire Risk . 181
Current Inrush . 181
Replacement Problems . 181
19. neon bulb 183
What It Does 183
How It Works 184
Construction . 184
Ionization 184
Negative Resistance 185
How to Use It 186
Limited Light Output . 187
Efficiency 187
Ruggedness . 187
Power-Supply Testing 188
Life Expectancy 188
Variants . 189
Nixie Tubes 189
What Can Go Wrong . 189
False Indication 189
Failure in a Dark Environment 189
Premature Failure with DC 190
Premature Failure through Voltage Fluctuations 190
Replacement 190
20. fluorescent light . 191
What It Does 191
How It Works 191
Ballast and Starter 192
Flicker . 193
Variants . 193
CCFLs 194
Sizes . 194
Comparisons 194
Values . 195
Brightness . 195
Spectrum 195
What Can Go Wrong . 195
Unreliable Starting . 195
Terminal Flicker 195
xiv Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2Cannot Dim 196
Burned Out Electrodes . 196
Ultraviolet Hazard 196
21. laser 197
What It Does 197
How It Works 198
Laser Diode 198
Coherent Light . 200
Variants . 201
CO2 Lasers . 201
Fiber Lasers 201
Crystal Lasers 201
Values . 201
How to Use It 202
Common Applications . 202
What Can Go Wrong . 202
Risk of Injury . 202
Inadequate Heat Sink 202
Uncontrolled Power Supply 203
Polarity 203
22. LED indicator 205
What It Does 205
Schematic Symbols 206
Common Usage 206
How It Works 207
Multicolor LEDs and Color Mixing . 207
Variants . 208
Size and Shape . 208
Intensity . 208
Efficacy 208
Diffusion . 209
Wavelength and Color Temperature 209
Internal Resistor 210
Multicolored . 210
Infrared 211
Ultraviolet . 211
Values . 211
Forward Current . 211
Low-Current LEDs 211
Forward Voltage . 212
Color Rendering Index . 212
Life Expectancy 212
Light Output and Heat . 212
View Angle 213
How to Use It 213
Polarity 213
Series Resistor Value . 214
Table of Contents xvLEDs in Parallel . 214
Multiple Series LEDs 214
Comparisons with Other Light Emitters . 214
Other Applications . 215
What Can Go Wrong . 215
Excessive Forward Voltage . 215
Excessive Current and Heat . 215
Storage Issues . 215
Polarity 215
Internal Resistors . 215
23. LED area lighting . 217
What It Does 217
Trends in Cost and Efficiency . 218
Schematic Symbol . 218
How It Works 218
Visible Differences . 220
Side-by-Side Comparison 220
Heat Dissipation . 222
Efficacy 222
Dimming 222
Ultraviolet Output . 222
Color Variation . 222
Variants . 223
Comparisons 223
Values . 225
What Can Go Wrong . 225
Wrong Voltage . 225
Overheating . 225
Fluorescent Ballast Issues . 225
Misleading Color Representation . 226
> > MULTI-SOURCE OR PANEL
24. LED display 227
What It Does 227
How It Works 228
Variants . 228
LCD comparisons 228
Seven-Segment Displays . 228
Multiple Numerals . 229
Additional Segments . 229
Dot-Matrix Displays 230
Pixel Arrays 231
Multiple Bar Display 232
Single Light Bar 232
Values . 232
How to Use It 232
Seven-Segment Basics . 232
xvi Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2Driver Chips and Multiplexing 233
Sixteen-Segment Driver Chip . 234
Dot-Matrix LED Display Modules . 234
Pixel Arrays 235
Multiple Bar Display Driver . 236
One-Digit Hexadecimal Dot Matrix . 236
What Can Go Wrong . 237
Common Anode versus Common Cathode 237
Incorrect Series Resistance . 237
Multiplexing Issues . 237
25. vacuum-fluorescent display . 239
What It Does 239
How It Works 239
Anode, Cathode, and Grid 240
How to Use It 240
Modern Application 241
Variants . 241
Color 241
Character Sets and Pictorial Design . 242
Comparisons 242
What Can Go Wrong . 242
Fading . 242
26. electroluminescence . 243
What It Does 243
How It Works 243
Phosphors . 244
Derivation . 244
Variants . 244
Panels . 244
Flexible Ribbons . 245
Rope Light . 245
OLED 246
> SOUND SOURCE
> > AUDIO ALERT
27. transducer . 249
What It Does 249
How It Works 249
Variants . 250
Electromagnetic . 250
Piezoelectric . 250
Ultrasonic Transducer 250
Formats . 251
Values . 251
Table of Contents xviiFrequency Range 251
Sound Pressure 251
Weighted Sound Values 252
Unweighted Values 253
Measurement Location . 253
Limitations 253
Voltage 254
Current 254
How to Use It 254
Appropriate Sound Intensity . 254
Volume Control 254
AC Supply . 254
Self-Drive Transducer Circuit . 254
What Can Go Wrong . 254
Overvoltage . 254
Leakage . 255
Component Mounting Problems . 255
Moisture . 255
Transducer-Indicator Confusion 255
Connection with a Microcontroller 255
28. audio indicator . 257
What It Does 257
How It Works 257
Audio Frequency . 258
History 258
Variants . 258
Sound Patterns 258
Formats . 258
Values . 259
Voltage 259
Current 260
Frequency . 260
Duty Cycle . 260
How to Use It 260
Appropriate Sound Intensity . 260
Volume Control 260
Wiring . 260
What Can Go Wrong . 260
> > REPRODUCER
29. headphone . 261
What It Does 261
How It Works 261
Audio Basics . 261
Variants . 262
Moving Coil 262
Other Types 263
xviii Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2Mechanical Design . 264
Values . 265
Intensity . 265
Frequency Response . 265
Distortion 266
Impedance 266
What Can Go Wrong . 266
Overdriving 266
Hearing Damage . 266
Mismatched Impedance 266
Incorrect Wiring 266
30. speaker 267
What It Does 267
How It Works 267
Construction . 268
Multiple Drivers 269
Venting 270
Resonance . 270
Miniature Speakers . 270
Variants . 271
Electrostatic Speaker . 271
Powered Speakers . 271
Wireless Speakers 271
Innovative Designs . 271
Values . 271
What Can Go Wrong . 272
Damage . 272
Magnetic Field . 272
Vibration 272
Index . 273
What Can Go Wrong sound source > reproducer > speakerSymbols
2N682 SCR, 2
4047B timer, 75
40TPS12 SCR, 2
4131-503 digital potentiometer,
62
4543B decoder, 168
4543B decoder chip, 168
555 timer, 70–73, 76, 79–84
5555 timer, 74
556 timer, 73
558 timer, 73
7447 decoder, 148
74HC00 logic gate, 93
74HC123 timer, 75
74HC163 counter, 132
74HC221 timer, 76
74HC4514 decoder, 147
74HC4515 decoder, 139, 147
74HC5555 timer, 74
74HCT5555 timer, 74
74LS123 timer, 75
74LS148 decoder, 139
74LS47 decoder, 148
7555 timer, 74
7556 timer, 74
BTA208X-1000B triac, 16
BTB04-600SL triac, 16
CAT5114 digital potentiometer,
64
CD4047B timer, 75
CMX60D10 relay, 27
D804 optocoupler, 37
DB3TG diac, 12
DC60S7 relay, 27, 28
HEF4528B timer, 75
LM339 comparator, 42
LM3914 driver, 236
LM741 op-amp, 49, 53
M74HC4538 timer, 75
MAC97A6 triac, 16
MAX6954 driver chip, 234
MC14538B timer, 75
NTE926 timer, 73
OPTEKD804 optocoupler, 34
PT-2040PQ transducer, 253
PUI XL453 audio indicator, 257
SSD1306 LED display module,
235
SSD1331 LED display module,
235
TIL311 driver, 236
WS0010 LED display module, 235
X0403DF SCR, 2, 5
A
A-weighting audio standard, 252
absolute zero, 173
acoustically transparent headphones, 264
activator, electroluminescent, 244
active matrix LCD, 161
additive primaries, 166
address of tap, digital potentiometer, 62, 63
Adobe 1998, 167
alert, 249, 257
alternating current, 172
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII),
163
AMOLED (active-matrix OLED),
246
analog input/output, 66
273
Indexanalog integrated circuits
comparator, 39–48
(see also comparator)
digital potentiometer, 59–67
(see also digital potentiometer)
op-amp, 49–58
(see also op-amp)
optocoupler, 33–37
(see also optocoupler)
solid-state relay, 25–31
(see also solid-state relay)
timer, 69–87
(see also timer)
analog multiplexer, 151, 152
analog output optocoupler, 36
analog-digital converter, 39, 47,
59
AND gate, 45, 90, 91, 92, 97, 98,
100, 102, 103
anode
LED display, 232
LED indicator, 213
vacuum-fluorescent display
(VFD), 240
arithmetical operations, binary,
91
arithmetical operators, 89
ASCII (see American Standard
Code for Information Interchange)
astable multivibrator, 46, 55, 69
(see also timer)
astable timer, 70, 72, 77, 80
asynchronous counter, 118, 134
asynchronous flip-flop, 107
asynchronous input, 123
audio alerts
audio indicator, 257–260
transducer, 249–255
audio frequency, 54, 251, 252,
253, 254, 257, 258
audio indicator, 249, 257–260
PUI XL453, 257
current, 260
design, 257–258
duty cycle, 260
formats, 258
frequency, 258, 260
function, 257
history, 258
potential problems, 260
sound intensity, 260
sound patterns, 258
use of, 260
values, 259
variants, 258
voltage, 259
volume control, 260
wiring, 260
audio transducer (see transducer)
B
back-EMF, 29, 30, 87
backlighting, electroluminescent,
167
backplane, 161
ballast, 180, 192, 194, 225
band gap, 207
bandpass filter, 59
bandwidth, 36
bass-reflex enclosure, 270
bayonet base, 177
BCD output, 135
beeper, 249, 257
bi-pin tube, 194
bidirectional multiplexer, 151
bidirectional optocoupler, 36
bidirectional shift, 125
bidirectional thyristor, 11
binary addition, 91
binary arithmetic, 89, 92
binary counter, 134
binary digit, 121, 134
binary ripple counter, 121
binary-coded decimal (BCD) output, 135
bipolar transistor, 1, 18, 70
bistable displays, 167
bistable multivibrator, 46, 69, 107
(see also flip-flop)
bit, 121, 134
bitmap, 159, 227
black body radiation, 173
Boolean algebra, 89
Boolean operators, 89, 91
breakdown voltage, 1, 4, 20, 184
breakover frequency, 53
breakover level, 12
breakover voltage, 4, 14, 15, 20
bubble, 90, 116, 123, 133, 155
buffer, 90, 128
burn in, 160
burst mode, 84
buzzer, 249, 257, 258
C
Camenzind, Hans, 70
canalphones, 264
candela, 178
candlepower, 178
capacitor
coupling, 84
light-emitting, 244
carbon arc, 171
cascade, 134
cascaded encoders, 142
cascading, 157
cathode, 188, 192, 232, 239
cathode vacuum-fluorescent display (VFD), 240
cathode-ray tube (CRT), 160, 239,
244
CCFL (see cold-cathode fluorescent lamp)
CCT (see correlated color temperature)
cd (candela), 178
ceramic wafer, 250, 258
CFL (see compact fluorescent
lamp)
channel current, 155
channels, 42, 52, 153
charge storage, 23, 24
chemiluminescence, 244
chip select pin (CS), 63, 64
cilia, 261
circumaural headphones, 264
clipped output, 50
clock, 121
clock input, 131, 133
clocked comparator, 47
clocked in, 121
274 Indexclosed-back headphones, 264
closed-box speaker, 270
CLR operation, 133
CMOS 555 timer, 74
CMOS chips, 48, 94
CMYK system, 166
CO2 lasers, 201
code hopping encoder, 139
coherent light, 197, 200
cold-cathode fluorescent lamp
(CCFL), 191, 194
cold-cathode fluorescent panel,
167
color
fluorescent lights, 194, 241,
242
in LCDs, 166–167
of LEDs, 205, 207, 209–211,
212, 219–222, 222, 226
primary, 166–167
color rendering index (CRI), 174
color super twisted nematic
(CSTN) LCD, 161
color temperature, 173, 209, 219,
222
color-rendering index (CRI), 212
common anode, 232
common cathode, 232
common mode voltage range, 53
common pin, 161
commutating dv/dt, 23
compact fluorescent lamp (CFL),
191
comparator, 39–48, 70, 83, 90
LM339, 42
analog-digital converter, 47
AND gate, 45
bistable multivibrator, 46
clocked, 47
continuous converter, 47
design, 39–42
digital, 39
dual, 42
function, 39
hysteresis, 39, 44
latched, 47
level shifter, 46
and op-amps, 42, 52
potential problems, 47–48
relaxation oscillator, 46
use of, 44–47
values, 43–44
variants, 42–43
window, 42
window comparator, 46
zero point finder, 47
conduction angle, 7, 9
cone, 268
confused inputs, 48
continuous converter, 47
converter, serial to parallel, 107
correlated color temperature, 222
counter, 107, 121, 131–138
74HC163, 132
asynchronous, 118, 134
binary, 134
binary ripple, 121
clock sources, 135
decade, 135
decoded output, 134
descending output, 136
design, 132–134
divide-by-16, 134
function, 131–132
glitches, 138
gray code, 131
hexadecimal, 134
modulus-16, 134
modulus/modulo, 132
multiple stages, 136
octal, 134
output states, 136
pin identifier, 133
potential problems, 137–138
programmable, 137
ring, 131, 134
ripple, 107, 134, 148
rising edge and falling edge,
136
schematic representation,
131–132
single and dual, 136
synchronous, 134, 136
values, 137
variants, 134–137
coupler, output, 198
coupling capacitor, 84
CRI (see color rendering index)
crossover network, 269
crosstalk, 161
crowbar overvoltage protection,
2
CRT (see cathode-ray tube)
crystal, 249
crystal lasers, 201
crystal-set radio, 265
CS (chip select pin), 63, 64
current
alternating, 172
audio-indicator, 260
channel, 155
direct, 172
forward, 211
gate threshold, 18
holding, 2, 18
latching, 2, 18
leakage, 156
transducer, 254
current amplifier, 2, 18
Current Transfer Ration (CTR), 36
D
D-type flip-flop, 114, 116
data distributor, 140, 146, 152
data selector, 140, 146, 151, 152
(see also multiplexer)
data transfer, 62
Db (see decibels)
dBA, 253
debounced, 66
decade counter, 135
decibel, 251–252, 259, 265
decoded output counter, 134
decoder, 134, 139, 140, 143, 145–
149, 151, 153, 157
7447, 148
74HC4514, 147
74HC4515, 147
74LS47, 148
design, 148
function, 145–146
input devices, 145–146
LED driver, 146
potential problems, 149–149
schematic symbol, 146–146
Index 275seven-segment, 146
similar devices, 146
use of, 149
values, 148
variants, 148
decoder chip, 151
demultiplexer, 140, 146, 151
derated relay, 30
derating curve, 213
descending output counter, 136
diac, 1, 11–14, 15, 22
DB3TG, 12
abbreviations, 14
design, 12–13
function, 11
potential problems, 14
switching AC, 13
symbol variants, 11
values, 14
variants, 13
diaphragm, 262, 268
dies, 219
differential multiplexer, 152
digipot (see digital potentiometer)
digital comparator, 39
digital integrated circuits
counter, 131–138
decoder, 145–149
encoder, 139–143
flip-flop, 107–119
logic gate, 89–106
multiplexer, 151–157
shift register, 121–129
digital multiplexer, 151
digital potentiometer, 59–67, 156
4131-503, 62
CAT5114, 64
address of tap, 62, 63
advantages/disadvantages,
59–60
connections and modes, 64
data transfer, 62
design, 60–61
function, 59–60
higher resolution, 66
I2C protocol, 63
potential problems, 66
programmable, 59
SPI protocol, 62
taper, 62
up/down protocol, 63
use of, 66
values, 65–66
variants, 61–65
volatile/nonvolatile memory,
61
digital-analog converter, 39, 47,
59
digitally adjustable potentiometer (see digital potentiometer)
digitally controlled potentiometer (see digital potentiometer)
digitally programmed potentiometer (DPP) (see digital potentiometer)
digpot (see digital potentiometer)
diode, PIN, 35
diode, protection, 30
direct current, 172
disallowed state, 135
discrete semiconductor
diac, 22
discrete semiconductors, 1
(see also thyristor)
dispersion, 178, 208, 225
display
electroluminescent (see electorluminscent (EL) display)
LED (see LED display)
display module, 164, 231
divide-by-16 counter, 134
dot-matrix displays, 163–165,
230, 234–236, 239
double super twisted nematic
LCD, 161
drift, 48
driver, 267
driver chip, 233–234
driver, dynamic, 262
dual comparator, 42
dual counter, 136
dual digital potentiometer, 61
dual inputs, 50–51, 127
dual monostable timer, 75–76, 77
dual voltage device, 39
dual voltage power supply, 50
duty cycle, 260
dv/dt triggering, 8
dynamic driver, 262
dynamic transducer, 262
E
e-ink displays, 167
ear canal headphones, 264
earbuds, 261, 263, 264
earphone, 261, 264
edge pass, 69
edge triggering, 69
edge-triggered shift register, 123
efficiency, 272
EL (see electroluminescent (EL)
display)
electret, 264
electric newspaper, 236
electroluminescence, 243
electroluminescent (EL) display,
243–247
derivation, 244
design, 243
flexible ribbons, 245
function, 243
OLED, 246–247
panels, 244–245
phosphors, 244
rope light, 245
variants, 244–247
electroluminescent backlighting,
167
electromagnetic relay, 33
electromagnetic transducer, 250,
253
electronic ballast, 193, 225
electronic paper displays, 167
electrostatic headphones, 263
electrostatic speaker, 271
Enable, 116
encoded output, 134
encoder, 139–143, 152
74HC4515 decoder, 139
74LS148 decoder, 139
cascaded, 142
code hopping, 139
design, 140–141
276 Indexfunction, 139–140
potential problems, 143
priority, 140, 141
rotary, 139
rotational, 66
schematic symbol, 139
similar devices, 140
simple, 141
tri-state, 141
use of, 142
values, 142
variants, 141
equal-loudness contours, 252
erratic output, 48
F
falling voltage, 43
falling-edge triggered shift register, 123
fanout, 94
feedback
negative, 51–52
positive, 44
ferromagnetic disc, 250
FF (see flip-flop)
fiber lasers, 201
FIFO (see first-in, first-out (FIFO)
shift register)
filament, 171, 239
film-compensated super twisted
nematic (FSTN) LCD, 161
first-in, first-out (FIFO) shift register, 123
flange base, 177
flexible ribbon, 245
flicker, 193
flip-flop, 46, 70, 89, 107–119, 121,
132
asynchrononous/synchronous,
107
D-type, 114
design, 107–116
forbidden states, 110–112
function, 107
JK, 112–113
master-slave, 113
NAND-based, 108–109
NOR-based, 109–110
packaging, 117
potential problems, 118–119
summary of types, 116
use of, 118
values, 117–118
variants, 116–117
flip-flop emulation, 82
floating inputs, 127
floating pins, 105
fluoresce, 192
fluorescence, 191, 239
fluorescent lamp, 191
fluorescent light, 24, 167, 174,
191–196, 207, 217, 223, 239
(see also vacuum-fluorescent
display)
ballast and starter, 192
brightness, 195
CCFLs, 194
comparisons, 194
design, 191–195
flicker, 193
function, 191
potential problems, 195
sizes, 194–194
spectrum, 195
tubes, 191
values, 195
variants, 193
fluorescent tubes, 191
flux, 177
foot-candles, 178
forbidden states, 110–112
frequency
audio, 54, 251, 252, 253, 254,
257, 258, 260
breakover of op amp, 53
unity gain, 53
frequency response, 265
fused quartz, 176
G
gain, 50
gain medium, 198
game sound, 85
gamut, 167, 207
ganged analog potentiometer, 61
gas-discharge device, 191
gate threshold current, 18
gate turn-off thyristor (GTO), 1,
11, 15
gated circuit, 113
glitches, 138, 149
glow discharge, 185
gray code counters, 131
ground loops, 35
GTO (see gate turn-off thyristor)
H
half adder, 92
halogen lighting, 176, 217, 221
harmonics, 266
headphone, 261–266
acoustically transparent, 264
balanced armature, 264
circumaural, 264
closed-back, 264
design, 261–262
distortion, 266
electret, 264
electrostatic, 263
frequency response, 265–266
function, 261
impedence, 266
in-ear, 264
intensity, 265
mechanical design, 264–265
moving coil, 262–263
noise-cancelling, 264
open-back, 264
potential problems, 266
supra-aural, 264
values, 265–266
variants, 262–265
headset, 264
hearing aids, 261
heat sensitivity, 14
heat sink, 28, 206, 222
Hertz, Heinrich Rudolph, 262
hexadecimal counter, 134
high linearity optocouplers, 36
high logic state, 89
high speed optocoupler, 36
Index 277high-brightness LED, 205, 217,
227
high-intensity LED, 217
high-output LED, 217
high-pass filter, 55
high-power LEDs, 217
Hold state, 109, 114
holding current, 2, 18
holding level, 12
hysteresis, 42, 44–45, 48, 83, 185
hysteresis range, 43
hysteresis zone, 39
I
I2C protocol, 62, 63
IEM (see in-ear monitor)
ignition voltage, 184
illuminance, 178
impedence, 271
in-ear earphones, 264
in-ear headphones, 264
in-ear monitor, 264
incandescence, 191, 243
incandescent bulbs, 219
incandescent lamp, 11, 15, 24,
171–181, 200, 223
advantages/disadvantages,
179–180
base variants, 177
derating, 180
design, 172–175
efficacy, 179
efficiency, 179
function, 171–172
halogen or quartz halogen,
176
illuminance, 178
intensity, 178
mean spherical candlepower
(MSCP), 178
miniature lamps, 175–176
non-incandescent sources,
174
oven lamp, 176
panel-mount indicator lamp,
176
potential problems, 180
power, 177–178
power consumption, 175
schematic symbols, 171
spectrum, 173
use of, 179–180
values, 177–179
variants, 175–177
incandescent lamps, 206, 217
incoherent light, 159
increment/decrement protocol,
62
Indiglo electroluminscent displays, 244
inductor, 193
infrared emitters, 211
inhibit pin, 153
input
analog, 66
asynchronous, 123
clock, 131, 133
confused, 48, 58
dual, 50–51, 127
floating, 127
inverting/noninverting, 39, 51
parallel, 123, 134
input bias current, 53
input devices, decoder, 145
input differential voltage range,
53
input offset voltage, 43, 53
input voltage, 155
instant-start ballast, 194
integrated circuits (see analog integrated circuits, digital integrated circuits)
inter-integrated circuit, 62
internal sensors, 35
internal series resistor, 210
intrinsic layer, optocoupler, 35
invalid number, 135
inversion, logic gates, 90
inverter, 36, 89, 91, 114
inverting input, 39, 51
ionization, 184
isolation transformers, 34
J
jam loaded, 134
jam-type flip-flop, 108
jam-type parallel data input, 124
jitter, 44
JK flip-flop, 112–113, 116
K
keyboard, polling, 127
L
ladder, 60
lamp
oven, 176
panel-mount indicator lamp,
176
lamp lenses, 176
laser, 197–203
CO2 lasers, 201
coherent light, 200–201
common applications, 202
crystal lasers, 201
design, 198–201
fiber lasers, 201
function, 197
laser diode, 197, 198–199
potential problems, 202
use of, 202
values, 201
variants, 201
laser diode, 197, 198–199
latch, 107, 112
latch function, 43
latched comparator, 47
latching current, 2, 18
latching relay, 4
LCD (liquid-crystal display), 159–
170, 207, 227, 246
4543B decoder, 168
active and passive types, 161
additional segments, 162–163
alphanumeric display module,
168–169
backlighting, 167
278 Indexcolor, 166–167
color super twisted nematic
(CSTN), 161
crystal types, 161
design, 159–160
dot-matrix displays, 163–165
double super twisted nematic,
161
film-compensated super twisted nematic (FSTN), 161
function, 159
LED comparisons, 228
numeric display module, 167–
168
potential problems, 169–170
reflective, 161
seven-segment displays, 161–
162
super twisted nematic (STN),
161
transreflective, 161
twisted nematic (TN), 161
use of, 167–169
variants, 160–167
zero-power displays, 167
LCD display (see LCD (liquid crystal display))
leakage
capacitors, 77
diac, 12
SCR, 2
solid-state relay (SSR), 26
triac, 17
leakage current, 156
LED (generic), 26, 159, 167, 174,
227, 243
LED area lighting, 24, 191, 195,
217–226, 227
color variation, 222
comparisons, 220–222, 223–
224
costs and efficiency, 218
design, 218–223
dimming, 222
efficacy, 222
function, 217–218
heat dissipation, 222
high-brightness, 217
high-output, 217
high-power, 217
potential problems, 225
schematic symbol, 218
ultraviolet output, 222
values, 225
variants, 223–224
visible differences, 220–220
LED display, 146, 227–237
LM3914, 236
MAX6954, 234
SSD1306, 235
SSD1331, 235
TIL311, 236
WS0010, 235
additional segments, 229–230
design, 228
dot-matrix displays, 230, 234–
236
driver chips and multiplexing,
233–234
function, 227–228
LCD comparisons, 228
multiple bar display, 232, 236
multiple numerals, 229
one-digit hexadecimal dot
matrix, 236
pixel arrays, 231, 235–236
potential problems, 237
seven segment numeral, 228
seven-segment displays, 228–
229, 232–233
single light bar, 232
sixteen-segment driver chip,
234
use of, 232–236
values, 232
variants, 228–232
LED indicator, 205–215, 218, 227
color rendering index (CRI),
212
common usage, 206
comparisons to other light
emitters, 214
design, 207
diffusion, 209
efficacy, 208
forward current, 211
forward voltage, 212
function, 205–207
high-brightness, 205
infrared, 211
intensity, 208
internal resistor, 210
LEDs in parallel, 214
life expectancy, 212
light output and heat, 212
low-current LEDs, 211
multicolor LEDs and color mixing, 207
multicolored, 210
multiple series LEDs, 214
other applications, 215
polarity, 213
potential problems, 215
schematic symbols, 206
series resistor value, 214
size and shape, 208
ultraviolet, 211
use of, 213–215
values, 211–213
variants, 208–211
view angle, 213
wavelength and color temperature, 209–210
lens, 183
level shifter, 46
light
coherent, 197, 200–201
incoherent, 159
monochromatic, 197
light wires, 243
light-emitting capacitor, 244
light-emitting diode (see LED)
linear relationship, 50
linear taper, 62
linearity versus saturation, 42
liquid-crystal display (see LCD)
logarithmic taper, 62
logic chip, 139
logic gate, 89–106, 108, 126, 140
74HC00, 93
4000 series, 94
7400 series, 93
binary arithmetical operations,
91
Boolean notation, 91
chip families, 95–96
design, 89
Index 279function, 89
gates and inputs, 90, 96–103
inversion, 90
part numbers, 94–95
potential problems, 105–106
uses, 103
variants, 93
logic state, 89, 107
logic, positive, 90
logic, transistor-transistor, 70, 93
logic-output optocoupler, 36
loudspeaker, 84, 249, 263, 267
low logic state, 89
low-current LEDs, 211
low-pass filter, 54
Lower State Transition Voltage
(LSTV), 43
lumen (lm), 177, 195, 218, 225
lumens per watt, 179, 195
luminaire, 217
luminary, 217
luminescence, 191, 243
luminous flux, 177, 195, 208, 218
lux, 178
M
magnetic ballast, 225
maintaining voltage, 185
maser, 197
master-slave flip-flop, 113, 116
mc (millicandela), 178
mean spherical candlepower
(MSCP), 176, 178
metal-oxide semiconductor fieldeffect transistor (see MOSFET)
metastability, in flip-flops, 119
microcontroller, 29, 59
microphone, 262
millicandelas, 187, 208
miniature speakers, 270
mismatching, 266
mixed-signal device, 59
MOD, 133
mode select pins, 125
modulo/modulus, 132
modulus-16 counter, 134
monochromatic light, 197
monostable multivibrator, 69
(see also timer)
monostable timer, 69, 71, 77, 79
MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor),
26, 70
motion detector, passive infrared,
211
motor, AC, 11
moving coil headphones, 262
MSCP (see mean spherical candlepower)
multicolor LED, 207
multiple bar display, 232, 236
multiple series LED, 214
multiple-stage counter, 136
multiplexer, 28, 140, 146, 151–
157
analog, 151, 152
bidirectional, 151
demultiplexer, 140, 146, 151,
152, 157
design, 153
differential, 152
digital versus analog, 151
function, 151
pin identifiers, 154–155
potential problems, 157
schematic symbol, 153
similar devices, 152–153
use of, 156
values, 155
variants, 155
multiplexing, 168, 233–234, 241
multisource lighting
electroluminescent (EL) display, 243–247
LED display, 227–237
vacuum-fluorescent display
(VFD), 239–242
multivibrator, 69
(see also timer)
astable, 46, 55, 69
bistable, 46, 69, 107
MUX (see multiplexer)
N
NAND gate, 37, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95,
97, 98, 100, 102, 103, 108, 109,
123, 127, 135
(see also NAND-based SR flipflop)
NAND-based SR flip-flop, 108–
109, 116
nanometer, 195, 209
negative feedback, 49, 51–52
negative resistance, 185
neon bulb, 31, 183–190, 191, 193
construction, 184
efficiency, 187
function, 183
how it works, 183–186
ionization, 184
life expectancy, 188
light output, 187
negative resistance, 185–186
Nixie tubes, 189
potential problems, 189
power-supply testing, 188
ruggedness, 187
use of, 186–189
variants, 189
neon bulbs, 206
neon indicator, 183
neon lamp, 183
neon lamp assembly, 183
neutral value, 49
(see also zero value)
Newtons per square meter (Pa),
251
Nixie tubes, 189
noise-cancelling headphones,
264
noise-creating device, 249, 267
noninverting input, 39, 51
nonvolatile memory, 61
NOR gate, 90, 91, 97, 98, 100, 102,
103, 108, 109
(see also NOR-based SR flipflop)
NOR-based SR flip-flop, 109–110
numeric display module, 167–
168
280 IndexNV (see nonvolatile memory)
O
octal counter, 134
OE (output-enable), 126
offset null adjustment, 56
OLED (organic light-emitting diode), 217, 227, 243, 246–247
on-resistance, 156
one-digit hexadecimal dot matrix, 236
op-amp, 39, 49–58, 90
LM741, 49, 53
calculating amplification, 53
and comparators, 52
confused input, 58
controlling the gain, 53
design, 49–52
differences from comparator,
42
dual inputs, 50–51
as high-pass filter, 55
as low-pass filter, 54
negative feedback, 51–52
offset null adjustment, 56
oscillating output, 57
potential problems, 57–58
as relaxation oscillator, 55
as single power source, 56
use of, 53–57
values, 52
variants, 52
what it does, 49
open collector, 40
open loop mode, 51
open loop operation, 42
open loop voltage gain, 53
open-back headphones, 264
open-drain outputs, 126
operating voltage, 259
operational amplifier (see opamp)
optical maser, 197
optical switch, 34
optocoupler, 25, 33–37, 215
D804, 37
OPTEKD804, 34
analog output, 36
basic types, 36
bidirectional, 36
design, 34–34
function, 33–34
high speed, 36
high-linearity, 36
internal sensors, 35–36
logic-output, 36
potential problems, 37
schematic symbols, 34
use of, 36–37
values, 36
variants, 34–36
OR gate, 90, 91, 97, 98, 99, 100,
102, 103, 140, 142
organic LED (see OLED (organic
light-emitting diode))
oscillating output, 47, 57
oscillator, relaxation, 12, 46, 55
output
analog, 66
clipped, 50
descending, 136
encoded, 134
erratic, 48
open-drain, 126
oscillating, 47, 57
parallel, 123
push-pull, 42
three-state, 142
types of, 134
ultraviolet, 222
weighted, 134
output coupler, 198
output mode, comparator, 42
oven lamp, 176
overvoltage protection, 2, 6, 155
P
Pa (Pascals), 251
panel, 243
Panelescent electroluminescent
lighting, 244
parallel input, 134
parallel-enable pin, 134
parallel-in, parallel-out (PIPO)
shift converters, 125
parallel-in, serial-out (PISO) shift
register, 124
parallel-serial converters, 124
parchmentized thread, 172
passive infrared motion detector,
211
passive matrix LCD, 161
phase angle, 7, 13
phase control, 2, 7–7, 13, 22
phones (see headphone)
phosphor, 192, 239, 244
phosphorescence, 244
photocell, 35
photodarlington, 34
photodiode, 26, 34
photon, 207
photoresistor, 34
phototransistor, 26, 34, 45
photovoltaic PIN diode, 35
piezein, 250
piezo, 258
piezoelectric alerts (see audio indicator)
piezoelectric transducer, 249,
250, 253
pin
common, 161
floating, 105
inhibit, 153
parallel-enable, 134
reset, 70
trigger, 69
pin base, 177
PIN diode, 35
pin identifier, 133
pip, 184
PIPO (see parallel-in, parallel-out
(PIPO) shift converters)
pixel arrays, 231, 235–236
PMOLED (passive-matrix OLED),
246
PN junction, 207
PNPN device, 3
polling a keyboard, 127
positive feedback, 44
positive logic, 90
Index 281potentiometer, 35
(see also digital potentiometer)
power rating, 272
powered speaker, 271
primary colors, 166–166
priority encoder, 140, 141
programmable counter, 137
programmable digital potentiometer, 59
programmable unijunction transistor (PUT), 2, 9
propagation delay, 44, 134
protection diode, 30
pullup resistor, 36, 40, 48, 71, 126,
153
pulse-width modulation, 7, 194,
211
pumping a laser, 198
push-pull output, 42
pushbutton, 66, 71
pushbutton protocol, 62
Q
quad digital potentiometer, 61
quadrants, 17–18
quartz crystal, 131, 135
R
race condition, 112
radiant flux, 177
radiant luminous efficacy (LER),
179, 187, 208, 222
radiant luminous efficiency (LFR),
179
radiation, black body, 173
rail-to-rail values, 42
rapid-start ballast, 194
rated voltage, 259
Rayleigh scattering, 202
RC network, 70
rectifier, 2
reference voltage, 70
reflective display (see LCD (liquid
crystal display))
reflective LCD, 161
reflective primaries, 166
reflex port, 270
regenerative device, 2
register, 121
relaxation oscillator, 12, 46, 55
relay
electromagnetic, 33
latching, 4
solid-state (see solid-state relay)
zero-crossing, 25, 27
remainder, 132
reproducers
headphone, 261–266
speaker, 267–272
reset pin, 70
reset state, 109
resistor array, 232
resolution, 43
resonant cavity, 198
response time, comparator, 42
restricted combination, 112
retriggering, timer, 69
RGB LCD monitors, 167
RGB primaries, 166
rheostat mode, 64
ring counter, 121, 131, 134
ringing, 112
ripple counter, 107, 134, 148
rising voltage, 43
rising-edge triggered shift register, 123
rope light, 243, 245
rotary encoder, 139
rotary switch, 151
rotational coder, 139
rotational encoder, 66
S
saturation versus linearity, 42
SCR (silicon-controlled rectifier),
1–9, 11, 15, 26, 34
2N682, 2
40TPS12, 2
X0403DF, 2, 5
abbreviations, 6
AC current applications, 5
breakdown and breakover
voltage, 4
concept demo, 4
design, 1–2
function, 1
internal configuration, 3–5
overvoltage protection, 7
phase control, 7–7
potential problems, 8–9
switching behavior, 2
use, 6–8
values, 5
variants, 5, 6
screw-in lamps, 177
SCS (see silicon-controlled
switch)
segments, 239
self-drive transducer circuit, 254
sensitivity, 272
sensor, 34, 35, 249, 262
serial peripheral interface (see
SPI)
serial-in, parallel-out (SIPO) shift
register, 123, 124
serial-in, serial-out (SISO) shift
register, 123, 124
serial-parallel coverter, 123
serial-to-parallel converters, 107
series resistor, 207
series resistor value, 214
settling time, 149, 157
setup time, 125
seven-segment decoder, 146
seven-segment displays, 228–
229, 232–233
seven-segment numeral, 228
shift register, 63, 121–129, 131,
146
abbreviations and acronyms,
123
arithmetical operations, 127
buffering, 128
design, 122
function, 121–122
parallel outputs and inputs,
123–124
polling the keyboard, 127
potential problems, 128–129
282 Indexpower considerations, 126
preloading, 127
schematic representation, 122
three-state output, 126
use of, 126–128
values, 125–126
variants, 124–125
shift registers, 107
shortened modulus, 135
sidac, 14
silicon-controlled rectifier (see
SCR)
silicon-controlled switch (SCS), 1,
11, 15
simple encoder, 141
single counter, 136
single light bar, 232
single power source, 56
single-inline package (SIP), 27
single-input gates, 90
single-source lighting
fluorescent light, 191–196
incandescent lamp, 171–181
lasers, 197–203
LED area lighting, 217–226
LED indicator, 205–215
neon bulb, 183–190
sink current, 44
SIPO (see serial-in, parallel-out
(SIPO) shift register)
siren, 258
SISO (see serial-in, serial-out (SISO) shift register)
sixteen-segment driver chip, 234
slew rate at unity gain, 53
snubber, 30
snubber network, 23
snubberless triac, 23
solid-state analog switch, 28
solid-state relay (SSR), 1, 11, 15,
25–31, 33, 36, 215
(see also optocoupler)
CMX60D10, 27
DC60S7, 27, 28
advantages/disadvantages, 25
design, 26–27
function, 25–26
instantaneous versus zero
crossing, 27
NC and NO modes, 28
packaging, 28
potential problems, 30
solid-state analog switch, 28
use of, 29–30
values, 29
variants, 27–28
sound pressure level, 251–252,
251
sound reproduction device, 249,
267
sound sources (see audio alerts,
reproducers)
spatial coherence, 200
spatial distribution, 213
speaker, 249, 267–272
closed-box, 270
construction, 268
design, 267–270
electrostatic, 271
function, 267
innovative designs, 271
miniature speakers, 270
multiple drivers, 269–270
potential problems, 272
powered, 271
resonance, 270
values, 271
variants, 270–271
venting, 270
wireless, 271
spectral lines, 174
SPI (serial peripheral interface),
62
spontaneous emission, 198
SPST switch, 25
sputtering, 188
SR flip-flop (see NAND-based SR
flip-flop)
sRGB, 167
SSR (see solid-state relay)
standard LED, 205, 227
starter, 192, 225
starting voltage, 184
state diagram, 135
steradians, 178
stimulated emission, 198
striking voltage, 184
strip lights, 223
strobe, 153
super twisted nematic (STN) LCD,
161
supra-aural headphones, 264
surface-mount transducers, 251
swapped voltages, 48
switch, 25, 71, 107
rotary, 151
silicon-controlled (SCS), 1, 11,
15
solid-state analog switch, 28
SPST, 25
switch bounce, 109
synchronous circuit, 113
synchronous counter, 134, 136
synchronous flip-flop, 107
T
T-type flip-flop, 116
tap, 60
tap address, 62, 63
taper, 62
task lighting, 217
TFT (see thin-film transistor)
THD (see total harmonic distortion)
thermal compound, 30
thick phosphor, 244
thin-film OLED, 243
thin-film transistor (TFT), 161, 246
3-wire programmable potentiometers, 63
three-state output, 126, 142
three-wire chips, 64
threshold voltage, 207
through hole, 206
thyratron, 1
thyristor
diac, 11–14, 15
SCR, 1–9
triac, 15–24
timer, 69–87
4047B, 75
555, 70–85
5555, 74
556, 73
558, 73
Index 28374HC123, 75
74HC221, 76
74HC5555, 74
74HCT5555, 74
7555, 74
7556, 74
CD4047B, 75
HEF4528B, 75
M74HC4538, 75
MC14538B, 75
NTE926, 73
astable mode, 70, 72, 77, 80
bipolar version, 70
burst mode, 84
CMOS 555, 74
CMOS version, 71
and coupling capacitors, 84
design, 70
dual monostable, 75–76, 77
function, 69–70
game sound, 85
hysteresis, 83
loudspeaker connection, 84
monostable mode, 69, 71, 77,
79
output time control, 80
potential problems, 85–87
TTL version, 70
use of, 79–85
values, 76–79
variants, 70–76
toggle, 43, 113
total harmonic distortion (THD),
266
transducer, 249–255, 257, 267
PT-2040PQ, 253
AC supply, 254
current, 254
design, 249
dynamic, 262
electromagnetic, 250, 253
formats, 251
frequency range, 251
function, 249
limitations, 253–254
measurement location, 253
piezoelectric, 249, 250, 253
potential problems, 254
self-drive transducer circuit,
254
sound intensity, 254
sound pressure, 251–252
surface-mount, 251
ultrasonic, 250
unweighted values, 253
use of, 254
values, 251–254
variants, 250–251
voltage, 254
volume control, 254
weighted sounds values, 252–
253
transformer, isolation, 34
transistor, bipolar, 1
transistor-transistor logic, 93
transistor-transistor logic protocol, 70
transparent, 108, 114
transreflective LCD, 161
tri-state encoder, 142
triac, 1, 7, 11, 15–24, 25, 34
BTA208X-1000B, 16
BTB04-600SL, 16
MAC97A6, 16
breakover voltage, 20
charge storage, 23
design, 17–23
function, 15–16
other drivers, 22
potential problems, 24
quadrants, 17–18
snubberless, 23
switching AC, 20–22
symbol variants, 15–16
testing, 19–20
triggered by diac, 22
values, 23–24
variants, 23
triac-based dimmer, 179
trigger pin, 69
trimmer, 40, 254
truth table, 90
TTL (see transistor-transistor logic)
tweeter, 269
twisted nematic (TN) LCD, 161
two-wire chips, 64
U
ultrasonic transducer, 250
ultraviolet output, 222
unity gain frequency, 53
universal shift register, 125
unweighted sound values, 253
up/down protocol, 62, 63
Upper State Transition Voltage
(USTV), 43
V
Vactrol, 35
vacuum-fluorescent display,
(VFD), 239–242
anode in, 240
cathode, 240
character sets and pictorial design, 242
color, 241
comparisons, 242
design, 239–240
function, 239
modern application, 241
potential problems, 242
use of, 240–241
variants, 241–242
variable frequency drive, 239
velocity, 262
vent, 270
VFD (see vacuum-fluorescent display)
view angle, 208
volatile memory, 61
voltage, 259
breakdown, 1, 4, 20, 184
breakover, 4, 15, 20
dual, 39
falling, 43
forward, 212
ignition, 184
input, 155
input offset, 43, 53
maintaining, 185
in multiplexers, 155
operating, 259
284 Indexrated, 259
reference, 70
rising, 43
starting/striking, 184
threshold, 207
transducer, 254
voltage amplification, 53
voltage amplifier, 49
voltage converter, 39
voltage divider, 71
voltage divider mode, 65
voltage gain, 43
voltage level, 69
voltage regulator, 59
voltage spike, 72
voltage transition, 69
W
wafers, 219
water clear, 205
wavelength, 262
wavelength coherence, 200
wedge base, 177
weighted output, 134
weighted sound values, 252–253
window comparator, 42, 46
wiper, 60
wiper resistance, 65
wireless speaker, 271
woofer, 269
X
XNOR gate, 90, 91, 98, 100, 102,
103
XOR gate, 90, 91, 92, 97, 98, 100,
102, 103
Z
zero point finder, 47
zero value, 49
zero-crossing relay, 25, 27
zero-crossing signal, 66Symbols
2N682 SCR, 2
4047B timer, 75
40TPS12 SCR, 2
4131-503 digital potentiometer,
62
4543B decoder, 168
4543B decoder chip, 168
555 timer, 70–73, 76, 79–84
5555 timer, 74
556 timer, 73
558 timer, 73
7447 decoder, 148
74HC00 logic gate, 93
74HC123 timer, 75
74HC163 counter, 132
74HC221 timer, 76
74HC4514 decoder, 147
74HC4515 decoder, 139, 147
74HC5555 timer, 74
74HCT5555 timer, 74
74LS123 timer, 75
74LS148 decoder, 139
74LS47 decoder, 148
7555 timer, 74
7556 timer, 74
BTA208X-1000B triac, 16
BTB04-600SL triac, 16
CAT5114 digital potentiometer,
64
CD4047B timer, 75
CMX60D10 relay, 27
D804 optocoupler, 37
DB3TG diac, 12
DC60S7 relay, 27, 28
HEF4528B timer, 75
LM339 comparator, 42
LM3914 driver, 236
LM741 op-amp, 49, 53
M74HC4538 timer, 75
MAC97A6 triac, 16
MAX6954 driver chip, 234
MC14538B timer, 75
NTE926 timer, 73
OPTEKD804 optocoupler, 34
PT-2040PQ transducer, 253
PUI XL453 audio indicator, 257
SSD1306 LED display module,
235
SSD1331 LED display module,
235
TIL311 driver, 236
WS0010 LED display module, 235
X0403DF SCR, 2, 5
A
A-weighting audio standard, 252
absolute zero, 173
acoustically transparent headphones, 264
activator, electroluminescent, 244
active matrix LCD, 161
additive primaries, 166
address of tap, digital potentiometer, 62, 63
Adobe 1998, 167
alert, 249, 257
alternating current, 172
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII),
163
AMOLED (active-matrix OLED),
246
analog input/output, 66
273
Indexanalog integrated circuits
comparator, 39–48
(see also comparator)
digital potentiometer, 59–67
(see also digital potentiometer)
op-amp, 49–58
(see also op-amp)
optocoupler, 33–37
(see also optocoupler)
solid-state relay, 25–31
(see also solid-state relay)
timer, 69–87
(see also timer)
analog multiplexer, 151, 152
analog output optocoupler, 36
analog-digital converter, 39, 47,
59
AND gate, 45, 90, 91, 92, 97, 98,
100, 102, 103
anode
LED display, 232
LED indicator, 213
vacuum-fluorescent display
(VFD), 240
arithmetical operations, binary,
91
arithmetical operators, 89
ASCII (see American Standard
Code for Information Interchange)
astable multivibrator, 46, 55, 69
(see also timer)
astable timer, 70, 72, 77, 80
asynchronous counter, 118, 134
asynchronous flip-flop, 107
asynchronous input, 123
audio alerts
audio indicator, 257–260
transducer, 249–255
audio frequency, 54, 251, 252,
253, 254, 257, 258
audio indicator, 249, 257–260
PUI XL453, 257
current, 260
design, 257–258
duty cycle, 260
formats, 258
frequency, 258, 260
function, 257
history, 258
potential problems, 260
sound intensity, 260
sound patterns, 258
use of, 260
values, 259
variants, 258
voltage, 259
volume control, 260
wiring, 260
audio transducer (see transducer)
B
back-EMF, 29, 30, 87
backlighting, electroluminescent,
167
backplane, 161
ballast, 180, 192, 194, 225
band gap, 207
bandpass filter, 59
bandwidth, 36
bass-reflex enclosure, 270
bayonet base, 177
BCD output, 135
beeper, 249, 257
bi-pin tube, 194
bidirectional multiplexer, 151
bidirectional optocoupler, 36
bidirectional shift, 125
bidirectional thyristor, 11
binary addition, 91
binary arithmetic, 89, 92
binary counter, 134
binary digit, 121, 134
binary ripple counter, 121
binary-coded decimal (BCD) output, 135
bipolar transistor, 1, 18, 70
bistable displays, 167
bistable multivibrator, 46, 69, 107
(see also flip-flop)
bit, 121, 134
bitmap, 159, 227
black body radiation, 173
Boolean algebra, 89
Boolean operators, 89, 91
breakdown voltage, 1, 4, 20, 184
breakover frequency, 53
breakover level, 12
breakover voltage, 4, 14, 15, 20
bubble, 90, 116, 123, 133, 155
buffer, 90, 128
burn in, 160
burst mode, 84
buzzer, 249, 257, 258
C
Camenzind, Hans, 70
canalphones, 264
candela, 178
candlepower, 178
capacitor
coupling, 84
light-emitting, 244
carbon arc, 171
cascade, 134
cascaded encoders, 142
cascading, 157
cathode, 188, 192, 232, 239
cathode vacuum-fluorescent display (VFD), 240
cathode-ray tube (CRT), 160, 239,
244
CCFL (see cold-cathode fluorescent lamp)
CCT (see correlated color temperature)
cd (candela), 178
ceramic wafer, 250, 258
CFL (see compact fluorescent
lamp)
channel current, 155
channels, 42, 52, 153
charge storage, 23, 24
chemiluminescence, 244
chip select pin (CS), 63, 64
cilia, 261
circumaural headphones, 264
clipped output, 50
clock, 121
clock input, 131, 133
clocked comparator, 47
clocked in, 121
274 Indexclosed-back headphones, 264
closed-box speaker, 270
CLR operation, 133
CMOS 555 timer, 74
CMOS chips, 48, 94
CMYK system, 166
CO2 lasers, 201
code hopping encoder, 139
coherent light, 197, 200
cold-cathode fluorescent lamp
(CCFL), 191, 194
cold-cathode fluorescent panel,
167
color
fluorescent lights, 194, 241,
242
in LCDs, 166–167
of LEDs, 205, 207, 209–211,
212, 219–222, 222, 226
primary, 166–167
color rendering index (CRI), 174
color super twisted nematic
(CSTN) LCD, 161
color temperature, 173, 209, 219,
222
color-rendering index (CRI), 212
common anode, 232
common cathode, 232
common mode voltage range


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