كتاب Material Science and Metallurgy
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Material Science and Metallurgy

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كتاب Material Science and Metallurgy  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Material Science and Metallurgy    كتاب Material Science and Metallurgy  Emptyالإثنين 22 أبريل 2024, 1:36 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Material Science and Metallurgy
U. C. Jindal

كتاب Material Science and Metallurgy  M_s_a_29
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Contents
Preface xv
About the Author xvi
1. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Isotopes 1
1.3 Isobars 2
1.4 Avogadro’s Number 2
1.5 Atomic Model 2
1.6 Electron Configurations 11
1.7 Periodic Table 12
Multiple Choice Questions 15
Review Questions 16
2. ATOMIC BONDING AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE 17
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Classification of Materials 17
2.3 Atomic Structure 18
2.4 Space Lattice 19
2.5 Basis 20
2.6 Bravais Crystal Structure 21
2.7 Atomic Bonding in Solids 22
2.8 Primary Interatomic Bonding 25
2.9 Structures of Crystalline Solids 29
2.10 Density 36
2.11 Allotropy or Polymorphism 39
2.12 Crystallographic Directions 39
2.13 Crystallographic Planes 43
2.14 Atomic Arrangements 47
2.15 Crystal Growth of Polycrystalline Materials 50
2.16 Single Crystal 50
Multiple Choice Questions 55
Review Questions 56
Practice Problems 57vi Contents
3. IMPERFECTIONS IN SOLIDS 60
3.1 Introduction 60
3.2 Point Defects 60
3.3 Impurities in Solids 63
3.4 Line Defects 65
3.5 Characteristics of Dislocations 69
3.6 Sources of Dislocations 70
3.7 Stacking of Close-packed Structures 71
3.8 Stacking Faults 72
3.9 Behaviour of Dislocations 73
3.10 Twinning 79
3.11 Grain Boundaries 80
3.12 Low-angle Grain Boundaries 81
3.13 Volume Imperfections 82
3.14 Whiskers 82
Multiple Choice Questions 84
Review Questions 85
Practice Problems 86
4. PLASTIC DEFORMATION IN CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS 87
4.1 Introduction 87
4.2 Slip in Perfect Lattice 87
4.3 Slip Systems 89
4.4 Critical Resolved Shear Stress for Slip 89
4.5 Strain Hardening of Single Crystal 92
4.6 Yield Point Phenomenon 93
4.7 Strain Ageing 94
4.8 Hardening Due to Point Defects 95
4.9 Mechanism of Strengthening in Metals 95
4.10 Recovery, Recrystallization and Grain Growth 101
Multiple Choice Questions 105
Review Questions 106
5. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 108
5.1 Introduction 108
5.2 Tension Test 108
5.3 Hardness 117
5.4 Fracture 121
5.5 Fracture Mechanics 123
5.6 Impact Fracture Testing 128Contents vii
5.7 Temper Embrittlement 130
5.8 Hydrogen Embrittlement 131
5.9 Fatigue 131
5.10 Creep 140
5.11 Stress Relaxation 145
Multiple Choice Questions 147
Review Questions 148
Practice Problems 149
6. DIFFUSION 152
6.1 Introduction 152
6.2 Diffusion Couple 152
6.3 Grain Boundary Diffusion and Surface Diffusion 154
6.4 Types of Diffusion 155
6.5 Factors Affecting Diffusion 156
6.6 Laws of Diffusion 159
6.7 Fick’s Second Law 161
6.8 Depth of Case Carburization 166
6.9 Impurity Diffusion 166
6.10 Diffusion-controlled Applications 169
6.11 Kirkendal Effect 173
Multiple Choice Questions 175
Review Questions 176
Practice Problems 176
7. PHASE DIAGRAMS 178
7.1 Introduction 178
7.2 Phases 178
7.3 Solidification of a Metal in an Ingot Mould 179
7.4 Types of Phase Diagrams 183
7.5 Binary Amorphous Alloys 183
7.6 Development of Microstructure in Amorphous Alloy 187
7.7 Non-equilibrium cooling—Development of Microstructure in Binary
Amorphous Alloy 188
7.8 Binary Eutectic Systems 190
7.9 Development of Microstructure in Eutectic Alloys 193
7.10 Equilibrium Diagrams Having Intermediate Phases or Compounds 195
7.11 Eutectoid or Peritectic Reactions 196
7.12 Gibb’s Phase Rule 199
7.13 Iron Carbon System 200
7.14 Microstructural Developments 203viii Contents
Multiple Choice Questions 208
Review Questions 209
Practice Problems 210
8. PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS 211
8.1 Introduction 211
8.2 Solidification of Metal in Ingot Mould 211
8.3 Types of Phase Transformations 214
8.4 Nucleation and Growth Kinetics 214
8.5 Multiphase Transformations 216
8.6 Pearlitic Transformation 217
8.7 Bainite Transformation 220
8.8 Martensitic Transformation 222
8.9 Formation of Austenite 223
8.10 Precipitation and Age Hardening 224
8.11 Continuous Cooling Transformation Curve 225
8.12 Mechanical Behaviour of Iron–Carbon Alloys 227
Multiple Choice Questions 231
Review Questions 232
Practice Problems 233
9. HEAT TREATMENT OF STEELS 235
9.1 Introduction 235
9.2 Heat Treatment Processes 235
9.3 Temperature Ranges of Various Heat Treatment Processes 236
9.4 Annealing 238
9.5 Normalizing 240
9.6 Hardening 240
9.7 Hardenability 242
9.8 Hardening Methods 244
9.9 Tempering 245
9.10 Subzero Treatment of Steel 246
9.11 Diffusion Treatments 246
9.12 Surface Hardening Techniques 248
9.13 Special Purpose Heat Treatments 250
Multiple Choice Questions 253
Review Questions 254
10. METALS AND ALLOYS 256
10.1 Introduction 256
10.2 Types of Ferrous Alloys 256Contents ix
10.3 Plain Carbon Steels 257
10.4 Alloy Steels 260
10.5 Stainless Steels 265
10.6 Cast Irons 265
10.7 Non-ferrous Alloys 270
10.8 Copper and its Alloys 271
10.9 Aluminium and its Alloys 271
10.10 Nickel Base Alloys 273
10.11 Magnesium and its Alloys 274
10.12 Titanium and its Alloys 275
10.13 Zinc 275
10.14 Refractory Metals 276
10.15 Superalloys 277
10.16 Bearing Metals 277
10.17 Aircraft Materials 278
Multiple Choice Questions 282
Review Questions 283
11. ORGANIC MATERIALS 285
11.1 Introduction 285
11.2 Types of Organic Materials 285
11.3 Types of Polymers 287
11.4 Degree of Polymerization 288
11.5 Geometry of Polymeric Chains 288
11.6 Mechanism of Polymerization 291
11.7 Homopolymerization and Copolymerization 292
11.8 Condensation Polymerization 293
11.9 Additives in Polymers 294
11.10 Strengthening Mechanisms of Polymers 295
11.11 Stereotactic Synthesis 298
11.12 Plastics 299
11.13 Fibers and Filaments 300
11.14 Elastomers and Rubbers 301
11.15 Mechanical and Thermal Behavior of Polymers 303
11.16 Special Purpose Plastics 305
Multiple Choice Questions 308
Review Questions 309
Practice Problems 310
12. CERAMIC MATERIALS 311
12.1 Introduction 311
12.2 Classification of Ceramics 311x Contents
12.3 Refractories 312
12.4 Silicates and Silica 313
12.5 Structure of Glasses 314
12.6 Glasses 315
12.7 Thermal Behavior of Glasses 316
12.8 Lime 318
12.9 Polymorphs of Carbon 319
12.10 Carbon Products and Hard Ceramics 321
12.11 Clay-based Ceramics 323
12.12 Cement 323
12.13 Concrete 325
Multiple Choice Questions 326
Review Questions 327
13. COMPOSITE MATERIALS 329
13.1 Introduction 329
13.2 Types of Composites 329
13.3 Large Particle Composites 330
13.4 Dispersion-strengthened Composites 332
13.5 Fiber-reinforced Composites 332
13.6 Fiber Phase 338
13.7 Matrix Phase 338
13.8 Polymer Matrix Composites 339
13.9 Ceramic Matrix Composites 344
13.10 Carbon–carbon Composites 345
13.11 Metal Matrix Composites 345
13.12 Hybrid Composites 346
13.13 Structural Composites 347
Multiple Choice Questions 350
Review Questions 351
Practice Problems 351
14. WEAR OF MATERIALS 353
14.1 Introduction 353
14.2 History of Friction and Wear 353
14.3 Contact Mechanics 354
14.4 Friction 357
14.5 Measurements 359
14.6 Definition of Wear 361
14.7 Forms of Wear 362Contents xi
14.8 Sliding Contact Wear 362
14.9 Abrasive Wear 364
14.10 Types of Erosion 365
14.11 Surface Fatigue 366
14.12 Protection Against Wear 367
14.13 Hard Facing 370
14.14 Bearings 371
14.15 Lubrication 372
Multiple Choice Questions 375
Review Questions 376
15. CORROSION AND OxIDATION 378
15.1 Introduction 378
15.2 Electrochemical Reaction 378
15.3 Electrochemical Process 379
15.4 Electrolytes 382
15.5 Galvanic Cell 383
15.6 Types of Corrosion 383
15.7 Laws of Corrosion 385
15.8 Corrosion Rate 386
15.9 Dry Corrosion 386
15.10 Rusting of Steel 389
15.11 Various Forms of Corrosion 390
15.12 Factors Affecting Corrosion 394
15.13 Corrosion Fatigue 396
15.14 Corrosion of Ceramic Materials 396
15.15 Degradation of Polymers 396
15.16 Guidelines for Protection Against Corrosion and Oxidation 397
Multiple Choice Questions 401
Review Questions 402
16. THERMAL PROPERTIES 404
16.1 Introduction 404
16.2 Temperature Scale 404
16.3 Melting Point 405
16.4 Heat Capacity 406
16.5 Temperature Dependence of Heat Capacity 408
16.6 Thermal Shock 409
16.7 Thermal Conductivity 410
16.8 Thermal Expansion 413
16.9 Thermal Stresses 417xii Contents
16.10 Materials for High-temperature Applications 420
16.11 Materials for Low-temperature Applications 421
Multiple Choice Questions 423
Review Questions 424
Practice Problems 425
17. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIvITY AND INSULATING PROPERTIES 427
17.1 Introduction 427
17.2 Ohm’s Law 427
17.3 Commonly Used Conducting Materials 430
17.4 High-resistivity Materials 430
17.5 Electron Configuration 431
17.6 Electron Energy Band 432
17.7 Different Types of Band Structures 434
17.8 Band and Atomic Bonding Model for Conduction 436
17.9 Electron Mobility 437
17.10 Electrical Resistivity of Metals 438
17.11 Electronic and Ionic Conduction 440
17.12 Commercial Alloys 441
17.13 Insulation 441
17.14 High-voltage Insulators 441
17.15 Insulation of Antennas 442
17.16 Insulation of Electrical Apparatus 442
17.17 Class I nd Class II Insulation a 442
17.18 Properties of Insulating Materials 443
Multiple Choice Questions 447
Review Questions 448
Practice Problems 449
18. SEMICONDUCTORS 450
18.1 Introduction 450
18.2 Semiconduction 450
18.3 Temperature Effect on Intrinsic Semiconductor 452
18.4 Extrinsic Semiconductors 453
18.5 Hall Effect 455
18.6 Variation of Conductivity with Temperature and
Carrier Concentration 457
18.7 Semiconductor Devices 459
18.8 Infrared Detectors and Photoconductors 462
18.9 Thermoelectrics 463
18.10 Transistors 464
18.11 Microelectronic Circuitry 466Contents xiii
18.12 Applications of Semiconductors 467
Multiple Choice Questions 470
Review Questions 471
Practice Problems 471
19. DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES 473
19.1 Introduction 473
19.2 Dielectric Behaviour 473
19.3 Dipole Moment and Polarization 475
19.4 Polarization of an Electric Field 478
19.5 Frequency Dependence of Dielectric Constant 479
19.6 Effect of Temperature on Dielectric Constant 480
19.7 Dielectric Losses 480
19.8 Dielectric Breakdown 481
19.9 Ferroelectricity 481
19.10 Piezoelectricity 482
19.11 Dielectric Materials 483
19.12 Practical Dielectrics 483
Multiple Choice Questions 485
Review Questions 486
Practice Problems 487
20. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES 488
20.1 Introduction 488
20.2 Magnetism 488
20.3 Magnetic Field Vectors 490
20.4 Magnetization Curves 491
20.5 Ferromagnetism 494
20.6 Ferrimagnetism 496
20.7 Magnetostriction 497
20.8 Effect of Temperature on Magnetic Behaviour 497
20.9 Domains 498
20.10 Hysteresis 499
20.11 Soft Magnetic Materials 500
20.12 Hard Magnetic Materials 501
20.13 Magnetic Storage 503
20.14 Commonly Used Magnetic Materials 503
20.15 Superconductivity 504
Multiple Choice Questions 507
Review Questions 508
Practice Problems 509xiv Contents
21. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 510
21.1 Introduction 510
21.2 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Solids 515
21.3 Reflection and Refraction at the Interface 516
21.4 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 517
21.5 Absorption and Scattering 517
21.6 Colour 519
21.7 Fluorescence, Phosphorescence and Luminescence 520
21.8 Laser 520
21.9 The Fibre Optic Communication 524
Multiple Choice Questions 526
Review Questions 527
Practice Problems 527
INDEx 529 A
Abrasive wear, 362, 364
Absorption, 172, 174, 463, 517, 519, 527
Adhesive, 27, 262, 285, 300, 305, 339, 362, 367,
374, 480
Aerospace technology, 466
Aircraft material, 278, 368
Alkyd, 300
Allotropy, 39
Alloy, 256, 259, 261
application of, 263–264
chromium,15, 17, 21, 30, 251, 257, 259,
261, 265
manganese, 20, 30, 54, 212, 231, 257, 263
miscellaneous, 261–263
molybdenum, 26, 30, 93,130, 144, 262,
338, 344
nickel, 26, 30, 93, 130, 144, 148, 259, 262
silicon, 13, 18, 21, 27, 30, 51, 56, 82, 147,
262, 280
steel, 260–261
types of, 256–257
Aluminum, 271
cast alloy, 256, 271, 275, 398
wrought alloy, 270–273, 279
Amphibole, 444
Annealing, 69, 73, 101, 105, 169, 172, 231, 238,
240, 252
process of, 239
diffusion annealing, 240, 254
spheroidize annealing, 239, 254
full annealing, 238
partial annealing, 238–239
Anti ferromagnetism, 495, 498, 506
Antimonide, 470
Aramid fibre, 285, 301, 307, 340, 342, 350
Asbestos, 340–341, 349, 442, 476, 483, 485
Atomic arrangement, 47, 51, 65
Atomic bonding, 17
Atomic diffusion, 152, 169, 190, 195
Atomic hard spheres model, 29
Atomic packing factor, 29, 48–49, 57, 416
Atomic structure, 1, 16, 18
relation with diffusion, 74, 94, 103, 106, 143,
152–153, 156
Atomic weight, 1
Average relative weight, 1
Avogadro’s number, 2, 14, 19, 36–39, 55, 63,
407, 495
B
Bainite structure, 220–221, 233
Bakelite, 293–294, 300, 429, 473
Barium titanate, 482–483, 485, 487
Basis, 3, 20, 39, 87, 122, 270, 500
Bauschinger’s effect, 92
Bearing metal, 270, 277–278
Behaviour of dislocation, 69, 73
cross slip, 73, 75, 83–85, 135
dislocation climb, 74, 77, 83
dislocation pile up, 73, 75, 80, 83, 92,
105, 118
frank read source, 73, 77–78, 80, 104–105
glide motion, 73, 75
jogs, 73, 76
Binary amorphous alloy, 183–185
eutectic system, 190–192
lead–tin system, 192, 209
lever rule, 185–186, 192–194, 207, 210
Biomedical polymer, 305–307
Blue brittle region, 95
Bohr atomic model, 2, 4, 15
postulates of, 4
INDEX530 Index
Bohr, Neil, 4
Boron nitride, 312, 326, 467
Bragg’s law, 51, 53, 55
Bravais, Miller, 41–42
Bravais crystal structure, 21
Burger’s circuit, 66, 85
Burger’s vector, 66, 85
C
Carbon atom, 39, 56, 63, 97, 106, 321, 393
Cast iron, 110, 138, 200, 202, 208, 257, 265–270,
384, 393, 406, 415
Catalyst, 215, 231, 291, 295, 299, 301, 308, 340,
343, 369
Cation, 25
Cavity, 180, 212
Cement, 311, 323–324
Cementation, 250–251
Centrifugal force, 3, 15
Ceramic material, 26, 29, 311–313, 315, 317
classification of, 311–312
Chain stiffening, 295–296, 307, 309
Chloroprene rubber, 302
Clay, 294, 311–313, 319, 323, 441, 444
Cold work, 77, 87, 94, 98
Colourant, 295, 307, 330–331, 348
Commercial alloy, 235, 427
Composite material, 329, 331, 351, 441
types of, 329
Concrete, 99, 110, 311–312, 324–325, 331, 351,
415–418
Condensation polymerization, 293
Copolymerization, 292–293
Copper, 271, 279
Corrosion, 63, 70, 101, 132, 138, 146, 160,
378, 369
electrochemical process related to, 379–380
factors affecting, 394
fatigue and, 396
form of, 390
laws of, 385
rate of, 386
reaction of, 378–379
types of, 383–384
Corrosion fatigue, 138
Creep, 65, 75, 80, 95, 108, 140, 282, 345, 420
curve, 140–142
stress rupture test, 140, 142, 146
low-temperature and, 143
engineering creep data and, 143–144
resistant alloy in relation to, 144
Crevice, 390–392, 398–401
Critical resolved shear stress, 87, 89–91, 104–106
tensile test on single crystal, 91–92
Cross-linking, 290–291, 295–296, 299, 340, 416
Crystal structure, 17, 29
Crystalline solid, 17–18, 29, 50, 60, 154, 405
Crystallization, 61, 70, 295, 307, 315
Crystallographic direction, 39–41, 51, 55, 89, 414
Crystallographic orientation, 50, 80, 87
Crystallographic plane, 18, 39, 43–44, 55,
89, 136
D
Dealloying, 390, 393, 400, 403
Decarburization, 137, 171, 176
Degree of polymerization, 285–286, 288, 306,
308, 310
mechanism of, 291, 309
Density, 17, 35–39, 48, 322, 408, 490, 524
Diamagnetism, 491–492, 506, 508
Diamond, 17, 26, 35, 39, 55, 89, 104, 117, 119,
312, 319
Dielectric material, 473–474, 478–480, 485,
487, 503
behavior of, 473
breakdown of, 481
loses of, 480
Diffusion, 74, 94, 106, 143, 152, 164, 246,
440, 466
interstitial, 155
vacancy diffusion or substitutional, 155
Diffusion couple, 152–154, 164, 173, 175–176
interstitial, 155–156, 246
law of, 159–160
type of, 155–156
vacancy, 155
Diffusion-controlled application, 169
annealing and normalizing, 169, 171–172
case carburization, 166, 169, 170, 174, 176
conducting ceramic, 169, 171, 176
decarburization, 137–138, 169, 171, 176Index 531
doping of semiconductor, 169, 171
moisture absorption and, 169, 172, 174, 306
optical fibre and, 169, 172, 174, 176,
524–525
sintering and, 169–170, 174, 176, 285,
321–322
turbine blade and, 131, 147, 172, 174, 213,
277, 396, 402
Diffusion flux, 159
Diffusion treatment, 246, 253
carbonitriding, 246, 248, 253, 255, 368, 377
carburizing, 138, 146, 148, 166, 176, 235,
246–247, 368
case depth, 171, 246–248, 251, 369
cyaniding, 246, 248, 253, 368, 377, 398
nitriding, 138, 148, 235, 246–248, 251, 375,
377, 398
Dipole moment, 475
Dispersion-strengthened composite, 332,
349– 351
Domain, 135, 482, 489, 495, 498, 506, 508
Doping, 171, 450
Driving force, 160
Dry corrosion, 378, 383, 386, 399–400, 402
E
Elastomer, 147, 301–303, 307, 331, 341, 362,
415, 421
Electrical conductivity, 26, 166, 171, 174, 313,
319, 427, 462
Electrical resistivity, 438
Electrolyte, 368, 378, 382–384, 391,396, 399,
441, 446
Electromagnetic spectrum, 517, 519
characteristics of, 511
propagation in solid and, 515
waves in relation to, 3, 510, 513
Electron configuration, 2, 11–13, 15, 26, 427, 434
mobility of, 438, 449
Electronegativity, 64, 155
Electronic conduction, 408, 440, 448
microcircuit and, 18, 51
Electrostatic force, 4
End quench test, 243
Energy band, 433–435, 446, 448
Epoxy, 297, 300, 305, 308, 337, 339–340, 342,
346, 416, 443
F
Fabrication technique, 256, 299, 329, 342
Fatigue, 65, 82, 95, 108, 131–132, 367, 369, 374,
396, 402, 421
crack initiation and propagation, 135
factor affecting fatigue behaviour, 137–139
factor for failure of, 132
S–N curve and, 133–134, 146
stress cycle, 132–133, 135–140, 396
understressing, 140
Fatigue strength, 134, 137, 148, 261, 273, 281
Ferrimagnetism, 491, 496, 500, 506, 508
Ferroelectricity, 481, 485–486
Ferromagnetic, 468, 494–495, 477–499, 506–507
FICK’S second law, 161, 163, 174, 176
Fluorescence, 520, 527
Formaldehyde, 290–291, 293–294, 297, 300, 308,
341, 416, 440, 476
Forward bias, 460–461, 464–465, 469, 470, 523
Fracture, 80, 105, 108, 110, 112,121–122
mechanics of, 123
Friction, 357–362
measurement of, 359–361
Fretting, 138, 149, 362–364, 374, 376
Frenkel defect, 62, 85
G
Galling, 368, 375
Galvanic cell, 382–383, 398, 402
Galvanized steel, 278, 384
Gas hole, 212–213, 232
Glass, 280, 315–316, 340
structure of, 314
thermal behavior of, 316–317
Glide strain, 91
Graft copolymer, 297, 308
Grain boundary diffusion, 154
low-angle and, 60, 81, 85
Grain growth, 70, 83, 87, 101, 103, 105, 223, 261
Graphite, 17, 20, 22, 200–202, 208, 266, 313, 320,
384, 412
Griffith theory, 126
H
Hall effect, 450, 455–456, 469, 471
Hardenability, 242–243, 248, 252, 254, 261532 Index
Hardening, 240–242, 250, 252–253, 261, 324,
350, 361
methods of, 244
techniques of, 248–250
Hardness, 117–120, 147, 231, 235, 420
Brinell test, 117–119
dynamic, 117
indentation, 117
indentation, 117–121, 146, 150, 366
microhardness, 120, 149
rebound or dynamic, 117
Rockwell test, 120
scratch, 117, 362
superficial test, 120
Vickers’s test, 119
Heat capacity, 304, 404, 406–409, 422–424
Helium atom, 152
Heterogeneous, 93, 104, 197, 207, 209, 214–215
Hexagonal crystal, 41–43, 46, 55, 58–59
High-resistivity material, 430, 441, 445, 448
Homogeneous phase, 179, 207
Homopolymerization, 292, 307
Hough–Soderberg diagram, 139
Hybrid composite, 329, 346–347, 349, 351
Hydrocarbon molecule, 479
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 360, 371, 374, 376
Hydrogen atom, 2, 4, 7, 16, 26, 131, 285, 292,
382, 517
Hydrogen embrittlement, 131, 148, 258, 263, 275,
281, 390, 393
Hypothetical phase, 224
Hysteresis, 301, 303, 307, 496, 499–500, 506, 508
soft magnetic material and, 501
I
Impact fracture testing, 128
transition, 129–130
Impurity diffusion, 152–153, 166, 171, 173, 176
Infrared detector, 450, 462–463, 467, 469, 471
Insulation, 443–448, 473, 481, 483, 485
antennas and, 442
Class I and Class II, 442–443
electrical apparatus and, 442
Interdiffusion, 153, 173
iron–carbon alloy, 227
bainite, 228
martensite, 228
pearlite, 227
spheroidite, 228
Iron carbon system, 178, 208
phases of Fe and Fe3C, 200–203
Isotopes, 1, 15, 19, 56,
K
Kirkendal effect, 173
Klystron, 510
L
Large particle composite, 330–331, 349–351
Laser, 236, 248, 250, 253, 255, 450, 467,
520–521, 524
applications of, 523–524
carbon dioxide and, 523
dye, 523
HeNe, 522
properties of, 523
ruby and, 521
semiconductor and, 523
Latent heat, 181
Lattice, 17
Laws of diffusion, 159
Lubrication, 360, 374, 376
grease, 372
oil, 372
solid film lubricant, 373
Law of crystallization, 103
Lime, 238, 312, 318, 328, 410
Line defect, 65, 67, 85
Linear atomic density, 48
Luders’ band, 94, 104
Luminescence, 520
M
Macrosegregation, 213
Magnesium alloy, 274, 280, 282
Magnetism, 488, 491
Magnetization curve, 491–492, 500, 502
Magnetostriction, 497, 506, 508
Martensitic transformation, 211, 222, 226, 230–231
Magnetic behaviour, 489, 491, 497
field vector and, 490Index 533
Maxwell, James Clark, 513
Metal matrix composite, 329, 338, 345, 349, 351
Mica, 445
Microelectronic circuitry, 450, 464, 466, 471
Microwave oven, 480
Molecular crystal, 21
Molecular structures, 26, 289, 291, 295, 301, 303,
331, 478
Molybdenum, 26, 30, 93, 130, 269, 276, 281, 312
Monocrystalline, 18
Multiphase transformation, 216
N
Nickel alloy, 273–274, 279, 281, 332, 349, 384,
503–504
Non-ferrous alloy, 134, 256, 270, 279
Normalizing, 69, 169, 171, 227, 235, 240, 252–254
Nucleation, 135–136, 180, 182, 188, 214, 225,
231, 396
O
Ohm’s law, 427
Optic communication system, 527
Organic materials, 82, 130, 354, 443, 467
monomers and, 286
types of, 285–286
Orthorhombic crystal, 50, 57
Oscillating electron, 18
Oxidation, 142, 172, 331, 380, 389, 391, 393, 401
Oxyacetylene gas, 370
P P
aramagnetism, 491, 493, 506, 508
Pearlitic transformation, 217, 226, 231
coarse, 219
fine, 219
Perfluorobutyl ethyl cellulose1, 306
Peritectic reaction, 196–197
Phase diagram, 178, 209, 216, 224, 230, 236
binary, 183
Gibb’s phase rule, 199–200
multiphase, 183
ternary, 183
Phase transformation, 204, 211, 213–217, 231–233
types of, 214
Phosphorescence, 520, 527
Photo conductor, 450
Photoengraving, 466
Piezoelectricity, 482–483, 485–486
Pitting, 138, 273, 361, 391, 400, 403
Plain carbon steel, 95, 119, 248–250, 278, 385, 400
types of, 257
Plastic, 280, 299
thermoplastic, 299
thermosetting, 299
Point defect, 60–61, 63, 83, 95, 107
Schottky, 61
Frenkel, 62
Polymer, 286, 298, 304, 340, 397
additive in, 294–295
deformation of, 297
mechanical and thermal behavior of, 303–304
strengthening mechanism of, 295–297
types of, 287
Polycrystalline, 17–18, 50, 87, 338, 482
Polarization, 394–396, 400, 403, 487
electronic, 478
ionic, 478
orientation and, 479
Polymorphism, 39, 55, 57
Polyurethane, 303, 443
Primary interatomic bonding, 25–29
covalent bonding, 26
ionic bonding, 25
metallic bonding, 27
molecule, 28
Vander Waal’s bonding, 28
Q
Quantum model, 11
R
Radiography, 51
Recovery, 70, 87, 105–107, 143, 239, 304
Recrystallization, 70, 87, 96, 101–107, 142, 233,
239, 254, 275
Redistribution, 188, 195, 204, 292534 Index
Refractory metal, 251, 270, 276, 281, 345, 349, 420
Reinforcement, 228, 325, 329–333, 338, 341, 345
Rubber, 172, 276, 280, 303, 307, 309, 374, 397
Rutherford’s nuclear model, 3
S
Sacrificial polymer coating, 397
Scattering, 4, 408, 411–412, 427, 518, 527
Schottky defect, 61
Scratch, 69, 117, 138
Screw dislocation, 75–76, 83–84, 175
Scuffing, 252, 303, 362–363, 375
Semiconductor device, 87, 450, 459, 462
extrinsic, 453
intrinsic, 451
n–p-type, 455
n-type, 453–454
Segregation, 99, 130, 190, 213, 230, 232, 394
interdendritic, 213
Serpentine, 444
Silica, 39, 125, 150, 172, 175, 294, 312, 408, 412
Silicate, 150, 311–314, 378, 394, 443, 445
Siliconized grade, 320
Slip system, 72, 87, 89, 104–106
HCP crystal and, 89
Sommerfeld–Wilson atomic model, 2, 10, 15
Space lattice, 19–20, 22, 29, 40, 54, 56
Spheroidite, 221, 227–229, 233, 239
Stacking fault, 72
Stereotactic synthesis, 298, 309
Strain ageing, 87, 94 – 95, 104– 106, 130
hardening, 92
Bauschinger’s effect, 92
Strain-free lattice structure, 103, 105
Strain hardening, 77, 80, 87, 136, 271, 350
Stainless steel, 116, 144, 261, 265, 422, 447
applications of, 265
Stress relaxation, 145–146, 149
Stress rupture test, 142
Stretcher strain, 95
Subzero heat treatment, 246
Super alloy, 172, 283, 345
Super conductivity, 504
applications of, 505
Surface diffusion, 154, 176
Synthetic rubber, 286, 302, 307, 444
T
Temper embrittlement, 130, 148, 229, 262
Tempering, 84, 97, 228–231, 245, 255,
260
Tension test, 108, 110
modulus of elasticity, 111
percentage elongation and, 110–111
reduction area and, 111
resilience, 112
tension strength for, 110
toughness and, 112–113
true stress–strain curve, 114
yield strength and, 109–110
Theoretical cohesive strength, 122–123, 126,
146, 149
Thermal conductivity, 268, 271, 410–41, 424
Thermal property, 404
temperature scale of, 404–405
Thermal shock, 270, 313, 322, 345, 409, 412, 416,
422–425
Thermal stress, 404, 409–410, 416–419, 423,
425
Thermoelectric, 450, 463, 470
Thomson model, 2, 15
Thomson, J.J., 1–2
Third close-packed plane, 71
Titanium alloy, 275, 281–282, 505
Toyota diffusion, 250–251, 255
Transformation toughening, 349–350
Transistor, 450, 459, 464–471
junctions and, 464
MOSFET, 465
types of, 464
Twinning plane, 79, 83
U
Unit cell, 17–18, 20, 50, 54, 56, 60
monoatomic, 20, 247, 369
multiatomic, 20–21
V
Varnish, 442–444
asphalt, 444
spirit, 444
Vector model, 2, 11, 15Index 535
Volume imperfection, 60, 82
Vulcanization, 285, 290, 296, 301–302, 307, 309
W
Waspalloy, 277, 281, 283, 420
Wax, 444, 483, 485, 487
Weak electrostatic attraction, 28, 55
Weidemann–Franz law, 411, 422
Whisker, 60, 70, 82, 91, 123, 126, 338, 341, 344
Wrought aluminium alloy, 272–273, 279
Z
Zinc, 17, 30, 32, 37, 56, 93, 95, 271, 275
coating of, 276
Zirconia, 171, 172, 174, 323, 326, 344, 351A
Abrasive wear, 362, 364
Absorption, 172, 174, 463, 517, 519, 527
Adhesive, 27, 262, 285, 300, 305, 339, 362, 367,
374, 480
Aerospace technology, 466
Aircraft material, 278, 368
Alkyd, 300
Allotropy, 39
Alloy, 256, 259, 261
application of, 263–264
chromium,15, 17, 21, 30, 251, 257, 259,
261, 265
manganese, 20, 30, 54, 212, 231, 257, 263
miscellaneous, 261–263
molybdenum, 26, 30, 93,130, 144, 262,
338, 344
nickel, 26, 30, 93, 130, 144, 148, 259, 262
silicon, 13, 18, 21, 27, 30, 51, 56, 82, 147,
262, 280
steel, 260–261
types of, 256–257
Aluminum, 271
cast alloy, 256, 271, 275, 398
wrought alloy, 270–273, 279
Amphibole, 444
Annealing, 69, 73, 101, 105, 169, 172, 231, 238,
240, 252
process of, 239
diffusion annealing, 240, 254
spheroidize annealing, 239, 254
full annealing, 238
partial annealing, 238–239
Anti ferromagnetism, 495, 498, 506
Antimonide, 470
Aramid fibre, 285, 301, 307, 340, 342, 350
Asbestos, 340–341, 349, 442, 476, 483, 485
Atomic arrangement, 47, 51, 65
Atomic bonding, 17
Atomic diffusion, 152, 169, 190, 195
Atomic hard spheres model, 29
Atomic packing factor, 29, 48–49, 57, 416
Atomic structure, 1, 16, 18
relation with diffusion, 74, 94, 103, 106, 143,
152–153, 156
Atomic weight, 1
Average relative weight, 1
Avogadro’s number, 2, 14, 19, 36–39, 55, 63,
407, 495
B
Bainite structure, 220–221, 233
Bakelite, 293–294, 300, 429, 473
Barium titanate, 482–483, 485, 487
Basis, 3, 20, 39, 87, 122, 270, 500
Bauschinger’s effect, 92
Bearing metal, 270, 277–278
Behaviour of dislocation, 69, 73
cross slip, 73, 75, 83–85, 135
dislocation climb, 74, 77, 83
dislocation pile up, 73, 75, 80, 83, 92,
105, 118
frank read source, 73, 77–78, 80, 104–105
glide motion, 73, 75
jogs, 73, 76
Binary amorphous alloy, 183–185
eutectic system, 190–192
lead–tin system, 192, 209
lever rule, 185–186, 192–194, 207, 210
Biomedical polymer, 305–307
Blue brittle region, 95
Bohr atomic model, 2, 4, 15
postulates of, 4
INDEX530 Index
Bohr, Neil, 4
Boron nitride, 312, 326, 467
Bragg’s law, 51, 53, 55
Bravais, Miller, 41–42
Bravais crystal structure, 21
Burger’s circuit, 66, 85
Burger’s vector, 66, 85
C
Carbon atom, 39, 56, 63, 97, 106, 321, 393
Cast iron, 110, 138, 200, 202, 208, 257, 265–270,
384, 393, 406, 415
Catalyst, 215, 231, 291, 295, 299, 301, 308, 340,
343, 369
Cation, 25
Cavity, 180, 212
Cement, 311, 323–324
Cementation, 250–251
Centrifugal force, 3, 15
Ceramic material, 26, 29, 311–313, 315, 317
classification of, 311–312
Chain stiffening, 295–296, 307, 309
Chloroprene rubber, 302
Clay, 294, 311–313, 319, 323, 441, 444
Cold work, 77, 87, 94, 98
Colourant, 295, 307, 330–331, 348
Commercial alloy, 235, 427
Composite material, 329, 331, 351, 441
types of, 329
Concrete, 99, 110, 311–312, 324–325, 331, 351,
415–418
Condensation polymerization, 293
Copolymerization, 292–293
Copper, 271, 279
Corrosion, 63, 70, 101, 132, 138, 146, 160,
378, 369
electrochemical process related to, 379–380
factors affecting, 394
fatigue and, 396
form of, 390
laws of, 385
rate of, 386
reaction of, 378–379
types of, 383–384
Corrosion fatigue, 138
Creep, 65, 75, 80, 95, 108, 140, 282, 345, 420
curve, 140–142
stress rupture test, 140, 142, 146
low-temperature and, 143
engineering creep data and, 143–144
resistant alloy in relation to, 144
Crevice, 390–392, 398–401
Critical resolved shear stress, 87, 89–91, 104–106
tensile test on single crystal, 91–92
Cross-linking, 290–291, 295–296, 299, 340, 416
Crystal structure, 17, 29
Crystalline solid, 17–18, 29, 50, 60, 154, 405
Crystallization, 61, 70, 295, 307, 315
Crystallographic direction, 39–41, 51, 55, 89, 414
Crystallographic orientation, 50, 80, 87
Crystallographic plane, 18, 39, 43–44, 55,
89, 136
D
Dealloying, 390, 393, 400, 403
Decarburization, 137, 171, 176
Degree of polymerization, 285–286, 288, 306,
308, 310
mechanism of, 291, 309
Density, 17, 35–39, 48, 322, 408, 490, 524
Diamagnetism, 491–492, 506, 508
Diamond, 17, 26, 35, 39, 55, 89, 104, 117, 119,
312, 319
Dielectric material, 473–474, 478–480, 485,
487, 503
behavior of, 473
breakdown of, 481
loses of, 480
Diffusion, 74, 94, 106, 143, 152, 164, 246,
440, 466
interstitial, 155
vacancy diffusion or substitutional, 155
Diffusion couple, 152–154, 164, 173, 175–176
interstitial, 155–156, 246
law of, 159–160
type of, 155–156
vacancy, 155
Diffusion-controlled application, 169
annealing and normalizing, 169, 171–172
case carburization, 166, 169, 170, 174, 176
conducting ceramic, 169, 171, 176
decarburization, 137–138, 169, 171, 176Index 531
doping of semiconductor, 169, 171
moisture absorption and, 169, 172, 174, 306
optical fibre and, 169, 172, 174, 176,
524–525
sintering and, 169–170, 174, 176, 285,
321–322
turbine blade and, 131, 147, 172, 174, 213,
277, 396, 402
Diffusion flux, 159
Diffusion treatment, 246, 253
carbonitriding, 246, 248, 253, 255, 368, 377
carburizing, 138, 146, 148, 166, 176, 235,
246–247, 368
case depth, 171, 246–248, 251, 369
cyaniding, 246, 248, 253, 368, 377, 398
nitriding, 138, 148, 235, 246–248, 251, 375,
377, 398
Dipole moment, 475
Dispersion-strengthened composite, 332,
349– 351
Domain, 135, 482, 489, 495, 498, 506, 508
Doping, 171, 450
Driving force, 160
Dry corrosion, 378, 383, 386, 399–400, 402
E
Elastomer, 147, 301–303, 307, 331, 341, 362,
415, 421
Electrical conductivity, 26, 166, 171, 174, 313,
319, 427, 462
Electrical resistivity, 438
Electrolyte, 368, 378, 382–384, 391,396, 399,
441, 446
Electromagnetic spectrum, 517, 519
characteristics of, 511
propagation in solid and, 515
waves in relation to, 3, 510, 513
Electron configuration, 2, 11–13, 15, 26, 427, 434
mobility of, 438, 449
Electronegativity, 64, 155
Electronic conduction, 408, 440, 448
microcircuit and, 18, 51
Electrostatic force, 4
End quench test, 243
Energy band, 433–435, 446, 448
Epoxy, 297, 300, 305, 308, 337, 339–340, 342,
346, 416, 443
F
Fabrication technique, 256, 299, 329, 342
Fatigue, 65, 82, 95, 108, 131–132, 367, 369, 374,
396, 402, 421
crack initiation and propagation, 135
factor affecting fatigue behaviour, 137–139
factor for failure of, 132
S–N curve and, 133–134, 146
stress cycle, 132–133, 135–140, 396
understressing, 140
Fatigue strength, 134, 137, 148, 261, 273, 281
Ferrimagnetism, 491, 496, 500, 506, 508
Ferroelectricity, 481, 485–486
Ferromagnetic, 468, 494–495, 477–499, 506–507
FICK’S second law, 161, 163, 174, 176
Fluorescence, 520, 527
Formaldehyde, 290–291, 293–294, 297, 300, 308,
341, 416, 440, 476
Forward bias, 460–461, 464–465, 469, 470, 523
Fracture, 80, 105, 108, 110, 112,121–122
mechanics of, 123
Friction, 357–362
measurement of, 359–361
Fretting, 138, 149, 362–364, 374, 376
Frenkel defect, 62, 85
G
Galling, 368, 375
Galvanic cell, 382–383, 398, 402
Galvanized steel, 278, 384
Gas hole, 212–213, 232
Glass, 280, 315–316, 340
structure of, 314
thermal behavior of, 316–317
Glide strain, 91
Graft copolymer, 297, 308
Grain boundary diffusion, 154
low-angle and, 60, 81, 85
Grain growth, 70, 83, 87, 101, 103, 105, 223, 261
Graphite, 17, 20, 22, 200–202, 208, 266, 313, 320,
384, 412
Griffith theory, 126
H
Hall effect, 450, 455–456, 469, 471
Hardenability, 242–243, 248, 252, 254, 261532 Index
Hardening, 240–242, 250, 252–253, 261, 324,
350, 361
methods of, 244
techniques of, 248–250
Hardness, 117–120, 147, 231, 235, 420
Brinell test, 117–119
dynamic, 117
indentation, 117
indentation, 117–121, 146, 150, 366
microhardness, 120, 149
rebound or dynamic, 117
Rockwell test, 120
scratch, 117, 362
superficial test, 120
Vickers’s test, 119
Heat capacity, 304, 404, 406–409, 422–424
Helium atom, 152
Heterogeneous, 93, 104, 197, 207, 209, 214–215
Hexagonal crystal, 41–43, 46, 55, 58–59
High-resistivity material, 430, 441, 445, 448
Homogeneous phase, 179, 207
Homopolymerization, 292, 307
Hough–Soderberg diagram, 139
Hybrid composite, 329, 346–347, 349, 351
Hydrocarbon molecule, 479
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 360, 371, 374, 376
Hydrogen atom, 2, 4, 7, 16, 26, 131, 285, 292,
382, 517
Hydrogen embrittlement, 131, 148, 258, 263, 275,
281, 390, 393
Hypothetical phase, 224
Hysteresis, 301, 303, 307, 496, 499–500, 506, 508
soft magnetic material and, 501
I
Impact fracture testing, 128
transition, 129–130
Impurity diffusion, 152–153, 166, 171, 173, 176
Infrared detector, 450, 462–463, 467, 469, 471
Insulation, 443–448, 473, 481, 483, 485
antennas and, 442
Class I and Class II, 442–443
electrical apparatus and, 442
Interdiffusion, 153, 173
iron–carbon alloy, 227
bainite, 228
martensite, 228
pearlite, 227
spheroidite, 228
Iron carbon system, 178, 208
phases of Fe and Fe3C, 200–203
Isotopes, 1, 15, 19, 56,
K
Kirkendal effect, 173
Klystron, 510
L
Large particle composite, 330–331, 349–351
Laser, 236, 248, 250, 253, 255, 450, 467,
520–521, 524
applications of, 523–524
carbon dioxide and, 523
dye, 523
HeNe, 522
properties of, 523
ruby and, 521
semiconductor and, 523
Latent heat, 181
Lattice, 17
Laws of diffusion, 159
Lubrication, 360, 374, 376
grease, 372
oil, 372
solid film lubricant, 373
Law of crystallization, 103
Lime, 238, 312, 318, 328, 410
Line defect, 65, 67, 85
Linear atomic density, 48
Luders’ band, 94, 104
Luminescence, 520
M
Macrosegregation, 213
Magnesium alloy, 274, 280, 282
Magnetism, 488, 491
Magnetization curve, 491–492, 500, 502
Magnetostriction, 497, 506, 508
Martensitic transformation, 211, 222, 226, 230–231
Magnetic behaviour, 489, 491, 497
field vector and, 490Index 533
Maxwell, James Clark, 513
Metal matrix composite, 329, 338, 345, 349, 351
Mica, 445
Microelectronic circuitry, 450, 464, 466, 471
Microwave oven, 480
Molecular crystal, 21
Molecular structures, 26, 289, 291, 295, 301, 303,
331, 478
Molybdenum, 26, 30, 93, 130, 269, 276, 281, 312
Monocrystalline, 18
Multiphase transformation, 216
N
Nickel alloy, 273–274, 279, 281, 332, 349, 384,
503–504
Non-ferrous alloy, 134, 256, 270, 279
Normalizing, 69, 169, 171, 227, 235, 240, 252–254
Nucleation, 135–136, 180, 182, 188, 214, 225,
231, 396
O
Ohm’s law, 427
Optic communication system, 527
Organic materials, 82, 130, 354, 443, 467
monomers and, 286
types of, 285–286
Orthorhombic crystal, 50, 57
Oscillating electron, 18
Oxidation, 142, 172, 331, 380, 389, 391, 393, 401
Oxyacetylene gas, 370
P P
aramagnetism, 491, 493, 506, 508
Pearlitic transformation, 217, 226, 231
coarse, 219
fine, 219
Perfluorobutyl ethyl cellulose1, 306
Peritectic reaction, 196–197
Phase diagram, 178, 209, 216, 224, 230, 236
binary, 183
Gibb’s phase rule, 199–200
multiphase, 183
ternary, 183
Phase transformation, 204, 211, 213–217, 231–233
types of, 214
Phosphorescence, 520, 527
Photo conductor, 450
Photoengraving, 466
Piezoelectricity, 482–483, 485–486
Pitting, 138, 273, 361, 391, 400, 403
Plain carbon steel, 95, 119, 248–250, 278, 385, 400
types of, 257
Plastic, 280, 299
thermoplastic, 299
thermosetting, 299
Point defect, 60–61, 63, 83, 95, 107
Schottky, 61
Frenkel, 62
Polymer, 286, 298, 304, 340, 397
additive in, 294–295
deformation of, 297
mechanical and thermal behavior of, 303–304
strengthening mechanism of, 295–297
types of, 287
Polycrystalline, 17–18, 50, 87, 338, 482
Polarization, 394–396, 400, 403, 487
electronic, 478
ionic, 478
orientation and, 479
Polymorphism, 39, 55, 57
Polyurethane, 303, 443
Primary interatomic bonding, 25–29
covalent bonding, 26
ionic bonding, 25
metallic bonding, 27
molecule, 28
Vander Waal’s bonding, 28
Q
Quantum model, 11
R
Radiography, 51
Recovery, 70, 87, 105–107, 143, 239, 304
Recrystallization, 70, 87, 96, 101–107, 142, 233,
239, 254, 275
Redistribution, 188, 195, 204, 292534 Index
Refractory metal, 251, 270, 276, 281, 345, 349, 420
Reinforcement, 228, 325, 329–333, 338, 341, 345
Rubber, 172, 276, 280, 303, 307, 309, 374, 397
Rutherford’s nuclear model, 3
S
Sacrificial polymer coating, 397
Scattering, 4, 408, 411–412, 427, 518, 527
Schottky defect, 61
Scratch, 69, 117, 138
Screw dislocation, 75–76, 83–84, 175
Scuffing, 252, 303, 362–363, 375
Semiconductor device, 87, 450, 459, 462
extrinsic, 453
intrinsic, 451
n–p-type, 455
n-type, 453–454
Segregation, 99, 130, 190, 213, 230, 232, 394
interdendritic, 213
Serpentine, 444
Silica, 39, 125, 150, 172, 175, 294, 312, 408, 412
Silicate, 150, 311–314, 378, 394, 443, 445
Siliconized grade, 320
Slip system, 72, 87, 89, 104–106
HCP crystal and, 89
Sommerfeld–Wilson atomic model, 2, 10, 15
Space lattice, 19–20, 22, 29, 40, 54, 56
Spheroidite, 221, 227–229, 233, 239
Stacking fault, 72
Stereotactic synthesis, 298, 309
Strain ageing, 87, 94 – 95, 104– 106, 130
hardening, 92
Bauschinger’s effect, 92
Strain-free lattice structure, 103, 105
Strain hardening, 77, 80, 87, 136, 271, 350
Stainless steel, 116, 144, 261, 265, 422, 447
applications of, 265
Stress relaxation, 145–146, 149
Stress rupture test, 142
Stretcher strain, 95
Subzero heat treatment, 246
Super alloy, 172, 283, 345
Super conductivity, 504
applications of, 505
Surface diffusion, 154, 176
Synthetic rubber, 286, 302, 307, 444
T
Temper embrittlement, 130, 148, 229, 262
Tempering, 84, 97, 228–231, 245, 255,
260
Tension test, 108, 110
modulus of elasticity, 111
percentage elongation and, 110–111
reduction area and, 111
resilience, 112
tension strength for, 110
toughness and, 112–113
true stress–strain curve, 114
yield strength and, 109–110
Theoretical cohesive strength, 122–123, 126,
146, 149
Thermal conductivity, 268, 271, 410–41, 424
Thermal property, 404
temperature scale of, 404–405
Thermal shock, 270, 313, 322, 345, 409, 412, 416,
422–425
Thermal stress, 404, 409–410, 416–419, 423,
425
Thermoelectric, 450, 463, 470
Thomson model, 2, 15
Thomson, J.J., 1–2
Third close-packed plane, 71
Titanium alloy, 275, 281–282, 505
Toyota diffusion, 250–251, 255
Transformation toughening, 349–350
Transistor, 450, 459, 464–471
junctions and, 464
MOSFET, 465
types of, 464
Twinning plane, 79, 83
U
Unit cell, 17–18, 20, 50, 54, 56, 60
monoatomic, 20, 247, 369
multiatomic, 20–21
V
Varnish, 442–444
asphalt, 444
spirit, 444
Vector model, 2, 11, 15Index 535
Volume imperfection, 60, 82
Vulcanization, 285, 290, 296, 301–302, 307, 309
W
Waspalloy, 277, 281, 283, 420
Wax, 444, 483, 485, 487
Weak electrostatic attraction, 28, 55
Weidemann–Franz law, 411, 422
Whisker, 60, 70, 82, 91, 123, 126, 338, 341, 344
Wrought aluminium alloy, 272–273, 279
Z
Zinc, 17, 30, 32, 37, 56, 93, 95, 271, 275
coating of, 276
Zirconia, 171, 172, 174, 323, 326, 344, 351


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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى :: المنتديات الهندسية :: منتدى الكتب والمحاضرات الهندسية :: منتدى الكتب والمحاضرات الهندسية الأجنبية-
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