كتاب Introduction to AutoCAD 2024 for Civil Engineering Applications
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
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الرئيسيةالبوابةأحدث الصورالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

شاطر
 

 كتاب Introduction to AutoCAD 2024 for Civil Engineering Applications

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى
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عدد المساهمات : 18769
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Introduction to AutoCAD 2024 for Civil Engineering Applications  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Introduction to AutoCAD 2024 for Civil Engineering Applications    كتاب Introduction to AutoCAD 2024 for Civil Engineering Applications  Emptyالجمعة 12 أبريل 2024, 12:48 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Introduction to AutoCAD 2024 for Civil Engineering Applications
Learning to use AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Projects
Nighat Yasmin
Clemson University

كتاب Introduction to AutoCAD 2024 for Civil Engineering Applications  I_t_a_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 1
1.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1
1.2. ENGINEERING PROBLEM .2
1.3. TECHNICAL DRAWING 2
1.4. DRAWING METHODS 2
1.5. DRAWING STANDARDS .4
1.6. SCALE 4
1.6.1. Type of scale 4
1.6.1.1. Representative Fraction 4
1.6.1.2. Equivalence relation . 5
1.6.1.3. Converting RF to ER 5
1.6.1.4. Graphical representation 6
1.7. SCALE OF A DRAWING .7
1.7.1. Full-scale .7
1.7.2. Large scale 7
1.7.3. Small scale .7
1.8. COMPUTER AIDED GRAPHICS .8
1.8.1. AutoCAD 2024 8
1.8.2. AutoCAD and drawing scale .8
2. GETTING STARTED WITH AUTOCAD 2024 . 11
2.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 11
2.2. INTRODUCTION .12
2.3. FOCUS OF THE BOOK .16
2.4. INITIAL SETUP 17
2.5. TYPICAL WINDOW SCREEN 18
2.6. DRAWING AREA .19
2.6.1. The Model space 20
2.6.2. Paper space and layout .22
2.6.3. Display/hide model and layout tabs 23
2.7. STATUS BAR .24
2.8. THE CURSOR 26
2.8.1. Location of the cursor .27
2.8.2. Size of the intersecting lines 27
2.8.3. Size of the aperture 28
2.8.4. Color of the cursor 28
2.9. WORLD COORDINATE SYSTEM (WCS) .29
2.10. SCROLL BARS .30
2.11. VIEWCUBE 30
2.11.1. ViewCube settings .31
2.11.2. View switching 32
2.12. DRAWING DISPLAY FORMAT 33
2.13. COMMAND LINE WINDOW .35
2.13.1. Move the CLW 35
2.13.2. Display/hide the CLW .36
2.13.3. Resize the CLW .36
2.13.4. Change the color of the CLW .37
2.13.5. Change the font of the CLW 38
2.14. RIBBON 39ii Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
2.14.1. Color scheme . 40
2.14.2. Relocate . 40
2.14.3. Hide the ribbon 42
2.14.4. Display the ribbon 43
2.14.5. States 45
2.14.6. Ribbon’s tab . 46
2.14.6.1. Display or hide tabs . 47
2.14.6.2. Tab relocation 47
2.14.6.3. New tab 48
2.14.7. Ribbon’s panel . 53
2.14.7.1. Panel components 53
2.14.7.2. Display or hide panel . 55
2.14.7.3. Panel relocation 56
2.14.7.4. Floating panel 57
2.14.7.5. Create new panel 58
2.14.7.6. Add panel to a tab 61
2.14.7.7. Add commands to a panel 61
2.15. WORKSPACE 67
2.15.1. Save a workspace . 67
2.15.2. Rename a workspace 68
2.15.3. Switch a workspace 69
2.15.4. Delete a workspace 69
2.16. NEW DRAWING . 71
2.16.1. Drawing units . 73
2.16.1.1. ANSI units . 73
2.16.1.2. ISO units 74
2.16.2. Convert a drawing from ISO to ANSI (and vice versa) 74
2.17. BASICS OF A DRAWING FILE . 76
2.18. DRAWING’S NAME 76
2.19. DATA INPUT FORMAT 77
2.19.1. Length 78
2.19.2. Angle 79
2.19.3. Insertion scale 80
2.20. DRAWING LIMITS 81
2.21. GRID ( ) AND SNAP ( ) COMMANDS . 83
2.21.1. Toggle grid and snap in the Model space 84
2.21.2. Toggle the grid and snap in the layout . 85
2.21.3. Grid properties . 85
2.21.3.1. Grid style . 86
2.21.3.2. Grid spacing . 86
2.21.3.3. Grid behavior . 86
2.21.3.4. Grid color . 87
2.21.4. Snap properties 88
2.21.4.1. Snap spacing 88
2.21.4.2. Polar spacing 88
2.21.4.3. Snap type . 88
2.22. SAVE A FILE 89
2.22.1. Save As 90
2.22.2. Save . 91
2.23. OPEN A PRE-EXISTING FILE 92
2.24. CURRENT FILE . 94
2.25. CLOSE A FILE 94
2.26. EXIT AUTOCAD 96Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications iii
3. TWO-DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS . 99
3.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 99
3.2. INTRODUCTION .100
3.3. DYNAMIC INPUT 100
3.3.1. Toggle dynamic input 101
3.3.2. Components of a dynamic input 101
3.3.2.1. Pointer input . 102
3.3.2.2. Dimension input . 103
3.3.2.3. Dynamic prompts . 105
3.3.3. Drafting tooltip appearance 106
3.4. INPUT DATA .107
3.4.1.1. Tab key 107
3.4.1.2. Comma key 108
3.4.1.3. Less than key 109
3.4.1.4. Remove typing errors from the dynamic input tooltips 109
3.5. REFERENCE SYSTEM 109
3.5.1. Cartesian coordinates .110
3.5.2. Polar coordinates 110
3.5.3. AutoCAD and the coordinate systems .111
3.5.3.1. Absolute Cartesian coordinates 111
3.5.3.2. Relative Cartesian coordinates . 112
3.5.3.3. Absolute Polar coordinates . 113
3.5.3.4. Relative Polar coordinates 113
3.6. LINE 114
3.6.1. Points selection 115
3.6.2. Snap points 116
3.6.3. Cartesian coordinates .117
3.6.4. Polar coordinates 117
3.6.5. Orthogonal command .118
3.7. POLYLINE 120
3.8. CIRCLE 125
3.9. RECTANGLE .134
3.10. POLYGON .140
3.11. ELLIPSE .143
3.12. ELLIPTICAL ARC 148
3.13. CIRCULAR ARC 149
3.14. POINT 149
3.14.1. Change style and size of a point .150
3.14.1.1. Style . 150
3.14.1.2. Point size 150
3.15. POINT MEASURE 151
3.16. REVISION CLOUD 152
3.16.1. RevCloudArcVariance system variable 152
3.16.2. The RevCloud Command 153
3.17. OBJECT APPEARANCE 158
3.17.1. Color Control .159
3.17.1.1. Set color of an object before it is drawn . 159
3.17.1.2. Change color of an object after it is drawn . 160iv Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
3.17.2. Lineweight Control 161
3.17.2.1. Change thickness of a line before it is drawn . 161
3.17.2.2. Change thickness of a line after it is drawn 162
3.17.3. Linetype Control 162
3.17.3.1. Load a linetype . 163
3.17.3.2. Change linetype before an object is drawn 164
3.17.3.3. Change linetype after an object is drawn . 164
3.17.3.4. Linetype scale 165
3.18. TABLE . 167
3.18.1. Create a table . 169
3.18.2. Table resize 169
3.18.3. Modify table’s shape 171
3.18.4. The cursor movement . 174
3.18.5. Insert a multiline text in a cell 174
3.18.6. The data type 175
3.18.7. Populate the table 176
3.18.8. Modify the contents of a table 177
3.18.8.1. Table Style dialog box . 177
3.18.8.2. Table update using the property palette . 183
4. TWO-DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS’ EDITING . 187
4.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 187
4.2. INTRODUCTION 188
4.3. GRIPS . 188
4.3.1. Grips toggle 188
4.3.2. Change the size and color of the grips 189
4.4. OBJECT SELECTION . 190
4.4.1. Method #1: Green Method 190
4.4.1.1. Version #1 (Lasso method) 190
4.4.1.2. Version #2 (Rectangle method) . 191
4.4.2. Method #2: Blue Method 191
4.4.2.1. Version #1 (Lasso method) 191
4.4.2.2. Version #2 (Rectangle method) . 191
4.4.3. Method #3 . 192
4.5. SIMILAR OBJECT SELECTION . 192
4.6. OBJECT DE-SELECTION . 193
4.7. ZOOM CAPABILITIES 193
4.7.1. Zoom window . 193
4.7.2. Zoom scale . 195
4.7.3. Zoom center . 195
4.7.4. Zoom object . 196
4.7.5. Zoom in 196
4.7.6. Zoom out 196
4.7.7. Zoom-wheel . 196
4.7.8. Zoom all . 197
4.8. PAN . 197
4.9. DRAW ORDER . 198
4.9.1. Bring to front . 198
4.9.2. Send to back . 198Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications v
4.10. OBJECT SNAP 198
4.10.1. Toggle object snap 200
4.10.2. Size and color of the object snap cursor .201
4.10.3. Object snap commands .201
4.10.3.1. Endpoint . 202
4.10.3.2. Midpoint . 202
4.10.3.3. Node 203
4.10.3.4. Intersection . 203
4.10.3.5. Extension 204
4.10.3.6. Apparent intersection . 205
4.10.3.7. Center . 205
4.10.3.8. Quadrant . 206
4.10.3.9. Geometric center . 206
4.10.3.10. Tangent 207
4.10.3.11. Perpendicular 208
4.11. THE EDITING COMMANDS 209
4.12. CANCEL 210
4.13. ERASE 211
4.13.1. Erase one object .211
4.13.1.1. Using delete key . 211
4.13.1.2. Using Erase tool . 211
4.13.2. Erase multiple objects simultaneously 211
4.14. UNDO 212
4.14.1. Undo one command 212
4.14.2. Undo several commands .212
4.15. REDO .212
4.15.1. Redo one command .213
4.15.2. Redo several commands 213
4.16. OOPS 213
4.17. DELETE DUPLICATE OBJECTS 214
4.18. COPY .215
4.19. ARRAY .218
4.19.1. Rectangular Array .219
4.19.1.1. Rectangular array’s grip points 223
4.19.2. Polar array .225
4.19.2.1. Fill angle 228
4.19.2.2. Angle between 229
4.19.2.3. Polar array and grip points . 229
4.19.3. Path array 230
4.19.3.1. Path array and grip points . 234
4.19.4. Edit array 234
4.20. MIRROR .235
4.21. OFFSET .237
4.22. MOVE 240
4.22.1. Move in xy-plane .242
4.22.2. Move in z-direction .242vi Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
4.23. ROTATE 243
4.24. SCALE . 245
4.25. STRETCH . 247
4.26. BREAK 249
4.27. BREAK AT A POINT 250
4.28. EXPLODE 251
4.29. JOIN 252
4.29.1.1. Lines 253
4.29.1.2. Circular arc 253
4.29.1.3. Polyline 255
4.29.1.4. Spline . 255
4.29.1.5. Combination of objects 255
4.30. FILLET 256
4.31. CHAMFER 258
4.32. TRIM . 262
4.32.1. Trim: FAQ 264
4.33. EXTEND 265
4.34. POLYLINE EDIT . 267
4.35. GRIPS AND OBJECT EDITING . 272
4.35.1. Select a point 273
4.35.2. Stretch/shrink . 273
4.35.3. Erase 273
4.35.4. Move . 274
4.35.5. Scale . 274
4.35.6. Rotate . 274
4.36. THE PROPERTIES PALETTE AND OBJECT EDITING 275
5. ANNOTATIVE OBJECTS 279
5.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 279
5.2. INTRODUCTION 280
5.3. CHARACTERISTICS OF ANNOTATIVE OBJECTS 280
5.3.1. Add a scale factor to the annotative object’s scale list . 281
5.3.2. Ghost objects 283
5.4. ANNOTATIVE OBJECT’S CREATION PROCESS 284
5.5. TEXT . 285
5.5.1. Multiline versus single line text 285
5.5.2. Standard versus annotative text 285
5.5.3. Annotative text style 286
5.5.3.1. Text style dialog box 287
5.5.4. Create multiline annotative text 289
5.5.5. Text box size 291
5.5.6. Text Editor 293
5.5.6.1. Style . 293
5.5.6.1.1. Font height 294
5.5.6.1.2. Background mask . 294
5.5.6.2. Formatting 295
5.5.6.2.1. Stacked characters 295Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications vii
5.5.6.3. Paragraph . 297
5.5.6.3.1. Justification . 297
5.5.6.3.2. List 298
5.5.6.3.3. Line spacing 298
5.5.6.3.4. Paragraph dialog box 299
5.5.6.4. Insert 300
5.5.6.4.1. Column . 300
5.5.6.4.2. Symbol 300
5.5.6.5. Spell check . 301
5.5.6.6. Tools 301
5.5.6.7. Options . 302
5.5.6.8. Close 303
5.5.7. Annotate tab and Text panel 303
5.5.8. Modify multiline annotative text 304
5.5.9. Delete text style 304
5.5.10. Add the scales to the text properties .304
5.5.11. Annotative text and viewport scale .305
5.5.12. Text relocation 306
5.5.13. Express Tools tab and Text panel .309
5.5.13.1.1. Arc Aligned 309
5.5.13.1.2. Enclose in object 311
5.5.14. Summary of annotative text creation process .312
5.6. HATCH .316
5.6.1. Hatch editor tab .317
5.6.1.1.1. Boundaries 317
5.6.1.1.2. Pattern . 318
5.6.1.1.3. Properties 319
5.6.1.1.4. origin . 320
5.6.1.1.5. Options 320
5.6.1.1.6. Close . 324
5.6.2. Create annotative hatch .324
5.6.3. Add the scales to the hatch properties .326
5.6.4. Update the viewports scales 326
5.7. LEADER LINES .326
5.7.1. Annotative leader style 328
5.7.2. Create annotative leader .329
5.7.3. Add the scales to the leader properties 331
5.7.4. Update the viewports scales 332
5.7.5. Arrow .332
5.7.6. Arrowhead size 333
5.8. ANNOTATION – STATUS BAR BUTTON .334
5.8.1. Annotation visibility .334
5.8.2. Annotation auto scale .335
5.8.3. Annotation Scale 337
5.8.4. Viewport scale sync .337
5.9. CONVERSION OF ANNOTATIVE OBJECT TO NON-ANNOTATIVE .337
6. LAYERS 341
6.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 341
6.2. INTRODUCTION .342
6.3. LAYERS IN AUTOCAD .343
6.4. LAYER COMMAND .344
6.5. LAYER PROPERTIES MANAGER 344viii Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
6.5.1. Characteristics of a layer . 345
6.5.2. Create a new layer . 349
6.5.3. Delete an existing layer . 350
6.5.4. Make a layer to be a current layer 351
6.6. DRAWING AND LAYERS 351
6.7. THE DEFPOINTS LAYER . 351
6.8. MOVE OBJECTS BETWEEN LAYERS . 351
6.9. UPDATE LAYER PROPERTIES . 352
6.10. LAYERS: FAQ . 353
6.11. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE . 354
7. BLOCKS 359
7.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 359
7.2. INTRODUCTION 360
7.3. BASIC BLOCK 360
7.3.1. Create a basic block 361
7.3.2. Block definition dialog box . 361
7.4. WBLOCK 364
7.4.1. Create a Wblock . 364
7.4.2. Write block dialog box 364
7.5. BLOCK WITH ATTRIBUTES 366
7.5.1. The initial setup 366
7.5.2. Attribute definition dialog box 367
7.5.3. Create attributes . 369
7.5.4. Create block with attributes 370
7.5.5. Convert to Wblock 370
7.6. BLOCK WITH TEXT BOXES 371
7.7. BASIC BLOCK INSERTION 373
7.7.1. Insert dialog box . 373
7.7.2. Insert a block with default values 375
7.7.3. Change the scale of the block at the insertion 376
7.7.4. Rotate the block at the insertion . 377
7.7.5. Insert a Wblock . 378
7.7.6. Insert a block with attributes 379
7.7.7. Insert a block with text boxes 380
7.8. COMBINE BLOCKS . 380
7.9. MODIFY BLOCK . 380
7.10. DESIGN CENTER 380
7.10.1. Insert a block (known dimension) 383
7.10.2. Insert a block (unknown dimension) 384
8. LAYOUTS AND TEMPLATE 387
8.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 387
8.1. INTRODUCTION 388
8.2. LAYOUT . 388
8.2.1. Paper background and shadow 388
8.2.2. Printable area . 390
8.2.3. Viewport 393
8.2.3.1. Viewport resizing . 393
8.2.3.2. Multiple viewports . 393Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications ix
8.2.3.3. Non-rectangular viewports . 395
8.2.3.4. Viewport scaling 397
8.2.3.5. Rescale a viewport . 397
8.2.3.6. Lock the scale of a viewport 398
8.3. ADD AN ENTRY IN THE SCALE LIST 400
8.4. LAYOUT MANIPULATION .402
8.4.1. Delete a layout .402
8.4.2. Move a layout 403
8.4.3. Copy a layout .404
8.4.4. Rename a layout 405
8.4.5. Insert a layout 406
8.4.5.1. Default layout . 406
8.4.5.2. Layout from template . 406
8.4.6. Grid and Snap commands 407
8.4.7. An Example 407
8.5. LAYERS FREEZING AND LAYOUTS .409
8.6. OBJECT APPEARANCE AND LAYOUTS 411
8.7. TEMPLATE FILE 412
8.7.1. Landscape template for ISO units 412
8.7.2. Portrait template for ISO units 417
8.7.3. Template for ANSI units 419
8.8. MODIFY ATTRIBUTE OF A BLOCK IN A TEMPLATE FILE 419
9. DIMENSIONS . 421
9.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 421
9.2. INTRODUCTION .422
9.3. DIMENSIONING IN GENERAL 422
9.4. TERMINOLOGY .423
9.5. DIMENSIONS: BASIC RULES 425
9.6. DIMENSIONS STYLES 426
9.6.1. Standard dimensions .426
9.6.2. Annotative dimensions .426
9.7. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE 427
9.8. DIMENSION STYLE MANAGER .428
9.9. MODIFY DIMENSION STYLE DIALOG BOX 429
9.9.1. Lines 430
9.9.2. Symbols and arrows 431
9.9.3. Text 432
9.9.4. Fit 433
9.9.5. Primary units .433
9.9.6. Alternate units .434
9.9.7. Tolerance .434
9.10. MODIFY DIMENSION STYLE .434
9.10.1. Modify dimension style using the dialog box 434
9.10.2. Modify dimension style using the properties palette .434
9.11. DIMENSIONING TECHNIQUES 436
9.11.1. Linear dimensions 436
9.11.1.1. Extension lines . 436
9.11.1.2. Object selection 437
9.11.1.3. Text relocation . 438
9.11.1.4. Space adjustment 439
9.11.2. Aligned dimensions 441
9.11.3. Angular dimensions .441
9.11.3.1. Angles < 180o . 442x Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
9.11.3.2. Angles > 180o 443
9.11.4. Dimensioning radii . 444
9.11.5. Dimensioning circles 445
9.12. CENTER MARK 447
9.12.1. Command line method . 447
9.12.2. Panel method . 449
9.13. SMART DIMENSION . 449
9.14. TYPES OF DIMENSIONS 452
9.14.1. Continue dimension 452
9.14.2. Baseline dimensions 453
9.14.3. Ordinate dimensions . 455
9.14.4. Tabular dimensions 456
9.14.5. Combined dimensions 457
9.15. QUICK DIMENSION 457
9.16. DIMENSIONING FILLETS AND ROUNDS 458
9.17. CENTERLINE 458
9.18. LINE OF SYMMETRY 459
10. TOLERANCE . 461
10.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 461
10.2. INTRODUCTION 462
10.3. TERMINOLOGY 463
10.4. TOLERANCE REPRESENTATIONS 463
10.4.1. Plus-minus method . 463
10.4.1.1. Unilateral . 464
10.4.1.2. Bilateral 464
10.4.1.3. Tolerance expression . 464
10.4.1.4. Unilateral values 464
10.4.1.5. Bilateral values 465
10.4.1.6. Usage of Plus-minus tolerance . 466
10.4.2. Limits tolerance . 466
10.5. STANDARD TOLERANCE 466
10.6. DOUBLE DIMENSIONING 467
10.6.1. Double dimensioning: an error 467
10.6.2. Solution #1 . 468
10.6.3. Solution #2 . 468
10.7. CHAIN AND BASELINE DIMENSION . 468
10.8. TOLERANCE STUDY . 469
10.9. TOLERANCE IN AUTOCAD 470
10.9.1. Tolerance tab . 471
10.9.1.1. Tolerance format 471
10.9.1.2. Tolerance Alignment . 473
10.9.1.3. Zero Suppression . 473
10.9.2. Add or modify tolerance . 474
10.9.2.1. Add or modify tolerance using the dialog box . 474
10.9.2.2. Add or modify tolerance using the property palette . 474
11. LAND SURVEY 477
11.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 477
11.2. INTRODUCTION 478Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications xi
11.3. LOCATION 478
11.3.1. Longitudes 478
11.3.2. Latitudes .478
11.3.3. Location on a map 479
11.4. ANGULAR MEASUREMENT .479
11.4.1. Units of measurement .480
11.4.2. Direction .480
11.4.2.1. Azimuth 480
11.4.2.2. Bearing . 480
11.4.2.3. Relationship between azimuth and bearing 480
11.5. TRAVERSE 481
11.5.1. Open traverse 482
11.5.2. Closed traverse .482
11.5.2.1. Connecting traverse 482
11.5.2.2. Loop traverse 482
11.6. DRAWING A TRAVERSE USING AUTOCAD 483
11.6.1. Traverse for the given azimuths 483
11.6.2. Traverse for the given bearings 486
11.7. ADD DIMENSIONS TO A TRAVERSE 487
11.7.1. Length .487
11.7.2. Add reference line to a traverse 488
11.7.3. Azimuth angle .489
11.7.4. Bearing angle 489
11.7.5. Save the file .489
11.8. PARCEL 489
11.9. DEED 489
11.10. LAND SURVEY 490
11.11. RECTANGULAR SYSTEM .490
11.11.1. Reference lines 490
11.11.2. Township and range .491
11.12. METES AND BOUNDS .494
11.12.1. Land description using metes and bounds 494
11.12.2. AutoCAD And Metes And Bounds .495
11.13. LOTS AND BLOCKS 497
11.13.1. Terminology 497
11.13.2. Lots And Blocks 498
11.13.3. AutoCAD And Lots And Blocks .498
11.13.4. Area of a lot 504
11.13.4.1. Closed boundary method 504
11.13.4.2. Hatch method . 505
11.13.4.3. Area command method 505
12. CONTOURS 509
12.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 509
12.2. INTRODUCTION .510
12.3. CHARACTERISTICS OF A CONTOUR LINE .511
12.4. TERMINOLOGY .511
12.5. AUTOCAD AND CONTOUR MAP 515
12.5.1. Create Script file .516
12.5.2. Create layers .516
12.5.3. Change point style 516
12.5.4. Read the script files 516
12.5.5. Create the contour map 517
12.5.6. Curve fitting 519
12.5.7. Add the labels to the index contours .519xii Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
13. DRAINAGE BASIN . 521
13.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 521
13.2. INTRODUCTION 522
13.3. HYDROLOGIC CYCLE . 522
13.4. TERMINOLOGY 522
13.5. DRAINAGE BASIN OR WATERSHED 524
13.6. DRAINAGE BASIN CHARACTERISTICS 524
13.6.1. Drainage area 524
13.6.2. Drainage basin length 525
13.6.3. Drainage basin slope . 525
13.6.4. Miscellaneous 525
13.7. MAJOR STEPS IN A DRAINAGE BASIN DELINEATION PROCESS 525
13.8. DRAINAGE BASIN DELINEATION USING AUTOCAD 526
14. FLOODPLAINS 537
14.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 537
14.2. INTRODUCTION 538
14.3. TERMINOLOGY 538
14.4. MAJOR STEPS IN A FLOODPLAIN DELINEATION PROCESS . 541
14.5. FLOODPLAIN DELINEATION USING AUTOCAD . 541
15. ROAD DESIGN 557
15.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 557
15.2. INTRODUCTION 558
15.3. PLAN AND PROFILE . 558
15.3.1. Plan 559
15.3.2. Profile 559
15.4. DRAW ROAD PLAN USING AUTOCAD 559
15.5. PLOT A ROAD PROFILE USING AUTOCAD 562
15.6. CROSS-SECTION 567
15.7. DRAW A CROSS-SECTION USING AUTOCAD 568
16. EARTHWORK . 577
16.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 577
16.2. INTRODUCTION 578
16.3. EARTHWORK . 578
16.3.1. Cut 578
16.3.2. Fill 578
16.3.3. Location of a road 578
16.4. SLOPE 578
16.5. ANGLE OF REPOSE 579
16.6. ROAD: PLAN AND EXISTING PROFILE 580
16.7. PROPOSED PROFILE OF A ROAD 580
16.8. DELINEATE THE EARTHWORK USING AUTOCAD . 582
17. FLOOR PLAN 591
17.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 591
17.2. INTRODUCTION 592
17.3. FLOOR PLAN 594
17.4. WALL 594
17.4.1. Exterior 595
17.4.2. Interior . 595
17.4.3. Load bearing 595
17.4.4. Non-load bearing . 595Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications xiii
17.4.5. Wall thickness .595
17.5. DOORS 595
17.5.1. Types of Doors 595
17.5.2. Door sizes .598
17.5.3. Door selection .598
17.5.4. Door appearance in floor plan .598
17.6. WINDOWS 599
17.6.1. Types of windows 599
17.6.2. Window sizes .600
17.6.3. Window selection 600
17.7. STAIR .601
17.7.1. Terminology 601
17.7.2. Important points 602
17.7.3. Types of stairs .603
17.8. BASICS OF FLOOR PLAN DESIGN 603
17.9. DESIGN TECHNIQUE .605
17.10. AUTOCAD AND FLOOR PLAN 605
17.10.1. New file .606
17.10.2. The input units 606
17.10.2.1. Architectural 606
17.10.2.2. Precision . 606
17.10.3. Load linetypes .606
17.10.4. Orthogonal lines .607
17.10.5. Layers .607
17.10.6. The floor plan .607
17.10.6.1. Exterior wall . 607
17.10.6.2. Interior walls 609
17.10.6.3. Label 610
17.10.6.4. Doors 610
17.10.6.5. Walls cleanup . 613
17.10.6.6. Windows 614
17.10.6.7. Wall hatch 616
17.10.6.8. Roofline 616
17.10.6.9. Front porch . 617
17.10.6.10. Back patio . 618
17.10.6.11. Kitchen 618
17.10.6.12. Master bathroom . 621
17.10.6.13. Other bathroom . 624
17.10.6.14. North direction 624
17.10.6.15. The complete floor plan 624
17.11. DIMENSIONING AN ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING 624
17.11.1. Create Layers .625
17.11.2. Set Dimension Style dialog box 625
17.11.3. Add dimensions to the floor plan 627
18. ELEVATIONS 635
18.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 635
18.2. INTRODUCTION .636
18.3. ROOF 638
18.3.1. Terminology 638
18.3.2. Types of roofs 638
18.3.3. Important points 638
18.4. AUTOCAD AND ROOF PLAN 639
18.4.1. Open file .639
18.4.2. Load linetypes .639
18.4.3. Layers .639
18.4.4. The roof plan 640xiv Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
18.5. THE FRONT ELEVATION . 643
18.5.1. Open file . 643
18.5.2. Load linetypes 643
18.5.3. Orthogonal lines 643
18.5.4. Layers . 643
18.5.5. Draw the front elevation 644
18.5.5.1. Ground level 644
18.5.5.2. Slab level . 645
18.5.5.3. Doors . 645
18.5.5.4. Windows 647
18.5.5.5. Front wall . 650
18.5.5.6. Roof . 651
18.5.5.7. Front porch . 653
18.5.5.8. Landscaping . 654
18.5.5.9. Complete front elevation 654
18.6. THE RIGHT-SIDE ELEVATION 655
18.6.1. Open file . 655
18.6.2. Load linetypes 656
18.6.3. Layers . 656
18.6.4. Orthogonal lines 656
18.6.5. Miter line 657
18.6.6. Ground and slab level 657
18.6.7. Windows . 658
18.6.8. Wall 660
18.6.9. Roof 660
18.6.10. Complete right-side elevation 664
18.6.11. Front and right-side elevations 665
18.7. BACK AND LEFT-SIDE ELEVATIONS 665
19. SITE PLAN . 667
19.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 667
19.2. INTRODUCTION 668
19.3. TERMINOLOGY 668
19.4. COMPONENTS OF A SITE PLAN 668
19.5. AUTOCAD AND SITE PLAN . 669
19.5.1. Open file . 669
19.5.2. Layers . 671
19.5.3. Units . 671
19.5.4. Load linetypes 671
19.5.5. Property line 672
19.5.6. North 673
19.5.7. Ground slope 673
19.5.8. Setbacks . 674
19.5.9. Road . 675
19.5.10. Adjacent properties 676
19.5.11. Building 677
19.5.12. Driveway 678
19.5.13. Walkway . 679
19.5.14. Swimming pool . 681
19.5.15. Utilities . 683
19.5.16. Template file . 684
20. CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS 687
20.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 687
20.2. INTRODUCTION 688
20.3. DRAWING FORMAT 688Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications xv
20.4. BLOCKS USED 688
20.5. FAMILY OF CONSTRUCTION DRAWING 690
20.5.1. Cover sheet .690
20.5.2. General information .690
20.5.3. Quantity sheet .690
20.5.4. Survey or mapping 691
20.5.5. Soil information 691
20.5.6. Erosion control .691
20.5.7. Landscape drawings .692
20.5.8. Structural drawings 692
20.5.9. Fire protection drawings 692
20.5.10. Architectural drawings .692
20.5.11. Plumbing drawings .692
20.5.12. Mechanical drawings 692
20.5.13. Electrical drawings .693
20.5.14. Telecommunication drawings .693
20.5.15. Plan and profile drawings 693
21. PLOTTING FROM AUTOCAD 2024 695
21.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 695
21.2. INTRODUCTION .696
21.3. PRINT .696
21.3.1. Plot dialog box 698
21.3.1.1. Page setup 698
21.3.1.2. Printer/plotter . 699
21.3.1.3. Paper size . 699
21.3.1.4. Plot area . 700
21.3.1.5. Plot offset . 705
21.3.1.6. Plot scale 705
21.3.1.7. Shaded viewport options 706
21.3.1.8. Plot options 707
21.3.1.9. Drawing orientation . 708
21.3.1.10. Preview 709
21.3.1.11. Plot to layout 709
21.3.1.12. OK and cancel 709
21.4. PLOT FROM LAYOUTS 710
21.5. CHANGE LAYOUT’S ORIENTATION .712
21.6. PAGE SETUP FROM LAYOUTS .715
21.7. LAYOUT PLOTTING: FAQ .717
21.8. EMAIL DWG FILE 718
21.9. PORTABLE DOCUMENT FORMAT (PDF) .718
21.9.1. Create a PDF file 718
21.9.2. Import a PDF file into AutoCAD 721
21.10. OPTION DIALOG BOX .723
22. EXTERNAL REFERENCE FILES (XREF) . 725
22.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 725
22.2. INTRODUCTION .726
22.3. AUTOCAD AND REFERENCING AN EXTERNAL FILE 726
22.3.1. Attach command .726
22.3.2. Attach external reference dialog box 727
22.3.2.1. Name 727
22.3.2.2. Preview 728
22.3.2.3. Reference type 728
22.3.2.4. Scale . 728
22.3.2.5. Insertion point 729xvi Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
22.3.2.6. Path type 729
22.3.2.7. Rotation 729
22.3.2.8. Block unit . 729
22.3.3. File attachment 729
22.3.4. Unreconciled layers . 731
22.4. REFERENCE AN IMAGE FILE 732
22.5. REFERENCE A PDF FILE 733
22.6. CLIP . 735
22.7. REMOVE CLIP . 737
22.8. FILE UPDATE . 737
22.9. VIEW REFERENCE FILES 738
22.9.1. External Reference Palette . 739
22.9.1.1. Attach . 740
22.9.1.2. Refresh . 740
22.9.1.3. Change path . 740
22.9.1.4. Help 740
22.9.1.5. Details 740
22.9.1.6. Preview . 740
22.10. OPEN A REFERENCED FILE 740
22.11. DETACH A REFERENCED FILE . 741
23. SUGGESTED IN-CLASS ACTIVITIES 743
23.1. INTRODUCTION 743
23.2. DOWNLOAD AUTOCAD 2024 744
23.3. CUSTOMIZE A WORKSPACE . 745
23.4. LINE AND ERASE COMMANDS GRID & SNAP CAPABILITIES 746
23.5. LINE (ORTHO), POLYLINE, ERASE, OFFSET, AND JOIN . 748
23.6. POINT, CIRCLE, POLYGON, MOVE, TRIM, EXTEND, AND ZOOM . 750
23.7. OBJECT APPEARANCE 754
23.8. OBJECT APPEARANCE, HATCH, COPY, MIRROR, AND SCALE . 756
23.9. ELLIPSE, ARRAY, MIRROR, TEXT, QLEADER, AND DRAW ORDER 758
23.10. LAYERS . 760
23.11. MAKE & INSERT BLOCK, AND TEMPLATE FILES 762
23.12. CREATE LAYOUTS AND CREATE VIEWS BY FREEZING LAYERS 764
23.13. DIMENSION 768
23.14. AZIMUTHS, BEARING, AND CLOSED TRAVERS . 770
23.15. CLOSED TRAVERS 772
23.16. LOTS AND BLOCKS 774
23.17. ROTATE, TEXT, BACKGROUND MASK COMMANDS AND CONTOUR MAP . 776
23.18. DRAINAGE BASIN DELINEATION . 778
23.19. FLOODPLAIN DELINEATION . 780
23.20. ROAD DESIGN: PLAN AND PROFILE . 784
23.21. ROAD DESIGN: CROSS-SECTIONS 786
23.22. ROAD DESIGN: EARTHWORK . 788
23.23. FLOOR PLAN 790
23.24. FLOOR PLAN (CONT.) 792
23.25. DIMENSIONS (ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING) . 796
23.26. ROOF PLAN 800
23.27. FRONT ELEVATION 802
23.28. RIGHT SIDE ELEVATION 804
23.29. SITE PLAN . 806Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications xvii
23.30. TABLES 808
24. HOMEWORK DRAWINGS . 811
24.1. GRID-1 (UNITS: INCHES) 811
24.2. GRID-2 (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) 812
24.3. CIRCLES (UNITS: INCHES) 812
24.4. LIGHT SIGNAL (UNITS: INCHES) .813
24.5. PLATE WITH HOLES (UNITS: INCHES) .814
24.6. CIRCLE-TTR (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) .814
24.7. BRIDGE PIER (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) .815
24.8. OBJECT PROPERTIES (UNITS: INCHES) 815
24.9. PIPE CUTTER (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) .816
24.10. POLYGONS AND CIRCLES (UNITS: INCHES) 816
24.11. RECTANGULAR ARRAY (UNITS: INCHES) .817
24.12. POLAR ARRAY (UNITS: INCHES) .817
24.13. MIRROR, COPY, AND SCALE (UNITS: INCHES) 818
24.14. SPIRAL OF ARCHIMEDES (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) .820
24.15. ELEVATOR SYSTEM (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) .822
24.16. FERRIS WHEEL (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) 826
25. BIBLIOGRAPHY . 829
26. INDEX 833
26. Index
A
Angular measurement, 479
Azimuth, 480, 504, 505
Bearing, 480
Conversion, 480
Units, 480
Annotation, 285
Convert annotative to non-annotative, 337
Hatch, 316, 324
Qleader, 326
Status bar button, 334
Text, 285
Annotative, 280
Leader style dialog box, 286
Text style dialog box, 328
Annotative Objects, 280
Add scale to scale list, 281
Characteristics, 280
Creation And Display Process, 284
Ghost objects, 283
Area of a lot, 504
Array, 218
Edit, 234
Path, 230
Grip points, 234
Polar, 225
Angle between, 229
Fill angle, 228
Rectangular, 219
Grip points, 223
Arrow, 332
Arrow head size, 333
AutoCAD, 89
Start, 12
Azimuth, 480, 483, 489, 504, 505
B
Bearing, 480, 486, 489
Blocks, 360
Attributes, 366
Basic, 360
Combine, 380
Convert to wblock, 370
Create, 361
Design center, 380
Insert
Default values, 375
Known dimensions, 383
Unknown dimensions, 384
Insert dialog box, 373
Modify, 380
Text, 371
Update attribute, 419
Wblock, 364
Break, 249
Break at a point, 250
C
Cancel, 210
Center mark, 447
Centerline, 447, 458, 459
Chamfer, 258
Circle, 125
Diameter, 126, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158
Radius, 126, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158
Tangent, tangent, radius, 130
Tangent, tangent, tangent, 132
Three points, 128
Two points, 127
Circular Arc, 149
Command line, 35
Color, 37
Display, 36
Font, 38
Hide, 36
Move, 35
Resize, 36
Contour, 510
AutoCAD, 515
Characteristics, 511
Curve fitting, 519
Depression, 513
Index contour, 512
Intermediate contour, 512
Labels, 519
Peak, 513
Ridge, 514
Saddle, 513
Script file, 516
Slope, 513
Stream, 514
Supplementary contour, 512
Terminology, 511
Coordinate systems, 109
AutoCAD, 111
Cartesian coordinates, 110
Absolute, 111
Relative, 112834 Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
Polar coordinates, 110
Absolute, 113
Relative, 113
Copy, 215
Cursor, 26
Customization, 24
D
Data input format, 77
Angle, 79
Insertion scale, 80
Length, 78
Deed, 489
Design Center, 380
Dimensions, 422
Aligned, 441
Angular, 441
Angle < 180o, 442
Angle > 180o, 443
Annotative, 426
Basic Rules, 425
Center mark, 447
Centerline, 447
Circle, 445
Dimension Style Manager, 428
Example, 427
Extension Lines, 436
Fillets, 458
Linear, 436
Modify styles, 429
Arrow, 431
Center mark, 431
Lines, 430
Text, 432
Tolerance, 434
Units, 433
Modify using dialog box, 434
Modify using property palette, 434
Object selection, 437
Quick dimensions, 457
Radii, 444
Rounds, 458
Smart dimensions, 449
Space adjustment, 439
Standard, 426
Standard vs Annotative, 426
Terminology, 423
Text relocation, 438
Types of dimensions, 452
Baseline, 453
Combined, 457
Continue, 452
Ordinate, 455
Tabular, 456
Doors, 595
Door appearance, 598
Selection, 598
Size, 598
Types, 595
Drafting & Annotation Interface, 16
Switch, 16
Workspace, 18
Drainage basin, 524
Area, 524
Delineation steps, 525
Delineation using AutoCAD, 526
Length, 525
Miscellaneous, 525
Slope, 525
Draw order, 198
Bring to front, 198
Send to back, 198
Drawing, 19
ANSI units, 73
ANSI-ISO conversion, 74
Area, 19
Display format, 33
ISO units, 74
Limits, 81
Name, 76
New, 71
Drawing methods, 2
Drawing standards, 4
Dynamic input, 100
Components, 101
Dimension input, 103
Dynamic prompts, 105
Pointer input, 102
Drafting tooltip appearance, 106
On/Off, 101
E
Earthwork, 578
Angle of repose, 579
AutoCAD, 582
Cut, 578
Fill, 578
Road location, 578
Slope, 578
Elevation, 636
Front and AutoCAD, 643
Right side and AutoCAD, 655
Ellipse, 143
Elliptical Arc, 148
Email drawing file, 718
Erase, 211
Existing profile of a road, 580
Explode, 251
Extend, 265
F
File, 76Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications 835
Basic, 76
Close, 94
Current, 94
Open, 92
Save, 89
Fillet, 256
Floodplain, 538
Delineation step, 541
Delineation using AutoCAD, 541
Terminology, 538
Floor plan, 594
AutoCAD, 605
Back porch, 618
Design Basic, 603
Design techniques, 605
Dimension, 624
Doors, 610
Exterior wall, 607
Front porch, 617
Interior wall, 609
Label, 610
North, 624
Roofline, 616, 624
Windows, 613, 614
G
Grid, 83
Behavior, 86
Color, 87
Properties, 85
Spacing, 86
Style, 86
Toggle (Layout), 85
Toggle (Model space), 84
Grips, 188
Color, 189
Object editing
Erase, 273
Move, 274
Resize, 273
Rotate, 274
Scale, 274
Selection, 273
Size, 189
Toggle, 188
H
Hatch, 316
Annotation, 324
Boundaries, 317
Hatch creation, 317
Hatch edit, 320, 324
Options, 320, 324
Pattern, 318
Properties, 319
Hydrograph, 540
Discharge, 540
Stage, 540
Station-Stage, 540
Hydrologic cycle, 522
Terminology, 522
I
Input data, 107
Comma key, 108
Less than key, 109
Tab key, 107
Typing error, 109
J
Join, 252
Circular arc, 253
Combination, 255
Line, 253
Polyline, 255
Spline, 255
L
Latitudes, 478
Layers, 343
Characteristics, 345
Command, 344
Create, 349
Current, 351
Defpoints, 351
Delete, 350
Drawing with layers, 351
Example, 354
FAQ, 353
Manager, 344
Move object, 351
Update, 352
Layout, 22, 388
Background, 388
Change orientation, 712
Copy, 404
Delete, 402
Display tabs, 23
Grid, 407
Hide tabs, 23
Insert
Default layout, 406
From template file, 406
Layer example, 407
Layer freeze, 409
Move, 403
Object appearance, 411
Page setup, 715
Plot, 710836 Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
Printable area, 390
Rename, 405
Snap, 407
Leader
Create annotative Qleader, 329
Leader
Annotative
Leader style dialog box, 286
QLeader style dialog box, 286
Create annotative leader, 329
Leader lines, 326
Arrow, 332
Arrow head size, 333
Line, 114
Orthogonal line, 118, 150, 151
Points section, 115
Polar coordinate, 117
Snap points, 116
Line of symmetry, 458, 459
Linetype scale, 165
Longitudes, 478
Lots and blocks, 498
Area, 504
AutoCAD, 498
Terminology, 497
M
Metes and bounds, 494
Mirror, 235
Model space, 20
Move, 240
In xy-plane, 242
In z-direction, 242
O
Object Appearance, 158
Color, 159
Linetype, 162
Lineweight, 161
Object de-selection, 193
Object selection, 190
Object selection – select similar, 192
Object snap, 198
Apparent Intersection, 205
Center, 205, 206
Endpoint, 202
Extension, 204
Intersection, 203
Midpoint, 202
Perpendicular, 208
Quadrant, 206
Tangent, 207
Toggle, 200
Offset, 237
Oops, 213, 214
Orthographic views, 592
P
Page setup:, 715
Pan, 197
Panel, 53
Add commands, 61
Command expender, 55
Display, 55
Expender, 53, 54, 55
Floating, 57
New, 58
Relocate, 56
Paper space, 22
Parcel, 489
PDF
Create, 718
Import, 721
Plan of a road, 580
Plot, 696
Layout, 710
Layout plotting problems, 717
OK and cancel, 709
Option dialog box, 723
Orientation, 708
Page setup, 698
Page setup, 715
Paper size, 699
Plot area, 700
Display, 700
Extents, 704
Layout, 704
Limits, 702
Window, 702
Plot Offset, 705
Plot options, 707
Plot scale, 705
Plot to layout, 709
Preview, 709
Printer, 699
Shaded viewport options, 706
Plot dialog box, 698, 740
Point, 149
Point measure, 545, 569
Point Measure, 151
Point Size, 150
Point Style, 150
Pointer, 26
Polygon, 140
Polyline, 120
Angle, 121
Arc, 121
CEnter, 122
Direction, 123
Halfwidth, 124
Polyline edit, 267
Close, 268Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications 837
Decurve, 271
Edit vertex, 271
Fit, 271
Join, 269
Open, 269
Spline, 271
Undo, 272
Width, 270
Print, 696
Properties Palette
Object editing, 275
Proposed profile of a road, 580
Q
Qleader lines, 326
Arrow, 332
Arrow head size, 333
R
Rectangle, 134
Rectangular system, 490
Range, 491
Township, 491
Redo, 212
Reference system, 109
Cartesian coordinates, 110
Absolute, 111
Relative, 112
Polar coordinates, 110
Absolute, 113
Relative, 113
Revision Cloud, 152, 153
RevCloudArcVariance, 152
Ribbon, 39
Color, 40
Display, 43
Hide, 42
Move, 40
Panel, 53
Add commands, 61
Command expender, 55
Components, 53
Display, 55
Expender, 53, 54, 55
Floating, 57
New, 58
Relocate, 56
States, 45
Tab, 46
Add panel, 61
Display, 47
Hide, 47
New, 48
Relocate, 47
Road design, 558
Cross-section, 567
Cross-section and AuotCAD, 568
Plan, 559
Plan and AuotCAD, 559
PnP, 558
Profile, 559
Profile and AuotCAD, 562
Roof, 638
Roof plan, 639
Terminology, 638
Types, 638
Rotate, 243
S
Scale, 4, 245
AutoCAD, 8
Conversion, 5
Equivalence relation, 5
Full, 7
Graphical representation, 6
Large, 7
Representative Fraction, 4
Small, 7
Type, 4
Scale list, 400
Add an entry, 400
Scroll bars, 30
Site plan, 668
AutoCAD, 669
Component, 668
Terminology, 668
Snap, 83
Polar spacing, 88
Properties, 88
Spacing, 88
Toggle (Layout), 85
Toggle (Model space), 84
Type, 88
Stair, 601
Terminology, 601
Types, 603
Status bar, 24
Customization, 24
Status bar button
Annotation, 334
Stretch, 247
T
Tab, 46
Add panel, 61
Display, 47
Hide, 47
New, 48
Relocate, 47
Table, 167838 Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
Create, 169
Cursor movement, 174
Data type, 175
Dialog box, 169
Modify contents, 177
Multiline text, 174
Populate, 176
Property palette, 183
Reshape, 171
Resize, 169
Style dialog box, 177
Technical Drawing, 2
Template file, 412
Create Landscape, 412
Create Portrait, 417
Update title block, 419
Text, 285
Annotate tab, 303
Annotative
Text style dialog box, 328
Arc aligned, 309
Background mask, 294
Column, 300
Create multiline annotative text, 289
Create multiline text, 289
Delete text style, 304
Enclose in object, 311
Express tools, 309
Insert, 300
Justification, 297
Line spacing, 298
List, 298
Modify multiline text, 304
Multiline vs single line, 285
Options, 302
Paragraph, 297
Paragraph dialog box, 299
Spell check, 301
Stacked characters, 295
Standard vs annotative text, 285
Summary of text creation process, 312
Symbol, 300
Text box size, 291
Text editor, 293
Background mask, 294
close, 303
Column, 300
Font height, 294
Format, 295
Line spacing, 298
List, 298
Options, 302
Paragraph, 297, 299
Spell check, 301
Stacked character, 295
Style, 293
Symbol, 300
Tools, 301
Tools, 301
Viewport scale, 305
Tolerance, 462
Add or Modify, 474
Using dialog box, 474
Using properties palette, 474
AutoCAD, 470
Chain and baseline dimension, 468
Double dimensioning, 467
Limits, 466
Plus-minus, 463
Bilateral, 464
Expression, 464
Unilateral, 464
Usage, 466
Representations, 463
Standard, 466
Terminology, 463
Tolerance study, 469
Tolerance tab, 471
Traverse, 481
Add dimension, 487
Add NS to traverse, 488
AutoCAD, 483
Azimuth, 483, 489
Display, 489
Draw, 483
Bearing, 486, 489
Display, 489
Draw, 486
Closed, 482
Open, 482
Trim, 262
FAQ, 264
U
Undo, 212
V
ViewCube, 30
Setting, 31
Switching, 32
Viewport, 393
Lock scale, 398
Multiple, 393
Non-rectangular, 395
Rescale, 397
Resize, 393
Scale, 397
W
Wall, 594
Exterior, 595
Interior, 595Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications 839
Load bearing, 595
Non-load bearing, 595
Thickness, 595
Watershed, 524
Window, 599
Selection, 600
Size, 600
Types, 599
Working drawing, 688
Workspace, 67
Delete, 69
Rename, 68
Save, 67
Switch, 69
World Coordinate System, 29
X
Xref, 726
Attach drawing file, 726
Attach external reference dialog box, 727
Clip, 735
Detach referenced file, 741
File update, 737
Image file, 732
Open referenced file, 740
PDF file, 733
Remove clip, 737
Unreconciled layers, 731
View reference files, 738
Z
Zoom, 193
Zoom center, 195
Zoom object, 196
Zoom scale, 195
Zoom window, 193
Zoom-all, 197
Zoom-in, 196
Zoom-out, 196
Zoom-wheel, 196

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