كتاب Management - Leading & Collaborating in a Competitive World
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Management - Leading & Collaborating in a Competitive World

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Management - Leading & Collaborating in a Competitive World    كتاب Management - Leading & Collaborating in a Competitive World  Emptyالجمعة 12 أبريل 2024, 12:15 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Management - Leading & Collaborating in a Competitive World
Thomas S. Bateman
McIntire School of Commerce University of Virginia
Scott A. Snell
Darden Graduate School of Business University of Virginia

كتاب Management - Leading & Collaborating in a Competitive World  M_l_a_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Chapter 1
• New Management Connection about Jeff Bezos of
Amazonviii Preface
Chapter 7
• New Management Connection about Popchips
• New list of entrepreneurs in their 20s (Table 7.2)
• New example of Limor Fried, founder of Adafruit
Industries
• New examples of SpaceX and Bigelow Aerospace
• New examples of itMD and Care at Hand—health
care technology companies receiving grants in an
area of new demand
• New In Practice about 3Cinteractive
• New example of Zipcar
• Material on financial needs of a start-up collected
in one section, with the addition of material about
crowdfunding expansion under the JOBS Act
of 2012
• New In Practice about David Karp, founder of
Tumblr
• New example of Neema Bahramzad and Caitlin
Bales, founders of Locabal
• New Concluding Case: ScrollCo
Chapter 8
• New Management Connection about General
Motors
• New In Practice about Coca-Cola’s board of
directors
• New example of outside directors helping companies
during the Great Recession
• New example of Time Warner Cable
• New example of San Francisco Federal Credit Union
• New In Practice about enterprise social networks
Chapter 9
• New Management Connection about General
Electric
• Updated Walmart example
• New In Practice about Hewlett-Packard
• New example of DreamWorks Animation
• New In Practice about clothing customization by
eShakti and Bow & Drape
• New example of Toyota
• New example of Japanese companies revisiting their
approach to just-in-time, following the earthquake
and tsunami’s impact
• New example of R. A. Jones & Co.
• New example of New York Community Bancorp
• New In Practice about the Bill and Melinda Gates
Foundation
• New example of Procter & Gamble, including
A. G. Lafley on importance of strategy
• New example of Zappos.com
• New example of QlikTech, including sample graphic
for a SWOT analysis
• New example of General Electric
• New In Practice about Valve’s online distribution of
video games at the Steam website
• New example of Bloomin’ Brands
• New example of Spirit Airlines
• New Concluding Case: Wish You Wood
Chapter 5
• New Management Connection about IBM (including Smarter Planet initiative)
• New In Practice fictional example of an ethical dilemma at a sign company
• New example applying ethical principles to decisions
about fracking
• New Table 5.2 with updated current examples of
ethical issues in business, including health care, social media, and telework
• New In Practice about Red Frog Events
• New Table 5.4 of Unisys Corporation’s code of
ethics
• New example of Siemens
Chapter 6
• New Management Connection about Lenovo
• New examples (e.g., General Motors) of Chinese
manufacturing shifting toward more skilled manufacturing aimed at serving its growing middle class
• South America information updated to include
growth beyond Brazil
• New example of IBM finding opportunities in Africa
• New example of Cinnabon in the Middle East and
Russia
• New In Practice about Starbucks
• New example of Panasonic
• New example of U.S. tariffs on Chinese solar panels
• New In Practice about Celtel
• New Concluding Case: Net-Work DocsPreface ix
• New example of Northeast Georgia Health System
• New In Practice about RescueTime auto-analytics
for performance feedback
• New example of Parasole restaurant group
• New example of Plante Moran accounting firm
• New In Practice about Mars Inc.
Chapter 14
• New Management Connection about Whole Foods
Market
• New example of FLEXcon
• New example of Game Freak
• New example of Lockheed Martin
• New example of trend toward rapid team formation
• New In Practice about Menlo Innovations
• New example of National Information Solutions
Cooperative
• New In Practice about Stand Up to Cancer Dream
Teams
• New Concluding Case: Excel Pro Drilling Systems
Chapter 15
• New Management Connection about Yahoo
• New example of Cisco
• New example of misperception when communicating with high-tech workers
• Updated emphasis on social media in discussion of
electronic media as a communications channel
• New IBM example of managing excessive e-mail
• New In Practice about Automattic
• New example of Exelon
• New In Practice about communications by Kaiser
Permanente’s CEO
• New example of listening
• New example of horizontal communication at
National Public Radio
Chapter 16
• New Management Connection about Best Buy
• New example of La-Z-Boy
• New example of BP
• New In Practice about McDonald’s
• New description of after-action reviews
• New example of Virginia Mason Medical Center
Chapter 10
• Updated Management Connection about Google
• New examples of Johnson & Johnson, Colgate
• New example of Ford Motor Company
• Updated Figure 10.2
• New In Practice about use of big data by Xerox and
Catalyst IT Services
• Updated Table 10.1
• New example of Verizon
• Updated Figure 10.4
• Updated information about CEO pay
• New In Practice about Royal Dutch Shell
Chapter 11
• New Management Connection about NASCAR
• New Figure 11.2 about extent of diversity initiatives
• Updated information on gender gap in pay
• New information for Tables 11.1 and 11.2
• New Table 11.4
• New ranking of DiversityInc’s Best Companies for
Diversity
• New In Practice about CVS Caremark
• New example of Etsy
• New In Practice about Ingersoll Rand
• New Concluding Case: Niche Hotel Group
Chapter 12
• New Management Connection about Meg Whitman
as leader of Hewlett-Packard
• New example of Maria Green at Illinois Tool Works
• New In Practice about Barbara Corcoran as leader of
Corcoran Group
• New example of Jeff Bezos as leader of Amazon
• New In Practice about David Novak as leader of
Yum Brands
• New example of John Heer as leader of Mississippi
Health Services
• New Concluding Case: Breitt, Starr & Diamond
LLC
Chapter 13
• New Management Connection about SAS
• New example of QuikTrip convenience-store
chainx Preface
for yourself and for other people. What managers do
matters tremendously.
Acknowledgments
This book could not have been written and published
without the valuable contributions of many individuals.
Ingrid Benson and her colleagues at Words &
Numbers were instrumental in creating a strong 11th
edition. Many thanks for their meticulous attention to
detail, ideas, and contributions. Ingrid has become a
valued friend throughout the process; we couldn’t have
done it, or had as much fun, without Ingrid.
Special thanks to Lily Bowles, Taylor Gray, and
Meg Nexsen for contributing their knowledge, insights,
and research to Appendix B: Managing in Our Natural
Environment.
Our reviewers over the last ten editions contributed time, expertise, and terrific ideas that significantly
enhanced the quality of the text. The reviewers of the
11th edition are
Laura L. Alderson
University of Memphis
Daniel Arturo Cernas Ortiz
University of North Texas
Claudia S. Davis
Sam Houston State University
Greg Dickens
Sam Houston State University
Michael Drafke
College of DuPage
Judson Faurer
Metropolitan State University of Denver
Shirley Fedorovich
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
Randall Fletcher
Sinclair Community College
Rebecca M. Guidice
University of North Carolina-Wilmington
Dan Hallock
University of North Alabama
Ivan Franklin Harber, Jr.
Indian River State College
David Lynn Hoffman
Metropolitan State University of Denver
Cathleen Hohner
College of DuPage
Carrie Hurst
Tennessee State University
Jacquelyn D. Jacobs
University of Tennessee
Donald E. Kreps
Kutztown University
Christopher McChesney
Indian River State College
• New description of sustainability audits and the
triple bottom line
• Updated In Practice about the Ritz Carlton
• New example of Ethicon
Chapter 17
• New Management Connection about Tesla Motors
• New paragraph on disruptive innovation
• New example of forces for innovation in higher education
• New In Practice about Square mobile payments
• New example of Rethink Robotics
• New example of GE’s ultra-tiny electronics cooling
system
• New In Practice about manufacturing transformed
by 3D printers
• New description of innovations as competency
enhancing or competency destroying
• New example of acquisitions by Twitter
• New example of open innovation at Elmer’s Products
Chapter 18
• New Management Connection about Time Warner
• New example of resistance to a change in banking:
use of universal agents with broad job descriptions
• New In Practice about change to open workspaces at
American Express and other companies
• New example of Envision
• New paragraph updating Kotter’s model of change
leadership for turbulent times
• New Concluding Case: EatWell Technologies
Contents
PART ONE FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT
CHAPTER 1
Managing and Performing 2
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 3
Managing in the New Competitive Landscape 4
Globalization 4
Technological Change 5
Knowledge Management 6
Collaboration across Boundaries 6
Managing for Competitive Advantage 7
Innovation 7
Quality 8
Service 9
Speed 9
Cost Competitiveness 10
Sustainability 11
Delivering All Types of Performance 12
The Functions of Management 12
Planning: Delivering Strategic Value 13
Organizing: Building a Dynamic Organization 13
Leading: Mobilizing People 14
Controlling: Learning and Changing 14
Performing All Four Management Functions 15
Management Connection Progress Report 15
Management Levels and Skills 16
Top-Level Managers 16
Middle-Level Managers 16
Frontline Managers 17
Working Leaders with Broad Responsibilities 18
Management Skills 18
You and Your Career 20
Be Both a Specialist and a Generalist 21
Be Self-Reliant 21
Connect 22
Actively Manage Your Relationship with Your Organization 23
Survive and Thrive 24
Management Connection Onward 25
Key Terms 25
Summary of Learning Objectives 26
Discussion Questions 26
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 27
CONCLUDING CASE: A New Manager
at USA Hospital Supply 32
Appendix A: The Evolution of Management 33
Key Terms 39
Discussion Questions 40
CHAPTER 2
The External and Internal
Environments 42
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 43
A Look Ahead 45
The Macroenvironment 45
The Economy 45
Technology 47
Laws and Regulations 48
Demographics 49
Social Issues 50
Sustainability and the
Natural Environment 50
The Competitive Environment 51
Competitors 51
New Entrants 52
Substitutes and Complements 53
Suppliers 55
Customers 56
Management Connection Progress Report 58
Environmental Analysis 58
Environmental Scanning 59
Scenario Development 59
Forecasting 60
Benchmarking 60
Responding to the Environment 61
Changing the Environment You Are In 61
Influencing Your Environment 62
Adapting to the Environment:
Changing Yourself 64
Choosing a Response Approach 66xxvi Contents
Barriers to Effective Decision Making 89
Psychological Biases 89
Management Connection Progress Report 90
Time Pressures 91
Social Realities 93
Decision Making in Groups 93
Potential Advantages of Using a Group 93
Potential Problems of Using a Group 94
Managing Group Decision Making 95
Leadership Style 95
Constructive Conflict 96
Encouraging Creativity 97
Brainstorming 98
Organizational Decision Making 98
Constraints on Decision Makers 98
Organizational Decision Processes 99
Decision Making in a Crisis 100
Management Connection Onward 102
Key Terms 103
Summary of Learning Objectives 103
Discussion Questions 104
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 104
CONCLUDING CASE: Soaring Eagle
Skate Company 106
Part One Supporting Case: SSS Software
In-Basket Exercise 106
Case Incidents 117
The International Environment of Organizations:
Culture and Climate 66
Organization Culture 67
Organizational Climate 71
Management Connection Onward 72
Key Terms 73
Summary of Learning Objectives 73
Discussion Questions 74
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 74
CONCLUDING CASE: Wild Water Gets Soaked 77
CHAPTER 3
Managerial Decision
Making 78
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 79
Characteristics of Managerial Decisions 80
Lack of Structure 80
Uncertainty and Risk 81
Conflict 82
The Phases of Decision Making 83
Identifying and Diagnosing the Problem 83
Generating Alternative Solutions 84
Evaluating Alternatives 85
Making the Choice 86
Implementing the Decision 87
Evaluating the Decision 88
The Best Decision 89
PART TWO PLANNING: DELIVERING STRATEGIC VALUE
CHAPTER 4
Planning and Strategic
Management 118
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 119
An Overview of Planning Fundamentals 120
The Basic Planning Process 120
Levels of Planning 125
Strategic Planning 125
Tactical and Operational Planning 125
Aligning Tactical, Operational,
and Strategic Planning 126
Strategic Planning 127
Management Connection Progress Report 129
Step 1: Establishment of Mission, Vision, and Goals 130
Step 2: Analysis of External Opportunities and Threats 132
Step 3: Analysis of Internal Strengths and Weaknesses 134
Step 4: SWOT Analysis and Strategy Formulation 137
Step 5: Strategy Implementation 143
Step 6: Strategic Control 144
Management Connection Onward 145
Key Terms 146
Summary of Learning Objectives 146
Discussion Questions 147Contents xxvii
Global Strategy 200
Pressures for Global Integration 200
Pressures for Local Responsiveness 201
Choosing a Global Strategy 202
Management Connection
Progress Report 206
Entry Mode 206
Exporting 207
Licensing 207
Franchising 208
Joint Ventures 208
Wholly Owned Subsidiaries 209
Managing across Borders 210
Skills of the Global Manager 210
Understanding Cultural Issues 213
Ethical Issues in International Management 216
Management Connection Onward 218
Key Terms 219
Summary of Learning Objectives 219
Discussion Questions 220
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 220
CONCLUDING CASE: A Global Launch
for Net-Work Docs 221
CHAPTER 7
Entrepreneurship 224
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 225
Entrepreneurship 229
Why Become an Entrepreneur? 229
What Does It Take to Succeed? 230
What Business Should You Start? 231
What Does It Take, Personally? 236
Success and Failure 238
Management Connection Progress Report 243
Increasing Your Chances of Success 244
Corporate Entrepreneurship 249
Building Support for Your Idea 249
Building Intrapreneurship 250
Management Challenges 250
Entrepreneurial Orientation 250
Management Connection Onward 252
Key Terms 252
Summary of Learning Objectives 252
Discussion Questions 253
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 254
CONCLUDING CASE:
Rolling Out ScrollCo 257
Part Two Supporting Case: Can Foxconn
Deliver for Apple? 257
Appendix C: Information for Entrepreneurs 259
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 147
CONCLUDING CASE: Wish You Wood Toy Store 151
CHAPTER 5
Ethics, Corporate
Responsibility, and
Sustainability 152
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 153
It’s a Big Issue 154
It’s a Personal Issue 154
Ethics 156
Ethical Systems 156
Business Ethics 159
The Ethics Environment 160
Ethical Decision Making 164
Courage 166
Management Connection Progress Report 167
Corporate Social Responsibility 167
Contrasting Views 169
Reconciliation 170
The Natural Environment and Sustainability 171
A Risk Society 171
Ecocentric Management 172
Environmental Agendas for the Future 173
Management Connection Onward 174
Key Terms 175
Summary of Learning Objectives 175
Discussion Questions 176
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 176
CONCLUDING CASE: Ma Earth Skin Care Tries to Stay
Natural 178
Appendix B: Managing in Our
Natural Environment 179
Key Terms 184
Discussion Questions 185
CHAPTER 6
International
Management 186
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 187
Managing in a (Sometimes) Flat World 188
Implications of a Flat World 188
The Role of Outsourcing 192
The Global Environment 194
European Unification 195
Asia: China and India’s Ascent 196
The Americas 198
Africa and the Middle East 199xxviii Contents
PART THREE ORGANIZING: BUILDING A DYNAMIC ORGANIZATION
CHAPTER 8
Organization Structure 262
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 263
Fundamentals of Organizing 264
Differentiation 264
Integration 265
The Vertical Structure 266
Authority in Organizations 267
Hierarchical Levels 269
Span of Control 269
Delegation 270
Decentralization 272
The Horizontal Structure 273
The Functional Organization 275
The Divisional Organization 276
The Matrix Organization 278
Management Connection Progress Report 279
The Network Organization 282
Organizational Integration 283
Coordination by Standardization 284
Coordination by Plan 284
Coordination by Mutual Adjustment 285
Coordination and Communication 285
Looking Ahead 287
Management Connection Onward 288
Key Terms 289
Summary of Learning Objectives 289
Discussion Questions 290
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 290
CONCLUDING CASE: Stanley Lynch Investment Group 292
CHAPTER 9
Organizational Agility 294
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 295
The Responsive Organization 296
Strategy and Organizational Agility 298
Organizing around Core Capabilities 298
Strategic Alliances 299
The Learning Organization 300
The High-Involvement Organization 301
Organizational Size and Agility 302
The Case for Big 302
The Case for Small 302
Being Big and Small 303
Management Connection Progress Report 306
Customers and the Responsive Organization 306
Customer Relationship Management 307
Quality Initiatives 309
Reengineering 311
Technology and Organizational Agility 312
Types of Technology Configurations 313
Organizing for Flexible Manufacturing 313
Organizing for Speed: Time-Based Competition 317
Final Thoughts on Organizational Agility 320
Management Connection Onward 320
Key Terms 321
Summary of Learning Objectives 321
Discussion Questions 322
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 322
CONCLUDING CASE: DIY Stores 324
CHAPTER 10
Human Resources
Management 326
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 327
Strategic Human Resources Management 328
The HR Planning Process 330
Staffing the Organization 333
Recruitment 333
Selection 334
Workforce Reductions 340
Developing the Workforce 344
Training and Development 344
Management Connection Progress Report 346
Performance Appraisal 347
What Do You Appraise? 347
Who Should Do the Appraisal? 349
How Do You Give Employees Feedback? 350
Designing Reward Systems 351
Pay Decisions 351
Incentive Systems and Variable Pay 353Contents xxix
Executive Pay and Stock Options 354
Employee Benefits 355
Legal Issues in Compensation and Benefits 356
Health and Safety 356
Labor Relations 358
Labor Laws 358
Unionization 358
Collective Bargaining 359
What Does the Future Hold? 360
Management Connection Onward 361
Key Terms 362
Summary of Learning Objectives 362
Discussion Questions 363
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 363
CONCLUDING CASE: Invincibility Systems 365
CHAPTER 11
Managing the Diverse
Workforce 368
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 369
Diversity: A Brief History 370
Diversity Today 372
The Workforce of the Future 373
The Age of the Workforce 381
Managing Diversity versus Affirmative Action 383
Competitive Advantage through Diversity
and Inclusion 384
Challenges of Diversity and Inclusion 386
Management Connection Progress Report 389
Multicultural Organizations 389
How Organizations Can Cultivate
a Diverse Workforce 391
Top Management’s Leadership and Commitment 391
Organizational Assessment 392
Attracting Employees 392
Training Employees 394
Retaining Employees 395
Management Connection Onward 397
Key Terms 398
Summary of Learning Objectives 398
Discussion Questions 399
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 399
CONCLUDING CASE: Niche Hotel Group 402
Part Three Supporting Case: Zappos 402
PART FOUR LEADING: MOBILIZING PEOPLE
CHAPTER 12
Leadership 404
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 405
What Do We Want from Our Leaders? 406
Vision 407
Leading and Managing 409
Leading and Following 410
Power and Leadership 410
Sources of Power 411
Traditional Approaches to Understanding Leadership 412
Leader Traits 412
Leader Behaviors 413
Situational Approaches to Leadership 417
Management Connection Progress Report 423
Contemporary Perspectives on Leadership 424
Charismatic Leadership 424
Transformational Leadership 425
Authenticity 427
Opportunities for Leaders 428
A Note on Courage 429
Developing Your Leadership Skills 429
How Do I Start? 430
What Are the Keys? 430
Management Connection Onward 431
Key Terms 432
Summary of Learning Objectives 432
Discussion Questions 433
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 433
CONCLUDING CASE: Breitt, Starr & Diamond LLC 437
CHAPTER 13
Motivating for
Performance 438xxx Contents
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 439
Motivating for Performance 440
Setting Goals 441
Goals That Motivate 441
Stretch Goals 442
Limitations of Goal Setting 442
Set Your Own Goals 443
Reinforcing Performance 443
(Mis)Managing Rewards and Punishments 444
Managing Mistakes 445
Providing Feedback 446
Performance-Related Beliefs 447
The Effort-to-Performance Link 447
The Performance-to-Outcome Link 447
Impact on Motivation 448
Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory 448
Management Connection Progress Report 449
Understanding People’s Needs 449
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy 450
Alderfer’s ERG Theory 451
McClelland’s Needs 452
Need Theories: International Perspectives 452
Designing Motivating Jobs 453
Job Rotation, Enlargement, and Enrichment 454
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 454
The Hackman and Oldham Model of Job Design 455
Empowerment 456
Achieving Fairness 457
Assessing Equity 458
Restoring Equity 459
Procedural Justice 459
Job Satisfaction 460
Quality of Work Life 460
Psychological Contracts 462
Management Connection Onward 463
Key Terms 463
Summary of Learning Objectives 464
Discussion Questions 464
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 465
CONCLUDING CASE: Big Bison Resorts:
Finding the Key to What Employees Value 467
CHAPTER 14
Teamwork 470
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 471
The Contributions of Teams 472
Types of Teams 472
Self-Managed Teams 474
Management Connection Progress Report 475
How Groups Become Real Teams 476
Group Processes 476
Critical Periods 477
Teaming Challenges 477
Why Groups Sometimes Fail 477
Building Effective Teams 478
Performance Focus 479
Motivating Teamwork 479
Member Contributions 480
Norms 481
Roles 481
Cohesiveness 482
Building Cohesiveness and
High-Performance Norms 483
Managing Lateral Relationships 485
Managing Outward 485
Lateral Role Relationships 485
Managing Conflict 486
Conflict Styles 486
Being a Mediator 488
Electronic and Virtual Conflict 489
Management Connection Onward 490
Key Terms 491
Summary of Learning Objectives 491
Discussion Questions 492
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 492
CONCLUDING CASE: Excel Pro
Drilling Systems 494
CHAPTER 15
Communicating 496
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 497
Interpersonal Communication 498
One-Way versus Two-Way Communication 498
Communication Pitfalls 499
Mixed Signals and Misperception 500
Oral and Written Channels 501
Electronic Media 501
Media Richness 505
Management Connection Progress Report 505
Improving Communication Skills 506
Improving Sender Skills 506
Nonverbal Skills 509
Improving Receiver Skills 510
Organizational Communication 512
Downward Communication 512
Upward Communication 514
Horizontal Communication 515
Informal Communication 516
Boundarylessness 517
Management Connection Onward 518
Key Terms 518
Summary of Learning Objectives 518
Discussion Questions 519Contents xxxi
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 520
CONCLUDING CASE: Best Trust Bank 522
Part Four Supporting Case: Leading and Motivating
When Disaster Strikes: Magna Exteriors and
Interiors 523
PART FIVE CONTROLLING: LEARNING AND CHANGING
CHAPTER 16
Managerial Control 526
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 527
Bureaucratic Control Systems 529
The Control Cycle 529
Approaches to Bureaucratic Control 533
Management Audits 537
Budgetary Controls 538
Financial Controls 541
Management Connections Progress Report 544
The Downside of Bureaucratic Control 544
Designing Effective Control Systems 546
The Other Controls: Markets and Clans 550
Market Control 551
Clan Control: The Role of Empowerment and Culture 553
Management Connection Onward 555
Key Terms 556
Summary of Learning Objectives 556
Discussion Questions 557
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 557
CONCLUDING CASE: The Grizzly Bear Lodge 559
CHAPTER 17
Managing Technology
and Innovation 560
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 561
Technology and Innovation 562
Technology Life Cycle 564
Diffusion of Technological Innovations 565
Technological Innovation in a Competitive Environment 566
Technology Leadership 567
Technology Followership 569
Assessing Technology Needs 570
Measuring Current Technologies 570
Assessing External Technological Trends 571
Key Factors to Consider in Technology Decisions 572
Anticipated Market Receptiveness 572
Technological Feasibility 573
Economic Viability 574
Anticipated Capability Development 575
Organizational Suitability 576
Management Connection Progress Report 577
Sourcing and Acquiring New Technologies 578
Internal Development 578
Purchase 578
Contracted Development 578
Licensing 579
Technology Trading 579
Research Partnerships and Joint Ventures 579
Acquisition of an Owner of the Technology 579
Technology and Managerial Roles 580
Organizing for Innovation 582
Unleashing Creativity 583
Bureaucracy Busting 584
Implementing Development Projects 585
Technology, Job Design, and Human Resources 586
Management Connection Onward 587
Key Terms 587
Summary of Learning Objectives 588
Discussion Questions 588
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 589
CONCLUDING CASE: Worldwide Games 589
Appendix D: Operations Management in the New
Economy 591
Key Terms 598
Discussion Questions 598
CHAPTER 18
Creating and Leading
Change 600
Management Connection Manager’s Brief 601xxxii Contents
Becoming World Class 602
Sustainable, Great Futures 602
The Tyranny of the Or 604
The Genius of the And 604
Achieving Sustained Greatness 604
Organization Development 605
Managing Change 606
Motivating People to Change 606
A General Model for Managing Resistance 609
Specific Approaches to Enlist Cooperation 611
Management Connection Progress Report 613
Harmonizing Multiple Changes 614
Leading Change 614
Shaping the Future 617
Thinking about the Future 617
Creating the Future 618
Shaping Your Own Future 620
Learning and Leading 621
A Collaborative, Sustainable Future? 622
Management Connection Onward 623
Key Terms 624
Summary of Learning Objectives 624
Discussion Questions 624
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES 625
CONCLUDING CASE: EatWell Technologies 627
Part Five Supporting Case: Technology Helps Dollar
General Pinch Pennies 628
Notes
Photo Credits
Glossary/Subject Index
Name Index
GLOSSARY / SUBJECTS
A
ABC Supply, 239
Accelerators, business, 240
Accommodating work/family needs, 393
Accommodation A style of dealing with
conflict involving cooperation on behalf of the
other party but not being assertive about one’s
own interests, 397, 487–488
Accountability The expectation that
employees will perform a job, take corrective
action when necessary, and report upward on
the status and quality of their performance,
271, 397
Accounting audits Procedures used to
verify accounting reports and statements, 540
Achievement, need for, 452
Achievement-oriented leadership, 421
Acquisition One firm buying another, 61
mergers and, 140–141
of new technology, 578–580
Action phase, 477
Active employee, 23
Activision Blizzard, 268
Activity-based costing (ABC)
A method of cost accounting designed to identify
streams of activity and then to allocate costs
across particular business processes according to
the amount of time employees devote to particular
activities, 540
ADA, 164, 342, 343, 380–381, 397
Adapters Companies that take the current
industry structure and its evolution as givens, and
choose where to compete, 618
Adecco, 65
Adhocracy, 70
Adidas, 11
Adjustment, mutual, 285, 286
Administrative management, 36
Advanced Training Source, 394
Adverse impact When a seemingly
neutral employment practice has a
disproportionately negative effect on a protected
group, 342
Advertising support model Charging
fees to advertise on a site, 234
Advisory boards, 248
Advisory relationships, 486
AEP, 183
Aéropostale, 57
Aetna, 12, 20
Affective conflict Emotional disagreement
directed toward other people, 96
Affiliate model Charging fees to direct site
visitors to other companies’ sites, 234
Affiliation, need for, 452
Affirmative action Special efforts to
recruit and hire qualified members of groups
that have been discriminated against in the past,
383–388
Affordable Care Act, 48, 233, 355
Africa, 199–200
After-action review A frank and openminded discussion of four basic questions aimed at
continuous improvement, 533
Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 342, 343
Age of the workforce, 381–383
Aggression, competitive, 62
Agroelectric System of Appropriate Technology,
235
Air Canada, 90
Airbus, 79
Alderfer’s ERG theory A human needs
theory postulating that people have three basic
sets of needs that can operate simultaneously,
451–452
Allbusiness.com, 225, 252
Alliances, strategic, 63, 141, 299–300, 301
Allied Signal, 535
Alternative work schedules, 393
Amazon, 3–4, 7, 25, 54, 58, 80, 84, 135, 225, 234,
304, 308, 425, 562, 567, 576, 595–596
American Airlines, 140
American Customer Satisfaction Index, 303
American Electric Power Co., 182
American Express, 62, 602, 608–609
American Management Association, 380
American Society for Training and Development,
344
American Training Resources, 394–395
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 164, 342,
343, 380–381, 397
Amgen, 618
Analysis
competitor, 132
cost-benefit, 181
environmental, 58–61, 74–75, 132–133
external opportunities and threats, 132–134
financial, 135
force-field, 610
human resources, 132, 135
industry, 132
internal strengths and weaknesses, 134–137,
149–150
job, 333
life-cycle, 172
macroeconomic, 132
market, 132
operations, 135
opportunity, 132–134, 137–138, 149–150, 244
political and regulatory, 132
quantitative, 38
self-SWOT, 137
situational, 120–121
social, 132
SWOT, 137–138, 149–150
technological, 132
Analyzer firms, 576
AngelList, 246
Anheuser-Busch, 136
Anticipated competency development, 575–576
Anticipated market receptiveness, 572–573
Antitrust, 196
AOL, 141, 601
A&P, 138
APEC, 198, 207
Apple, 3–4, 8, 9, 54, 58, 61, 62, 67, 87, 182, 198,
229, 246, 300, 395, 566, 581, 583
Applications for jobs, 334
Applied Materials, 516
Appraisal by subordinates, 349
Appraisal of performance; see Performance
appraisal
Arbitration The use of a neutral third party
to resolve a labor dispute, 360
Archer Daniels Midland, 55
Ariba, 596
Arm & Hammer, 173
Articulated needs, 618–619
ASEAN, 198
Asia, 196–198
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), 198,
207
Assessment center A managerial
performance test in which candidates
participate in a variety of exercises and
situations, 337
Assets The values of the various items the
corporation owns, 134, 541
Assistive technologies, 380
Association for the Advancement of Retired People
(AARP), 381
Association of Southeast Asian Nations, 198
Assumptions, unexamined, 386
Astroturfing, 156
At-will employment, 340
ATI Technologies, 57
AT&T, 209, 210, 337, 428
Audit relationships, 486
Audits
accounting, 540
external, 537
internal, 537
management, 537–538
marketing, 135
sustainability, 538
technology, 570
Auntie Anne’s, 208
Authentic leadership A style in which the
leader is true to himself or herself while leading,
427
Authoritarianism, 422
Authority The legitimate right to make
decisions and to tell other people what to do,
267
decentralized, 64, 272–273
delegating, 241, 270–272
informal, 267
in organizations, 267–269
Autocratic leadership A form of
leadership in which the leader makes decisions
on his or her own and then announces those
decisions to the group, 415
Automattic Inc., 504
Autonomous work groups Groups
that control decisions about and execution of a
complete range of tasks, 475
Autonomy, 456
Avio, 139
Avis, 410
Avoidance A reaction to conflict that
involves ignoring the problem by doing
nothing at all or deemphasizing the
disagreement, 487
Avon Products Inc., 278, 377, 391, 395
A&W, 231
Awards, for quality, 310–311
Awareness building, 394
AXA Canada, 136–137IND-2 Glossary / Subjects
control cycle, 529–533
designing effective, 546–550
downside of, 544–546
financial controls, 541–544
management audits, 537–538
Burger King, 313, 392
Burt’s Bees, 166, 173
Business accelerators Organization
that provides support and advice to help young
businesses grow, 240
Business ethics The moral principles and
standards that guide behavior in the world of
business, 156, 159–160; see also Ethics
Business failures, 7, 238–243
Business incubators Protected
environments for new, small businesses, 240
Business model innovation, 562
Business models, 234
Business plan A formal planning step that
focuses on the entire venture and describes all the
elements involved in starting it, 244–245
Business portfolio, 139
Business strategy The major actions by
which a business competes in a particular industry
or market, 141–142
Business-to-business (BB) selling, 57
C
Caesar Rivise, 393
CafePress, 234
Cafeteria benefit program An employee
benefit program in which employees choose from
a menu of options to create a benefit package
tailored to their needs, 356
CAFTA-DR, 199
CalPERS, 184
Campbell Soup, 451
Canon, 319
Capital
human, 329–330
intellectual, 329
social, 23, 248
Capital budget, 539
Capital One, 537
Capterra, 83–86, 88–89
Carbon footprint The output of carbon
dioxide and other greenhouses gases, 172
Care at Hand, 233
Care USA, 268
Career management
continuous learning, 621–622
keys to success, 20–25
networking, 29
Personal Assessment of Management Skills
(PAMS), 27–29
planning worksheet, 30–32
promotions, 396–397
CareerBuilder.com, 334
Cargill Animal Nutrition, 451
Carlson Leisure Travel, 547
CarMax, 618
Carmike Cinema, 275
Carrabba’s, 142–143
Carrying capacity, 180
Bonuses
for innovation, 98
for management, 353
Bootlegging Informal work on projects, other
than those officially assigned, of employees’ own
choosing and initiative, 250
Borders Books, 372
Borrow-use-return, 172
Boston Consulting Group, 139, 582
Boundary-spanning Interacting with
people in other groups, thus creating linkages
between groups, 485
Boundaryless organization
Organization in which there are no barriers to
information flow, 320, 517
Bounded rationality A less-than-perfect
form of rationality in which decision makers
cannot be perfectly rational because decisions are
complex and complete information is unavailable
or cannot be fully processed, 99
Brainstorming A process in which group
members generate as many ideas about a
problem as they can; criticism is withheld until all
ideas have been proposed, 98, 502, 585
Brand identification, 53
Bribery Act, 217
Bribes, 48, 158, 216–217
Bricks and mortar business, 595
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, 182
British Petroleum, 50, 92, 100, 212, 528, 562
Broker A person who assembles and
coordinates participants in a network, 283
Brooks, 598
Brown Flynn, 445
Brown v. Board of Education, 371
Browning-Ferris, 183
Budgetary controls, 538–540
Budgeting The process of investigating
what is being done and comparing the results
with the corresponding budget data to verify
accomplishments or remedy differences; also
called budgetary controlling, 538
activity-based costing, 540
capital, 539
cash, 539
cost, 539
master, 539
operational, 145
production, 539
sales expense, 538–539
strategic, 145
types of, 539–540
Buffering Creating supplies of excess
resources in case of unpredictable needs, 64
Built to Last, 604
Bull and bear markets, 47
Bureaucracy, 37–38, 64, 584–585
Bureaucratic control The use of rules,
regulations, and authority to guide performance,
529; see also Control systems
approaches to, 533–537
budgetary controls; see Budgeting
B
Baby-boomers, 381
Background checks, 336
BAE Systems, 411
Bain Consulting, 431
Balance sheet A report that shows the
financial picture of a company at a given time and
itemizes assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity,
541–542
Balanced scorecard Control system
combining four sets of performance measures:
financial, customer, business process, and learning
and growth, 127, 550
Baldrige Award, 310–311
Bank Boston, 167
Bank of America, 167
Bargaining
collective, 359–360
online, 502
Barnes & Noble, 54, 298
Barriers to entry Conditions that prevent
new companies from entering an industry,
52–53
BARS, 347–348
Base technologies, 571
Baskin-Robbins, 8
Batesville Casket Company, 579
Bayer, 61, 182, 332
BCG matrix, 139–140
Bechtel, 211, 279
Behavior, consequences of, 443–444
Behavioral appraisals, 347
Behavioral approach A leadership
perspective that attempts to identify what good
leaders do—that is, what behaviors they exhibit,
413–417
Behavioral description interview, 335
Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS),
347–348
Bell Labs, 578
Beloit Corporation, 239
Ben & Jerry’s, 173, 441
Benchmarking The process of comparing
an organization’s practices and technologies
with those of other companies, 60–61,
136–137, 572
Benefits, for employees, 50, 355–356
Best Buy, 234, 317, 527–528, 544, 555
Best-case scenario, 59
Best-in-class, 60–61
Best practices, 136
Biases, psychological, 89–91
Bigelow Aerospace, 233
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 124
BlackRock, 22
Blake and Mouton’s Leadership Grid, 416
Blockbuster, 52
Blogging, 501, 503–504
Bloomin’ Brands, 142
Bluefin Labs, 580
BMC Software, 318
BMW, 193
Board of directors, 267–268
Boards, advisory, 248
Body language, 509–510
Body Shop, 173
Boeing, 55–56, 79, 90, 102, 233, 279, 429, 472, 502
Bombardier, 563
Bonefish Grill, 142Glossary / Subjects IND-3
assertiveness to maximize both parties’
satisfaction, 487–488
Collective bargaining, 359–360
Collectivism, 214–215
Comcast, 139, 308
CommonBond Communities, 517
Communication The transmission of
information and meaning from one party to
another through the use of shared symbols,
496–525, 498
boundaryless, 320, 517
change management and, 612
collaboration across boundaries, 6–7
coordination and, 285–286
cross-cultural, 213–216, 508–509
downward, 512–514
electronic, 501–504
foreign speakers, 508–509
formal, 516
horizontal, 515–516
improving skills, 506–512
informal, 516–517
interpersonal, 20, 498–505
listening, 510
maintaining open, 549–550
mixed signals, 500–501
nonverbal, 509–510
one-way versus two-way, 498–499
oral, 501, 531
organizational, 512–517
pitfalls, 499–500
problems with, 386–387
receiver skills, 510–512
sender skills, 506–509
upward, 514–515
written, 501, 531
Comparable worth Principle of equal pay
for different jobs of equal worth, 356
Compensation, 351–356, 586
Competency development, 575–576
Competing A style of dealing with conflict
involving strong focus on one’s own goals and
little or no concern for the other person’s goals,
487–488
Competitive aggression, 62
Competitive environment
The immediate environment surrounding a firm;
includes suppliers, customers, rivals, and the like,
44
competitors, 51–52, 246–247
customers, 56–57, 306–312
suppliers, 55–56
threat of new entrants, 52–53
threat of substitutes, 53–55
Competitive intelligence Information
that helps managers determine how to compete
better, 59
Competitive pacification, 62
Competitive position, 139
Competitor analysis, 132
Competitors, 51–52, 246–247
Complacency, reasons for, 614–616
Complements, product, 53–55
Complexity, environmental, 58–59
Compliance-based ethics programs
Company mechanisms typically designed by
corporate counsel to prevent, detect, and punish
legal violations, 164
arouse a sense of excitement and adventure in
followers, 424–425
Charts, organizational, 264–265, 276, 297
Chase Paymentech Solutions, 308
Chemdex, 596
Chemical Manufacturers Association, 182
ChemLawn, 230
Chevron, 212
Chicago Transit Authority, 183
Chick-fil-A, 441
Chief executive officer (CEO), 16, 268–269
Chief financial officer (CFO), 539
Chief information officer (CIO)
Executive in charge of information technology
strategy and development, 580–581
Chief innovation officer, 581
Chief operating officer (COO), 16
Chief technology officer (CTO), 580–581
China, 196–198
Chipotle, 232
CH2M Hill, 274, 376
Chrysler, 190, 313, 426, 587
CIBA-GEIGY, 184
CIM, 314–315
Cinergy, 183
Circuit City, 330, 527
Cisco, 4, 140, 183, 427, 499, 508
Citicorp, 602
Citigroup, 198
Citrix Systems, 97
City of Redmond, Washington, 131
Civil aspirations, 169
Civil Rights Act, 342, 343, 371, 376
Clan control Control based on the norms,
values, shared goals, and trust among group
members, 529, 553–554
Classical approaches to management, 33–38
Clorox, 173
Closeness of supervision, 414
Coaching Dialogue with a goal of helping
another be more effective and achieve his or her
full potential on the job, 346, 513
Coalition, 63
Coalitional model Model of organizational
decision making in which groups with differing
preferences use power and negotiation to
influence decisions, 99
Coca-Cola, 5, 50, 51–53, 55, 135, 156, 170, 173,
202, 212, 263, 268, 513
Cocheco Company, 34
Code of ethics, 163–164
Coercion, 612–613
Coercive power, 412
Cognitive ability tests, 337, 338
Cognitive conflict Issue-based differences
in perspectives or judgments, 96
Cognitive moral development, 159
Cohesiveness The degree to which a
group is attractive to its members, members are
motivated to remain in the group, and members
influence one another, 386, 482–484
Cold Stone Creamery, 208, 344
Colgate, 173, 210, 328
Collaboration A style of dealing with
conflict emphasizing both cooperation and
Cases
Best Trust Bank, 522–523
Big Bison Resorts: Finding the Key to What
Employees Value, 467–468
Breitt, Starr & Diamond LLC, 437
Can Foxconn Deliver for Apple, 257–258
DIY Stores, 324
Eatwell Technologies, 627
Excel Pro Drilling Systems, 494
A Global Launch for Net-Work Docs,
221–222
Grizzly Bear Lodge, 559
Invincibility Systems, 365–366
Leading and Motivating When Disaster Strikes,
523–524
Ma Earth Skin Care Tries To Stay Natural, 178
A New Manager at USA Hospital Supply, 32
Niche Hotel Group, 402
Robot Repercussion, 628–630
Rolling out Scrollco, 257
Soaring Eagle Skate Company, 106
SSS Software In-Basket Exercise, 106–116
Stanley Lynch Investment Group, 292
Technology Helps Dollar General Pinch
Pennies, 628
Wild Water Gets Soaked, 77
Wish You Wood Toy Store, 151
Worldwide Games, 589–590
Zappos, 402–403
Cash budget, 539
Cash cows, 139–140
Caspers Company, 332
Catalyst, 339
Caterpillar Tractor, 217
Caux Principles Ethical principles
established by international executives based in
Caux, Switzerland, in collaboration with business
leaders from Japan, Europe, and the United
States, 157
Caux Roundtable, 157
Celtel, 216–217
CEMEX, 199
Central American Free Trade Agreement
(CAFTA), 199
Centralized organization
An organization in which high-level executives
make most decisions and pass them down to
lower levels for implementation, 272–273
CERES principles, 180
Certainty The state that exists when decision
makers have accurate and comprehensive
information, 81
Certification, of quality, 311
C.F. Martin & Company, 138
Change management, 600–631
becoming world class, 602–605
continuous learning, 621–622
creating the future, 618–620
enlisting cooperation, 611–613
leading, 614–617
managing multiple changes, 614
motivating people; see Motivation
proactive, 617
reactive, 617
resistance to, 606–611
shaping the future, 617–623
technological, 5–6
total organization, 614
Chaparral, 585
Charismatic leader A person who is
dominant, self-confident, convinced of the moral
righteousness of his or her beliefs, and able toIND-4 Glossary / Subjects
Copyright laws, 48
CopyShark.net, 241
Corcoran Group, 408–409
Cordis Corporation, 277
Core capability A unique skill and/or
knowledge an organization possesses that gives
it an edge over competitors, 134–136,
298–299
Core values, 603
Corning, 136, 328, 377
Corporate culture, 66–72
Corporate entrepreneurship, 249–251
Corporate Executive Board, 270
Corporate governance The role of
a corporation’s executive staff and board of
directors in ensuring that the firm’s activities meet
the goals of the firm’s stakeholders, 269
Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
Obligation toward society assumed by business,
166–171, 168, 235; see also Ethics
Corporate strategy The set of businesses,
markets, or industries in which an organization
competes and the distribution of resources among
those entities, 138–141
Corrective action, 533
Corruption, in foreign transactions, 216–217
Cost-benefit analysis, 181
Cost budget, 539–540
Cost competitiveness Keeping costs
low to achieve profits and be able to offer
prices that are attractive to consumers,
10–11
Costs
activity-based, 540
management of, 10–11
switching, 55, 568
transportation, 207
Counterfeit goods, 575
Courage, 166, 429
Cradle-to-cradle, 172
Cradle-to-grave, 172
Creativity, 97–98, 583–584
Credit Suisse, 452
Crisis management, 100–102
Criterion-related validity, 339
Critical incident technique, 347
Cross-cultural communication, 213–216, 508–509
Crowdfunding, 246
Cultural control, 529
Cultural integration, 389
Culture
adhocracy, 70
diagnosing, 68–71
ethnocentrism, 213, 390
group, 69–70
hierarchical, 70
managing, 71
organizational, 67–72
preference scale, 75–77
rational, 70
understanding, 213–216
Culture contingency, 390
Culture shock The disorientation and stress
associated with being in a foreign environment,
213
Current assets, 541
Current liabilities, 541
Contingencies, 39
Contingency models of leadership, 418–421
Contingency perspective, 38–39
Contingency plans Alternative courses of
action that can be implemented based on how the
future unfolds, 85–86, 122
Contingent workers, 64–65
Continuous improvement, 8, 308
Continuous learning, 621–622
Continuous process A process that is
highly automated and has a continuous production
flow, 313
Contracted development, 578
Contraction, 63
Contracts
labor, 34
psychological, 462
Control Any process that directs the
activities of individuals toward the achievement of
organizational goals, 528
as a function of management, 14–15
illusion of, 90
market, 529, 551–553
monitoring and, 124
resistance to, 546
Control systems, 526–559
bureaucratic systems
approaches to, 533–537
budgetary controls, 538–540
control cycle, 529–533
designing effective, 546–550
downside of, 544–546
financial controls, 541–544
management audits, 537–538
clan control, 529, 553–554
concurrent, 533–534
defined, 528
feedback, 533–535
feedforward, 533–534
market control, 529, 551–553
six sigma, 310, 535–537, 545
span of, 269–270
strategic, 144–145
Controlling The management function of
monitoring performance and making needed
changes, 14
Converse, 62
Cooperative strategies Strategies used
by two or more organizations working together to
manage the external environment, 63
Cooptation, 63, 612
Coordination and communication, 285–286
Coordination by mutual
adjustment Units interact with one another
to make accommodations to achieve flexible
coordination, 285, 286
Coordination by plan Interdependent
units are required to meet deadlines and
objectives that contribute to a common goal,
284
Coordination by standardization, 284
Coordination The procedures that link the
various parts of an organization for the purpose
of achieving the organization’s overall mission,
265
Complimentary products and technologies, 569
Compressed workweek, 393
Compromise A style of dealing with conflict
involving moderate attention to both parties’
concerns, 487–488
Computer-aided design, 314
Computer-integrated manufacturing
(CIM) The use of computer-aided design
and computer-aided manufacturing to sequence
and optimize a number of production processes,
314–315
Concentration A strategy employed for an
organization that operates a single business and
competes in a single industry, 138–139
Concentric diversification A strategy
used to add new businesses that produce related
products or are involved in related markets and
activities, 138–139
Conceptual and decision skills Skills
pertaining to the ability to identify and resolve
problems for the benefit of the organization and
its members, 19
Concern for people, 414, 416
Concern for production, 414, 416
Concurrent control The control process
used while plans are being carried out, including
directing, monitoring, and fine-tuning activities as
they are performed, 533–534
Concurrent engineering A design
approach in which all relevant functions cooperate
jointly and continually in a maximum effort aimed
at producing high-quality products that meet
customers’ needs, 319
Confidentiality, of information, 597
Conflict of interest, 155, 158
Conflict Opposing pressures from different
sources, occurring on the level of psychological
conflict or conflict between individuals or groups,
82–83
affective, 96
cognitive, 96
constructive, 96–97
managing, 486
styles, 486–488
virtual, 489–490
Conglomerate diversification
A strategy used to add new businesses that
produce unrelated products or are involved in
unrelated markets and activities, 139
ConocoPhillips, 579
Conservation, 180
Consideration, 414
Consolidated Natural Gas, 183
Constructive conflict, 96–97
Constructive feedback, 350
Consumer Protection Act, 458
Consumers, 56–57
Contemporary approaches to management, 38–39
Content theories, 449
Content validity, 339Glossary / Subjects IND-5
Discounting the future A bias weighting
short-term costs and benefits more heavily than
longer-term costs and benefits, 91
Discrimination, 370–371
Diseconomies of scale, 303
Disempowerment, 456
Disney, 231, 234, 328, 602
Disruptive innovation, 566
Distribution channels, 202
Diversification A firm’s investment in a
different product, business, or geographic area,
61, 138–139
Diversity, 368–403
accommodation, 397, 487–488
accountability for, 271, 397
versus affirmative action, 383–388
age of workforce, 381–383
assumptions, 386, 390
attracting employees, 392–393
awareness building, 394
challenges of, 386–388
communication problems, 386–387
competitive advantage through, 384–385
components of, 372
cultivating, 391–397
defined, 372
gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, 378
gender issues, 373–378
history, 370–371
managing, 370
mentally and physically disabled, 380–381
minorities and immigrants, 49–50, 370–371,
378–380
mistrust and tension, 387
multicultural organizations, 389–391
organizational assessment, 392
retaining employees, 384, 395–397
stereotyping, 387
top management commitment for, 391–392
women, 49–50, 370–371, 373–378
workforce of the future, 373
Diversity training Programs that focus on
identifying and reducing hidden biases against
people with differences and developing the skills
needed to manage a diversified workforce, 346,
394–395
DiversityInc.com, 380
Divestiture A firm selling one or more
businesses, 62
Division managers, 281
Division of labor The assignment of
different tasks to different people or groups,
264
Divisional organization
Departmentalization that groups units around
products, customers, or geographic regions,
276–278
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform, 458
Dogs, 139–140
Domain selection Entering a new market
or industry with an existing expertise, 61
Domestic partners, 50
Domino Sugar, 313
DoubleClick, 137
time pressures, 91–92
types of, 80–81
Decision skills, 19
Decision styles, 415
Decoding, 498
Defects, 8, 535–537
Defects per million opportunities (DPMO), 536
Defenders Companies that stay within a
stable product domain as a strategic maneuver,
62, 576
Delegation The assignment of new or
additional responsibilities to a subordinate, 241,
270–272
Dell Computer, 57, 198, 308, 313, 318, 333
Deloitte & Touche, 329, 396
Demand forecasts, 330–331
Deming’s 14 points, 310
Democratic leadership A form of
leadership in which the leader solicits input from
subordinates, 415
Demographics Measures of various
characteristics of the people who make up groups
or other social units, 49–50
Departmentalization Subdividing an
organization into smaller subunits, 274
customer/geographic, 278
divisional, 276–278
matrix, 278–282
product approach, 277–278
Designer role, 283
Deutsche Asset Management, 184
Deutsche Boerse, 189
Development Helping managers and
professional employees learn the broad skills
needed for their present and future jobs, 344–346
Development project A focused
organizational effort to create a new product or
process via technological advances, 585
Devil’s advocate A person who has the job
of criticizing ideas to ensure that their downsides
are fully explored, 97
Dialectic A structured debate comparing two
conflicting courses of action, 97
Differential piecerate system, 35
Differentiated market, 384
Differentiation An aspect of the
organization’s internal environment created by job
specialization and the division of labor, 264–265,
566
Differentiation strategy A strategy
an organization uses to build competitive
advantage by being unique in its industry or
market segment along one or more dimensions,
141–142
Dillon Read, 452
Directive leadership, 414, 421–422
Discipline, progressive, 340–341, 550
Current ratio A liquidity ratio that indicates
the extent to which short-term assets can decline
and still be adequate to pay short-term liabilities,
541
Custom-made solutions New, creative
solutions designed specifically for the problem,
84
Customer division, 278
Customer goals, 127–128
Customer relationship management
(CRM) A multifaceted process focusing on
creating two-way exchanges with customers to
foster intimate knowledge of their needs, wants,
and buying patterns, 307–309
Customer responsiveness, organizing for, 306–312
Customer service, 56–57
Customers, 56–57, 306–312
Customization, mass, 65, 313–315
CVS Caremark, 382
Cycle time reduction, 318
D
Danish Steel, 184
Data mining, 596
Days Inn, 392
DB Healthcare, 230
DealPerk, 241
Debt-equity ratio A leverage ratio that
indicates the company’s ability to meet its longterm financial obligations, 543
Decentralized organization An
organization in which lower-level managers make
important decisions, 64, 272–273
Decision making
alternative evaluation, 85–86
barriers to effective, 89–93
best decision, 89
brainstorming, 98, 502, 585
centralized, 272–273
characteristics of, 80–83
coalitional model, 99
conflict in, 82–83, 96–97
constraints on, 98–99
contingency plans, 85–86, 122
creativity and, 97–98
crisis management, 100–102
custom-made solutions, 84
decentralized, 64, 272–273
ethical, 164–165
evaluating the decision, 88–89
garbage can model, 99–100
in groups, 93–95, 105
groupthink, 95, 385, 482
implementing the decision, 87–88
incremental model, 99
making the choice, 86–87
nonprogrammed, 81
organizational, 98–102
participation in, 415
phases of, 83–89
versus planning, 120–121
problem ID, 83–84
programmed, 80–81
psychological biases, 89–91
ready-made solutions, 84
requirements for effective, 95–96
social realities, 93
stages of, 121IND-6 Glossary / Subjects
myths about, 226–228
nonfinancial resources, 247–249
personal traits needed for, 236–238
planning, 244–247
reasons for becoming, 229–230
risk, 237–238, 239, 247, 250
social, 235–236
Entry mode, 206–209
Environment
competitive advantage, 179
conflicting views about, 179
conservation, 180
corporate response to, 181–184
ecocentric management, 172–173
economy and, 181
ethics, 171–175
future issues, 173–175
implementation of programs, 182–184
importance of managing for the, 179–181
international perspective, 181
legal issues, 179, 183
life-cycle analysis, 172
natural, 50–51, 171–175
packaging, 172, 174
public opinion and, 179–180
responsibility for, 594
science and, 180
sustainability, 11–12, 50, 168, 172–173
what managers can do, 181–182
Environmental analysis, 58–61, 74–75, 132–133
Environmental complexity, 58–59
Environmental dynamism, 59
Environmental movement, 180
Environmental Protection Agency, 48
Environmental scanning Searching
for and sorting through information about the
environment, 59, 572
Environmental Systems Design (ESD), 273
Environmental uncertainty, 58–59
Envision, 612
EPA, 183
Equal Employment Opportunity, 341–343, 383
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission,
48, 377
Equal Pay Act (EPA), 343, 356
Equifinality, 390
Equitable Life Assurance Society, 391
Equity
assessing, 458–459
restoring, 459
stockholders’, 541
Equity theory A theory stating that
people assess how fairly they have been treated
according to two key factors: outcomes and inputs,
457–458
ERG theory, 451–452
Ernst & Young, 263, 380, 396
Errands Done Right, 232
eShakti, 314
ESPN, 234
Ethel M. Chocolates, 182
Ethical climate In an organization, the
processes by which decisions are evaluated and
made on the basis of right and wrong, 161
Ethical issue Situation, problem, or
opportunity in which an individual must choose
among several actions that must be evaluated as
morally right or wrong, 156
Ethical leader One who is both a moral
person and a moral manager influencing others to
behave ethically, 163
Electrolux, 183, 287
Electronic communication, 501–504
Electronic conflict, 489–490
Electronic media, 501–504
Eli Lilly, 195, 333, 609
Elizabeth Arden, 384
Elmer’s Products, 584
Email, 501–504
Emerging technologies, 570
Emerson Electric, 547
Emotional intelligence The skills of
understanding yourself, managing yourself, and
dealing effectively with others, 20–21
Empathy, 20, 169
Employee benefit programs, 50, 355–356
Employee Retirement Income Security Act
(ERISA), 356
Employment agencies, 334
Employment-at-will The legal concept
that an employee may be terminated for any
reason, 340
Empowerment The process of sharing
power with employees, thereby enhancing their
confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and
their belief that they are influential contributors to
the organization, 64, 456
clan control and, 529, 553–554
versus disempowerment, 456
fostering, 457
results of, 456
of teams, 478, 482
Engineering function, 592
Enron, 154, 160
Entrepreneur Individual who establishes a
new organization without the benefit of corporate
sponsorship, 228
Entrepreneurial initiative, 563
Entrepreneurial orientation The
tendency of an organization to identify and
capitalize successfully on opportunities to launch
new ventures by entering new or established
markets with new or existing goods or services,
250–251
Entrepreneurial strategy matrix, 237–238
Entrepreneurial venture A new business
having growth and high profitability as primary
objectives, 226
Entrepreneurship The pursuit of lucrative
opportunities by enterprising individuals,
224–261
building support, 249
challenges, 240–242
choosing opportunities, 231–236
control systems, 242
corporate, 249–251
defined, 226
factors influencing success/failure, 238–243
financing, 241–242, 246
franchising, 208, 232–233
future of, 233
going public, 242–243
information sources, 259–260
Internet, 234, 246
intrapreneurship, 228, 250, 583
keys to success, 230–231
versus management, 226
management challenges, 250
Douglas, 79
Dow Chemical, 135, 173, 175, 179, 195, 211, 328
Dow Corning, 279
Dow Europe, 184
Dow Jones Industrial Average, 46
Dow Jones Sustainability Index, 182
Downsizing The planned elimination of
positions or jobs, 304–305, 340
Downward communication
Information that flows from higher to lower levels
in the organization’s hierarchy, 512–514
Dream Works, 305
Drive, 413
Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988, 337
Drug testing, 337, 545
Dun and Bradstreet, 380
Dunkin’ Brands Culinary Innovation Team


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