كتاب Fundamentals of Fire Protection for the Safety Professional - Third Edition
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
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وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
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إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
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 كتاب Fundamentals of Fire Protection for the Safety Professional - Third Edition

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Fundamentals of Fire Protection for the Safety Professional - Third Edition
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Contents
1 Introduction to Industrial Fire Protection 1
2 Chemistry and Physics of Fire 19
3 Common and Special Hazards 45
4 Mechanical and Chemical Explosions 83
5 Building Construction 103
6 Life Safety in Buildings 129
7 Hazardous Processes 149
8 Alarm and Detection Systems 171
9 Fire Extinguishment 189
10 Fire Program Management 223
11 Creating a Comprehensive Emergency and Evacuation Plan 263
Appendix: Building Design Guidelines for Emergency Mitigation 313
Glossary 335
Solutions to Chapter Questions 375
Index 395
Index
Page numbers in italics indicate figures and tables.
access control, 317
acetylene: in Class I electrical hazardous
locations, 49; as fire hazard, 75–76
active fire protection systems, in
building construction, 104
ADA. See Americans with Disabilities
Act (ADA)
ADAAG. See Americans with
Disabilities Accessibility Guidelines
(ADAAG)
administrative controls, in fire
protection management, 225–27
AED. See automated external
defibrillators (AED)
aerated powder coating operations,
157–58
air: hydrogen and, 70; thermal
conductivity of, 28
air-conditioning. See heating,
ventilation, and air-conditioning
(HVAC)
alarm and detection systems, 171–87;
annunciation of, 180–81, 279;
building codes for, 174; in building
design, 329–30; classifications for,
172; in emergency action plans, 265,
277–80; in emergency-response
plans, 229, 246; for flame, 178–79;
for heat, 175–76, 176; hot work
permit programs and, 257; initiating
devices for, 173, 173–81; inspection,
testing, and maintenance of, 185–87;
installation of, 174; notification
devices for, 181–82, 182; power
supplies for, 172–73; for radiantenergy, 178–79; reporting systems
for, 182–85; for smoke, 174–78, 177;
testing of, 278–80
aluminum: in Class II electrical
hazardous locations, 50; as fuel, 21;
thermal conductivity of, 28
ambulatory health-care occupancy, life
safety and, 137
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI): on alarm and detection
systems, 280; on hydrogen piping, 71;
National Electrical Safety Code of,
46; on oxygen, 77
American Petroleum Institute (API):
on liquid storage tanks, 64; on liquid
underground tanks, 68
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM), on fire resistance,
110–11396 I n d e x
American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME): on hydrogen
containers, 70; on liquefied
hydrogen, 73; on liquid storage tanks,
64; on liquid underground tanks, 68;
on oxygen, 77
Americans with Disabilities Accessibility
Guidelines (ADAAG), 277
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA),
292, 296
ammonium nitrate, 92–94
annunciation, of alarm and detection
systems, 180–81, 279
ANSI. See American National Standards
Institute (ANSI)
antifreeze, in sprinkler systems, 209
API. See American Petroleum Institute
(API)
arcing, 31; Class I electrical equipment
requirements and, 52; dust
explosions and, 96; electrical fires
from, 46
area of coverage, of sprinkler heads,
214
arson: as building design threat, 313;
wildfires from, 4
ASME. See American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
assembly occupancy: exit and, 140; life
safety and, 136
ASTM. See American Society for Testing
and Materials (ASTM)
atmospheric tanks, for flammable/
combustible liquids, 63
attended vehicles, for explosives
transporting, 89
automated external defibrillators (AED),
272
automatic detection systems, 3
back draft, 26
backflow preventers, for sprinkler
systems, 208–9
baffles, 116
beams: ammonium nitrate and, 93; in
building construction, 105, 108; in
building design, 322; structural steel
in, 33; of wood, 108
black powder, 85
blasting agents, 84–91; use of, 90–91
BLEVE. See boiling-liquid expandingvapor explosion (BLEVE)
BLS. See Bureau of Labor Statistics
(BLS)
BOCA. See Building Officials and Code
Administration (BOCA)
boilers: explosions from, 97–100; as
ignition sources, 9; maintenance of,
99–100
boiling-liquid expanding-vapor
explosion (BLEVE), 25, 94–96, 95
boiling point, 32
bollards, in building design, 318, 331
bonding wire: for dip-tank operations,
161, 166; for liquid transfer, 59, 60,
68–69
BPAT. See Building Performance
Assessment Team (BPAT)
brick: in building construction, 109;
emissivity of, 30; in exterior walls,
326
British thermal unit (Btu), 26; boilers
and, 100; fire load and, 120
building codes, 125–27; for alarm
and detection systems, 174; for
boilers, 100; fire doors in, 117–18;
on hazard identification, 224; on
high-rise buildings, 124; history of,
125; occupancy and commodity
classifications of, 121–22; on
sprinkler systems inspections, 216;
Station Night Club fire and, 131
building construction, 103–27; fire load
and, 120; fire protection in, 104, 114–
20; fire resistance in, 104, 110–11,
113; fire spread and, 115–17; gypsum
board in, 110; interior finish in, 118–
19; major types of, 111–14; masonryI n d e x 397
and brick in, 109; occupancy and
commodity classifications of, 120–23;
reinforced concrete in, 110; steel in,
107–8; structural elements in, 104–6;
terminology, 104; venting in, 118;
wood in, 107–8, 108
building contents, 119–20
building design: alarm and detection
systems in, 329–30; bollards in, 318,
331; cladding in, 325–26; columns
in, 320–22, 324; communication
system in, 330–31; doors in,
319–20; electrical equipment in,
326–27; elevators in, 329; emergency
generator in, 327–28; for emergency
mitigation, 313–33; exterior frame
in, 320–22; exterior walls in, 325–26;
fire control center in, 329; floors in,
323–24; fuel in, 328; green space in,
331; HVAC in, 329; interior columns
in, 324; interior limited access areas
in, 315; interior public access in, 315;
interior walls in, 324–25; means of
egress in, 327; mechanical equipment
in, 326–27; neighbors in, 319; offsite areas in, 316–19; parking in,
316–19; perimeter protection in, 316;
planters in, 318, 331; point of entry
in, 315–16; post-failure analysis for,
332; risk assessment in, 313–14; roof
in, 322–23; site mitigation and, 314–
19; smoke-control systems in, 330;
sprinkler systems in, 220; standpipe
hose systems in, 220; threats to, 313;
ventilation in, 328–29; virtual reality
software for, 331–32; walls in, 324–
26; windows in, 319–20
building fire alarm systems, 172
building information, in emergency
action plans, 273–74
building materials: characteristics of,
107–10. See also specific types
Building Officials and Code
Administration (BOCA), 125
Building Performance Assessment Team
(BPAT), 332
building structural damage, fire
inspections for, 249
bulb sprinkler heads, 211–12
bulk oxygen systems, 77
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 8–9
burning rate, of oxidizers, 91
business continuity: manager, on
emergency action plans, 267; plans,
in emergency-response plans, 248–49
business occupancy, life safety and, 138
CAD. See computer-aided design (CAD)
carbon black, in Class II electrical
hazardous locations, 50
carbon dioxide: from combustion, 24; as
fire extinguisher agent, 193–94
carbon monoxide (CO): in back draft,
26; from combustion, 24
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR),
245
carpet, ignition temperature of, 21
CAS. See Chemical Abstract Service
(CAS)
cast iron, emissivity of, 30
CCTV. See closed-circuit television
(CCTV)
ceilings: fire loading in, 120; fire spread
in, 115; interior finish of, 118, 140;
plastics in, 34; smoke detectors on,
177–78. See also sprinkler systems
ceiling temperature: alarm and detection
systems for, 175, 176; for sprinkler
heads, 212
Celsius temperature measurement, 26
central station fire alarm systems,
183–84
chain of command: in emergency action
plans, 265; in evacuation, 298
charcoal: in black powder, 85; in Class II
electrical hazardous locations, 50
Chemical Abstract Service (CAS), 39
chemical chain reaction, 21–22398 I n d e x
chemical explosions, 83–84
chemical heat, 30
Chemical Process Safety Management,
232
chemical reactions: in chemical
explosions, 84; as ignition source for
flammable/combustible liquids, 69
Chemical Transportation Emergency
Center (CHEMTREC), 42
chlorine, as oxidizer, 20
circuit overload, electrical fires from, 46
cladding, in building design, 325–26
Class A fire extinguishers, 199–200, 200;
in emergency action plans, 274
Class A fires: carbon dioxide for, 193;
dry chemical fire extinguisher agents
for, 195
Class B fire extinguishers, 199–200, 200;
in emergency action plans, 274
Class B fires: dry chemical fire
extinguisher agents for, 195;
flammable/combustible gases in, 190;
flammable/combustible liquids in,
190
Class C fire extinguishers, 200, 200; in
emergency action plans, 274
Class C fires (electrical fires), 10; carbon
dioxide for, 193; dry chemical fire
extinguisher agents for, 195; human
error in, 47
Class D fire extinguishers, 200, 200
Class D fires, combustible metals in, 190
Class I commodities, 122
Class I electrical equipment
requirements, 52
Class I electrical hazardous locations,
47–49; spray booths as, 157
Class I explosive magazine, 87
Class I flammable/combustible liquids,
55; in dip-tank operations, 164, 166
Class II commodities, 122
Class II electrical equipment
requirements, 52–53
Class II electrical hazardous locations,
50; dust explosions and, 97
Class II explosive magazine, 87–88
Class II flammable/combustible liquids,
55; in dip-tank operations, 164
Class III commodities, 123
Class III electrical equipment
requirements, 53
Class III electrical hazardous locations,
50–51
Class III flammable/combustible liquids,
55–56; in dip-tank operations, 164
Class III standpipe systems, 219–20
Class II standpipe systems, 219–20
Class I standpipe systems, 219–20
Class IV commodities, 123
Class K fire extinguishers, 200
Class K fires, cooking media in, 190
Clean Air Act, 232
Clean Water Act, 238
clear-time effects, 321
closed-circuit television (CCTV), 317
CO. See carbon monoxide (CO)
coal, in Class II electrical hazardous
locations, 50
coefficient of expansion, of steel, 107
coefficient of thermal conductivity, 28
columns: in building construction, 105;
in building design, 320–22, 324;
structural steel in, 33
combination systems, 172
combustible materials: hot work permit
programs and, 256–57. See also
flammable/combustible
combustible metals: in Class D fires,
190; fire extinguisher agents for,
18; as fire hazard, 33–34; in spray
booths, 156; thermal conductivity
of, 27; water in fire extinguishers
and, 193
combustion, 22–30; physics of, 31–32;
unique phenomena of, 24–26
combustion waves, in deflagration, 25I n d e x 399
command center, in emergency action
plans, 280
command post leader: on emergency
management team, 268; in
evacuation, 299–300
commodity classifications, of building
construction, 120–23
communication system, in building
design, 330–31
compartmentation, fire walls for, 116
Compressed Gas Association: on
acetylene, 76; on oxygen, 77
computer-aided design (CAD), 331–32
concrete, thermal conductivity of, 28
conduction, heat transfer by, 27–28; for
steel, 107
connectors, in building construction, 106
containment, of explosions, 25
Contingency Planning Requirements, of
RCRA, 238
convection, heat transfer by, 29
cooking media: in Class K fires, 190; as
fuel, 21
copper: specific heat of, 27; for sprinkler
system piping, 208; thermal
conductivity of, 28
corridors: for exit access, 140; fire spread
through, 115
corrosive-resistance, of underground
liquid tanks, 67
corrosive substances, as hazardous
materials, 38
corrosive substances, explosives
transporting and, 88
CPR. See cardiopulmonary resuscitation
(CPR)
CPTED. See crime prevention through
environmental design (CPTED)
CPVC, for sprinkler system piping, 208
Crane, Alanson, 198
Crescent City, Illinois, BLEVE at, 95–96
crime prevention through
environmental design (CPTED),
318–19
critical temperature, of steel, 107
cross-sectional area, in conduction, 28
curtain walls, 106
day-care occupancy, life safety and, 136
dead load, in building construction, 104
dedicated function fire alarm systems,
172
deflagration, 25
deflagrations, flame front speed in, 84
deluge sprinkler system, 206; in
emergency action plans, 274; valves
in, 210–11
Department of Homeland Security,
14–15
detection, alarm, and communication
systems, for life safety, 144
detection-and-notification systems, 2
detention and correctional occupancy,
life safety and, 137
detonation, 25
detonations, flame front speed in, 84
diatomaceous earth, in dynamite, 85
diking, for liquid outside storage tanks,
65
dip-tank operations: drains for, 162; fire
protection for, 166–67; hazardous
processes in, 159–68, 160, 163;
inspection and testing of, 168; liquid
level control in, 162; operation and
maintenance of, 167–68; overflow
prevention in, 161–62; piping
systems for, 166; storage, handling,
and distribution of flammable/
combustible liquids for, 165;
temperature in, 162–64; training for,
168; venting of, 164–65
direct pumping system, for sprinkler
systems, 208
disabled persons, in evacuation, 292
distance: in conduction, 28; radiant heat
transfer and, 30
doors: in building design, 319–20; in
emergency action plans, 272; for exit,400 I n d e x
142–43; fire spread through, 115. See
also fire doors
drainage: in emergency action plans,
273; for liquid outside storage tanks,
65
drains, for dip-tank operations, 162
dry-barrel fire hydrants, 217–18
dry chemicals, as fire extinguisher
agents, 195–96
dry-pipe sprinkler systems, 205; in
emergency action plans, 274; valves
in, 210; water flow alarms for, 211
dust: combustible, in Class II electrical
hazardous locations, 50; explosions,
96–97; liquid housekeeping and, 70;
storms, explosives and, 90
dustproof electrical equipment, in Class
II electrical equipment requirements,
52–53
dynamite, 85
early suppression fast response (ESFR),
sprinkler heads, 213, 214
educational occupancy, life safety and,
136
electrical equipment: in building design,
326–27; dust explosions and, 96; for
electrostatic spray operations, 151–
52; emergency-response plans for,
246; explosives transporting and, 89;
hydrogen and, 71; liquefied hydrogen
and, 73, 74; LP gas and, 80; NRTLs
for, 53–54; oxygen and, 77; safe
design of, 51–53; of spray booths,
153, 157; water in fire extinguishers
and, 192
electrical fires. See Class C fires
electrical heat (resistance heating), 31
electric cords, electrical fires from, 46
electricity, as ignition source, 20, 45–54
electromagnetic waves, radiant heat
transfer of, 29–30
electrostatic fluidized beds, 158–59
electrostatic spray operations, 150–52
elevators (shafts): alarm and detection
systems initiating devices and, 174; in
building design, 329; as firestop, 116;
as means of egress, 292–93
Emergency-Action Plan Regulation, of
OSHA, 238
emergency action plans: alarm and
detection systems in, 265, 277–80;
annual review of, 284; building
information in, 273–74; command
center in, 280; elevators in, 292–93;
emergency management team in,
266–68; evacuation in, 263–311;
fire brigades in, 268, 289–90; fire
extinguishers in, 265, 274; floor
captains in, 268; floor plans in,
271–73; insurance providers in,
267–68; life safety and, 144–46, 264;
means of egress in, 265, 274; off-site
data storage in, 280–81; post-event
restoration in, 303–11; preplanning
for, 276; revision of, 287; shutdown
procedures in, 290–92, 291; sprinkler
systems in, 274–75; steps for creation
of, 282–83; training in, 284–89;
Urban Search and Rescue Grid in,
276; utilities in, 273, 281–82; vendor
and contractor identification in,
269–71
emergency command center, in highrise building fires, 124
emergency director, on emergency
management team, 267
emergency generator, in building
design, 327–28
emergency lighting, for exit, 141–42
emergency management team: in
emergency action plans, 266–68; fire
brigades on, 289–90; floor captains
on, 268, 289–90
emergency medical care, in emergencyresponse plans, 244–45
Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know Act, 231, 235–36I n d e x 401
emergency planning and preparedness,
2
emergency response, 1–2
Emergency Response Guidebook, 36, 40
emergency-response plans: business
recovery/continuity plans in, 248–49;
cost and resource commitment to,
241; emergency medical care in,
244–45; EPA on, 235–36; FEMA on,
228; on fire brigades, 232–36; fire
prevention in, 240; in fire program
management, 226–49; formal
agreements with nearby organizations
in, 241–42; media control in, 247–48;
NFPA on, 237–39; OSHA on, 229–34;
on PPE, 233–34, 246–47; RCRA and,
236–37; shutdown procedures in,
246; training for, 245–46; in writing,
242–44
emissivity, 30
engineering controls, in fire protection
management, 225–27
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA): on antifreeze in sprinkler
systems, 209; on emergency-response
plans, 235–36, 242–44, 248; GHS
and, 56; NRT and, 238, 239; Oil
Pollution Prevention Regulation
of, 238; Risk Management Program
Regulation of, 238; Risk Management
Programs for Chemical Accident
Release Prevention Standard of, 232;
Standards for Owners and Operators
of Hazardous Waste Treatment,
Storage, and Disposal Facilities of,
236
EPA. See Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA)
ESFR. See early suppression fast
response (ESPR)
ethylene, in Class I electrical hazardous
locations, 49
evacuation: accounting for employees
and visitors in, 297–98; assistance
devices for, 294–96; chain of
command in, 298; command post
leader in, 299–300; disabled persons
in, 292; drill evaluation for, 302;
elevators forb, 292–93; in emergency
action plans, 263–311; in emergencyresponse plans, 229, 246; fire
brigades in, 298; fire walls for, 116;
floor captains in, 298; group leader
in, 299; from high-rise building fires,
123; plans, for wildfires, 4; reentry
after, 301–2; refuge areas in, 296;
runners in, 299; staging areas in,
296–97; from Station Night Club fire,
130–31; from Triangle Shirtwaist
fire, 130
exit, 140–43; access, 139–40; in
emergency action plans, 272; signs,
141, 141. See also means of egress
explosions, 25–26, 83–100; in aerated
powder coating operations, 158;
from boilers, 97–100; emergencyresponse plans for, 247; engineering
controls for, 226; from flammable/
combustible gases, 97; from
hazardous processes, 149–50; from
pressure vessels, 97–100; shock waves
in, 83
explosion venting, for liquefied
hydrogen, 74
explosive-proof electrical equipment, 52
explosives, 84–91; handling and storage
of, 87–88; as hazardous materials, 36;
labels and placards for, 85–87, 86, 87;
oxidizers and, 91–94; transporting,
88–90; use of, 90–91
explosive train, 86
exterior frame, in building design,
320–22
exterior walls, 106; in building design,
325–26
extra hazard fire load, 199; sprinkler
system piping and, 208
extra hazard occupancies, 122402 I n d e x
eye wash stations, in emergency action
plans, 272
facilities maintenance manager, on
emergency management team, 267
Fahrenheit temperature measurement,
26
Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA), 15; on business
continuity plans, 248–49; on
emergency action plans, 276; on
emergency-response plans, 228,
248–49; fire inspections of, 252; on
fire protection management, 226;
MAT of, 332–33
feed mains, for sprinkler systems, 209
FEMA. See Federal Emergency
Management Agency (FEMA)
fibers, Class III electrical equipment
requirements for, 53
fire alarms. See alarm and detection
systems
firearms, explosives and, 88
fire barrier wall, 106, 116
fire blanket, hot work permit programs
and, 257
fire brigades: in emergency action plans,
268, 289–90; emergency-response
plans on, 232–36; in evacuations, 298
fire casualties, fire inspections for, 249
fire control center, in building design,
329
fire dampers, 116
fire department: fire program
management and, 224, 235, 251;
sprinkler systems and, 215, 215, 216;
standpipe-hose systems and, 219–20
fire development, fire inspections for,
249
fire doors, 2; fire walls and, 117–18
fire escape, at Triangle Shirtwaist fire,
130
fire extinguishers/extinguishment, 2,
189–220; agents/methods of, 190,
190–98; for dip-tank operations, 166;
distribution and mounting of, 201–2;
in emergency action plans, 265, 272,
274; in emergency-response plans,
230; explosives transporting and, 89;
fire hydrants and, 217–20, 218; fuel
classifications for, 21; labeling of,
199; maintenance, inspection, and
testing of, 202–3; portable, 198–99,
199; rating system for, 199–200, 200;
for spray booths, 155; Station Night
Club fire and, 132; training for, 203;
types of, 199; in workplace, 201. See
also sprinkler systems
fire hazards, 45–79; acetylene as, 75–76;
combustible metals as, 33–34; in
emergency action plans, 265; in
emergency-response plans, 230;
emergency-response plans for, 231,
246; flammable/combustible gases
as, 70–77; flammable/combustible
liquids as, 54–70; gypsum board as,
34; hydrogen as, 70–74, 71, 72, 74;
liquefied hydrogen as, 72–74, 74, 75;
LP gas as, 78–80, 80; masonry/stone
as, 33; oxygen as, 76–78; plastics
as, 34; spray booths as, 152, 153;
synthetic materials as, 34; textiles as,
35; wood as, 32–33
fire hydrants, 217–20, 218
fire-ignition sequence, 249
fire inspections of, 252
fire investigations, in fire program
management, 249–56, 253–55
fire load: in building construction, 104,
110, 120; fire extinguishers and, 199
fire plume, 174; sprinkler heads and, 213
fire prevention, 1–3; for dip-tank
operations, 161; in emergency action
plans, 265; in emergency-response
plans, 229–30, 240; in fire program
management, 225–27; for oxidizers, 92
fire program management, 223–58;
emergency-response plans in,I n d e x 403
226–49; fire investigations in,
249–56, 253–55; fire prevention in,
225–27; fire protection in, 225–27;
hazard identification in, 224; hot
work permit programs in, 256–25;
measurement of effectiveness of, 227;
risk quantification in, 225
fire protection, 1–3; administrative
controls in, 225–27; in building
construction, 104, 114–20; for
dip-tank operations, 166–67;
engineering controls in, 225–27; fire
inspections for, 252; in fire program
management, 225–27; maintenance
of systems for, 250–51; in spray
booths, 155–56
fire resistance: in building construction,
104, 110–11, 113; exit and, 140; of
gypsum board, 110; for hydrogen,
71
fire-retardant treatment, for wood,
108–9
fires: annual averages of, 10; chemistry
and physics of, 19–42, 20, 22,
41; civilian injuries in, 12–13;
classification of, 189–90; economic
impact of, 7–8; in high-rise buildings,
123–25; historically major, 6, 7;
igniting equipment in, 11–12
fire service mains, sprinkler systems
and, 208
fire spread: building construction and,
115–17; at Station Night Club fire, 130
firestops, 116
fire tetrahedron, 19–22, 20, 22
fire walls, 2, 106, 116–17; in building
construction, 104; for dip-tank
operations, 161; openings in, 117–18
first aid: in emergency action plans, 265,
272; OSHA on, 244; USDOT on,
40–42
flame: alarm and detection systems for,
175, 178–79. See also open flames
flame front speed, 84
flame spread: in building construction,
104; exit and, 140; of interior finishes,
119; of wood, 108, 109
Flame Spread Index (FSI), 119
flame supervisory unit, for boilers, 99
flammable/combustible gases: in
Class B fires, 190; Class I electrical
equipment requirements and, 52;
in Class I electrical hazardous
locations, 47–49; combustion
of, 23; combustion physics of,
32; engineering controls for,
226; explosions from, 97; as fire
hazards, 70–77; as fuel, 21; as
hazardous materials, 36–37; heat
of combustion of, 27; heat transfer
by convection of, 29; thermal
conductivity of, 27
flammable/combustible liquids:
in Class B fires, 190; in Class I
electrical hazardous locations, 47–
49; combustion of, 23; combustion
physics of, 31–32; containers
and portable tanks for, 58, 58;
engineering controls for, 226; as
fire hazards, 54–70; flash point of,
31, 32, 54–55, 57, 67, 68; GHS for,
56, 56–57; as hazardous materials,
37; hazardous processes with,
150–68; heat of combustion of, 27;
heat transfer by convection of, 29;
housekeeping for, 69–70; as ignition
source, 69; inside storage rooms for,
61–63, 63; NFPA on, 55–56; outside
aboveground tanks for, 64–66;
oxygen and, 77; sprinkler heads and,
214; storage and handling of, 57–69,
154–55; storage cabinets for, 61,
62; storage tanks for, 63–64; tank
vehicles and cars for, 68–69; transfer
of, 58, 58–60; underground tanks
for, 66–68; ventilation requirements
for, 57; workplace practices with,
69–70404 I n d e x
flammable/combustible waste: in
emergency-response plans, 230; as
fire hazard, 70
flashover, 26
flash point, of flammable/combustible
liquids, 31, 32, 54–55, 57, 67, 68
floor captains: in emergency action
plans, 268, 289–90; in evacuations,
298
floor plans, in emergency action plans,
271–73
floors: in building design, 323–24; fire
loading in, 120; fire spread in, 115;
interior finish of, 118; plastics in, 34
fluorine, as oxidizer, 20
FM Global, 64
Fourier’s law of heat conduction, 28
frictional heat: dust explosions and, 96;
as ignition source for flammable/
combustible liquids, 69; in spray
booths, 154
FSI. See Flame Spread Index (FSI)
fuel (storage): in building design,
328; classification of, 21, 22; in
emergency action plans, 265;
fire inspections for, 252; in fire
tetrahedron, 19–22, 20, 22
fuel load: in high-rise building fires, 124;
occupancy classification and, 120–21
fusible sprinkler heads, 212
gases. See flammable/combustible gases;
toxic gases
general industrial occupancy, life safety
and, 138
GHS. See Globally Harmonized System
(GHS)
glass: thermal conductivity of, 28. See
also windows
Globally Harmonized System (GHS), 56,
56–57
global warming, 3
glycerin, in water for fire extinguishers,
192
grains, in Class II electrical hazardous
locations, 50
gravity systems, for sprinkler systems,
208
green space, in building design, 331
ground failure, electrical fires from, 46
group leader: on emergency
management team, 268; in
evacuations, 299
gypsum board: in building construction,
110; in building construction interior
finish, 118; as fire hazard, 34; as
firestop, 116; ignition temperature
of, 21
halogens: as fire extinguisher agent,
194–95; hydrogen and, 70
hazard identification: in emergency
action plans, 264; in fire program
management, 224
hazardous locations: NEC and, 47–51;
spray booths as, 153
hazardous materials, 41; classes of,
36–39; in emergency action plans,
272; information sources on, 39–42;
water in fire extinguishers and, 193.
See also explosives
Hazardous Materials Table (HMT), 40,
41
hazardous processes: in dip-tank
operations, 159–68, 160, 163;
explosions from, 149–50; with
flammable/combustible liquids, 150–
68; in spray booths, 152–57
hazardous waste, emergency-response
plans on, 231, 236–37
Hazardous Waste Operations and
Emergency Response (HAZWOPR),
of OSHA, 236, 238
hazards. See fire hazards
HAZWOPR. See Hazardous Waste
Operations and Emergency Response
(HAZWOPR)
HCN. See hydrogen cyanide (HCN)I n d e x 405
health-care occupancy, life safety and,
136–37
heat: alarm and detection systems for,
175–76, 176; alarm and detection
systems initiating devices for,
175–76, 176; from combustion,
23; in fire tetrahedron, 19–22,
20, 22; sources of, 30–31; versus
temperature, 26–27
heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC): in building
design, 329; dip-tank operations
and, 159; fire dampers in, 116; as
firestop, 116; as ignition source, 9, 20;
liquefied hydrogen and, 74; for spray
booths, 157
heat of combustion, 27
heat of decomposition, 30
heat of evaporation, of water, 191
heat of solution, 31
heat release rate (HRR), fire load and,
120
heat transfer, 27–28; in BLEVE, 95
heat transfer coefficient, 29
high hazard industrial occupancy, life
safety and, 138
high-pressure gas switch, for boilers, 99
high-rise buildings, fires in, 123–25
HMT. See Hazardous Materials Table
(HMT)
hot work permit programs, 256–57
household fire warning systems, 172
HRR. See heat release rate (HRR)
human resources, on emergency
management team, 267
HVAC. See heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC)
hydrofluoric acid, as oxidizer, 20
hydrogen: in Class I electrical hazardous
locations, 49; as fire hazard, 70–74,
71, 72, 74
hydrogen cyanide (HCN), 24
hydrogen peroxide: as hazardous
materials, 37; as oxidizer, 20
IBC. See International Building Code
(IBC)
ICBO. See International Conference of
Building Officials (ICBO)
ICC. See International Code Council
(ICC)
ICP. See Integrated Contingency
Plan(ICP)
ICS. See Incident Command System
(ICS)
ignition limiting timer, for boilers, 99
ignition source: alarm and detection
systems initiating devices and, 175;
in dip-tank operations, 159–61; for
dust explosions, 96; electricity as, 20,
45–54; in emergency-response plans,
230; explosives and, 88, 90; explosives
transporting and, 88; fire inspections
for, 252; flammable/combustible
liquids as, 69; in fuel tetrahedron, 20;
LP gas and, 80; in spray booth, 152,
153
ignition temperature, 21; flashover and,
26; of wood, 108
Imperial Foods fire, 5
Incident Command System (ICS), 239
incident fires, emergency-response plans
on, 230
industrial occupancy, life safety and, 138
infectious substances, as hazardous
materials, 37–38
initiating devices, for alarm and
detection systems, 173, 173–81
insulation/insulators, 28; electrical fires
from, 46; for electrostatic spray
operations, 151; for steel, 108
insurance providers, in emergency
action plans, 267–68
Integrated Contingency Plan (ICP),
238–39; as written emergencyresponse plan benchmark, 242–43
interior columns, in building design, 324
interior finish, in building construction,
118–19406 I n d e x
interior limited access areas, in building
design, 315
interior public access, in building
design, 315
interior walls, in building design,
324–25
intermediate level sprinklers, 213
International Building Code (IBC),
121–22, 126–27; on exit access, 140;
on life safety, 135
International Code Council (ICC),
126–27; on life safety, 135
International Conference of Building
Officials (ICBO), 125
International Energy Conservation
Code, 127
International Existing Building Code, 127
International Fire Code, 127
international fire experience, 8, 8
International Fuel Gas Code, 127
International Green Construction Code,
127
International Mechanical Code, 127
International Plumbing Code, 127
ISO/TS, 225
isolation, of explosions, 25–26
joules, 26
Kelvin temperature measurement, 26
KNOX-BOX® Rapid Entry System, 274
LEL. See lower explosive limit (LEL)
LEPCs. See local emergency planning
communities (LEPCs)
LFL. See lower flammable limit (LFL)
life safety, 129–46; codes and regulations
for, 133–35; detection, alarm, and
communication systems for, 144; for
electrostatic spray operations, 151;
emergency action plans and, 144–46,
264; fire inspections for, 252; human
behavior during emergencies and,
132–33; occupancy classifications
and, 135–39; smoke and, 144–45;
utilities and, 144–45; venting and,
144–45. See also evacuation; means
of egress
light hazard fire load, 199; sprinkler
system inspections for, 216; sprinkler
system piping and, 208
light hazard occupancies, 121
lighting: for alarm and detection systems
notification systems, 182; in diptank operations, 164; emergency, for
exit, 141–42; in emergency-response
plans, 241; for exterior protection,
318; in spray booth, 152; sprinkler
heads and, 213
lightning: explosives and, 90; heat from,
31; as ignition source, 20; as ignition
source for flammable/combustible
liquids, 69; wildfires from, 4
line-type heat detectors, 176
liquefied hydrogen, 72–74, 74, 75
liquefied petroleum gas. See LP gas
(liquefied petroleum gas)
liquids. See flammable/combustible
liquids
load-bearing walls, 106; parapets of,
116
local emergency planning communities
(LEPCs), 235, 241, 243
logistics and procurement manager, on
emergency management team, 267
loss of life. See life safety
lower explosive limit (LEL): for
electrostatic spray operations, 152; of
flammable/combustible liquids, 57
lower flammable limit (LFL), of
flammable/combustible liquids, 57
low-pressure gas switch, for boilers, 99
low-pressure tanks, for flammable/
combustible liquids, 63
low water cutoffs, for boilers, 99
LP gas (liquefied petroleum gas): BLEVE
of, 95–96; as fire hazard, 78–80, 80
magazines, for explosives handling and
storage, 87–88I n d e x 407
magnesium: in Class II electrical
hazardous locations, 50; as fuel, 21
main drain valve: sprinkler system
inspections for, 217; in wet-pipe
sprinkler systems, 210
masonry: in building construction, 109;
as fire hazard, 33. See also brick
Massey, Curtis, 276
Massey Disaster Plan, 276
MAT. See Mitigation Assessment Team
material safety data sheet (MSDS): in
emergency action plans, 265, 273–74;
in emergency-response plans, 235
means of egress, 2; in building design,
327; capacity of, 143–44; elevators as,
292–93; in emergency action plans,
265, 274; general requirements for,
139–44; in high-rise building fires,
125; maintenance of, 146; venting
for, 118. See also evacuation
mechanical equipment, in building
design, 326–27
mechanical explosions, 83
mechanical heat, 31
mechanical rooms, in emergency action
plans, 272
media control, in emergency-response
plans, 247–48
media relations contact, on emergency
management team, 267
mercantile occupancy, life safety and,
138
metals. See specific metals
mission statement, in emergency action
plans, 265
Mitigation Assessment Team (MAT),
332–33
monoammonium phosphate, as fire
extinguisher agent, 195
MSDS. See material safety data sheet
(MSDS)
multiple occupancy, life safety and, 139
municipal fire alarm systems, 172
mutual aid, Station Night Club fire and,
132
National Electrical Code (NEC), of
NFPA, 46; hazardous locations and,
47–51
National Electrical Safety Code, of
American National Standards
Institute (ANSI), 46
National Fire Incident Reporting
System, 227
National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA), 2–3, 14; on alarm and
detection systems, 171–72, 279–80;
on alarm and detection systems
notification systems, 182; on alarm
and detection systems power
supplies, 173; on alarm and detection
systems testing, inspection, and
maintenance, 186–87; on building
construction interior finish, 118–19;
on building construction types,
111–12; on dip-tank operations,
159–61; on dip-tank operations
drains, 162; documenting of fires by,
6; on electrostatic spray operations,
151; on emergency-response plans,
237–39; on exit access, 140; on
fire classifications, 190–91; on fire
hydrants, 218–19; fire inspections
of, 252–56; on fire load, 199; on fire
resistance, 111; on firestops, 116;
on fire walls, 117; on flammable/
combustible liquids, 55–56; on
halogen fire extinguisher agents, 195;
on hazard identification, 224; on
hazardous materials, 39–40; on life
safety, 130, 134–35; on liquid storage
cabinets, 61; on liquid workplace
practices, 69; on means of egress,
143; NEC of, 46; on oxidizers, 91;
on risk quantification, 225; on
smoke control, 145; on spray booth
ventilation, 153–54; on sprinkler
heads, 212, 214; on sprinkler systems,
131, 204, 208–9; on sprinkler systems
inspections, 215–16; on standpipe
hose systems, 220408 I n d e x
National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH), 24
National Institute for the Certification
of Engineering Technologies
(NICET), 278
National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST): on high-rise
buildings, 123; on Station Night Club
fire, 131
National Interagency Incident
Management System (NIMS), 242
nationally recognized testing
laboratories (NRTLs): for electrical
equipment, 53–54; on liquid
containers, 58
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAH), 3
National Response Team (NRT), 238, 239
NEC. See National Electrical Code
(NEC)
neighbors, in building design, 319
NFPA. See National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA)
NICET. See National Institute for
the Certification of Engineering
Technologies (NICET)
NIMS. See National Interagency
Incident Management System
(NIMS)
NIOSH. See National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH)
NIST. See National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST)
nitric acid, as oxidizer, 20
nitroglycerin, in dynamite, 85
NOAH. See National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration
(NOAH)
noncombustible material, in building
construction, 104
non-load bearing walls, 106
notification devices, for alarm and
detection systems, 181–82, 182
NRT. See National Response Team
(NRT)
NRTLs. See nationally recognized
testing laboratories (NRTLs)
nuclear heat, 31
oak, emissivity of, 30
occupancy classifications: of building
construction, 120–23; exit and, 140–
41; life safety and, 135–39
occupant load: of assembly occupancy,
136; means of egress and, 143–44
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA), 9, 13–14;
on alarm and detection systems, 279–
80; on ammonium nitrate, 92–94; on
blasting agents, 85; on CO exposure,
24; on dip-tank operations, 159, 161;
on electrical equipment safe design,
51; on electrical equipment testing,
53–54; on electrical hazardous
locations, 47; on electrostatic
spray operations, 151; EmergencyAction Plan Regulation of, 238; on
emergency action plans, 145–46,
242, 264–65; on emergency medical
care, 244–45; on emergency-response
plans, 229–34; on explosives, 85,
90–91; on explosives transporting,
89; on fire brigades, 290; on fire
extinguishers, 201; fire inspections of,
252; on first aid, 244; GHS and, 56–
57; on hazard identification, 224; on
hazardous locations, 51; HAZWOPR
of, 236, 238; on hot work permit
programs, 256–57; on hydrogen
containers, 70; on life safety, 135;
on liquefied hydrogen, 73; on liquid
outside storage tanks, 65–66; on
liquid storage and handling of,
57–69; on liquid workplace practices,
69; Phillips Petroleum Houston
Chemical Complex explosion and,
150; Process Safety ManagementI n d e x 409
Standards of, 238; on spray booth
fire protection, 155–56; on spray
booth ventilation, 154; on sprinkler
heads, 214; on sprinkler systems
inspections, 216
off-site areas, in building design, 316–19
off-site data storage, in emergency
action plans, 280–81
Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation, of
EPA, 238
oil-soaked rags, spontaneous ignition
from, 21
Oklahoma City bombing, 316–17
open flames: dip-tank operations and,
159; explosives and, 88, 90; LP gas
and, 80
opening pressure, for liquid outside
storage tanks, 65
ordinary hazard fire load, 199; sprinkler
system inspections for, 216
ordinary hazard occupancies, 121–22
organic peroxides, as hazardous
materials, 37
ORM. See Other Regulated Materials
(ORM)
OS&Y. See outside stem and yoke
(OS&Y)
OSHA. See Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA)
Other Regulated Materials (ORM), 39
outside stem and yoke (OS&Y), 209–10
oxidation, 23
oxidizers, 20; acetylene and, 76;
combustion from, 22–30; explosives
and, 91–94; explosives transporting
and, 88; as hazardous materials, 37;
liquefied hydrogen and, 74
oxygen: acetylene and, 76; in
combustion, 24; dust explosions
and, 96; as fire hazard, 76–78; in fire
tetrahedron, 19–22, 20, 22; hydrogen
and, 70
panic bars, for exit doors, 142, 143
paper: in Class A fire, 190; as fuel, 21;
liquefied hydrogen and, 74
parapets, 116
parking, in building design, 316–19
Parmalee, Henry S., 204
partial coverage, of alarm and detection
systems initiating devices, 174
partition wall, 106
passive fire protection systems, 3; in
building construction, 104
PB, for sprinkler system piping, 208
pendant sprinklers, 213
perchloric acid, as oxidizer, 91
perimeter protection, in building design,
316
personal protective equipment (PPE),
emergency-response plans on, 233–
34, 246–47
Phillips Petroleum Houston Chemical
Complex explosion, 149–50
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety
Administration (PHMSA), 40
PIV. See post indicator valve (PIV)
planters, in building design, 318, 331
plaster, emissivity of, 30
plastics: in building construction
interior finish, 118; in Class II
electrical hazardous locations, 50; as
fire hazard, 34
plywood, ignition temperature of, 21
point of entry, in building design,
315–16
polystyrene, ignition temperature of, 21
portable fire extinguishers, 2
post indicator valve (PIV), 209–10;
sprinkler system inspections for, 216
potassium chlorate, as oxidizer, 91
potassium permanganate, as oxidizer, 91
power supplies: for alarm and detection
systems, 172–73; in emergency action
plans, 273
PPE. See personal protective equipment
(PPE)
Pratt, Philip W., 204410 I n d e x
preaction sprinkler systems, 205–6;
valves in, 210–11
pressure relief devices, engineering
controls for, 226
pressure vessels: explosions from,
97–100; for flammable/combustible
liquids, 63
Process Safety Management Standards,
of OSHA, 238
propane, in Class I electrical hazardous
locations, 49
proprietary supervising station fire
alarm systems, 184
propylene glycol, in water for fire
extinguishers, 192
protected premises fire alarm systems,
172
public fire alarm systems, 183
pyrotechnics, Station Night Club fire
and, 130–32
quick burning, of wood, 108
radiant-energy, alarm and detection
systems for, 178–79
radiant heat, as ignition source for
flammable/combustible liquids, 69
radiant heat transfer, 29–30
radioactive materials: as hazardous
materials, 38; water in fire
extinguishers and, 193
radio transmitters, explosives and, 90
rafters, in building construction, 105
railroad derailment, BLEVE from, 95–96
RCRA. See Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA)
refuge areas, in evacuation, 296
reinforced concrete, in building
construction, 110
releasing fire alarm systems, 172
remote supervising station fire alarm
systems, 185
reporting systems, for alarm and
detection systems, 182–85
residential board and care occupancy,
life safety and, 138
residential occupancy, life safety and,
137
resistance heating (electrical heat), 31
Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act (RCRA), 236–37; Contingency
Planning Requirements of, 238
risk assessment: in building design,
313–14; for emergency action plans,
282; for fire program management,
223, 225–27
Risk Management Program Regulation,
of EPA, 238
Risk Management Programs for
Chemical Accident Release
Prevention Standard, of EPA, 232
risk management specialist, on
emergency management team, 267
risk quantification, in fire program
management, 225
roof: ammonium nitrate and, 93; in
building construction, 114, 116; in
building design, 322–23; drains, in
emergency action plans, 273; slate,
125; of spray booths, 154; sprinkler
systems and, 209
runners: on emergency management
team, 268; in evacuation, 299
rupture disk device, for boilers, 99
Safety Data Sheets (SDS): of
CHEMTREC, 42; of GHS, 56
safety factor, in building construction,
104
safety relief valve, for boilers, 99
safety science, 1
SARA. See Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization (SARA)
SCBA. See self-contained breathing
apparatuses (SCBA)
SDS. See Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
self-contained breathing apparatuses
(SCBA), 292I n d e x 411
September 11, 2001 terrorist attack, 7,
226, 275
SERC. See state emergency response
commission (SERC)
sewer lines, in emergency action plans,
273
SFPE, on risk quantification, 225
shock waves: in detonation, 25; in
explosions, 83
short circuits: electrical fires from, 46;
explosives transporting and, 89
shutdown procedures: in emergency
action plans, 290–92, 291; in
emergency-response plans, 246
shutters, fire walls and, 117
sidewall sprinklers, 213
site mitigation, building design and,
314–19
slate roof, 125
smoke: alarm and detection systems for,
174–78, 177; in back draft, 26; baffles
for, 116; from building construction
interior finishes, 119; from building
contents, 119; from combustion,
23–24; in high-rise building fires,
124; life safety and, 144–45; venting
of, 118, 144–45
smoke-control systems, in building
design, 330
smoke detectors, 171, 176–78, 177; in
emergency action plans, 272; with
sprinkler systems, 275
smoking: dip-tank operations and,
161; explosives and, 88; as ignition
source for flammable/combustible
liquids, 69; liquefied hydrogen and,
74; oxygen and, 78; spray booths and,
156
sodium chlorite, as oxidizer, 91
sodium dichromate, as oxidizer, 91
sodium hypochlorite, as oxidizer, 91
sodium nitrate: in black powder, 85; in
dynamite, 85; as oxidizer, 91
sodium persulfate, as oxidizer, 91
solids: combustion of, 23; combustion
physics of, 31; as hazardous
materials, 37; thermal conductivity
of, 27
Southern Building Code Congress
International, 125
sparking, 31; Class I electrical
equipment requirements and,
52; dip-tank operations and, 159;
electrical fires from, 46; explosives
and, 88; explosives transporting
and, 88; hot work permit programs
and, 257; hot work permits for, 256;
as ignition source for flammable/
combustible liquids, 69; spray booths
and, 156
special purpose industrial occupancy,
life safety and, 138
specific gravity, 32
specific heat, 27; of water, 191
spontaneous heating, 30
spontaneous ignition, 21; as ignition
source for flammable/combustible
liquids, 69
spot-type heat detectors, 176
spray booth: drying, curing, and fusion
apparatuses in, 156–57; ignition
source in, 152, 153; operation and
maintenance of, 156
spray booths: engineering controls
for, 226; as fire hazard, 152; fire
protection in, 155–56; flammable/
combustible liquids storage and
handling in, 154–55; hazardous
processes in, 152–57; venting of,
153–54
sprinkler systems, 2, 203–17; for alarm
and detection system initiating
devices, 179–80; antifreeze in, 209;
backflow preventers for, 208–9;
in building construction, 104; in
building design, 220; components
of, 206, 207; in dip-tank operations,
161–62; in emergency action plans,412 I n d e x
265, 274–75; as engineering controls,
226; exit access and, 140; feed mains
for, 209; fire department and, 215,
215; fire service mains and, 208;
heads for, 211–14, 212; in high-rise
building fires, 124; inspection of,
215–17; piping for, 209–10; smoke
detectors with, 275; for spray booths,
155; Station Night Club fire and,
131; trip test for, 209; types of,
204–6; valves of, 209–11; water flow
alarms for, 211; water supply and
distribution for, 206–8
staging areas, in evacuation, 296–97
stainless steel, emissivity of, 30
stairways: alarm and detection systems
initiating devices and, 174; in
emergency action plans, 272; exit
and, 140; fire spread through, 115
Standards for Owners and Operators
of Hazardous Waste Treatment,
Storage, and Disposal Facilities, of
EPA, 236
stand-by power, in high-rise building
fires, 124
standpipe hose systems, 2, 219–20;
in building design, 220; sprinkler
system inspections for, 216
state emergency response commission
(SERC), 235
static electrical charge: in dip-tank
operations, 161, 164; heat from, 31;
liquid storage and, 59; liquid tank
vehicles and cars and, 68
Station Night Club fire, 130–32
steel: in building construction, 107–8;
for liquid storage tanks, 64; in
reinforced concrete, 110; thermal
conductivity of, 28
Steiner Tunnel Test, 119
stoichiometric combustion, 118
storage occupancy, life safety and, 139
storm drains, in emergency action plans,
273
sulfur, in black powder, 85
sulfuric acid, as oxidizer, 20
Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization (SARA), 231,
235–36
suppression, of explosions, 25
synthetic materials, as fire hazard, 34
temperature: alarm and detection
systems initiating devices and, 174;
in dip-tank operations, 162–64; HCN
and, 24; versus heat, 26–27; radiant
heat transfer and, 30; sprinkler
heads and, 212, 212. See also ceiling
temperature; ignition temperature
temperature gradient, in conduction, 28
temperature limit control, for boilers, 99
textiles (ignitable fibers): Class III
electrical equipment requirements
for, 53; Class III electrical hazardous
locations for, 50–51; as fire hazard, 35
titanium, as fuel, 21
TNT. See trinitrotoluene (TNT)
Toledo, Peoria, and Western Railroad
Company, BLEVE of, 95–96
total complete coverage, for alarm and
detection systems initiating devices,
174
toxic gases: from building contents,
119–20; emergency-response plans
for, 247
traffic control, in emergency-response
plans, 242
Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire, 5, 130
trinitrotoluene (TNT), 85
trip test, for sprinkler systems, 209, 217
trusses, in building construction, 106
Type I buildings, 112
Type II buildings, 112
Type III buildings, 112–13
Type IV buildings, 113
Type V buildings, 113
UEL. See upper explosive limit (UEL)I n d e x 413
UFL. See upper flammable limit (UFL)
Underwriters’ Laboratories (UL):
on electrostatic spray operations,
151; on fire resistance, 110–11; on
liquid storage tanks, 64; on liquid
underground tanks, 68
uninterruptible power system, in
emergency action plans, 273
United States Fire Administration
(USFA), 14–15; on building contents,
119–20
upper explosive limit (UEL), of
flammable/combustible liquids, 57
upper flammable limit (UFL), of
flammable/combustible liquids, 57
Urban Search and Rescue Grid, in
emergency action plans, 276
U.S. Department of Labor (USDOL):
on electrical equipment safe design,
51–53; on emergency medical care,
244–45; on emergency-response
plans, 230, 231; GHS and, 56–57; on
hazardous locations, 51; on liquefied
hydrogen, 73
U.S. Department of Transportation
(USDOT): on explosives, 84–85;
on explosives labels and placards,
85–86, 86, 87; on explosives
transporting, 88–89; on first aid,
40–42; on hazardous materials,
36–42, 41; on hydrogen containers,
70; on liquefied hydrogen, 73; on
liquid containers, 58; on LP gas, 79;
on oxygen, 77
USDOL. See U.S. Department of Labor
(USDOL)
USDOT. See U.S. Department of
Transportation (USDOT)
USFA. See United States Fire
Administration (USFA)
U.S. Fire Administration, 226
utilities: in emergency action plans, 273,
281–82; explosives and, 90–91; life
safety and, 144–45; in wildfires, 5
vapor density, 32
vapor pressure, 31
venting/ventilation: of aerated powder
coating operations, 158; for boilers,
100; in building construction, 118;
in building design, 328–29; of
dip-tank operations, 164–65; for
electrostatic spray operations, 152;
engineering controls for, 226; of
explosions, 25; for explosions, for
liquefied hydrogen, 74; for hydrogen,
71; life safety and, 144–45; for
liquefied hydrogen, 74; for liquid
outside storage tanks, 65; for liquid
underground tanks, 67; of spray
booths, 153–54. See also heating,
ventilation, and air-conditioning
(HVAC)
virtual reality software, for building
design, 331–32
walls: in building construction, 105–6;
in building design, 324–26; fire
loading in, 120; fire spread in, 115;
interior finish of, 118, 140; plastics in,
34; of spray booths, 152; structural
steel in, 33. See also fire walls
warning systems: for wildfires, 4, 5. See
also alarm and detection systems
water: in emergency action plans, 273;
as fire extinguisher agent, 191–93;
specific heat of, 27. See also sprinkler
systems
water flow alarms: sprinkler system
inspections for, 217; for sprinkler
systems, 211
welding and cutting: acetylene for,
75; dip-tank operations and, 159;
dust explosions and, 96; hot work
permit programs and, 257; hot
work permits for, 256; as ignition
source for flammable/combustible
liquids, 69; liquefied hydrogen and,
74414 I n d e x
wet-barrel fire hydrant, 217, 218
wet-pipe sprinkler systems, 205, 207; in
emergency action plans, 274; heads
for, 211–12; valves in, 210
wetting agents, in water for fire
extinguishers, 192
wildfires, 3–6
windows: in building design, 319–20;
in emergency action plans, 272; fire
walls and, 117; at Triangle Shirtwaist
fire, 130
wood: in building construction, 107–8,
108; in building construction interior
finish, 118; in Class A fire, 190;
in Class II electrical hazardous
locations, 50; as fire hazard, 32–33;
as fuel, 21; heat of combustion of, 27;
ignition temperature of, 21
yield stress, of steel, 107
zirconium, as fuel, 21


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