كتاب International Health Safety Work For the NEBOSH International General Certificate - Second Edition
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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  كتاب International Health Safety Work For the NEBOSH International General Certificate - Second Edition

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب International Health Safety Work For the NEBOSH International General Certificate - Second Edition     كتاب International Health Safety Work For the NEBOSH International General Certificate - Second Edition  Emptyالإثنين 18 مارس 2024, 4:03 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
International Health Safety Work For the NEBOSH International General Certificate - Second Edition
Phil Hughes MBE, MSc, CFIOSH,
Chairman NEBOSH 1995–2001. President of IOSH 1990–1991
Ed Ferrett PhD, BSc (Hons Eng), CEng, MIMechE, MIET, CMIOSH,
Vice Chairman NEBOSH 1999–2008

 كتاب International Health Safety Work For the NEBOSH International General Certificate - Second Edition  I_h_a_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
ABOUT THE AUTHORS ix
PREFACE x
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xi
PHOTOGRAPHIC ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xii
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK AND WHAT IT COVERS xv
LIST OF PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS xx
1 FOUNDATIONS IN HEALTH AND SAFETY 1
1.1 The scope and nature of occupational health and safety 2
1.2 The moral, social and economic reasons for maintaining and promoting good standards of
health and safety in the workplace 4
1.3 The role of national governments and international bodies in formulating a framework for the
regulation of health and safety 9
1.4 Further information 15
1.5 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 1 16
Appendix 1.1 Scaffolds and ladders 17
2 HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 1 – POLICY 19
2.1 The key elements of a health and safety management system 20
2.2 The purpose and importance of setting policy for health and safety 29
2.3 The key features and appropriate content of an effective health and safety policy 29
2.4 Further information 34
2.5 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 2 35
Appendix 2.1 Health and Safety Policy checklist 36
3 HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 2 – ORGANISING 39
Introduction 40
3.1 Organisational health and safety roles and responsibilities of employers, directors, managers,
workers and other relevant parties 41
3.2 Concept of health and safety culture and its significance in the management of health and safety
in an organisation 56
3.3 Human factors which influence behaviour at work 58
3.4 How health and safety behaviour at work can be improved 64
3.5 Emergency procedures and the arrangements for contacting emergency services 73
3.6 Requirements for, and effective provision of, first-aid in the workplace 75
3.7 Further information 77
3.8 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 3 78
Appendix 3.1 Detailed health and safety responsibilities 81
Appendix 3.2 Checklist for supply chain health and safety management 83
Appendix 3.3 Emergency numbers in some countries worldwide 84
4 HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 3 – PLANNING 87
4.1 Importance of planning 88
4.2 Principles and practice of risk assessment 94
4.3 General principles of control and hierarchy of risk reduction measures 105
4.4 Sources of health and safety information 112
4.5 Safe systems of work 112
4.6 Permits to work 116
4.7 Further information 120
4.8 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 4 122vi International Health and Safety at Work
Appendix 4.1 Procedure for risk assessment and management (European Commission) 124
Appendix 4.2 Hazard checklist 124
Appendix 4.3 Risk assessment example: hairdressing salon 125
Appendix 4.4 Risk assessment example: office cleaning 126
Appendix 4.5 Asbestos: examples of safe systems of work 128
5 HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 4 – MEASURING, AUDIT AND REVIEW 131
5.1 Active and reactive monitoring 132
5.2 Health and safety auditing 141
5.3 Investigating incidents 144
5.4 Recording and reporting incidents 150
5.5 Review of health and safety performance 154
5.6 Further information 157
5.7 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 5 158
Appendix 5.1 Workplace inspection exercises using the digital exercises which are on the web site 160
Appendix 5.2 ILO Code of Practice. Annex H: classification of industrial accidents according to
type of accident 163
Appendix 5.3 ILO Code of Practice. Annex I: classification of industrial accidents according to agency 163
Appendix 5.4 ILO Code of Practice. Annex B: proposed list of occupational diseases 165
6 WORKPLACE HAZARDS AND RISK CONTROL 167
6.1 Health, welfare and work environment requirements 168
6.2 Violence at work 173
6.3 Substance misuse at work 177
6.4 Movement of people in the workplace 178
6.5 Construction hazards and control 183
6.6 Working at height 190
6.7 Excavations 201
6.8 Further information 202
6.9 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 6 204
Appendix 6.1 Scaffolds and ladders 206
Appendix 6.2 Inspection timing and frequency chart 207
Appendix 6.3 Checklist of typical scaffolding faults 208
Appendix 6.4 Recommendations for excavation work in the ILO Code of Practice ‘Safety and Health
in Construction’ 208
7 TRANSPORT HAZARDS AND RISK CONTROL 211
7.1 Safe movement of vehicles in the workplace 212
7.2 Driving at work 218
7.3 Further information 222
7.4 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 7 223
8 MUSCULOSKELETAL HAZARDS AND RISK CONTROL 225
8.1 Work-related upper limb disorders 226
8.2 Manual handling hazards, risks and control measures 230
8.3 Manually operated load-handling equipment 236
8.4 Mechanically operated load-handling equipment 238
8.5 Further information 247
8.6 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 8 248
Appendix 8.1 A typical UK risk assessment for the use of lifting equipment 250
Appendix 8.2 Examples of manually operated load-handling equipment 251
9 WORK EQUIPMENT HAZARDS AND RISK CONTROL 253
9.1 General principles for selection, use and maintenance of work equipment 254
9.2 Hazards and controls for hand-held tools 262
9.3 Machinery hazards 267
9.4 Main control methods for reducing risks from machinery hazards 271
9.5 Further information 283
9.6 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 9 284
Contentsvii
10 ELECTRICAL SAFETY 287
10.1 Principles, hazards and risks associated with the use of electricity in the workplace 288
10.2 Control measures 295
10.3 Further information 304
10.4 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 10 305
11 FIRE SAFETY 307
11.1 Principles of fire initiation, classification, spread and some legal standards 308
11.2 Fire risk assessment 316
11.3 Fire prevention and prevention of fire spread 320
11.4 Fire alarm system and fire-fighting equipment 330
11.5 Evacuation of a workplace 335
11.6 Further information 340
11.7 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 11 341
Appendix 11.1 Fire risk assessment as recommended in Fire Safety Guides published by the
UK Department for Communities and Local Government in 2006 343
Appendix 11.2 Typical fire notice 345
12 CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL HEALTH HAZARDS AND RISK CONTROL 347
12.1 Forms of, classification of, and health risks from, hazardous substances 348
12.2 Assessment of health risks 351
12.3 Workplace exposure limits 360
12.4 Control measures 362
12.5 Specific agents 372
12.6 Safe handling and storage of waste 381
12.7 Further information 385
12.8 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 12 386
Appendix 12.1 GHS hazard (H) statements (health only) 389
Appendix 12.2 Hazardous properties of waste 390
Appendix 12.3 Different types of protective gloves 391
13 PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH HAZARDS AND RISK CONTROL 393
Introduction 394
13.1 Noise 394
13.2 Vibration 400
13.3 Radiation 405
13.4 Stress 412
13.5 Further information 413
13.6 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 13 414
14 SUMMARY OF ILO, OSH CONVENTIONS, LEGAL FRAMEWORKS AND COUNTRY EXAMPLES 417
14.1 ILO International Conventions on OSH 418
14.2 Typical OSH legal frameworks in the USA, EU and UK 423
14.3 National implementing legislation 429
14.4 Common themes in national legislation 480
Appendix 14.1 Seoul Declaration on Safety and Health at Work 484
Appendix 14.2 ILO – C155 Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 485
15 STUDY SKILLS 491
15.1 Introduction 492
15.2 Find a place to study 492
15.3 Time management 492
15.4 Blocked thinking 493
15.5 Taking notes 493
15.6 Reading for study 493
15.7 Free learning resources from the Open University 494
15.8 Organising for revision 494
15.9 Organising information 494
15.10 How does memory work? 496
Contentsviii International Health and Safety at Work
15.11 How to deal with exams 496
15.12 The Examiners’ Reports 497
15.13 Conclusion 498
15.14 References 498
16 SPECIMEN ANSWERS TO NEBOSH EXAMINATION QUESTIONS 499
16.1 Introduction 500
16.2 The written examinations 500
16.3 IGC3 – the practical application 504
Appendix 16.1 Practical application report 508
Appendix 16.2 Practical application observation sheets 511
17 INTERNATIONAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND GUIDANCE 517
17.1 Introduction 518
17.2 How to search the internet effectively 518
17.3 Final search notes 519
17.4 For-a-fee searches 520
17.5 Don’t forget the phone book 520
17.6 Privacy issues 520
17.7 Some useful web sites 520
17.8 Health and safety forms 523
INDEX 555
Index
abbreviations xx–xxiii
abrasion hazards 268
absolute duties 11, 105
access control 176
accidents
accident rates 3, 4–5
Bird’s accident triangle 96–7
car accidents 179, 181, 212, 218
classification 97, 163–5
commuting accidents 212
costs 7, 8, 97
definition 4, 96, 147
Heinrich’s accidents/incidents
ratios 58
investigations 68
Occupational Accidents 96, 429, 430
acid rain 382
active/proactive monitoring 132, 135–9
safety inspections 136–9
checklists 137–8, 139
exercises 160–2
observation 138
people 138
plant and substances 137
premises 137
procedures 138
reports 139
Safety Management System
Audit 135
safety sampling 136
safety survey 136
safety tour 136
acute health risks 97, 350
adjustable guards 272, 273
aerosols 326
Africa 84, 310
agency workers’ responsibilities 82–3
agricultural/horticultural hazards and
safeguards
brush cutters/strimmers 270, 278
chainsaws 270, 278–80
cylinder mowers 269–70, 278
air bags 194
air pollution 381
acid rain 382
greenhouse effect 381
photochemical smog 382
stratospheric ozone depletion 381–2
air sampling techniques 358, 360
direct reading instruments 360
dust observation lamps 360
grab/spot sampling 359
passive sampling 359
qualitative monitoring 360
sampling pumps and heads 359–60
smoke tubes 360
stain tube detectors 359
vane anemometers 360
alarms
fire alarms 330, 339, 340
security alarms 176
voice alarms 340
alcohol abuse 177
allergic contact dermatitis 355
allergies 349
ammonia 377
anthropometry 227
asbestos 372–7
asbestos-containing materials 372
diseases 372
forms of 372
ILO protection requirements 372–4
management and control 374–7
accidental exposures 377
assessment 375
awareness training 376–7
control measures during
removal 376
disposal of asbestos waste 377
identification of presence 375
management surveys 375
medical surveillance 376
refurbishment/demolition
surveys 375
removal 375–6
safe systems of work 127–9
Asia 84, 310
assembly points 75, 377
asthma 370–1, 377
atmosphere tests 118, 358, 359–60
attitude 61
audits 21, 27–8
definition 142
gathering information 143
ILO requirements 142–3
making judgements 143–4
purpose 141–2
Australia
emergency numbers 85
fire legislation and standards 310,
331
occupational exposure limits 360
OSH legislation 429, 430, 431
New South Wales 431, 432
bacteria 349
balance trucks 236
Bangladesh 84, 432–3, 434
base plates (scaffolding) 198
behavioural controls 115
bench-mounted circular saws 270–1,
281–2
bench-top grinding machines 269, 276–7
biological agents
bacteria 349
blood-borne viruses 380–1
fungi 349
moulds 349
prions 349
viruses 349
blood-borne viruses 380–1
bracing (scaffolding) 197
Brazil 86, 433–7
brush cutters 270, 278
buildings: fire safety 326–30
electrical equipment in flammable
atmospheres 328–30
fire and smoke spread 314
fire compartmentation 328
fire loading 326
insulating materials 327–8
structural elements 319, 327
surface spread of fire 326–7
bullying 175
burning 314
Canada 85, 360, 437–9
cancer 3, 372, 377, 406, 407–8
carbon dioxide 377–8
fire extinguishers 333
carbon monoxide 378
carcinogenic substances 350, 370–1
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 74
cardiovascular system 354
carpal tunnel syndrome 227–8
CE marking 52, 255, 256–7
cement/concrete mixers 270, 280–1
cement dust/wet cement 378–9
Central America 86, 310
chainsaws 270, 278–80
changing facilities 169
checkout conveyor systems 270, 280
chemical agents 444
dusts 348, 372–7, 378–9
fumes 349
gases 348, 377–8
liquids 348
mists 349
vapours and solvents 348, 377, 378556 Index
chemical and biological health
hazards 348–62
acute effects 350
air sampling techniques 358, 359–60
assessing exposure and health
surveillance 358
biological agents 349, 380–1
chemical agents 348–9, 372–9
chronic effects 3, 350
classification 349–50
EU requirements 356–7
hazardous substances 357
assessment 357–8
factors 357
ILO requirements 355, 356
information sources
material safety data sheets 358
product labels 358, 359
risk and safety phrases 350, 351
routes of entry into human body
absorption through skin 352, 355
body systems 353–5
control measures 352–3
ingestion 352
inhalation 352, 353
injection/skin puncture 352
symbols 350
types of health risk 351–2
workplace exposure limits 360–2
chemical and biological health hazards
– control measures 362–85
asbestos 372–7
carcinogens, mutagens, asthmacausing substances 350, 370–1,
377
downstream users 364
emergency controls 371
engineering controls 364
dilution/general ventilation 366
local exhaust ventilation (LEV) 364–
6
example: organic solvents 371–2
health surveillance and personal
hygiene 370
hierarchy of measures 362–3
ILO recommendations 363–4
maintenance 371
manufacturers/importers 364
other users in supply chain 364
personal protective equipment
(PPE) 367
eye protection 369–70
hand and skin protection 369
protective clothing 370, 391
respiratory protective
equipment 367–9
types 367
preventative measures 364
principles of good practice 362
safe handling and storage of waste
environmental considerations
381–3
waste disposal 383–5
specific agents 377–81
supervisory/people controls 366
transport by road 371
chief executives’ responsibilities 30, 47,
81, 156–7
child labour 12
China 439–42
chlorine 377
chronic health risks 3, 97, 350
chutes 236
closed circuit television 176
clothing accommodation 169
communication 37, 71
graphic communication 67
noticeboards 66–7
safe systems of work 115–16
verbal communication 66
written communication 66–7
compactors 270, 280
compensation 8–9, 154, 155
competence 65–6, 71–2
authorities 65
drivers 219
health and safety practitioners 48
institutions 65
competent persons 65
competent electrical persons 289
responsibilities 47–8
permit system 120
safe systems 114
computer work stations
insurance/compensation claims 155
musculoskeletal problems 229
psychological problems 230
risk assessment 228–9
visual problems 230
conduction 313
confined space permit 117–19
atmosphere tests 118, 358, 359–60
personal protective equipment 118
precaution 118
rescue equipment 119
ventilation equipment 118
construction industry 183–90
hazards and controls 183–6
bench-mounted circular saws 270–
1, 281–2
cement/concrete mixers 270,
280–1
demolition 184–5, 317, 375
drowning prevention 185
electricity 186
fire and emergencies 186, 319
health hazards 186
noise 186
safe stacking and storage of
materials 183
scope of construction 183
site security 183–4
vehicles and traffic routes 185
waste disposal 186
welfare facilities 186
health and safety forms 547–9
management of activities 187–90
co-operation and co-ordination 188
duties of designers, engineers,
architects, clients 189
duties of employers 187–8
rights and duties of workers 188–9
selection and control of
contractors 53–4, 189–90
see also excavations; working at
height
continual improvement 21, 28
contractors 52
authorisation of 54–5
checklist 83–4
construction projects 53–4, 189–90
influence on standards 73
legal considerations 53
permit system 120
safety rules 55–6
selection of 54, 189–90
sub-contractors 55
supervision of employees 55
control measures
engineered measures 105
management supervision 105
for movement of people 180–3
operational measures 105
safe systems of work 115
Control of Substances Hazardous to
Health
insurance/compensation claims 155
controls
access 176
behavioural 115
procedural 115
technical 115
work equipment 259–60, 275
convection 313
conveyors 239–40, 270, 280
cooking: fire prevention 321–2
corrosive substances 349
cost-benefit analysis 102
costs of accidents 7
direct costs 7
indirect costs 8
insured costs 7, 8
uninsured costs 7, 8
CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) 74
cranes 242–3
failure of 242–3
mobile jib cranes 242
safe operation 242
safe working loads (SWL) 242
tower cranes 243, 246–7
crushing hazards 267, 268
customers 27, 51
cutting hazards 267, 268
cylinder mowers 269–70, 278
damping 399
dangerous occurrences: definition 4, 96
dangerous substances see flammable
liquids and gasesIndex 557
deaths, work-related 3, 5, 6, 7, 429
demolition 184
asbestos survey 375
deliberate controlled collapse 184
piecemeal 184
risk of fire and explosion 317
training 184–5
departmental managers’
responsibilities 47, 81–2
dermatitis 355
dilution/general ventilation 366
direct costs 7, 97
directors as stakeholders 26–7
directors’ responsibilities 44–7
delivery of health and safety plan 45–
6
monitoring performance 46
planning direction 45
reviewing health and safety 157
reviewing performance 46–7, 156–7
disability, workers with 104, 317,
338–40
discrimination 12
disease rates 3, 5–6
see also occupational diseases
display screen equipment 228–30
insurance/compensation claims 155
musculoskeletal problems 229
psychological problems 230
risk assessment 228–9
visual problems 230
document shredders 269, 276
documentation 115
drawing-in hazards 267, 268
drinking water 169
driving at work 218–22
benefits of work-related road
safety 218
drivers’ competency 219
drivers’ fitness and health 220
drivers’ training 219
health and safety rules 221–2
ILO recommendations 222
journey distance, routes 221
journey scheduling, time 221
risk evaluation 219–21
risk management 218–19
road traffic accidents 212, 218
transport of hazardous
substances 371
vehicles
condition and safety
equipment 220–1
ergonomic considerations 221
fire prevention 321
load 221
suitability 220
weather conditions 221
see also vehicles in the workplace
drowning prevention 185
drug abuse 177–8
dust observation lamps 360
dusts 348
asbestos 372–7
cement dust/wet cement 378–9
inhalable dusts 348
lead 378
respirable dust 348, 353
silica 378
wood 377, 379
duty, levels of 11
ear protection 399–400
ears 395
earth-moving equipment 216–17
economic reasons for OSH standards 6,
7–9, 418
economics 73
Egypt 84, 445–6
ejection hazards 268
electric drills 265–6
electric shock and burns 290–1
electrical safety 290–304
cables 291–2
construction sites 186
control measures 295–304
circuit breakers 297
double insulation 299
fuses 297
inspection strategies 302
insulation 297, 299
isolation 297–8
maintenance strategies 301–2
management systems 296
permits to work 296
portable electrical appliances
testing 302–4
protection against buried power
lines 301, 317
protection against overhead power
lines 299–301
protective systems 297–9
residual current devices
(RCDs) 298, 299
safe systems of work 296
selection and suitability of
equipment 296–7
training 296
hazards 290
electric arcing 293
electric shock and burns 290–1
fires and explosions 291–3, 313,
322, 328–30
high risks 295
portable electrical equipment 294–
5, 299
secondary hazards 295
static electricity 292, 293–4, 311,
329–30
plugs and sockets 292, 294, 299
safety standards 295–6
signs and symbols 288, 291, 299
electrically powered gates 182–3
electricity – basic principles and
measurement 288–90, 311
alternating current (ac) 288
amps (A) 288
circuits 289
competent electrical persons 289
conductors 288, 289
definitions 289
direct current (dc) 288
earthing 289, 293, 329
electric current 288
equipotential bonding 289
examination 289
high voltage 289
inspection 289
insulators 289
isolation 289
low voltage 289
mains voltage 289
maintenance 289
ohms 288
short circuits 289, 291
static electricity 292, 293–4, 311
supplementary bonding 289
testing 289
volts 288
see also electrical safety
electromagnetic fields 293, 444
elevators 240
emergency numbers
Africa 84
Asia 84
Australia 85
Caribbean 86
Central America 86
Europe 74–5, 84–5
New Zealand 85
North America 85
South America 86
emergency procedures 73–5
assembly and roll call 75, 377
chemical and biological health
hazards 371
contacting emergency services 74–5
supervisory duties 74
working at height 194
see also evacuation
emergency stop controls 259–60
employee representation 72
employees’ duties and
responsibilities 12–13, 49, 82–3,
261–2
construction sites 188–9
safe systems of work 114
employers’ duties and
responsibilities 41–4
construction sites 187–8
ILO Recommendations 11–12, 42
night working 43
recent extensions of duties 42
temporary workers 43–4
visitors and general public 43
employers’ liability insurance 8
engineered measures 105, 364–6
engineers’ responsibilities 120, 189
entanglement hazards 267, 268558 Index
environmental protection 381
air pollution 381–2
definition 3
waste disposal 383–5
water pollution 382–3
ergonomics 59–60
ergonomic hazards 227
principles and scope 226–7
vehicles 221
Europe
emergency numbers 74–5, 84–5
fire legislation and standards 310, 331
European Commission: Guidance on risk
assessment at work 94, 124
European Union OSH framework 425,
442–5
Advisory Committee on Safety and
Health at Work (ACSHW) 426
community strategy on health
and safety at work (2007–
2012) 425–6
Decisions 425
Directives 425
chemical agents 350–1, 356–7,
361, 444
display screens 443
health and safety signs at
work 443–4
main principles 442
manual handling of loads involving
risk 443
minimum H&S workplace
requirements 442
personal protective equipment 443
physical agents 444–5
principles of prevention 101, 105–6
temporary and mobile work
sites 443
temporary workers 43–4
Waste Electrical and Electronic
Equipment (WEEE) 394–5
work equipment 443
European Agency for Safety and
Health at Work 426–7
legislative process 425
Regulations 425
REACH 364
evacuation of workplace 335–40
building plans and specifications 340
evacuation procedure and plans 320,
337, 338
assembly and roll call 75, 337
fire drills 338
fire routines 337
supervisory duties 337
means of escape from fire 335
doors 335
escape routes 335–6
escape times 336
exit signs 336, 338, 340
lighting 336
reaction time 336
people with special needs 317,
338–40
signs and diagrams 336, 338, 340,
345
voice alarms 340
excavations
hazards 201
ILO recommendations 208–9
inspection and reporting 202, 207
precautions and controls 185, 201–2
expectant and nursing mothers 103–4,
169
explosive atmospheres 444
eye problems 230, 407
eye protection 369–70, 410
eyebolts 244
fall arrest equipment 193–4
falling-object protective structures
(FOPS) 215, 216
falling objects 179, 181, 193
falls
on the same level 178–9, 180
from work at height 179, 180–1,
191–2
fire see evacuation of workplace; fire
– basic principles; fire-fighting
equipment; fire prevention and
prevention of spread; fire risk
assessment; fire safety
fire – basic principles 311–16
causes of fires 315, 316
classification 313
consequences of fires 315–16
electrical fires 291–3, 311, 313
fire and smoke spread in
buildings 314
fire triangle 311
fuel sources 311–12
hazardous goods signs 312, 313
health and safety forms 545–6
heat transmission and fire
spread 313–14
ignition sources 311, 315
oxygen 312–13
fire drills 338
fire-fighting equipment 330–4
blankets 333
extinguishing methods
chemical reaction 331
cooling 330
smothering 330
starving 331
fire extinguishers 331
carbon dioxide extinguishers (black
band) 333
classification 331, 332
foam extinguishers (cream
band) 333
halon extinguishers 331
powder extinguishers (blue
band) 333
standards 331, 332
symbols 332, 333
water extinguishers (red band) 331
water extinguishers with additives
(red band) 333
wet chemical – class ‘F’
extinguishers 333
location of fire-fighting equipment 331
maintenance and testing 334
responsible persons 330
sprinkler systems 333–4
water hose reels 333
fire prevention and prevention of
spread 320–30
buildings 326–30
electrical equipment in flammable
atmospheres 328–30
fire compartmentation 328
fire loading 326
fire resistance of structural
elements 327
insulating materials 327–8
surface spread of fire 326–7
control measures
cooking processes 321–2
electrical safety 322, 328–30
equipment and machinery 321,
328–30
fork-lift trucks and other
vehicles 321
heating 321
housekeeping 320
smoking 317, 322
storage 320–1, 324–5
systems of work 322
flammable liquids and gases 322–6
aerosols 326
control measures 292–3, 324
flammable gases 325–6
flammable liquids 325
ILO/EU recommendations 332–3,
444
risk assessment 324
storage 324–5
substitution 324
fire risk assessment 316–20
1. identification of fire hazards 316
combustibles 316
heat sources 316–17
unsafe acts 317
unsafe conditions 317, 318
2. identification of persons at
significant risk 317
3. risk evaluation
high risk 318–19
low risk 317, 318
matters to be considered 319
normal risk 318
4. findings 319
5. monitor and review 319
checklist 343–4
fire evacuation plans 320
structural features 319
temporary workplaces, maintenance
and refurbishment 319Index 559
fire safety 308–40
construction sites 186
detection and alarm systems 330,
339, 340
ILO standards 310
legislation and standards 310–11
signs and symbols
exit signs 336, 338, 340
fire action 345
fire extinguishers 332, 333
hazardous goods 312, 313
world fire statistics 308–9
first aid 75
appointed persons 76–7
checklist 75
first-aid box 76
number of personnel 77
significant risks 75–6
first-aiders 75, 76–7
fixed guards 271–2
flames 311
flammable liquids and gases 312,
322–6
aerosols 326
control measures 292–3, 324
flammable gases 325–6
ILO/EU recommendations 332–3, 444
risk assessment 324
storage 324–5
substitution 324
fluid injection/ejection hazards 268
food facilities 169
FOPS (falling-object protective
structures) 215, 216
forced labour 12
fork-lift trucks 240
drivers and driving 217, 241–2
fire prevention 321
hazards 213, 240–1
inspection 241
freedom of association 12
friction hazards 268
frozen shoulder 227–8
fumes 349
fungi 349
gases 348
ammonia 377
carbon dioxide 377–8
carbon monoxide 378
chlorine 377
fire risks 312, 317
flammable gases 325–6
oxygen 312–13
gates, electrically powered 182–3
Germany: occupational exposure
limits 361
Global Harmonisation Scheme (GHS)
hazard statements 351, 389
hazard symbols 350
graphic communication 67
see also signs and symbols
greenhouse effect 381
guard rails (scaffolding) 197
hand-held power tools 263
chainsaws 270, 278–80
electric drills 265–6
electrical safety 294–5, 299
general hazards 264
guarding 264
operating controls and switches 264
safe operations/instructions 264–5
sanders 266–7
see also portable electrical appliances
testing
hand protection 369
hand tools
battery (cordless)-operated 298
hazards 262
high-quality tools 263
inspection 263
safety rules 262
suitability 263
training 263
hand–arm vibration sydrome
(HAVS) 401, 402, 403
harmful substances 349
hazardous goods
safe storage and use 322–6
signs 312, 313
see also flammable liquids and gases
hazardous substances see chemical and
biological health hazards
hazards
checklist 124
chemical and biological 326–85
construction industry 183–6
definition 4, 96
electricity 290–5
fire 311–16, 320–30
hand-held power tools 263–7
hand tools 262–3
high hazard 4
identification 93
machinery hazards 267–82
musculoskeletal hazards 226–52
to pedestrians 178–83
physical and psychological 392–414
potential 96
transport 179, 181, 212–22
workplace hazards 168, 173–202
health
definition 3
ill-health 3, 68, 96
health and safety culture 26
communication 66–7, 71
consultation with workforce
accident and ill-health
investigations 68
importance of 67–8
safe systems 114
safety committees 68
training, facilities and assistance 68
definition 56
external influences 72
commercial stakeholders 73
economics 73
insurance companies 72
legislation and enforcement 72
societal expectations 72
trade unions 72–3
factors affecting 58
and health and safety performance 57
human errors and violations 62–4
human factors 58
company/organisation 58–9
jobs 59–61
personal factors 61
ILO perspective 56–7
indicators of 57–8
internal influences 71
communication 71
competence 71–2
employee representation 72
management commitment 64, 71
production/services demands 71
promotion of health and safety
standards 64–6
training 69–71
Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 2,
428
HSG6 Safety in working with lift
trucks 242
HSG33 Health and safety in roof
work 193
HSG47 Avoiding Danger from
Underground Services 301
HSG48 Reducing Error and Influencing
Behaviour 59, 60–1, 62
HSG53 Respiratory Protective
Equipment 369
HSG57 Seating at Work 171
HSG65 Successful health and safety
management 21, 22–3, 96, 98,
99, 106, 150
HSG115 Manual Handling 233
HSG168 Fire Safety in
Construction 319
HSG258 Controlling Airborne
Contaminants at Work 365
HSG264 Asbestos: The survey
guide 375
Manual Handling Assessment Chart
(MAC) 234
Manual Handling (Guidance) (L23) 232
Occupational Exposure Limits
(EH40) 361
performance measurement 133
Safe Use of Lifting Equipment
(L113) 244
Safe Use of Work Equipment
(L22) 271
Safety Notice 182–3
Violence at Work 174, 175
workplace temperature 170
health and safety forms 523, 538–44
construction 547–9
fire 545–6560 Index
health and safety forms (cont.):
health 538–44
management 523–34
safety 535–7
health and safety framework 9–15
employers’ duties and
responsibilities 11–12
International Labour Organisation
(ILO) 9–11
international standards 9–11, 14–15
legal framework 13
levels of duty 11
national standards 15
non-compliance 13
regulatory authorities and safety
management 13
workers’ rights and
responsibilities 12–13, 261–2
see also occupational safety and
health (OSH)
health and safety information
sources 108, 112
health and safety management
systems 20–9
benefits 28
key characteristics 26
continual improvement 28
effective audit 27–8
involvement of stakeholders 26–7
positive health and safety
culture 26
key elements and phases 20–1
major OSH systems 26
HSG65 21, 22–3
ILO-OSH 2001 22, 24–6
OHSAS 18001:2007 14–15, 21,
23–4, 26
problems 29
see also audits; incident investigation;
incident recording and
reporting; management systems
– organisation; management
systems – planning;
management systems – policy;
monitoring; performance review
health and safety practitioners 47, 48–9
health and safety professionals 27
health and safety relationships
client/contractor 52–6
within organisation 48
outside organisation 49
health and safety responsibilities
competent persons 47–8, 114, 120
departmental managers 47, 81–2
directors 44–7, 156–7
employees and agency workers 49,
82–3, 114, 118–19
employers 11–12, 41–4, 187–8
health and safety practitioners 47,
48–9
joint occupation of premises 56
managing directors/chief
executives 30, 47, 81, 156–7
manufacturers 49–52
organisational control 41
persons in control of premises 49
self-employed persons 49
supervisors 47, 55, 82
health and safety standards
electrical safety 295–6
fire safety 310–11, 331
international standards 9–13, 14–15
management commitment 64
promotion of 64–6
see also OSH standards
health risks 97
health surveillance 358, 370, 404–5
heat exhaustion 172
heat stroke 172
heating and temperature 170
extremes of temperature 171–3
fire prevention 321
heat equation 172
ILO recommendations 172–3
hepatitis 380–1
high-level investigations 147
high-voltage apparatus 119
HIV (human immunodeficiency
virus) 380–1
hoists 243
hold-to-run controls 275
hot surfaces 311
hot work 119–20, 331
HSE see Health and Safety Executive
human body systems 353–5
human errors 62–3
human factors 58
jobs 59–61
organisation 58–9
personal factors 61–2
human failure 62
human errors 62–3
violations 63–4
humidity 230
hydraulic platforms 200
ICRP (International Commission on
Radiological Protection) 406–7
IEE Wiring Regulations 295
ILO see International Labour
Organisation
ILO Codes of Practice 10–11
Ambient Factors in the Workplace 12,
73, 94, 98, 172–3, 255, 356,
363–4, 394, 404–5, 410–12
classification of industrial
accidents 163–5
incident investigation 145, 151, 152
occupational diseases 165
Radiation Protection of Workers 410
Safety and Health in Construction 17,
187, 208–9, 216–17, 245–7
Safety in the Use of Asbestos 372–4
Safety in the Use of Chemicals at
Work 322–3, 356
Safety in the Use of Machinery
MEUM/2011 255
terminology 11
ILO Conventions and
Recommendations 9–11, 418
C115: Radiation Protection
Convention and (R114) 410
C127: Maximum Weight and
(R128) 234, 235
C148: Working Environment and
(R156) 400
C153: Hours of Work and Rest
Periods (Road Transport) and
(R153) 222
C155: Occupational Safety and Health
and (R164) 11–12, 42, 73, 113,
145, 212, 311, 418–19, 421,
485–9
action at level of undertaking 422–3
action at national level 422
areas of action 421–2
C167: Safety and Health in
Construction and (R175) 14–15,
17, 187–9, 200, 206
C187: OSH Promotional Framework
and (R197) 12–13, 20, 56–7,
145
national OSH policy 420–1
national OSH systems 421
OSH and management
systems 420
OSH and safety culture 420
definition 10
terminology 11
ILO-OSH 2001 22, 24–6
additional features 25–6
audits 142–3
emergency preparedness and
response 310–11
health and safety management 29,
134
hierarchy of control 106
incident investigation 145–6
key elements 24–5, 89
performance monitoring and
measurement 132–3
principles and procedures 24
risk assessment 98–9, 101
impact hazards 267
incident investigation 144–50
benefits 146
causes and analysis
comparison with relevant
standards 149
immediate causes 149
root causes 149, 150
underlying causes 149
investigation forms 150
key data for medium level 150, 151
levels of investigation 147, 150
national/international
requirements 145–6
procedures 147–8
initial action 148Index 561
interview techniques 149
investigation method 148–9
remedial actions 150
role and function 144–5
types of incident/adverse events 146–
7
violence at work 175–7
incident recording and reporting 150–4
compensation and insurance
information 154, 155
internal systems for data
collection 152, 153
analysis 153–4
type of accident/incident 153
lessons learnt 154
need for reporting 152
notification to authorities 152
records 150–1
incidents
accidents 4, 96, 147
definition 96
near misses 4, 96, 147
undesired circumstances 147
unsafe conditions 147
India 84, 447–52
indirect costs 8, 97
Indonesia 84, 452–3
induction training 69–70
information and guidance 518–49
final search notes 519–20
for-a-fee searches 520
health and safety forms 523–49
internet searching 518–23
privacy issues 520
telephone directories 520
web sites 520–3
ingestion 352
inhalation 352, 353
injury compensation 8–9, 154, 155
insurance companies
influence of 72
information for 155
as stakeholders 27
interlocking guards 272, 273, 274
International Commission on
Radiological Protection
(ICRP) 406–7
International Labour Organisation
(ILO) 2–3, 9–13, 10
employers’ duties and
responsibilities 42
health and safety culture 56–7
incident investigation
requirements 145–6
levels of duty 11
rights and responsibilities 12–13
role and function 9
Seoul Declaration on Safety and
Health at Work 418, 484–5
standards 9–10
terminology 11
Work Improvement in Small
Enterprises (WISE) 228
see also ILO Codes of Practice;
ILO Conventions and
Recommendations; ILO-OSH
2001
international organisations 27
International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) 14
fire legislation and standards 310
ISO 1999: Acoustics 394
ISO 3941: Classification of Fires 313
ISO 7010:2003 Graphical Symbols 76,
108–9, 260
ISO 7165:2009 Fire fighting – Portable
fire extinguishers 331, 332, 333,
334
ISO 12100-1:2003 271
ISO 12100 Part 2 259, 261
OHSAS 18001:2007 14–15, 21, 23–4,
26
internet searching
authors, institutions, other
sources 519
Boolean basics 519
getting started 518
key to successful searching 518
keywords 519
punctuation and capitalisation 519
search engines 518
spelling 519
use of phrases 519
web sites 520–3
interview techniques 149
investors 27
irritant contact dermatitis 355
irritants 349
ISO see International Organization for
Standardization (ISO)
isocyanates 378
Japan 84, 310, 453–4
jigs holders 275
jobs 59
causes of failures 60–1
checklist 60
ergonomics 59–60
safety and security 176
training 70
Korea, South 84, 454–5
Kuwait 455–7
ladders 17, 194–6, 206
lagging 399
lapses 62, 63
lasers 408
lead 378
ledgers (scaffolding) 197
legionella 380
legislation 13, 72, 94
contractors 53
safe systems of work 113
supply chain 50–1
see also health and safety standards
leptospirosis (Weil’s disease) 379
LEV (local exhaust ventilation) 364–6
lifting equipment see mechanically
operated lifting and moving
equipment
lifting hooks 236, 243, 244
lifts 243, 339
lighting 170–1, 260, 336
lightning protection 293–4
liquids 348
flammable liquids 312, 325
loads
lorries 221
manual handling 232–3, 234
mechanically operated lifting and
moving equipment 239
safe working loads (SWL) 242
see also manually operated loadhandling equipment
log tongs 236
lone workers 104–5, 116
low-level investigations 147
machinery hazards 267–82
agriculture/horticultural hazards 269–
70, 278–80
construction hazards 270–1, 280–2
control methods and safety
devices 271–82
adjustable guards 272, 273
application of safeguards 276–82
basic requirements 282
fixed guards 271–2
hold-to-run controls 275
information and instruction 275
interlocking guards 272, 273, 274
jigs holders 275
push sticks 275
training and supervision 275–6
trip devices 273, 274
two-handed control devices 273,
274–5
manufacturing and maintenance
hazards 269, 276–7
mechanical hazards 267–8
non-mechanical hazards 269
office hazards 269, 276
retail hazards 270, 280
Malaysia 84, 457–9
management supervision 105
management systems –
organisation 40–86
client–contractor relationships 52–6,
83–4
commitment 64, 71
communication 66–7, 71
competence 65–6, 71–2
consultation with workforce 67–9
control 41
emergency procedures 73–5
employee representation 72
external influences 72–3
first aid 75–7562 Index
management systems (cont.):
health and safety culture 56–8, 71–3
health and safety practitioners
competent persons 47–8
relationships outside
organisation 49
relationships within organisation 48
status 48
health and safety standards 64–6
human factors 58–64
internal influences 71–2
production/service demands 71
responsibilities 41
agency workers 82–3
chief executives 47, 81
departmental managers 47, 81–2
directors 44–7
employees 49, 82–3
employers 41–4
joint occupation of premises 56
managing directors 47, 81
manufacturers and supply
chain 49–52
organisational control 41
persons in control of premises 49
self-employed 49
supervisors 47, 82
training 69–71, 70
management systems – planning 21, 45,
88–129
business activity model 88, 89
definition 88
health and safety information
sources 112
health and safety objectives 91, 92–3
importance of planning 88–94
legal requirements 94
management arrangements 45–6,
90, 91
permits to work 116–20
process 90, 91, 92
risk assessment 94–105
accident classification 97
cost-benefit analysis 102
definitions 96–7
EC procedure 124
examples 125–6
hazard and risk 124
health risks 97
ILO approach 98–9
international requirements 94–5
objectives 97
qualitative risk assessment 95, 100
quantitative risk assessment 95,
100
special cases 102–5, 317
UK approach 98–102
risk control systems (RCSs) 88–90
risk reduction 105–11
avoidance by elimination or
substitution 107
control measures 105
engineering controls 107
general principles of
prevention 105–6
hierarchy of control 106–7
monitoring and supervision 111
personal protective equipment 111
safety signs 108–11
signage/warnings and/or
administrative controls 107–8
welfare 111
safe systems of work 108, 112–16
assessment of requirement 114
communication and training 115–16
definition 112
development of safe systems 114–
15
documentation 115
legal requirements 113
monitoring 116
preparation of safe systems 115
work involving asbestos 127–9
management systems – policy 29–37
checklist
arrangements to be considered 36
communication 37
general policy and organisation 36
keeping check 37
other hazards 37
plant and substances 36–7
supervising 37
training 37
ILO recommendations 29
key features and content
arrangements for health and
safety 31–2
organisation of health and safety 31
policy commitment 30
review of policy 32–3
standards and guidance 33
statement of intent 29–31
purpose and importance of policy 29,
40
managers
safe systems of work 114
training of 70
managing directors’ responsibilities 30,
47, 81, 156–7
manual handling 230–6
assessments 232–3
definition 230
hazards 230
hierarchy of measures for
operations 232
ILO recommendations 234, 235–6
individual capability 233, 234
injuries caused by 230–2
insurance/compensation claims 155
loads 232–3, 234
mechanical assistance 233
risk reduction 233–4
tasks 232, 234
training 234, 235
working environment 233, 234
manually operated load-handling
equipment
hazards 237–8
precautions 238
risk assessment 252
types of equipment 236–7
manufacturers’ responsibilities 49
buying problems 51–2
information for customers 51
legislation and standards 50–1
supply chain management 50
manufacturing and maintenance hazards
and safeguards
bench-top grinding machines 269,
276–7
pedestal drills 269, 277
materials
asbestos-containing materials
(ACMs) 372
building materials 326–8
construction industry 183
safety data sheets 358
materials-handling equipment 213, 214,
216–17, 358
measuring health and safety
performance
effective risk control 135
purpose 133–4
addressing different information
needs 134–5
answering questions 134
decision making 134
traditional approach 133
mechanical assistance 233, 236–7
mechanical hazards 267–8
mechanically operated lifting and moving
equipment 238–47
controls, control devices and
cabins 246
examinations 244–5, 246
hazards 239
ILO recommendations 245–7
inspections 244, 245
installation 245–6
operation and operatives 239, 246
risk assessment 251
safety
lifting operations organisation 238
positioning and installing lifting
equipment 238
requirements for lifting
operations 239
types of equipment
conveyors 239–40
cranes 242–3
elevators 240
fork-lift trucks 240–2
lifting ropes 247
lifting tackle 243–4
lifts and hoists 243
mobile jib cranes 242
tower cranes 243, 246–7
medium-level investigations 147, 150,
151Index 563
memory 62
Mexico 85, 459
microwaves 409
minimal-level investigations 147
mistakes 63
mists 349
mobile elevated work platforms
(MEWPs) 199–200
mobile phones 176
mobile work equipment
control strategies 213–15
hazards 213
ILO recommendations 216–17
safe driving 217, 241–2
safeguards 215–16
monitoring 132–41
active/proactive monitoring 132,
135–9
safety inspections 136–9
Safety Management System
Audit 135
safety sampling 136
safety survey 136
safety tour 136
ILO guidelines 132–3
measuring health and safety
performance
effective risk control 135
purpose 133–5
traditional approach 133
reactive monitoring 132, 135, 141
report writing 139–41
risk control 111, 135
moral reasons for OSH standards 4–6
motivation 61
moulds 349
movement of people in the workplace
control measures 180–3
hazards 178–80
moving, falling, flying objects 179, 181
musculoskeletal hazards and risk
control 226–52
display screen equipment 228–30
ergonomic hazards 227
ergonomics 226–7
manual handling 230–6
manually operated load-handling
equipment 236–8, 252
mechanically operated lifting and
moving equipment 238–47, 251
work-related upper limb disorders
(WRULDs) 227–8, 229
mutagenic substances 350, 370–1
near misses 4, 96, 147
NEBOSH International General
Certificate 500–15
hierarchy of control 106
IGC3 – practical application 504–15
inspection report 506–7, 508–10
observation sheets 505–6, 511–15
requirements 505–7
specimen assessment 507–15
written examinations 500
IGC1 – management of international
health and safety 500–2
IGC2 – control of international
workplace hazards 502–4
terminology 497
neighbours 27
nervous system 353, 354
New Zealand 8–9, 85, 310, 361
Nigeria 84, 459–60
night working 43
noise 394–400
assessments 395–6
noise action levels 397–8
noise measurement 396–7
control techniques 398
attenuation of noise levels 399
construction sites 186
personal ear protection 399–400
reduction of noise at source 398–9
EU legislation 444
human ear 395
ill-health effects 395
noticeboards 66–7
occupational accidents: definition 96
occupational diseases 97, 165, 372,
377, 379–81, 429, 430
occupational ill-health: definition 3, 96
occupational safety and health
(OSH) 418
definitions 3–4
scope and nature 2–3
see also International Labour
Organisation (ILO); OSH legal
frameworks; OSH standards
office hazards and safeguards 269, 276
Oman 84, 460–3
operational measures 105
operatives’ responsibilities 120
organic solvents 371–2, 377
organisation see management systems
– organisation
OSH see occupational safety and health
OSH legal frameworks 13, 423–9
common themes 480–3
certification and marking 482
cooperation and coordination
between enterprises 481
general duties 480
monitoring compliance with
regulations 482
organisation and management of
preventative services 481
prevention activities 480–1
prevention of occupational
accidents and disease 480
product safety and occupational
safety 482
recording and documentation of
information 481
workers’ rights, duties and
participation 481–2
national implementing legislation
429–80
Australia 429, 430, 431, 432
Bangladesh 432–3, 434
Brazil 433–7
Canada 437–9
China 439–42
Egypt 445–6
European Union 425–7, 442–5
India 447–52
Indonesia 452–3
Japan 453–4
Korea, South 454–5
Kuwait 455–7
Malaysia 457–9
Mexico 459
Nigeria 459–60
Oman 460–3
Russian Federation 463–8
South Africa 468–71
Trinidad and Tobago 471–3
Turkey 473–5
United Arab Emirates 475–7
United Kingdom 427–9, 477–8
United States of America 423–5,
478–80, 479–80
OSH standards 4–9, 418
economic reasons 6, 7, 418
costs of accidents 7
direct costs 7
employers’s liability insurance 8
fault and no-fault injury
compensation 8–9
indirect costs 8
legal reasons 418
moral reasons 4, 418
accident rates 4–5
disease rates 5–6
social reasons 6
oxygen 312–13
pagers 176
pallet trucks 236, 237, 240
PAT see portable electrical appliances
testing
pedestal drills 269, 277
pedestrians: hazards 178–83
control measures 180–2
electrically powered gates 182–3
falls from work at height 179, 180–1
falls on the same level 178–9, 180
fixed or stationary objects 179–80,
181
general preventative measures 181–2
moving, falling, flying objects 179,
181
moving vehicles 179, 181, 212–13
slips 178–9, 180
trips 178–9, 180
PEEPs (personal emergency evacuation
plans) 338–9
perception 61
performance assessment phase 21564 Index
performance improvement phase 21
performance phase 21
performance review
items to be considered 156
people involved 156
planned intervals 156
purpose 154, 156
role of directors and senior
managers 46–7
reporting on performance 156–7
reviewing health and safety 157
SMART standards 156
performance targets 30
permits to work 116
principles 117
procedures 116–17
responsibilities 120
work requiring permit 117
confined space permit 117–19
electricity 296
general permit 117
high-voltage apparatus 119
hot work 119–20, 331
personal emergency evacuation plans
(PEEPs) 338–9
personal factors 61–2
personal hygiene 370
personal protective equipment
(PPE) 111
against chainsaws 279
against chemical and biological
hazards 367–70
confined spaces 118
ear protection 399–400
eye protection 369–70, 410
hand and skin protection 369, 407
insurance/compensation claims 155
protective clothing 370, 391
respiratory protective equipment
367–9
Philippines 84, 310
photochemical smog 382
photocopiers 269, 276
physical and psychological hazards
394
noise 394–400
radiation 405–12
stress 412–13
vibration 400–5
Plan–Do–Check–Act 21
planning phase 21
see also management systems
– planning
platform trucks 236
policy see management systems – policy
portable conveyors 236, 237
portable electrical appliances testing
(PAT)
advantages and limitations 304
formal visual inspections and
tests 302
frequency of inspection and
testing 302–3
records of inpsection and testing 303
user checks 302
see also hand-held power tools
power lines 299–301, 317
PPE see personal protective equipment
practicable levels of duty 11
pregnant women 103–4, 169
premises
joint occupation of 56
persons in control of 49
safety inspections 137
pressure systems 258–9
prions 349
privacy issues 520
procedural controls 115
product labels 358, 359
‘proportional to the risk’ 105
protective clothing 370, 391
psychological problems 230
puncture hazards 268
push sticks 275
putlog scaffolding 197
radiation 405–12
of heat in fire 313–14
ILO recommendations 410–12
ionising radiation 405
acute exposure 406
alpha particles 405
beta particles 405
chronic exposure 406
dose limits 405, 406–7
EU legislation 445
gamma rays 405
harmful effects of 405–6
measures 405
protection 409, 410–11
radon 406–7
sources 406–7
warning sign 406
non-ionising radiation 407
EU legislation 445
infrared radiation 408–9
lasers 408
microwaves 409
protection 409–10, 411–12
UV radiation 407–8
welding operations 412
radios 176
radon 406–7
RCSs see risk control systems
reach trucks 240
reactive monitoring 132, 135, 141
reasonably practicable levels of duty 11
regulators 27
repetitive strain injury (RSI) 227–8
report writing 139–41
aims 139
presentation 139
structure 139–41
rescue
from confined spaces 119
working at height 194
residual current devices (RCDs) 298,
299
respiratory protective equipment
(RPE) 367–9
compressed air line apparatus 368
filtering half masks 367, 368
fresh air hose apparatus 367
full-face mask respirators 367
half-mask respirators 367, 368
powered respirators 367
self-contained breathing
apparatus 367
respiratory system 353
rest areas 169
retail hazards and safeguards 270, 280
risk
definition 4, 96
likelihood of occurrence 96, 100
residual risk 4, 100
severity of harm 96, 100
risk assessment 93, 94–105
accident classification 97
accidents 96
cost-benefit analysis 102
costs 97
dangerous occurrences 96
definitions 96–7
EC procedure 124
examples 125–6
‘generic’ risk assessment 95
hazard and risk 96, 124
health risks 97
hierarchy of control 101
ILO approach 98–9
incidents 96
international requirements 94–5
near misses 96
objectives 97
occupational disease 97
occupational/work-related illhealth 96
prioritisation of control 102
qualitative risk assessment 95, 100
quantitative risk assessment 95, 100
special cases 317
expectant and nursing
mothers 103–4
lone workers 104–5
workers with disability 104
young persons 102–3
‘suitable and sufficient’ 95
UK approach 98
1. hazards identification 99–100
2. groups at risk 100
3. risk/controls evaluation 100–2
4. record of findings 102
5. monitoring and review 102
violence at work 175
risk control systems (RCSs) 88–90, 93,
135
risk reduction
avoidance by elimination/
substitution 107Index 565
control measures 105
engineering controls 107
general principles of prevention 105–6
hierarchy of control 106–7
information 108
isolation/segregation 107–8
monitoring and supervision 111
personal protective equipment 111
reduced time exposure 107
safe systems of work 108, 112–16
safety signs 108–11
signage/warnings/administrative
controls 107–8
training 108
welfare 111
roller tracks 236
rollover protective structures
(ROPS) 215–16
roof safety 192–3
RPE see respiratory protective
equipment
RSI (repetitive strain injury) 227–8
Russian Federation 85, 463–8
sack trucks 236
safe systems of work 108, 112–16
assessment of requirement 114
communication and training 115–16
definition 112
development of safe systems
analysis 114–15
controls 115, 214–15
role of competent person 114
role of employees/consultation 114
role of managers 114
documentation 115
electricity 296
fire prevention 322
legal requirements 113
lone workers 116
monitoring 116
prepartion of safe systems 115
risk reduction 108
work involving asbestos 127–9
safety: definition 3
safety committees 68
safety harnesses 193
safety inspections 136–9
checklists 137–8, 139
exercises 160–2
observation 138
people 138
plant and substances 137
premises 137
procedures 138
reports 139
Safety Management System (SMS)
Audit 135
safety nets 193–4
safety sampling 136
safety signs 108–11
safety survey 136
safety tour 136
sampling pumps and heads 359–60
sanders 266–7
sanitary conveniences 168–9
scaffolding
checklist of typical faults 208
components 197–9
fixed scaffolds 197–8
independent tied 197, 198
putlog 197
ILO recommendations 17, 206
inspection 200, 207
pre-fabricated mobile scaffold
towers 199
scissor lifts 200
screens/absorption walls 399
seating 171
security equipment 176
self-adjusting guards 272, 273
self-employed persons 49
sensitisation 349
severing hazards 267
shackles 244
shearing hazards 267, 268
signs and symbols
chemical and biological health
hazards 350
electricity 288, 291, 299
exit signs 336, 338, 340
fire 312, 313, 345
fire extinguishers 332, 333
first aid 76
hazardous goods 312, 313
radiation 406
silencers 399
silica and silicosis 3, 378
site managers’ responsibilities 120
site security 183–4
skin risks and protection 352, 355, 369,
407
slings 243, 244
slips
from loss of concentration 62–3
pedestrians 178–9, 180
smoke tubes 360
smoking 317, 322
SMS (Safety Management System)
Audit 134
‘so far as is (reasonably)
practicable’ 105
social reasons for OSH standards 4–6
societal expectations 72
sole boards (scaffolding) 198
solids: fire risks 312
solvents 348, 377
sound-proofing 399
South Africa 84, 310, 361, 468–71
South America 86, 310
sparks 311
special needs
evacuation of workplace 338–9
fire emergencies and
precautions 339–40
risk assessment 102–5, 317
specialists 70–1, 120
sprinkler systems 333–4
stabbing hazards 268
staging 196–7
stain tube detectors 359
stakeholders 26–7, 73
standards (scaffolding) 197
start controls 259
static electricity 292, 293–4, 311,
329–30
status 48
stepladders 196–7
stop controls 259
storage: fire prevention 320–1, 324–5
stratospheric ozone depletion 381–2
stress 230, 412–13
strimmers 270, 278
study skills 492–8
blocked thinking 493
Examiners’ Reports 497–8
exams 496
planning and revision 496–7
the exam room 497
after the exam 497
NEBOSH terminology 497
marks for NEBOSH questions 498
memory 496
note-taking 493
organising for revision 494
organising information 494–6
OU free learning resources 494
place to study 492
reading for study 493–4
time management 492–3
timetable 492
sub-contractors 55
sub-zero temperatures 171–2
substance misuse at work 177–8
‘suitable and sufficient’ 95, 105
supervision by contractors 55
supervisors
emergencies 74, 337
responsibilities 47, 55, 82
training 70
supply chain management
checklist 83–4
faster reaction 50
reduction in accidents 50
reduction of waste 50
SWL (safe working loads) 242
technical controls 115
telephone directories 520
temperature 170, 171–3
temporary workers 43–4
temporary workplaces 319
tenosynovitis 227–8, 229
tetanus 379
threshold limit values (TLVs) 360
ties (scaffolding) 198
toe boards (scaffolding) 197–8
tools 236
toxic substances 349–50566 Index
trade unions 72–3
training 37
asbestos awareness 376–7
benefits 69
consultation with workforce 68
demolition 184–5
drivers 212, 219
electrical safety 296
hand tools 263
importance of 69
induction training 69–70
job-specific training 70
management training 70
manual handling 234, 235
risk reduction 108
safe systems of work 115–16
specialist training 70–1
supervisory training 70
vibration awareness 405
work equipment 275–6
transoms (scaffolding) 197
transport see driving at work; vehicles in
the workplace
trapping hazards 267
trestles 196–7
Trinidad and Tobago 86, 471–3
trip devices 273, 274
tripping hazards 178–9, 180
trolleys 236
trucks 236
trustees 26–7
Turkey 85, 473–5
two-handed control devices 273, 274–5
undesired circumstances 147
United Arab Emirates 84, 475–7
United Kingdom
Equalities Act 2010 338–9
fire legislation and standards 332
fire risk assessment 316, 343–4
injury compensation 8
Ionising Radiation Regulations 407
occupational exposure limitss 361–2
OSH framework 427, 477
advisory committees 428
Health and Safety at Work etc. Act
1974 95, 477
local authorities 428
ministerial responsibilities 428
regulations, codes of practice,
guidance 95, 477–8
Scotland 429
Wales 429
RIDDOR 96
Robens report 1972 40
see also Health and Safety Executive
(HSE)
United States of America
chemical and biological workplace
exposure limits 360
emergency numbers 85
fire legislation and standards 310, 332
injury compensation 8
OSH legislation 423–4
history of federal workplace safety
legislation 478
Occupational Safety and Health
Act 478–80
State OSHA programmes 424–5
threshold limit values (TLVs) 360
unsafe conditions 147
urinary system 354
user-adjusted guards 272, 273
UV radiation 407–8
vane anemometers 360
vapours 348, 378
vehicles in the workplace 212–18
construction sites 185
control strategies 181, 213–14
site design 214
systems of work 214–15
vehicle selection and
maintenance 214
driver training 212
hazards 179, 181, 212–13, 218
ILO recommendations 216–17
mobile work equipment 213–17
control strategies 213–15
hazards 213
ILO recommendations 216–17
safe driving 217, 241–2
safeguards 215–16
movement management 217–18
‘workplace transport’ 212
see also driving at work
ventilation 169
collection hood and intake 364
dilution (general) ventilation 366
for electrical equipment 292
exhaust duct 364–5
fan 364
filter/air cleaning device 364
local exhaust ventilation (LEV) 364–6
ventilation ducting 364
ventilation equipment 118
verbal communication 66
vibration 400–5
exposure values 401, 402–4
ill-health due to vibration 400
hand–arm vibration sydrome
(HAVS) 401, 402, 403
preventative and precautionary
measures 401, 402
vibration exposure values 401
vibration white finger (VWF) 401
whole-body vibration (WBV) 401,
402, 403–4
ILO recommendations
health surveillance 404–5
training and information 405
violations
exceptional violations 64
routine violations 63–4
situational violations 64
violence at work 173–7
action plans and effectiveness 175,
176–7
causes 174
definitions 174, 175
incident investigation 175
design of operating
environment 176
job design 176
quality of service provision 175–6
security equipment 176
rates 3, 174
risk assessment 175
workers most at risk 174
viruses 349, 380–1
visitors and general public 43
visual problems 230, 407
voice alarms 340
warnings and warning devices 260–1
see also signs and symbols
washing facilities 168–9
waste disposal
basic principles 383
construction sites 186
control measures 384
controlled waste 383
hazardous waste 377, 383, 390
management hierarchy 383
practice 384–5
waste handling and storage 381–3
water extinguishers 331, 333
water hose reels 333
water pollution 382–3
web sites 520–3
Weil’s disease 379
welding operations 412
welfare
arrangements 168–9
construction sites 186
definition 3
risk reduction 111
wheelbarrows 236
whole-body vibration (WBV) 401, 402,
403–4
wood dust 377, 379
work equipment 254–82
enclosure 399
fire prevention 321, 328–30
hand-held power tools 263
chain saws 270, 278–80
electric drills 265–6
electrical safety 294–5, 299
guarding 264
hazards 264
operating controls and
switches 264
safe operations/instructions 264–5
sanders 266–7
hand tools
battery (cordless)-operated 298
hazards 262
high-quality tools 263
inspection 263Index 567
safety rules 262
suitability 263
training 263
insurance/compensation claims 155
machinery hazards
control methods 271–82
examples 269–71
mechanical hazards 267–8
non-mechanical hazards 269
maintenance 258
breakdown-based


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