كتاب Managing Diversity - Toward a Globally Inclusive Workplace
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Managing Diversity - Toward a Globally Inclusive Workplace

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Managing Diversity - Toward a Globally Inclusive Workplace    كتاب Managing Diversity - Toward a Globally Inclusive Workplace  Emptyالأحد 17 مارس 2024 - 3:32

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Managing Diversity - Toward a Globally Inclusive Workplace
Fourth Edition
Michàlle E. Mor Barak
University of Southern California

كتاب Managing Diversity - Toward a Globally Inclusive Workplace  M_d_t_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
List of Boxes, Figures, and Tables
Preface and Acknowledgments
1 Introduction and Conceptual Framework
The Challenge of Managing Diversity in a Global Context
Tensions Posed by Global Workforce Trends
Diversity and Exclusion: A Critical Workforce Problem
The Inclusive Workplace Model
Conceptual Framework and Organization of the Book
PART I: THE GLOBAL CONTEXT FOR DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT
2 Diversity Legislation in a Global Perspective: Equality and Fairness in
Employment
The International Bill of Human Rights and Employment Rights
Importance and Influence of the Declaration of Human Rights
Implementation
Diversity-Related Employment Legislation
Broad-Based Antidiscrimination Legislation
Practical Implications
Appendix 2.1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Appendix 2.2. Global Antidiscrimination and Equal Rights Legislation
Checklist of Protections Offered by a Select Number of Countries
3 Discrimination, Equality, and Fairness in Employment: Social Policies and
Affirmative/Positive Action Programs
Discrimination and Equality in Employment
Theoretical Perspectives of Discrimination and Affirmative Action
Social Policies and Affirmative/Positive Action Programs
Principles of Affirmative Action and Positive Action Programs
The Public Debate Over Affirmative and Positive Action Policies
4 Global Demographic Trends: Impact on Workforce Diversity
International Population Trends
National Trends
5 Socioeconomic Transitions: The New Realities of the Global Workforce
Worker Migration
Occupational Diversity
Migration of Employers
Implications for Diversity of Gender, Disability, and Sexual Orientation
Educational Trends and Workforce Diversity
PART II: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES OF WORKFORCE
DIVERSITY
6 Defining Diversity in a Global Context: Prejudice and Discrimination
10Workforce Diversity Defined
Toward a Global Definition of Diversity
Stereotypes and Prejudice
Dehumanization and Oppression
Employment-Related Discrimination
7 Vive la Différence? Theoretical Perspectives on Diversity and Exclusion in
the Workplace
Diversity and Exclusion: A Critical Workforce Problem
Overview of Social Psychological Theories of Diversity and Exclusion
Theoretical Underpinnings of the Inclusion-Exclusion Construct
Orienting Theories of Diversity and Exclusion
Explanatory Theories of Diversity and Exclusion
Research on Organizational Demography Documenting Exclusion
8 Culture and Communication in the Global Workplace
The Cultural Context for the Global Workplace
Cross-Cultural Communication
Effective Cross-Cultural Communication
9 Interpersonal Relationships in a Global Work Context
Cultural Styles and Relational Mental Models
Diversity in Interpersonal Relationships
Interpersonal Relationships and Cross-Cultural Communication
Theoretical Perspectives on Interpersonal Cross-Cultural
Communication
PART III: MANAGING A DIVERSE WORKFORCE IN THE GLOBAL
CONTEXT—THE INCLUSIVE WORKPLACE
10 Diversity Management: Paradigms, Rationale, and Key Elements
Defining Diversity Management
From Equal Rights Laws, to Affirmative/Positive Action, to Diversity
Management
Diversity Management Paradigms
Models of Global Diversity Management
The Impetus for Implementing Diversity Management
Characteristics and Limitations of Diversity Management
11 Inclusive Leadership: Unlocking the Diversity Potential
Leadership Dilemmas and the Diversity Paradox
Transformational Leadership, Inclusive Leadership, and the
Organization’s Competitive Advantage
Organizational Leadership and Inclusion
Inclusive Leadership at the Supervisor Level: Leader-Member Exchange
(LMX)
12 An Overview of the Inclusive Workplace Model: Managing the Globalized
Workforce Diversity
11Diversity Management and the Inclusive Workplace
13 The Inclusive Workplace: Level I—Inclusion Through Diversity Within the
Work Organization
Inclusive Policies and Practices
Barriers and Benefits of Implementing the Inclusive Approach at Level I
Case Illustration: Level I—Inclusion Through Diversity Within Work
Organizations—Denny’s, Inc.
Questions for Discussion and Further Analysis
14 The Inclusive Workplace: Level II—Inclusion Through CorporateCommunity Collaborations
Inclusive Policies and Practices
Barriers and Benefits of Implementing the Inclusive Approach at Level II
Case Illustration: Level II—Inclusion Through Corporate-Community
Collaboration—Unilever
Questions for Discussion and Further Analysis
15 The Inclusive Workplace: Level III—Inclusion Through State/National
Collaborations
Barriers and Benefits of Implementing the Inclusive Approach at Level
III
Case Illustration: Level III—Inclusion of Disadvantaged Groups at the
National/State Level—Eurest
Questions for Discussion and Further Analysis
16 The Inclusive Workplace: Level IV—Inclusion Through International
Collaborations
Barriers and Benefits to Implementing the Inclusive Approach at Level
IV
Case Illustration: Level IV—Inclusion Through Global Collaborations—
Fair Trade Company
Fair Trade History
Global Village and Fair Trade Company
Fair Trade Future
Questions for Discussion and Further Analysis
17 Practical Steps for Creating an Inclusive Workplace: Climate for Diversity,
Climate for Inclusion, and Survey Scales
Introduction
Climate for Diversity and Climate for Inclusion
The Climate for Inclusion-Exclusion Scale (MBIE)
Psychometric Properties and Previous Research Utilizing the Measure
The Mor Barak et al. Diversity Climate Scale
Psychometric Properties and Previous Research Utilizing the Measure
18 Toward a Globally Inclusive Workplace: Putting the Pieces Together
The Value Base for the Inclusive Workplace
12Implementation of the Inclusive Workplace
Conclusion
References
Index
About the Author
Index
NOTE: Page references with boxes, figures, and tables are referred to as (box), (fig.), and
(table).
Ability/disability diversity
global demographic trends, 91–92
socioeconomic transitions and migration, 107–108
workforce diversity definitions, 126
See also Diversity legislation
Aboriginals (Eurest case illustration), 281–287
Acquavita, S. P., 118 (table), 306
Active Labor Market Programs (ALMPs), 277
Adamson, Jim, 252
Adarand Constructors v. Peňa, 66
Adidas Group, 244
Affirmative Action Act (Australia), 64–65
Affirmative/positive action, 51–72
affirmative action in higher education, 23–24 (box)
debate and criticism, 65–69, 66–67 (box)
discrimination and equality in employment, 52–54, 53 (box), 54 (box), 55
(box)
diversity management, 211–213
overview, 51–52
positive action, defined, 51
principles of programs, 61–65, 63–64 (box)
social policies and, 57, 58–60 (table)
theoretical perspectives, 55–56
Africa
educational trends and socioeconomic transitions, 110
gender diversity and demographic trends, 87
population growth in, 75–76
socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 99
workforce trends and, 4
See also individual names of countries
African slaves, dehumanization and oppression of, 140–141
Age diversity
in China and Japan, 95n9
economic issues of, 90
global demographic trends, 87–88, 88–89 (box)
665leader-member exchange theory (LMX), 236 (box)
“reverse mentorship,” 88–89 (box)
working-age population trends, 73–74, 78–80, 79 (table)
See also Demographic trends
Age & Generations Study (Boston College), 306
Agriculture
socioeconomic trends and occupational diversity, 102
Unilever case illustration, 266–273
Alabama Board of Corrections, 49–50n14
Albright, Madeleine, 186
Allport, Gordon W., 137–138, 188
Alshater, Firas, 186, 186–186 (box)
Altman, J. C., 286
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), 144–145n3
Amsterdam Treaty, 57
Anguilla (U.K.), antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 47
Antidiscrimination Act (Slovak Republic), 69
Antidiscrimination legislation. See Diversity legislation
Anti-sexual harassment legislation, international, 32–33, 34–35 (table)
Arabian American Oil Company (Aramco), 38
Argentina, sexual orientation legislation, 29 (table)
Art
culture and communication, 184–185
stereotyping and, 134–135 (box)
Artifacts, 186
Asia
East Asia, social-emotional mental models of interpersonal relationships, 196
population growth in, 75–76
See also individual names of countries
Asian Americans, stereotyping and, 130–131
Assertiveness, 180
AstraZeneca, 220–221
Asylum claims, by immigrants, 84
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal, 17 (box)
AT&T, 244
Attributes of individuals, discrimination and, 114–116, 126
Attrition, 213
Augusta National Golf Club, 211, 231, 233 (box)
Australia
affirmative/positive action legislation, 58 (table), 64–65
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 44
Australian Employment Covenant (AEC), 286
666Eurest case illustration, 281–286
gender identity legislation, 32
Karpin Report, 223n3
sexual orientation legislation, 29 (table)
Austria
affirmative/positive action legislation, 58 (table)
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 44
sexual orientation legislation, 29 (table)
Automatic Data Processing (ADP), 220
Autostereotypes, 138
Avoidance of uncertainty, 175 (table), 177–178, 181
Avon, 232, 244
Banga, Ajay, 232
Bangladesh, corporate social responsibility and, 261–262
Barefoot College (Tilonia, India), 108
Bartlett, C., 2–3, 193
Basic Law for a Gender-Equal Society (1999) (Japan), 26
Bata International, 292
Behavior, stereotyping and, 133–134 (box)
Behavior of corporations, expectations for, 239–241. See also Inclusive workplace
model
Belarus-Russian Federation, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 44
Belgium
affirmative/positive action, 62–63
equal employment legislation and de facto discrimination, 21–22 (box)
Belize, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 44
Bell, Ella L. J. Edmondson, 166
Belonging, need for, 163 (box), 227
Bermuda (U.K.), antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 47
Bertch, Wesley, 104 (box)
Besen, E., 306–307
Best, S., 209
Bhardwaj, G., 312
Bhopal disaster, 106 (box)
Biderman, M. D., 311
Billings-Harris, L., 312
Binning, K. B., 124 (table)
Biron, M., 129–130
“Black line” (Eurest case illustration), 281–282
Blair, Tony, 177
Boekhorst, J. A., 123 (table)
667Boff, A., 209
Book, organization of, 10–11, 11 (fig.)
Boomer generation, “reverse mentorship” and, 88–89 (box)
Border crossing issues
border “control” measures, 80
cross-border mobility, 99 (See also Socioeconomic transitions)
See also Migration issues/trends
Bortree, D. S., 306, 308
Bosnia, bans on religious attire, 18 (box)
Boston College, 306
Bradley, Joseph P., 142
Brandt, Willy, 184
Brazil
affirmative action in higher education, 24 (box)
diversity management, 213
sexual orientation legislation, 29 (table)
workforce diversity definitions, 125, 126–127
Brigham, Jack, 132
Brimhall, K. C., 308
Briscoe, D. R., 129–130
Broad categories, of discrimination
definitions, 117, 125–127
definitions and limitations, 221
legislation (See Diversity legislation)
Broekhoff, Hans, 269
Budhwar, Pl, 124 (table)
Buengeler, C., 118 (table)
Burma, forced labor in, 268
Business cards, 203 (box)
Buttner, H. E., 312
Caldwell, Q. S., 311
California, affirmative/positive action, 67
Canada
affirmative/positive action legislation, 58 (table)
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 44
broad-based antidiscrimination legislation of, 23
Canadian National Railway, 185
inclusion example, 10 (box)
sexual orientation legislation, 29 (table)
Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da, 134–135 (box)
Career development and planning initiative, 243, 244
668Carney, Jay, 233 (box)
Carnival Corporation, 211
Case illustrations (inclusive workplace model)
Denny’s, Inc., 250–257
Eurest, 281–286
“fair trade,” 293–299
overview, 11 (fig.)
Unilever, 266–273
Castellanos-Brown, K., 118 (table), 306
Caste system (India), 61–62
Catalyst, 245
Central America
gender diversity and demographic trends, 85
socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 100
See also individual names of countries
CEOs, role in inclusive leadership, 231–234, 232 (box), 233 (box), 234 (box)
Chaebol, 189, 194
Charlie Hebdo, terrorist attacks on, 184
Childs, J. T., Jr., 118 (table)
Childs, Ted, 249
China
age diversity and demographics, 95n9
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 44
Chinese national state-owned enterprises (CNSOEs), 261
diversity management, overview, 1
educational trends and socioeconomic transitions, 110
interpersonal cross-cultural communication, 203 (box)
migration trends, 82
prejudice and discrimination, 115
quanxi, 189, 194
socioeconomic trends and employer migration, 105
workforce diversity definitions, 116
Chiquita Brands International, Inc., 290–291, 292
Chirac, Jacques, 18 (box)
Choi, J., 264
Choi, S., 248
Chrysler, 104
Circular migration, 94n4
Citibank, 197–198
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 27, 38, 144–145n3, 212
Civil Rights Act of 1991, 27
Climate for diversity, 301–303
669Climate for inclusion, 301–303
Clinton, Bill, 67, 184, 186
Closing the Gap (Australia), 286
Clothing, 16, 17–18 (box), 186
Cob, B., 250
Coffee, fair trade of, 295
Cognition, stereotypes and, 137
Collectivism, individualism versus, 175 (table), 176–177, 201–202, 202 (table)
Colombia, affirmative/positive action legislation, 58 (table)
Committee on Asian Women (CAW), 33
Committee on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (UN), 20–21
Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination (UN), 20–21
Commonwealth Bank of Australia, 245
Communication
cross-cultural communication, overview, 181–182, 182 (box)
cross-cultural communication effectiveness, 182–183, 183 (fig.)
cross-cultural styles of, 187–189, 188 (box)
defined, 182
language fluency and cultural fluency, 185
nonverbal communication, 185–187, 186 (box), 187 (box)
verbal communication, 183–185
See also Culture; Interpersonal cross-cultural relations
Communication models of global diversity management (GDM), 219
Compensatory justice, 65
Conceptual rule, for diversity definitions, 117, 127–128
Conflict, in interpersonal relationships, 198–200, 199 (fig.)
Congo, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 44
Connolly, K., 233
Contextual model of global diversity management (GDM), 218
Cooperation of Fair Trade, 298
Costa, C., 216
Costa Rica
affirmative/positive action legislation, 58 (table)
sexual orientation legislation, 29 (table)
Cottrill, K. R., 307–308
Covert discrimination, 52
Cox, T., 118 (table), 164, 216, 217–218
Critical race theory, 150, 169 (table)
Cross-cultural communication. See Communication; Culture
Cross-national diversity management, 210
Cruz, K. S., 162 (box)
Cultural audit, 214 (table), 215–216
670Culture, 172–190
affirmative/positive action and, 62
avoidance of uncertainty, 177–178
cross-cultural communication and, 181–189 (See also Communication)
cultural context for global workplace, critique, 178–180
cultural context for global workplace, overview, 173–174
cultural diversity, 117 (See also Workforce diversity definitions)
cultural orientation and exclusion, 163 (box)
cultural value dimensions, 174, 175 (table)
defined, 173
framework for viewing individuals who culture differs from one’s own, 139
(fig.) (See also Stereotypes)
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE),
180–181
individualism versus collectivism, 176–177
long-term versus short-term orientation, 178
masculinity versus femininity, 177
overview, 11 (fig.), 172
power distance, 174–176
See also Interpersonal cross-cultural relations; Organizational climate
Culture’s Consequences (Hofstede), 173, 179–180
Cyprus, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 44
Czech Republic
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 44
Committee on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (UN) on, 20
socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 100
Daimler-Benz, 104
Darity, William, Jr., 90
Darwin, Charles, 144n2
Davis, J. K., 308
Davis, Viola, 208
Davis-LaMastro, V., 311
DCM Shriram Industries, 245–246 (box)
Decoupling, 230–231, 231 (fig.)
Dehumanization, prejudice and, 140–141
DeLia, E., 313
Deloitte, 89 (box)
Delta Cafés, 9 (box)
Demographic trends
ability/disability diversity, 91–92
age diversity, 87–88, 88–89 (box)
671demography of the workforce, 6
gender diversity, 84–87, 85 (table)
gender identity diversity, 93
international population trends, overview, 74–78, 75 (fig.), 77 (fig.), 78 (table)
migration trends, 80–84, 81 (fig.), 81 (table), 82 (box), 83 (box)
overview, 3–5, 11 (fig.), 73–74
population growth and socioeconomic trends (See Socioeconomic transitions)
racial and ethnic diversity, 89–91, 90–91 (box)
sexual diversity, 92
United Nations on, 3
working-age population trends, 73–74, 78–80, 79 (table)
Demography, organizational, 165–168
Deng, L., 122 (table)
Den Hartog, D. N., 118 (table)
Denisi, A. S., 312
Denmark
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 44
sexual orientation legislation, 29 (table)
social comparison and, 160
workforce diversity definitions, 117
Denny’s, Inc. (inclusive workplace model case illustration), 250–257
DeVoe, S. E., 195
De Vries, S., 119 (table)
Dick, R., 123 (table)
Diller, J. V., 118 (table)
Direct communication, 203–205, 204 (fig.)
Disability diversity. See Ability/disability diversity
Discrimination, defined, 52
Discrimination Convention of 1958 (ILO), 141
Distributive justice, 56, 65
DiTomaso, N., 118 (table)
Diversity enlargement, 214, 214 (table)
“Diversity is a reality that is here to stay” (diversity management implementation
argument), 219–221, 220 (table)
Diversity legislation, 15–50
broad-based antidiscrimination legislation, 23–24 (box), 23–33, 28 (fig.),
29–31 (table), 34–36 (table)
diversity management, 211–213
diversity-related employment legislation, 22–23
effect on workforce trends, 3–5
global antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation checklist of protections
offered by select countries, 44–50
672implementation, 20–21, 21–22 (box)
International Bill of Human Rights (UN) and employment rights, 15–19, 16
(fig.)
overview, 11 (fig.), 15–16
practical implications, 37–38
public policy, overview, 11 (fig.)
religious attire, 16, 17–18 (box)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN), 14, 16 (fig.), 19–20, 39–43
“Diversity makes good business sense” (diversity management implementation
argument), 219–221, 220 (table)
Diversity management, 1–12, 208–223
characteristics and limitations of, 221–222
defining, 208–210
exclusion problems and, 5–7
in global context, 2–3
implementing, 219–221, 220 (table)
inclusive workplace model, 7–10, 8 (box), 9 (box), 10 (box)
legal issues of, 211–213
models of global diversity management (GDM), overview, 209, 218–219
overview, 1–2, 10–11, 11 (fig.)
paradigms, 213–217, 214 (table), 215 (box)
workforce trends, 3–5
See also Leadership
“Diversity management is the right thing to do” (diversity management
implementation argument), 219–221, 220 (table)
Diversity maturity, 245
Diversity paradox, leadership and, 225, 226 (fig.)
Diversity sensitivity, 214–215, 214 (table)
The Diversity Task Force, 118 (table)
D’Netto, B., 216
Dobbs, M. F., 119 (table)
Donald, Arnold, 211
Donnelly, R., 115, 123 (table)
Duke Energy, 232
Durkheim, Émile, 37
EACH leadership behaviors, 245
Eastern Europe, socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 100
East Timor, inclusion example, 9 (box)
Economic issues
age diversity and demographics, 90
effect on workforce trends, 3–5
673gender diversity and demographics, 86, 94n6
inclusive workplace model (level four) and, 292–293
overview, 11 (fig.)
of poverty and inclusive workplace model (level three), 276–279
socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 101
workforce diversity definitions, 116
See also Demographic trends; Socioeconomic transitions
Ecuador
relational mental models about time, 194 (box)
sexual orientation legislation, 29 (table)
Educational trends
education and training initiative, 243, 244–245
higher education and affirmative action, 23–24 (box)
socioeconomic transitions and workforce diversity, 108–110, 109 (box)
See also Training
Effective diversity respondents, 245
Egypt, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
Eisenberger, R., 311
Emigration. See Migration issues/trends
Emotional detachment, emotional involvement versus, 196–198, 197 (fig.)
“Emotional overcoat” theory, 197–198
Employers, migration of, 103–104 (box), 103–106, 106 (box)
Employment Equity Act (1998) (South Africa), 57
Employment-related discrimination, 141–143, 142–143 (box). See also Prejudice and
discrimination
Equal employment legislation, de facto discrimination and, 21–22 (box)
Equal Employment Opportunity Act (Japan), 33
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) (U.S.)
discrimination example, 54 (box)
on employment-related discrimination, 143
equal employment opportunity, overview, 6, 211–213
example of charges, 38
on sexual harassment, 33
socioeconomic trends and employer migration, 105
Equal Employment Opportunity Law (Japan), 26
Equal opportunities school of thought, on affirmative action, 56
Equal pay, 26–27
Equal Treatment Directive (1976) (EU), 57
Equity theory, 165, 170 (table)
Ernst & Young, 232
eShopAfrica, 290 (box)
Essed, P., 116, 140
674Estonia, sexual orientation legislation, 29 (table)
Ethiopia, affirmative/positive action legislation, 58 (table)
Ethnicity/ethnic diversity
employment-related discrimination, 142
global demographic trends, 89–91, 90–91 (box)
stereotypes and, 132–135
See also Diversity legislation
Europe
Eastern Europe, socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 100
“fair trade city” trend in, 298
fe
rtility rates, 76–78
population growth in, 75–76
workforce diversity, definitions, 116–117
workforce diversity, research, 149
See also individual names of countries
European Court of Human Rights, 17 (box)
European Fair Trade Association, 297
European Union (EU)
broad-based antidiscrimination legislation of, 24–25
diversity management, 212
Equal Treatment Directive (1976), 57
Fairtrade towns/cities, 298
socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 99
socioeconomic trends and occupational diversity, 103
Exclusion, 146–171
as critical workforce problem, 147–148
defined, 147
explanatory theories of diversity and, 151–165, 153–154 (box), 156–157
(box), 162–163 (box), 169–170 (table)
inclusion-exclusion concept, 147–148
inclusion-exclusion construct, theoretical underpinnings, 149
orienting theories of diversity and, 150–151, 151 (fig.)
overview, 5–7, 146
research on organizational demography documenting exclusion, 165–168
response to, 162–163 (box)
social psychological theories, overview, 148–149
Exemplary Voluntary Efforts Award (U.S. Department of Labor), 249
Explanatory theories of diversity and exclusion
identity-based motivation theory, 163–164
Interactional Model of Cultural Diversity (IMCD), 164
intergroup relations and, 165
overview, 150 (fig.), 151
675social comparison theory, 155–157, 160–161
social identity theory, 151–160, 153–154 (box), 155–160, 156–157 (box)
“sociometer model” of self-esteem, 161–162
summarized, 169–170 (table)
symbolic interaction theory, 160–161
“Face” concept, 202, 202 (table)
Fahd (king of Saudi Arabia), 19
“Fair discrimination,” 49n13
Fair Employment Act of 1989 (Northern Ireland), 63, 64–65 (box)
Fairness. See Affirmative/positive action
Fair Trade Association of Australia and New Zealand, 294
“Fair trade” case illustration, 293–299
Fair Trade Company, 296–297
Fair Trade Federation, 294
Fairtrade Foundation, 294, 298
Fair Trade USA, 294
Falkland Islands (Malvinias) (U.K.), antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation,
47
Family of Five Schools, 263
Farndale, E., 129–130
Fasolo, P., 311
Federal Glass Ceiling Commission (U.S.), 166–167
Femininity, masculinity versus, 175 (table), 177
Fenwick, M., 216
Fertility rates
demographic trends and population growth, 76–80 (See also Demographic
trends)
effect on workforce trends, 3–5
FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association), 187
Fifth Amendment (U.S. Constitution), 66
Fiji
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
broad-based antidiscrimination legislation of, 25
sexual orientation legislation, 29 (table)
Filártiga v. Peña-Irala (1980), 20
Finland
affirmative/positive action legislation, 59 (table)
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
sexual orientation legislation, 29 (table)
Fisher, Abigail, 23–24 (box), 68
Fisher v. University of Texas (2016), 23–24 (box), 68
676Fleury, M. T., 119 (table)
Ford Motor Company, 215–216
Foreign direct investment (FDI), 104–106
Forrester Research, 103 (box)
The Fortune Teller (Caravaggio), 134–135 (box)
“Four I’s,” of transformational leadership (TL), 226–227
Fourteenth Amendment (U.S. Constitution), 66
France
affirmative/positive action legislation, 59 (table)
bans on religious attire, 18 (box)
sexual orientation legislation, 30 (table)
socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 98
workforce diversity definitions, 117
“Free movement” migration, 83
Friedman, Milton, 260
Future orientation, 180
Gandhi, M., 186–187
Gender Discrimination Prevention and Relief Act (South Korea), 33
Gender diversity
anti-sexual harassment legislation, international, 32–33, 34–35 (table)
bans on religious attire, 16, 17–18 (box)
China, prejudice and discrimination, 115
cultural issues of masculinity versus femininity, 177
discrimination example, 52, 53 (box)
diversity legislation and, 16–19
educational trends and socioeconomic transitions, 108, 109 (box)
employment-related discrimination, 142
fa
ir trade issues of, 296–297
gender egalitarianism, 181
gender studies, 6
global demographic trends, 84–87, 85 (table)
Japan, antidiscrimination legislation, 25–26
migration and demographic trends, 83 (box)
organizational demography documenting exclusion, 166–168 (See also
Exclusion)
social-emotional mental models of interpersonal relationships, 196–197
socioeconomic transitions and migration, 107–108, 107 (box)
stereotype threat, 133 (box)
workforce and exclusion, 5–7
workforce trends and, 3–5
See also Transgender people
677Gender identity
global demographic trends, 93
legislation, U.S. and international, 32
stereotyping, 145n5
See also Diversity legislation; Gender diversity; Sexual orientation
General Mills, 245
Germany
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
bans on religious attire, 17 (box)
migrant workers and employment-related discrimination, 143 (box)
Nazi dehumanization and oppression, 140–141
socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 98
“Getting a Piece of the Power” (Time), 145n10
Ghoshal, S., 2–3
Ghosn, Carlos, 232
Gibbons, M., 118 (table), 306
Gibraltar (U.K.), antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 47
Ginsburgh, V., 184
Glastra, F. J., 119 (table)
Global companies, defined, 3
Global demographic trends. See Demographic trends
Global diversity definition, need for, 128–130
Global diversity management (GDM) models, 209, 218–219
Global economy. See Economic issues
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) study,
180–181, 227–228
“A Global Perspective on Diversity and Inclusion in Work Organizations” (The
International Journal of Human Resource Management), 129–130
Global Village, 296
Goldman Sachs, 244
Gong (artisans), 1–2
Gonzalez, J. A., 312
Goodyear, 27
Gorman, F., 119 (table)
Government of Ireland Act (1920), 64–65 (box)
Graen, G. B., 236
Grant, B. Z., 119 (table)
Gratz v. Bollinger, 68
Gray, Freddie, 275n6
Griffin, A. E. C., 312
Griggs v. Duke Power Company (1970), 50n15
Grosbois, D., 261
678Groups
defined, 158
group aspects of diversity, 11 (fig.)
group distinction categories, 114–116
group mobility, 159
Groysberg, B., 233
Grutter, Barbara, 68
Gudmundson, D. E., 119 (table)
Guest workers, 6
Guinea
culture and communication in, 184
interpersonal cross-cultural communication, 201
Gulf States, socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 98, 100. See also individual
names of countries
Guyana, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
Hai Ha-Kotobuki, 8 (box)
Harex, 1, 12n1
Harmony
“face” concept, 202, 202 (table)
in interpersonal relationships, overview, 198–200, 199 (fig.)
See also Interpersonal cross-cultural relations
Harrison, D. A., 119 (table)
Hart, Paula, 256
Hartenian, L. S., 119 (table)
“Headscarf ban,” 16, 17–18 (box)
Health care, demographic trends and, 74–78, 75 (fig.), 77 (fig.), 78 (table)
Hepburn, C., 156–157 (box)
Heterogeneity in workforce, trends of, 3–5
Heterostereotypes, 138
High-context cultures, 201, 202 (table)
Hijab, 17 (box), 143, 186
Hindustan Unilever, 289–290
HIV/AIDS
demographic trends and, 79–80
global diversity definition needed, 129
Ho, G. C., 128
Hofstede, Geert, 138–139, 160, 173–181
“Hofstede doctrine,” 179
Hong Kong
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 44
anti-sexual harassment legislation, 32–33, 34 (table)
679Hong Yip Service Company Ltd., 280–281 (box)
Hood-Phillips, Rachelle, 252, 257
Hopkins, Ann Branigar, 136, 307
Hopkins, K., 308
House, Robert J., 180
House model of global diversity management (GDM), 218–219
Hudson Institution, 219
Human orientation, 181
Human resource (HR) management
diversity management, overview, 209
HR paradigm in diversity management, 213–216, 214 (table), 215 (box)
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (Australia), 286
Hungary
affirmative/positive action legislation, 59 (table)
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
Hwang, J., 308
IBM, 32, 211, 230, 231, 249
Iceland
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
sexual orientation legislation, 30 (table)
Identity-based motivation theory, 163–164, 170 (table)
Identity-based stereotypes, 130–131, 131–132 (box)
Immigration. See Migration issues/trends
Inclusion-exclusion
concept, 147–148
theoretical underpinnings, 149
See also Inclusive leadership; Mor Barak Inclusion-Exclusion scale (MBIE)
Inclusive leadership
CEOs’ role in, 231–234, 232 (box), 233 (box), 234 (box)
defined, 227
GLOBE study, 227–228
overview, 228, 229 (fig.), 231 (fig.)
transformational leadership for, 225–227, 228 (fig.)
Inclusive workplace model
Denny’s, Inc. (case illustration), 250–257
Eurest (case illustration), 281–286
“fair trade” (case illustration), 293–299
level one (See Inclusive workplace model (level one))
overview, 7–10, 8–9 (boxes), 10 (box), 11 (fig.), 238–241, 240 (box), 240
(fig.)
Unilever (case illustration), 266–273
680value base for inclusive workplace, 314–319, 315 (fig.), 316 (fig.), 317 (fig.),
319 (box)
See also Diversity management; Inclusive workplace model (level one); Inclusive
workplace model (level two); Inclusive workplace model (level three); Inclusive
workplace model (level four); Organizational climate
Inclusive workplace model (level one), 242–258
barriers and benefits of implementation, 246–250, 247 (fig.)
Denny’s, Inc. (case illustration), 250–257
diversity within work organizations, overview, 242–243, 243 (fig.), 315, 315
(fig.), 316–318, 317 (fig.)
policies and practices, 243–245, 244–246 (box)
Inclusive workplace model (level two), 259–275
barriers and benefits of implementation, 263–266, 264 (fig.)
corporate social performance (CSP), 259–261
corporate social responsibility (CSR), 259–261
inclusion and corporate-community collaborations, overview, 259–261, 260
(fig.), 315, 315 (fig.), 317 (fig.), 318
inclusive policies and practices, 261–263, 262 (box)
Unilever case illustration, 266–273
Inclusive workplace model (level three), 276–287
barriers and benefits of implementation, 279, 280–281 (boxes), 280 (fig.)
Eurest case illustration, 281–286
inclusion of disadvantaged groups through state/national collaborations,
overview, 276–279, 277 (fig.), 315, 315 (fig.), 317 (fig.), 318
Inclusive workplace model (level four), 288–300
barriers and benefits of implementation, 291–293, 293 (fig.)
“fair trade” case illustration, 293–299
inclusion through international collaborations, overview, 288–291, 289 (fig.),
290 (box), 315, 315 (fig.), 317 (fig.), 318
India
affirmative/positive action legislation, 59 (table), 61–62
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
anti-sexual harassment legislation, 33, 34 (table)
Bhopal disaster, 106 (box)
educational trends and socioeconomic transitions, 108, 109 (box)
outsourcing by employers to, 103–104 (box)
sexual harassment and high-tech industry, 107–108, 107 (box)
socioeconomic trends and occupational diversity, 102
Indigenous Employment Policy (1999) (Australia), 283–284
Indirect communication, 203–205, 204 (fig.)
Individual discrimination, 52
Individualism
681collectivism versus, 175 (table), 176–177, 201–202, 202 (table)
individual aspects of diversity, overview, 11 (fig.)
Individual mobility, 158
Indonesia
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
anti-sexual harassment legislation, 35 (table)
Information isolation, 166–167
Infosys Technologies Limited, 107–108, 107 (box), 230
In-groups
in-group collectivism, 181
overview, 138, 152, 156–157 (box)
Institutional collectivism, 181
Institutional discrimination, 52
Insurance, employment practices liability insurance, 22
Intentional discrimination, 52
Interaction, between cultural groups. See Communication; Culture
Interactional Model of Cultural Diversity (IMCD), 164, 170 (table)
Intergroup contact theory, 165, 170 (table)
Intergroup relations
overview, 11 (fig.)
workforce and exclusion, 5–7
International Bill of Human Rights (UN)
employment rights and, 15–19, 16 (fig.)
overview, 14, 15–16, 16 (fig.)
See also Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN)
International corporations, defined, 2–3
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (UN), 15, 16 (fig.)
International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (UN), 15, 16
(fig.), 19–20
International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC), 27
International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 18
The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 129–130
International Labour Organization (ILO)
discrimination as defined by, 52
Discrimination Convention of 1958, 141
diversity management, 212
diversity-related employment legislation, 22
equal employment legislation and de facto discrimination, 21–22 (box)
migrant workers and employment-related discrimination, 142–143 (box)
NATLEX, 27, 49n9, 57
sexual orientation legislation, 27
workforce diversity definition, 119 (table)
682International population trends (global demographics)
migration trends, 80–84, 81 (fig.), 81 (table), 82 (box), 83 (box)
overview, 74–78, 75 (fig.), 77 (fig.), 78 (table)
working-age, 73–74, 78–80, 79 (table)
See also Demographic trends
International Union of Food Workers, 291
Interpersonal cross-cultural relations, 191–206
cross-cultural communication in interpersonal relationships, 200–201
diversity in interpersonal relationships, 196–200, 197 (fig.), 199 (fig.)
overview, 11 (fig.), 191–193
perception and, 192
relational mental models, overview, 193–195, 194 (box)
theoretical perspectives, 201–205, 202 (table), 203 (box), 204 (fig.)
Intersectionality theory, 150–151, 169 (table)
Intervention models of global diversity management (GDM), 218
Intranational diversity management, 209–210
Invisibility, of diversity, 126
Iraq
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
Iraq war and cultural communication example, 181–182, 182 (box)
Ireland
affirmative/positive action legislation, 59 (table)
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
sexual orientation legislation, 30 (table)
Israel
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
anti-sexual harassment legislation, 35 (table)
culture and communication in, 184
interdependent relational styles, 198
Mor Barak Inclusion-Exclusion scale (MBIE) and, 305
sexual orientation legislation, 30 (table)
Italy
affirmative/positive action, 63
socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 97
stereotypes, 134–135 (box)
Iyengar, S. S., 195
Jackson, S. E., 120 (table)
J. A. Croson Company, 66
Jamaica, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
Japan
age diversity and demographics, 95n9
683antidiscrimination legislation, 25–26, 45
anti-sexual harassment legislation, 33, 35 (table)
culture and communication in, 185
fa
ir trade in, 297
financial implications of discriminatory behavior in workplace, 37
inclusion example, 8 (box)
socioeconomic trends and employer migration, 105
“Jelly beans” incident (Texaco), 215 (box)
Jenner, Caitlin (Bruce), 93
Jimenez-Cook, S., 120 (table)
Johnson, C. D., 311
Johnson, Lyndon B., 57, 212
Joiner, T. A., 175–176
Jones, D., 125
Jonsen, K., 6, 117, 209, 218–219
Joshi, A., 120 (table)
Jung, Andrea, 232, 244
Kabeer, N., 111
Kahn, Joseph, 293
Karpin Report, 223n3
Keenan, John, 106 (box)
Kennedy, John F., 57, 184
Kenya, affirmative/positive action legislation, 59 (table)
Kim, K., 313
King, Rodney, 274–275n5
Kin Ki Industrial, 293–294
Klein, K. J., 119 (table)
Kleiner, B. H., 119 (table), 120 (table), 121 (table)
Knowles, E. D., 128
Kohers, T., 265
Konrad, A. M., 122 (table)
Korea
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
diversity management, overview, 1
Kossek, E. E., 120 (table), 216
Kotobuki Group, 8 (box)
Kraft, 295
Kreitz, P. A., 121 (table)
Kulik, C., 133 (box)
Kuwait, socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 98
Kyriakidou, O., 167
684Labor migration, 6
Lai, Y., 121 (table)
Langevin, Jim, 190n8
Language fluency, communication and, 185
Larkey, Linda, 127
La Siembra, 10 (box)
Latin America
population growth in, 75–76
social-emotional mental models of interpersonal relationships, 196
See also individual names of countries
Lau, D. C., 121 (table)
Law of nations, 20
Law on Violence Against Women and Family (Venezuela), 33
Leader-member exchange theory (LMX), 235–237, 236 (box)
Leadership, 224–237
diversity paradox and, 225, 226 (fig.)
GLOBE study, 227–228
inclusive leadership, 225–227, 228–234, 228 (fig.), 229 (fig.), 231 (fig.), 232
(box), 233 (box), 234 (box)
leader-member exchange theory (LMX), 235–237, 236 (box)
overview, 224–225
paradoxical dilemma of, 225, 226 (fig.)
transformational leadership (TL), 225–227, 228 (fig.)
See also Inclusive workplace model (level one)
Leane, G. W. G., 18 (box)
Ledbetter, Lilly, 27
Legal issues
of affirmative/positive action policies, 57, 58–60 (table)
of diversity management, 211–213
equal employment opportunity, overview, 6, 211–213 (See also Diversity
legislation; individual names of agencies; individual names of laws)
Lennox, C., 93
Less-developed regions (LDRs), 109
Levy, Barbara, 256
Life Time Fitness, 104 (box)
Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, 27
Lithuania, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
Lizano, E. L., 308
Lobel, S. A., 120 (table), 216
Locksley, A., 156–157 (box)
Longley, Sue, 291
Long-term orientation, short-term orientation versus, 175 (table), 178
685Lotus Corporation, 291
Low-context cultures, 201, 202 (table)
Lowe, K. B., 312
Lucky Stores, 139
Luxembourg, sexual orientation legislation, 30 (table)
Lynch, K., 306–307
Maatman, M. E., 24 (box)
Mack, D., 311
Macro dimensions of managing diversity, defined, 11, 11 (fig.)
“Macro” system level, of organizations/communities, 11, 11 (fig.), 276, 288
Madera, J. M., 209
Malawi, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 45
Malaysia
affirmative/positive action policies, 68–69
anti-sexual harassment legislation, 32, 33, 35 (table)
ethnic diversity in, 90–91 (box), 91
Malta, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 46
Management leadership initiative, 243–244
Managing Diversity, Fourth Edition (Mor Barak), 10–11, 11 (fig.)
Maranto, C. L., 312
Marriott International, 281 (box)
Martins, L. L., 122 (table), 209
Marx, Groucho, 146
Masculinity, femininity versus, 175 (table), 177
Mass Transportation, 52, 53 (box)
MasterCard, 232
Matz-Costa, C., 306–307
Mayer, Marissa, 234 (box)
Maznevski, M. L., 6, 117
McCain, John, 154
McKay, P. F., 313
McKeown, Margaret, 37
McSally, Martha, 190n8
Meerman, M., 119 (table)
Mega (grand) theory, social identity as, 152
Merck KGaA, 244
Mexico
relational mental models about time, 194 (box)
socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 100
workforce diversity definitions, 116
“Mezzo” system level, of organizations/communities, 11, 11 (fig.), 259, 276
686Michelangelo, 184–185
Microaggression, stereotypes and, 136–137 (box)
Micro/mezzo dimensions of managing diversity, defined, 11, 11 (fig.)
Microsoft, 27
Migration issues/trends
border crossing issues, 80, 99
effect on workforce trends, 3–5
equal employment legislation and de facto discrimination, 21–22 (box)
global demographic trends, 80–84, 81 (fig.), 81 (table), 82 (box), 83 (box)
migrant workers and employment-related discrimination, 142–143 (box)
social identity theory and, 154
socioeconomic transitions affected by, 99–108 (See also Socioeconomic
transitions)
Millennial generation
leader-member exchange theory (LMX) and, 236 (box)
“reverse mentorship,” 88–89 (box)
Minkov, Michale, 179
Minney, Safia, 296–297
Mississippi University for Women, 27
Mitchell, R., 121 (table)
Mitsubishi, 105
Moghaddam, Fathali M., 130, 138
Monolithic organization, 216–217
Moore, S., 121 (table)
Mor Barak, M. E.
Managing Diversity, Fourth Edition, 10–11, 11 (fig.)
Mor Barak et al. Diversity Climate Scale, 309–313, 309 (fig.)
Mor Barak Inclusion-Exclusion scale (MBIE), 303–308
Mor Barak et al. Diversity Climate Scale
inclusion-exclusion, concept, 147–148
inclusion-exclusion, theoretical underpinnings, 149
overview, 309–310, 309 (fig.)
psychometric properties and previous research utilizing, 311–313
Mor Barak Inclusion-Exclusion scale (MBIE)
overview, 303–308
psychometric properties and previous research, 305–308
More-developed regions (MDRs), 109
Moroccans
equal employment legislation and de facto discrimination, 21–22 (box)
social identity theory and, 154
Morris, M. W., 197–198
Moscovici, S., 152
687Moses, statue of (cultural example), 185
Motivation, for diversity management implementation, 219–221, 220 (table)
Mountain Gravel and Construction Company, 66
Muller, H. J., 121 (table), 122 (table)
Muller-Camen, M., 209
Multicultural organization paradigm, in diversity management, 216–217
Multinational companies (MNC)
defined, 3
overview, 2–3
Murnighan, J. K., 121 (table)
Museveni, Yoweri, 145n3
Nadal, K. L., 136–137 (box)
Naive realism, 193
Najaf (Iraq), cultural communication example, 181–182, 182 (box)
Najib Razak, 68–69
Namibia
affirmative/positive action legislation, 60 (table)
affirmative/positive action policies, 57
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 46
Narayanan, J., 162 (box)
Narrow categories, of diversity definitions, 117, 125
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 251, 255
National origin
discrimination example, 54 (box)
employment-related discrimination, 142
National population trends (global demographics)
ability/disability diversity, 91–92
age diversity, 87–88, 88–89 (box)
gender diversity, 84–87, 85 (table)
gender identity diversity, 93
racial and ethnic diversity, 89–91, 90–91 (box)
sexual diversity, 92
See also Demographic trends
National Tire and Battery (NTB), 54 (box)
Native American Professional Network, 263
NATLEX (ILO), 27, 49n9, 57
The Nature of Prejudice (Allport), 137–138
Nazis, dehumanization and oppression by, 140–141
Neoclassical economics, on affirmative action, 56
Nepal
anti-sexual harassment legislation, 32, 35 (table)
688Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination (UN) on, 20
Nestlé, 262 (box)
The Netherlands
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 46
dehumanization and oppression, 140
diversity management, 212
sexual orientation legislation, 30 (table)
social identity theory and, 154
socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 99
workforce diversity definitions, 116, 117
Neuman, E., 199
New Haven, City of (Ricci v. DeStefano), 66–67 (box)
New Yorker, 154–155
New Zealand
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 46
sexual orientation legislation, 30 (table)
stereotypes, 135
welfare reform, 277
workforce diversity definitions, 125
Nigeria
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 46
Committee on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (UN) on, 21
Shell Intensive Training Programme, 263
stereotyping and, 130
Nishii, L. H., 121 (table)
Nissan Motor Company, 232
Nixon, J. C., 122 (table)
Nkomo, Stella M., 166
No Ceilings (2015), 26
Nong (farmers), 1–2
Nonverbal communication
overview, 185–187, 186 (box), 187 (box)
relational mental models and, 195
North America
diversity management terminology and, 209
population growth in, 75–76
workforce diversity research in, 149
See also individual names of countries
Northern Ireland
affirmative/positive action, 63, 64–65 (box)
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 47
Norway
689affirmative/positive action legislation, 60 (table), 62
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 46
diversity enlargement, 214
sexual orientation legislation, 30 (table)
Not Everyone Gets a Trophy (Tulgan), 236 (box)
Obama, Barack
on Augusta National Gold Club, 211, 233 (box)
on bans on religious attire, 18 (box)
Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, 27–28
national origins of, 154–155
visit to Japan by, 185
Occupational patterning, migration and, 101–103
Ocholla, D. N., 122 (table)
Olsen, J. E., 122 (table)
Oppression, prejudice and, 140–141
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 101, 108
Organizational climate, 301–313
climate for diversity and climate for inclusion, 301–303, 302 (fig.)
defined, 301
Mor Barak et al. Diversity Climate Scale, 309–313, 309 (fig.)
Mor Barak Inclusion-Exclusion scale (MBIE), 303–308
overview, 301
See also Inclusive leadership
Organizational demography, 165–168
Orienting theories, of diversity and exclusion, 150–151, 150 (fig.)
Ortiz, V., 156–157 (box)
Ospina, S. M., 123 (table)
Our Separate Ways (Bell, Nkomo), 166
Out-groups, 138, 152
Outsourcing, by employers, 103–104 (box), 103–106, 106 (box)
Overt discrimination, 52, 53 (box)
Oxfam, 269, 272–273
Őzbilgin, M., 209, 218–219
Palm oil (Unilever case illustration), 266–273
Paolillo, A., 313
Paradoxical dilemma, 225, 226 (fig.)
Parham, P. A., 121 (table), 122 (table)
Park, Kyung-Young, 1
Parks-Yancy, R., 118 (table)
Pasini, M., 313
690Patterson-UTI, 37–38
Pekerti, A. A., 188
Perception. See Interpersonal cross-cultural relations
Performance and accountability initiative, 243, 244
Performance orientation, 180
Pettigrew, T. F., 153, 153–154 (box)
Philippines
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 46
migration and demographic trends, 81, 82 (box), 83 (box)
Physical disability. See Ability/disability diversity
Physiological response, exclusion and, 163 (box)
Pitt-Catsouphes, M., 306–307
Pittman, J., 118 (table), 306
The Plan Group, 278
Plural organization, 217
Point, S., 116
Poland, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 46
Pollack, A., 247
“Population pyramid,” 76, 77 (fig.)
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, 8–9 (box)
Portugal, inclusion example, 9 (box)
Positive action, defined, 51. See also Affirmative/positive action
Post, C., 118 (table)
Poverty, inclusive workplace model (level three) and, 276–279
Power, exclusion and, 162 (box)
Power distance, 174–176, 175 (table), 181
Practice applications
of managing diversity, defined, 11, 11 (fig.)
overview, 11 (fig.)
See also Inclusive workplace model
Prasad, P., 122 (table)
Prejudice and discrimination, 114–145
dehumanization and oppression, 140–141
employment-related discrimination, 141–143, 142–143 (box)
overview, 114–116
prejudice compared to stereotype, 132, 137–138
stereotypes, 130–140, 131–132 (box), 133 (box), 134 (box), 136–137 (box),
139 (fig.)
workforce diversity definitions, broad category-based, 117, 125–127
workforce diversity definitions, conceptual basis, 117, 127–128
workforce diversity definitions, global, 128–130
workforce diversity definitions, narrow category-based, 117, 125
691workforce diversity definitions, overview, 116–117, 118–124 (table)
Preston, S. H., 95
Prevention and Eradication of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace (Malaysia), 32
Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 136
Prime, J., 245
Pringle, J., 125
Pringle, J. K., 122 (table)
Private businesses, affirmative/positive action and, 62
Process model of global diversity management (GDM), 218
Procter & Gamble, 295
“Professionalism,” U.S. interdependent relational styles and, 197–198
Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act (2000) (South
Africa), 25
Promotion of Gender Equality (Japan), 26
Proposition 209 (California), 67
Protestant relational ideology, 194
Public workforce, affirmative/positive action and, 62
PULSE (Ford Motor Company), 215–216
Punitive damages, for discrimination, 49n11
Purvis, R. L., 162 (box)
Qin, J., 122 (table)
Quanxi, 189, 194
Quotas, 62
Rabin, Yitzhak, 184
Race/racial diversity
Denny’s, Inc. (inclusive workplace model case illustration), 250–257
discrimination example, 54, 55 (box)
global demographic trends, 89–91, 90–91 (box)
organizational demography documenting exclusion, 166–168 (See also
Exclusion)
South Africa, antidiscrimination legislation, 25
stereotypes, 135
workforce and exclusion, 5–7
See also Diversity legislation
Raghuram, S., 129–130
Rainey, H. G., 248
Read, Jen’nan Ghazal, 137
Realistic conflict theory, 165, 170 (table)
Refugees, migration trends and, 84
Relational mental models
692conflict and harmony in, 198–200, 199 (fig.)
emotional detachment versus involvement, 196–198, 197 (fig.)
overview, 193–195, 194 (box)
See also Interpersonal cross-cultural relations
Relative deprivation theory, 165, 170 (table)
Religion/religious diversity
affirmative/positive action, 63, 64–65 (box)
bans on religious attire, 16, 17–18 (box)
culture and communication issues, 186, 187
dehumanization and oppression, 140–141
Denny’s, Inc. (inclusive workplace model case illustration), 256–257
discrimination example, 54 (box)
employment-related discrimination, 143 (box)
global diversity definition needed, 128
stereotyping and, 131, 131–132 (box), 137
See also Diversity legislation
“Replacement” migration, 90
Republic of Korea. See South Korea
Research, on workforce exclusion, 6–7
Resolution 217 A (III) (UN), 15
Revco, 252
Reverse discrimination concept, 65–69
“Reverse mentorship,” 88–89 (box)
Ricci v. DeStefano, 66–67
Rice, Condoleezza, 233 (box)
Richardson, Jerry, 251
Richmond v. J. A. Croson Co., 66
Ridgeway v. Flagstar Corporation and Denny’s, Inc., 251
Riots, urban uprisings versus, 274–275n5
Rising, Jay C., 220
Roberge, M., 123 (table)
Roberson, L., 133 (box)
Rogers, Jim, 232
Roh, H., 120 (table)
Rom (Roma, “Gypsies”)
Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination (UN) on, 20
discrimination of, 114
stereotypes, 132, 134–135 (box)
Roman Empire, dehumanization and oppression in, 140
Rometty, Virginia, 211, 231, 233 (box)
Romney, Mitt, 211, 233 (box)
Round table, cultural symbolism of, 187 (box)
693Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), 270
Roy, Bunker, 109 (box)
Rudd, Kevin, 286
Rural poor (India), socioeconomic transitions and, 108, 109 (box)
Russian Federation
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 46
Committee on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (UN) on, 20
Saint Lucia, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 46
Saint Vincent and Grenadines, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 46
Salib, E. R., 245
Sanlam, 247
Sardar, Ziauddin, 131, 131–132 (box)
Sassen, Saskia, 94n4, 97, 102
Satisfaction outcomes, 161
Saudi Arabia
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 46
on International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (UN),
19–20
Saz-Carranza, A., 123 (table)
Scalia, Antonin, 23–24 (box)
Schedler, P. E., 119 (table)
Schippers, M., 162 (box)
Schippers, M. C., 124 (table)
Schneider, S. C., 6, 117
Scott, K. L., 162 (box)
“Second Demographic Transition,” 78–80
Self-categorization. See Social identity theory
Self-esteem. See “Sociometer model” of self-esteem
Sexual Discrimination Ordinance (Hong Kong), 32–33
Sexual Equality Employment Act (South Korea), 33
Sexual harassment legislation, 32–33, 34–35 (table), 105
Sexual orientation
global demographic trends, 92
international legislation, 27, 28 (fig.), 29–31 (table)
socioeconomic transitions and migration, 107–108, 107 (box)
stereotyping, 145n5
See also Diversity legislation
Shackelford, W. G., 123 (table)
Shang (merchants), 1–2
Shell Intensive Training Programme, 263
Shell Youth Training Academy (SYTA), 263, 265–266
694Shen, J., 123 (table)
Shepherd, D., 125
Shi (scholars), 1–2
Shiba Shinyo Kinko Bank, 26
Shore, L. M., 227, 302
Short-term orientation, long-term orientation versus, 175 (table), 178
Sia, S. K., 312
Silva, S. A., 313
Simpatia, 189, 194
Simpson, G. W., 265
Sin, H., 119 (table)
Singh, V., 116
Slovak Republic, affirmative/positive action policies, 69
Slovenia, sexual orientation legislation, 30 (table)
Smuggling, migration and, 82 (box)
Smyrnois, K., 122 (table)
Soares, R., 250
Social comparison theory
overview, 169 (table)
social identity theory and, 155–157
symbolic interaction theory and, 160–161
Social competition, 159–160
“Social creativity,” 159
Social-emotional mental models of interpersonal relationships, 196–198, 197 (fig.)
Social exclusion. See Exclusion
Social identity theory
groups, defined, 158
implications of, to diversity and exclusion, 158–160
limitations of, in understanding diversity and exclusion, 157
overview, 151–155, 153–154 (box), 156–157 (box), 169 (table)
social comparison and, 155–157
Social psychological perspectives of workforce diversity
critical race theory, 169 (table)
equity theory, 170 (table)
identity-based motivation theory, 170 (table)
interactional model of cultural diversity (IMCD), 170 (table)
intergroup contact theory, 170 (table)
intersectionality theory, 169 (table)
realistic conflict theory, 170 (table)
relative deprivation theory, 170 (table)
social comparison theory, 169 (table)
social identity theory, 169 (table)
695“sociometer model” of self-esteem, 170 (table)
symbolic interaction theory, 169 (table)
See also Communication; Culture; Exclusion; Interpersonal cross-cultural
relations; Prejudice and discrimination
Social support, exclusion and, 162 (box)
Social utility, 65
Socioeconomic transitions, 96–111
educational trends and workforce diversity, 108–110, 109 (box)
migration and gender/disability/sexual orientation implications, 107–108, 107
(box)
migration and occupational patterning, 101–103
migration of employers, 103–104 (box), 103–106, 106 (box)
migration of workers, 99–101
overview, 96–98
“Sociometer model” of self-esteem, 161–162, 170 (table)
Sodexo, 244
Sohal, A. S., 216
Soldan, Z., 312
Sotomayor, Sonia, 67 (box)
South Africa
affirmative/positive action, sanctions, 64, 65
affirmative/positive action legislation, 60 (table), 61–62
affirmative/positive action policies, 57
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 46
antidiscrimination legislation, 25
diversity management, 213
sexual orientation legislation, 30 (table)
social identity theory about, 153–154 (box)
stereotypes, 135
ubuntu, 189
workforce diversity definitions, 126
South Korea
anti-sexual harassment legislation, 33, 36 (table)
chaebol, 189, 194
interpersonal cross-cultural communication, 203 (box)
Mor Barak Inclusion-Exclusion scale (MBIE) and, 306
socioeconomic trends and occupational diversity, 101–102
Soviet Union, “space race,” 190n4
Soyode, A., 209
“Space race,” 190n4
Spain
inclusive workplace model example, 248
696sexual orientation legislation, 30 (table)
simpatia, 189, 194
Sprint-Nextel Communications, 248–249
Sri Lanka, anti-sexual harassment legislation, 36 (table)
Starbucks, 295–296
Stell v. Savannah-Chatham County Board of Education (1963), 24 (box)
Stereoscope, 153 (box)
Stereotypes
art example, 134–135 (box)
as cognitive process, 137
defined, 132
ethnicity and, 132–135
framework for viewing individuals who culture differs from one’s own, 139
(fig.)
identity-based, 130–131, 131–132 (box)
microaggression and, 136–137 (box)
prejudice compared to, 132, 137–138
research on workforce diversity and, 138–140
societal interpretation of, 135–136
stereotype threat, 5, 133–134 (box)
St. Helena (U.K.), antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 47
Stokes, A., 95
Strategic model of global diversity management (GDM), 218
Strategy for achieving organizational outcomes, 214 (table), 216, 243
Supplemental Security Income (SSI), 279
Survey scales
Mor Barak et al. Diversity Climate Scale, 309–313, 309 (fig.)
Mor Barak Inclusion-Exclusion scale (MBIE), 303–308
Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (SAI), 269–270
Svehla, T., 123 (table)
Sweatshops, 293–294
Sweden
affirmative/positive action legislation, 60 (table)
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 47
migration trends, 82–83
sexual orientation legislation, 31 (table)
Symbolic interaction theory, 160–161, 169 (table)
Symbols, communication of, 182–183
Taiwan
anti-sexual harassment legislation, 36 (table)
fa
ir trade in, 298
697sexual orientation legislation, 31 (table)
Tajfel, Henri, 152, 155, 156–157 (box), 158
Task/relationship conflict, 202–203, 203 (box). See also Interpersonal cross-cultural
relations
Taylor, Donald M., 130, 138
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), 277
Texaco, 215 (box)
Thailand
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 47
anti-sexual harassment legislation, 36 (table)
The Plan Group, 278
Theodorakopoulos, N., 124 (table)
Thomas, D. C., 188
Thomas, R. R., Jr., 124 (table), 245
Thompson, Rachel, 250
Time, 145n10
Title VII, Civil Rights Act of 1964, 27, 38, 144–145n3, 212
Tiwari, T., 89
Toly, Sherry, 104 (box)
Traidcraft, 297–298
Training
about stereotypes, 138–139
diversity issue training, overview, 114–116, 127–128 (See also Diversity
management)
education and training initiative, 243, 244
See also Inclusive workplace model
Trains, used for migration, 82 (box)
Transformational leadership (TL), 225–227, 228 (fig.)
Transgender people
gender identity diversity and demographics, 93
United States/international legislation, 32
Travis, D. J., 247, 307
Triana, M. C., 313
Trienekens, S., 116
Trinidad and Tobago, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 47
Tulgan, Bruce, 236 (box)
Tunisia, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 47
Turkey
age diversity and demographics, 90
bans on religious attire, 17 (box)
Turley, Jim, 232
Turner, John, 152, 158
698Ubuntu, 189
Uganda, stereotyping in, 145n5
Uhl-Bien, M., 236
Ukraine, antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 47
Uncertainty avoidance, 175 (table), 177–178, 181
Unilever, 289–290
Unintentional discrimination, 52
Union Carbide Corporation, 106 (box)
Uniqueness, 227
United Kingdom
age diversity and demographic trends, 87
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 47
bans on religious attire in England, 17–18 (box)
broad-based antidiscrimination legislation of, 24–25
culture and communication in, 186–187
sexual orientation legislation, 31 (table)
socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 99
United National Indian Tribal Youth, 263
United Nations
Committee on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, 20–21
Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination, 20–21
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 104, 105–106
on demographic trends, 3, 78
High Commissioner for Refugees, 84
on socioeconomic trends and migration issues, 100
See also International Labour Organization (ILO)
United States
affirmative action programs, 66, 67
affirmative/positive action legislation, 60 (table)
antidiscrimination and equal rights legislation, 48
broad-based antidiscrimination legislation of, 23, 23–24 (box)
equal pay legislation, 26–27
financial implications of discriminatory behavior in workplace, 37–38
gender identity legislation, U.S. and international, 32
H1B visas, 102
inclusion example, 8–9 (box)
migration of employers, 103–104 (box), 103–106, 106 (box)
Mor Barak Inclusion-Exclusion scale (MBIE) and, 305
sexual harassment and high-tech industry, 107–108, 107 (box)
sexual orientation legislation, 31 (table), 92
social-emotional mental models of interpersonal relationships, 197–198


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