كتاب Technical Drawing 101 with AutoCAD 2024 - A Multidisciplinary Guide to Drafting Theory and Practice
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 كتاب Technical Drawing 101 with AutoCAD 2024 - A Multidisciplinary Guide to Drafting Theory and Practice

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Technical Drawing 101 with AutoCAD 2024 - A Multidisciplinary Guide to Drafting Theory and Practice    كتاب Technical Drawing 101 with AutoCAD 2024 - A Multidisciplinary Guide to Drafting Theory and Practice  Emptyالجمعة 08 مارس 2024, 12:36 am

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Technical Drawing 101 with AutoCAD 2024 - A Multidisciplinary Guide to Drafting Theory and Practice
Douglas Smith, Antonio Ramirez, Ashleigh Congdon-Fuller
DOUGLAS SMITH
Professor
Architectural and Engineering Computer Aided Design
Austin Community College
ANTONIO RAMIREZ
Professor Emeritus
Architectural and Engineering Computer Aided Design
Austin Community College
ASHLEIGH CONGDON-FULLER
Associate Professor and Program Coordinator
Architectural and Engineering Computer Aided Design
Austin Community College  

كتاب Technical Drawing 101 with AutoCAD 2024 - A Multidisciplinary Guide to Drafting Theory and Practice  T_d_1_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :

T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S
PREFACE I
About This Book i
The Curriculum i
High School Stem and Tech Prep Programs ii
Features New to the Thirteenth Edition ii
Supplements and Online Resources for Instructors and Students ii
A Final Word iii
CHAPTER 1 - TECHNICAL DRAWING 13
Chapter Objectives: 13
1.1 The Origins of Technical Drawing 15
1.2 The Role of Technical Drawing in the Design Process 15
1.3 Training for Careers in Technical Drawing 17
Career Paths in Technical Drawing 18
Qualities That Employers Look for in Drafters 22
Salary Information for Drafters, Architects, and Engineers 23
Job Prospects for Drafters 23
Chapter Review 24
Short Answer 24
Matching 24
Multiple Choice 25
Exercises 26
Locate Bachelor Degree Programs in Architecture or Engineering 26
Locate Associate Degree Programs in CAD 26
CHAPTER 2 - MULTIVIEW DRAWING 27
Chapter Objectives: 27
2.1 The Terminology of Multiview Drawing 29
2.2 Points, Planes, Coordinate Systems, Lines, and Angles 29
Points 29
Locating Points in Two Dimensional (2D) Coordinate Systems 29
Three Dimensional (3D) Coordinate Systems 31
Lines 31
Angles 31
Vertex 32
Adjacent Angles 33
2.3 Terminology of Geometric Shapes 33
Circles 33
Tangency 34
Concentricity and Eccentricity of Circles 34
Polygons 34
Cylinders 35
2.4 Multiview Drawings 36
2.5 View Selection and Alignment of Multiview Drawings 37
2.6 Using Projection Planes to Visualize Multiviews 37
2.7 Projection Planes 39
Visualizing the Front View 39
Visualizing the Top View 40
Visualizing the Side View 41
2.8 Normal, Inclined, and Oblique Surfaces 41
Normal Surfaces 41vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Projecting Normal Surfaces to the Projection Plane 42
Inclined Surfaces 43
Projecting Inclined Surfaces to the Projection Plane 43
Oblique Surfaces 44
Projecting Oblique Surfaces to Projection Planes 45
Visualizing the True Size and Shape of an Oblique Surface 47
Labeling Points and Vertices of Features to Aid in Visualizing the Multiviews of
Objects 48
2.9 Linetypes and Lineweights in Multiview Drawings 51
2.10 Hidden Features and Centerlines in Multiview Drawings 52
2.11 Use Your Imagination! 52
2.12 Visualizing the Multiviews of Basic Geometric Shapes 57
2.13 Orthographic Projection 60
2.14 Drawing Objects to Scale 63
2.15 Drawing Architectural Plans to Scale 64
2.16 Drawing Sheet Sizes 64
2.17 Third-Angle Projection Versus First-Angle Projection 66
Chapter Review 68
Short Answer 68
Matching 68
Multiple Choice 69
Exercises 70
Directions 70
Exercise 2.1 70
Exercise 2.2 72
Exercise 2.3 74
Exercise 2.4 76
Exercise 2.5 78
Exercise 2.6 80
CHAPTER 3 - TRADITIONAL DRAFTING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 83
Chapter Objectives: 83
3.1 Traditional Drafting Tools and Techniques 85
3.2 Technical Pencils and Pens 85
3.3 Beginning a Traditional Drafting Project 86
3.4 Drafting Triangles 86
3.5 Drawing Lines with Triangles and Parallel Straightedges 87
3.6 Making Measurements with the Engineer’s, Architect’s, and Metric Scales 89
Reading the Engineer’s Scale 90
Reading the Metric Scale 90
Reading the Architect’s Scale 91
3.7 Converting Units of Measurement 92
3.8 Reading the Protractor 92
3.9 Circle Template 94
3.10 Isometric Ellipse Template 94
3.11 Spacing Views Equally on a Sheet 99
3.12 Adding Text to Drawings and Sketches 102
Developing a Technical Lettering Style 103
Chapter Review 104
Short Answer 104
Exercises 105
Technical Lettering Practice 105
Exercise 3.1 Architectural Lettering 105vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Exercise 3.2 Mechanical Lettering 105
Projects 106
Directions for Optional Projects 110
CHAPTER 4 - COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN BASICS 113
Chapter Objectives: 113
4.1 Beginning an AutoCAD Drawing 115
4.2 Adding Toolbars to the Ribbon Interface 117
4.3 Creating, Opening, and Saving AutoCAD Drawing Files 119
Beginning a New Drawing from the Application Menu 121
Opening an Existing Drawing 121
Saving a Drawing 121
Performing a Save As 121
4.4 Locating Points on the Cartesian Coordinate System 124
The User Coordinate System (UCS) Icon 125
Absolute Coordinates 125
4.5 Drawing Lines Using Absolute Coordinates 125
4.6 Drawing Horizontal and Vertical Lines 127
4.7 Drawing Lines With Relative Coordinates 128
4.8 Drawing Lines With Polar Coordinates 129
Exercise 4.1 132
4.9 Setting the Environment for AutoCAD Drawings 133
Setting Angle Type 136
Setting the Direction of Angle Measurement 136
Drawing Limits 137
Setting the Current Layer 144
Controlling Layer Visibility 144
Turning Layers Off 144
Freezing Layers 144
4.10 Zoom and Pan Commands 145
4.11 AutoCAD Commands 146
Essential Draw Commands 147
Essential Modify Commands 164
Placing and Editing Text 186
Controlling Text Style 189
4.12 Drafting Settings Dialog Box 191
Snap and Grid Tab 192
Polar Tracking Tab 194
Dynamic Input Tab 195
The Dimension Input Pane 195
The Dynamic Prompts Pane 197
Object Snap Tab 197
4.13 Object Snap Tools 198
Directions 204
4.14 Properties Command 205
4.15 Inquiry Toolbar 207
4.16 Preparing to Plot 208
Toggling Between Paper Space and Model Space 209
4.17 Plotting With AutoCAD 211
4.18 Creating a Page Setup for Plotting 213
Chapter Review 215
Short Answer 216
Matching 216
Projects 217viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 5 - DIMENSIONING MECHANICAL DRAWINGS 245
Chapter Objectives: 245
5.1 Dimensioning Fundamentals 247
Dimensioning Terminology 248
Guidelines for Dimension Placement 249
5.2 Dimension Standards for Mechanical Drawings 249
Recommended Size and Spacing of Dimension Features 250
Text Height and Style 251
Alignment of Dimension Text 252
Notating Holes and Arcs 252
Dimensioning Cylindrical Shapes 253
Dimensioning Angles 253
Ordinate Dimensioning 253
Notes for Drilling and Machining Operations 254
5.3 Do’s and Don’ts of Mechanical Dimensioning (ASME Y14.5) 256
5.4 Role of Drafters in the Preparation of Dimensioned Mechanical Drawings 257
5.5 Checking Dimensions on the Finished Drawing 257
5.6 Design Basics: How Designers Calculate Dimensions 258
5.7 Tolerances 259
Displaying Tolerances on Mechanical Drawings 259
Interpreting Tolerances on Technical Drawings 260
Comparison of Continuous Dimensioning and Baseline Dimensioning 262
Tolerancing Terminology 263
Interpreting Design Sketch 1 264
Analyzing Design Sketch 1 264
Calculating Maximum Material Condition (MMC) for Design Sketch 1 264
Calculating Least Material Condition (LMC) for Design Sketch 1 264
Interpreting Design Sketch 2 264
Analyzing Design Sketch 2 265
Calculating Maximum Material Condition (MMC) for the Hole in Design Sketch 2 265
Calculating Least Material Condition (LMC) for the Hole in Design Sketch 2 265
Calculating the Fit between the Parts in Design Sketches 1 and 2 266
Best-Case Scenario for Assembly 266
Worst-Case Scenario for Assembly 266
Reference Dimensions 266
Confirming the Tolerances of Manufactured Parts 267
Tolerance Costs 268
5.8 Dimensioning With AutoCAD 268
5.9 Defining Dimension Settings With the Dimension Style Manager 281
Tabs of the New Dimension Style Dialog Box 284
Lines Tab 284
Symbols and Arrows Tab 285
Text Tab 286
Fit Tab 287
Primary Units Tab 288
Alternate Units Tab 288
Tolerances Tab 288
5.10 Overriding A Dimension Setting 290
Updating a Dimension 291
5.11 Adding a Leader to a Drawing 291
Chapter Review 294
Projects 296ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 6 - DIMENSIONING ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS 305
Chapter Objectives: 305
6.1 Dimensioning Architectural Drawings 307
6.2 Determining Dimensions on Architectural Drawings 307
6.3 Architectural Drafting Conventions 308
6.4 Alignment of Dimension Text 309
6.5 Architectural Dimensioning Guidelines 309
6.6 Architectural Dimension Spacing 310
6.7 Adding a Leader to a Drawing 310
Chapter Review 312
Projects 313
CHAPTER 7 - ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS 317
Chapter Objectives: 317
7.1 Orientation of Lines in Isometric Drawings 319
7.2 Orientation of Ellipses in Isometric Drawings 319
7.3 Creating Isometric Drawings With AutoCAD 322
Chapter Review 328
Projects 330
CHAPTER 8 - SECTIONS 339
Chapter Objectives: 339
8.1 Sections in Mechanical Drawings 341
8.2 Sections in Architectural Drawings 342
8.3 Sections in Civil Drawings 342
8.4 Types of Sections 343
Half Sections 344
Broken-Out Sections 346
Revolved Sections 347
Removed Sections 347
Offset Sections 348
The Boundaries Panel 350
The Pattern Panel 351
The Properties Panel 351
Chapter Review 353
Projects 355
Interpreting the Counterbored Hole Note 358
Interpreting a Countersunk Hole Note 361
Steps in Constructing a Countersunk Hole 361
CHAPTER 9 - BLOCKS 365
Chapter Objectives: 365
9.1 Considerations for Creating Blocks 367
Chapter Review 373
Projects 375
CHAPTER 10 - 3D MODELING BASICS 387
Chapter Objectives: 387
10.1 2D Versus 3D 389
10.2 Changing the Point of View of an AutoCAD Drawing 390x
TABLE OF CONTENTS
10.3 AutoCAD’s 3D Modeling Environment 391
10.4 3D Modeling Tools 393
Extruding 2D Entities to Create 3D Objects 393
Using the EXTRUDE Command 394
Using the REGION Command 394
Using the PRESSPULL Command 394
Unioning 3D Objects 395
Using the UNION Command 395
Subtracting 3D Objects 395
Using the SUBTRACT Command 395
10.5 Rotating 3D Objects 396
10.6 Viewing 3D Objects 396
Using the Free Orbit Tool 396
10.7 Representing 3D Objects as Shaded or Wireframe Models 397
Chapter Review 398
Projects 399
CAPSTONE PROJECT 1 - MECHANICAL WORKING DRAWINGS 417
Project Objectives: 417
CP1.1 Preparing Mechanical Working Drawings 419
Assembly Drawings 419
Detail Drawings 423
Project Review 425
Threads and Fasteners in Mechanical Working Drawings 426
Representing External Screw Threads on Mechanical Drawings 427
Representing Internal Screw Threads on Mechanical Drawings 427
Projects 428
CAPSTONE PROJECT 2 - ARCHITECTURAL WORKING DRAWINGS
Project Objectives: 447
CP2.1 Floor Plans 449
CP2.2 Electrical Plans 450
CP2.3 Elevations 451
Creating Elevations Using Multiview Drawing Techniques 451
Architectural Wall Sections 452
Roof Profiles on Architectural Elevations 452
Using the Floor Plan to Locate Features on Elevations 453
Project Review 454
Projects 455
Relating the Features on the Floor Plan to the Cabin’s Elevation Views 477
Wall Framing 101 478
Constructing the Right-Side Elevation 480
Constructing the Front Elevation 484
APPENDIX A 489
ANSI/ASME Standards 489
APPENDIX B 491
ISO Standards 491
447xi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
APPENDIX C
The United States National CAD Standard
Benefits to Clients and Owners
Benefits to Design Professionals
Benefits to Contractors and Subcontractors
Industry-Wide Benefits for NCS Adoption
APPENDIX D
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Basics
Interpreting the Feature Control Frame
Geometric Characteristic Symbols
Interpreting GDT on a Drawing
Interpreting Parallelism
Adding GDT to an AutoCAD Drawing
Adding a Datum Feature Symbol
Learning to Apply GDT to Drawings
APPENDIX E 501
E.1 Visualizing an Auxiliary View 502
E.2 Constructing an Auxiliary View with the Offset Command 511
Appendix Review 516
Projects 518
GLOSSARY
INDEX Page numbers followed by ‡ indicate a table.
527
Symbols
3D Object, defined 28
3DROTATE command 396
AAb
solute coordinates 125
defined 29, 125, 519
drawing a line with 125–126
Adding the menu bar to 118
ADD SELECTED command 163
Alias. SeeCommandalias
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
249–250, 489
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Dimensioning and Tolerancing 249, 497
standards 51, 64, 249–253, 489
Angle(s)
acute 32
adjacent 33
AutoCAD measurement of 129–130
complementary 32
dimensioning 253
in isometric drawings 321–322, 324
obtuse 32
opposite 33
reading the protractor 92, 94
right 32
setting the direction of measurement 136
supplementary 33
Annotate tab, on the ribbon 268, 281
ARC command 153
Architect’s scale 91–92
Architectural drawing limits 138‡
Architectural drawings 305–311
dimensioning 307–311
scales 64
, 91–92
Architectural drawing units 134
Architectural fonts 308
Architectural working drawings
electrical plans 450
elevations 451
floor plans 449
sections 452
ARC LENGTH command 271
Arcs
dimensioning 252
in isometric drawings 326–327
AREA tool, Inquiry toolbar 207
ARRAY command 169–173
polar 170–173
rectangular 169–170
ASME Y14.5-2009 Dimensioning and Tolerancing
249–255
Assembly drawings 419–422
creating exploded 420
parts list 419
title block 17
, 419
AutoCAD® 114
Create page 115
drawing with 115
Learn page 115
plotting with 211–212
ribbon interface 116–117
toolbars 117–118
Auxiliary views 501–515
Axes
in Cartesian coordinate system 30, 124–125,
520
in isometric drawings 319
X 29
, 389–390
Y 29
, 389–390
Z 31, 389–390
BBi
ll of materials (BOM) 419
BLOCK command 159
Block(s) 159
base point for 367
Blocks Palette 369–370
considerations for 367
creating 368
defined 366
editing 371–372
inserting, placing 159, 369–370
insertion point for 367
BREAK AT POINT COMMAND 180
BREAK COMMAND 181
Building Information Modeling (BIM) 307
CCA
D systems 114. SeealsoAutoCAD®
Careers in technical drawing 17–23
Cartesian coordinate system 124
absolute coordinates 29
, 125
polar coordinates 129–131
relative coordinates 128–129
Center axis 35
CHAMFER COMMAND 183
CIRCLE command 154
Coaxial 35
Coincident 30
Collinear 31
Command alias 119
, 144
Computer-aided design (CAD) 15, 519. See
alsoAutoCAD®
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) 254, 520
Concentric 34
CONSTRUCTION LINE command 149
Coordinates 29
I N D E X528
Page numbers followed by ‡ indicate a table.
INDEX
absolute 29, 125
Cartesian 29
, 30, 124
polar 129–131
relative 128–129
Coplanar 30
COPY command 166
Counterbored holes, dimensioning for 254–255
Countersunk holes, dimensioning for 254–255
Cylinders 35
D Da
tum
defined 247, 263
DesignCenter 460–461
Design process
phases of 15
role of technical drawing in 15
Detail drawings 423–425
example of 423
DIAMETER DIMENSION command 273
Diameter symbol 253, 256, 360, 363
Dimensioning, architectural drawings 307–311
adding a leader 310–311
aligned text for 309
determining 307
drafting conventions 308
elevations 308
floor plans 308
guidelines 309
spacing 309
standards for 307–308
walls and partitions 308
windows and doors 308
Dimensioning, mechanical drawings 245–293
angles 253
arcs 252
baseline 261–263, 275
checking 257–258
continuous 260–262, 275
counterbored holes 254–255
countersunk holes 254–255
cylinders 253
dimension lines 248
extension lines 248
holes 252
ordinate 253–254
spacing 250–251
terminology 248
Dimension standards
alignment of text (architectural) 309
drilling and machining operations 254–255
fo
r angles 253
fo
r architectural drawings 307–310
fo
r cylinders 253
fo
r holes and arcs 252
fo
r mechanical drawings 249–257
ordinate 253–254
size and spacing 250–251
text height and style 251
Dimension style, creating new 281–290
New Dimension Style tabs 284–290
Alternate Units 288–289
Fit 287
Lines 284
Primary Units 288
Symbols and Arrows 285
Text 286
Tolerances 288–289
Dimension Style Manager 280–282
Dimension text
aligned 252
alignment of 252
architectural 308–309
editing 279
height and style 251
mechanical 251–252
unidirectional 252
Dimension toolbar 268–280
ALIGNED DIMENSION command 271
ANGULAR DIMENSION command 274
ARC LENGTH command 271
BASELINE DIMENSION command 275
CENTER MARK command 277
CONTINUE DIMENSION command
275
DIAMETER DIMENSION command 273
DIMENSION BREAK command 276
DIMENSION EDIT command 279
DIMENSION SPACE command 276
DIMENSION STYLE command 280
DIMENSION TEXT EDIT command 279
DIMENSION UPDATE command 280
INSPECTION command 278
JOGGED DIMENSION command 273
JOGGED LINEAR command 278
LINEAR DIMENSION command 270
ORDINATE DIMENSION command 272
QUICK DIMENSION command 274
RADIUS DIMENSION command 272
TOLERANCE command 277
DIMSTYLE command 281
DISTANCE command 207
Drafting Settings 191–197. See also Snap and Grid Tab
Drawing limits 137–138
defined 137
fo
r architectural units 138‡
fo
r decimal and metric units 138‡
Drawing Scale Factor (DSF) 316, 474
Drawing sheets, sizes for 64–65
Drawing units 133–137
architectural 134Page numbers followed by ‡ indicate a table.
529
INDEX
decimal 133
defined 133
dialog box 133
engineering 135
Draw toolbar 147–163
ADD SELECTED command 163
ARC command 153
BLOCK command 159
CIRCLE command 154
CONSTRUCTION LINE command 149
ELLIPSE command 157
ELLIPTICAL ARC command 158
GRADIENT command 161
HATCH command 161
INSERT BLOCK command 159
LINE command 148
MTEXT command 163
POINT command 160
POLYGON command 151
POLYLINE command 150
RECTANGLE command 152
REGION command 159
REVISION CLOUD command 155
SPLINE command 156
TABLE command 162
Dynamic Input 122–123, 126
Dynamic Input tab 195–197
E Ec
centric 34
Editing Blocks 371–372
Editing text 186
multiline text 187
single-line text 188
Electrical plans 450
Electrical symbols 450
Elevations 37, 451
defined 451
wall sections 452
ELLIPSE command 157
ELLIPTICAL ARC command 158
Engineer’s scale 90
ERASE command 165
EXPLODE COMMAND 185
Exploded assembly drawings 419–420
creating 420–422
EXTEND COMMAND 179
EXTRUDE command 394
F FE
A.
See Finite element analysis (FEA)
Fillet
defined 184
in isometric drawings 326–327
FILLET COMMAND 184
Finite element analysis (FEA) 388
First-angle projection 66–67
Fit tab, in New Dimension Style dialog box 287
Floor plans 449
creating elevations from 453–454
dimensioning 307–311
Foreshortening 37
FREE ORBIT tool 396
Full scale 63
Full sections 343
Function keys 197
G GD
T symbols 255, 497
General tolerances 260
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)
496–499
adding datum feature symbol 496
adding to a CAD drawing 498
defined 268
fe
ature control frame 496
fo
nt 254–255
interpreting 497–498
parallelism 497–498
and production costs 268
symbols 255, 497
Geometric Tolerance dialog box 498–499
GRADIENT command 161
graphic primitives 522
Graphic primitives 57–59
box 57
cone 59
cylinder 57–58
defined 57
prism 59
sphere 59
stadium 58
wedge 59
Grid snap 193
Grid spacing 192
H Ha
lf scale 63
Half sections 344
HATCH command 161, 350–352
Boundaries panel 350
Pattern panel 351
Properties panel 351
Hatch patterns
angle of 351
scale of 351
Help system 116
Hidden lines 51–53
Holes, dimensioning 252
counterbore 254–255530
Page numbers followed by ‡ indicate a table.
INDEX
countersunk 254–255
I Id
eation, in design process 15, 418
Inches
decimal 90
, 92, 93‡
fractional 91, 92, 93‡
Inquiry toolbar 207
INSERT BLOCK command 159
Insertion point, for blocks 367
Insert tab, on the ribbon 369
INSPECTION command 278
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
250, 491
Interview questions, typical 22
Isocircles 325–326
Isometric angles 324
Isometric cylinders 326
Isometric drawing 318–327
creating in AutoCAD 322
ellipses orientation 319
setting Isometric snap 322–323
J JO
GGED DIMENSION command 273
JOIN COMMAND 182
L Lay
er Properties Manager 139–143
Layers 138–144
controlling visibility of 144
creating new 139
freezing 144
setting color of 140
setting current 144
setting linetype of 141–142
setting lineweight of 143
turning off 144
Leaders
components of 291
defined 248
fo
r architectural drawings 310–311
fo
r mechanical drawings 248, 292
using Multileader command 293
using Quick Leader command 292
Lead hardness grade, pencil 86
Least material condition (LMC) 263–266
Lettering
architectural style 102
engineering style 102
Limits
architectural units 134
, 138‡
decimal and metric units 133, 138‡
engineering units 135
of a feature 263
tolerances 259–263
LINEAR DIMENSION command 270
LINE command 148
Line(s)
centerlines 51–53
dimension 52
dimension line 52
drawing 123–132
extension 52, 248, 249
hidden 51–53
leader 52
Linetype(s) 51–52
load or reload 142
Lineweight 51, 52‡
miter 60
section 340, 341
standards for 51–52, 52‡
types of 51–52
visible 51–52
with absolute coordinates 126
with direct entry method 127
with polar coordinates 129–130
with relative coordinates 128–129
LIST tool, on Inquiry toolbar 207
LMC
. See Least material condition (LMC)
LOCATE POINT tool, Inquiry toolbar 207
LTSCALE command 143
M Ma
chining operations, dimensioning for 254–255
Manufacturing
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) 254
Maximum material condition (MMC) 263–266
Measurement units 89–92
Architect’s scale 91–92
, 93‡
converting between 92, 93‡
Engineer’s scale 90, 93‡
Metric scale 90, 93‡
Mechanical drawings
dimensions for 246–258
drafter’s role in preparation 257–258
sheet sizes for 64
Mechanical drawing units 133
Mechanical working drawings
assembly 419
detail 419
, 423
Menu bar 117–118
MENUBAR command 118
MIRROR command 167
MIRRTEXT command 167
Miter line 60
MLEADER command 293, 311
MMC
. See Maximum material condition (MMC)
Modeling toolbar 393Pagenumbers followedby ‡ indicate a table.
531
INDEX
3DROTATE command 393, 396
EXTRUDE command 393, 394
PRESSPULLcommand 393, 394
REGION command 394
REVOLVE command 393, 411
SUBTRACT command 393, 395
UNION command 393, 395
Modifytoolbar 164–185
ARRAYcommand 169–173
BREAKAT POINT command 180
BREAKcommand 181
CHAMFER command 183
COPY command 166
ERASEcommand 165
EXPLODE command 185
EXTEND command 179
FILLET command 184
JOIN command 182
MIRROR command 167
MOVE command 174
OFFSET command 168
ROTATE command 175
SCALEcommand 176
STRETCH command 177
TRIM command 178
MOVE command 174
MTEXT command 163
Multileadercommand, using 293, 311
Multiline Text 163, 186–187
Multiviewdrawings 28–67
by using projection planes 37–47
defined 28
drawingobjects to scale 63
first-angleprojection 66–67
hidden features 52–53
linetypes 51–52
lineweights 51, 52‡
orthographic projection 60–62
regularviews 36
sheetsizes 64–65
third-angleprojection 66–67
traditional drafting of, 96–99
viewselectionand alignment 37
visualizingbasicgeometricshapes 57–59
NNC
S. SeeUnitedStatesNationalCAD Standard(NCS)
nominal size 523
Nominal size 259
defined 263
OOb
jects
2D 28
3D 28
drawing to scale 63
Object Snap Toolbar 198–204
SNAP FROM Osnap 202
SNAPTO CENTER 201
SNAPTO ENDPOINT 199
SNAPTO EXTENSION 201
SNAPTO INSERT 203
SNAPTO INTERSECTION 200
SNAPTO MIDPOINT 199
SNAPTO NEAREST 203
SNAPTO NODE 203
SNAPTO PARALLEL 201
SNAPTO PERPENDICULAR 200
SNAPTO TANGENT 200
TEMPORARYTRACK POINT Osnap
202
OFFSET command 168
Offset sections 348
OOPS command 165
Orbit toolbar 396
ORDINATE DIMENSION command 272
Ordinate dimensioning 253–254
Orthographic projection 60
to create multiviewdrawings 61–62
ORTHO (Mode) function key 197
PPa
ge Setup for Plotting 213–215
Page Setup Manager 213–215
PAN command 145
Parametricmodeling 388
Parts list 419–422
Pencils 85
lead hardnessgrades 86
technical 85–86
Perspectivedrawings 318
Pictorialdrawings 318
Planar 29
Plane(s)
cutting 340, 341
inclined 43
in isometricdrawings 319, 321–322
normal 41
oblique 44
projection. SeeProjectionplane(s):defined
visualizedrawingsby using 37–51
PLINE command. SeePOLYLINE command
PLOT command 211
Plotting 208–215
Output tab 211
page setup 213–215
paper size 212
plot area (What to plot) 212
plot scale 212
Fit to paper 212532
Page numbers followed by ‡ indicate a table.
INDEX
Plot style table 212
Plus-minus tolerance 259
POINT command 160
Polar angle measurement 194
Polar coordinates 129–131
defined 129
drawing lines with 131
Polar tracking
defined 194
POLYGON command 151
Polygons 34–35
POLYLINE command 150
PRESSPULL command 394
projection planes 524
Projection plane(s) 37–47
defined 37
Frontal 37, 39
Horizontal 37, 42
Profile 37, 41
PROPERTIES command 205–206
Protractor 92
, 94
Q QL
EADER command
. See QUICK LEADER command
QUICK DIMENSION command 274
QUICK LEADER command 292, 310
R RA
DIUS DIMENSION command 272
RECTANGLE command 152
Rectangular snap 193
Reference dimension 266–267
defined 263
REGION command 159
Region/Mass Properties tool, Inquiry Toolbar 207
Relative coordinates 128–129
defined 128
drawing lines with 129
REVCLOUD command 155
REVISION CLOUD command 155
Revision history block 419
Ribbon 116–117
accessing help tools from 116
adding toolbars to 117–118
Annotate tab 268
Home tab 116
Insert tab 369
Output tab 211
ROTATE command 175
Rotating, 3D Objects 396
S Sc
ale
Architect’s 91–92
, 93‡
drawing architectural plans to 64
drawing objects to 63
Engineer’s 90, 93‡
Metric 90
, 93‡
SCALE command 176
Sections
broken-out 346
defined 340
fu
ll 343
half 344–345
HATCH command for 350–352
in architectural drawings 342
in mechanical drawings 341
offset 348
removed 347
revolved 347
wall 452
Sheet sizes
ASME Y14.1-2012 standard for, 64, 138‡
ASME Y14.1M-2012 standard for, 64, 138‡
fo
r architectural units 138‡
fo
r decimal and metric units, 138‡
Snap
defined 193
Isometric 193
, 323
Snap and Grid Tab 192. See also Drafting Settings
Snap Spacing 192
SPLINE command 156
Spline leader 310. See also QUICK LEADER command
Status Bar 122–123
STRETCH COMMAND 177
SUBTRACT command 395
Symbols
electrical 450
fo
r counterbored holes 254–255
fo
r countersunk holes 254–255
fo
r projection techniques 67
GDT 254–255, 497
Symbols and Arrows tab, in New Dimension Style
dialog box 285
T TA
BLE command 162
Tangent 34
Technical drawing
defined 14
origins of 15
Technical lettering 102
Text 186–190
aligned 252
Controlling Text Style 189–190
DTEXT command 188
editing 186–188
height and style 251
mechanical 252Page numbers followed by ‡ indicate a table.
533
INDEX
MTEXT command 186
size and spacing, architectural 309
Standard style 189–190
unidirectional 252
Text alignment
aligned 252
unidirectional 252
Text Editor
editing hole note 255
editing multiline text 187
editing single-line text 188
Text Style
changing 189–190
dialog box 189–190
icon 189
Text tab, in New Dimension Style dialog box 286
Third-angle projection 66–67
Tick marks 308
Title block
defined 17
fo
r assembly drawings 419
Tolerances 259–268
allowance 263
datum 263
defined 259
displaying 259–260
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
(GD&T) 496–499
least material condition (LMC) 263
maximum material condition (MMC) 263
reference dimension 263, 266–267
terminology for 263
Toolbar menu 118
Toolbar(s)
adding to ribbon interface 117
Dimension 268
Draw 147
Inquiry 207
Modeling 393
Modify 164
Object Snap 198
Orbit 396
Tooltip 197
Traditional drafting tools 85–95
circle template 94–95
defined 84
drafting machines 85
drawing table 85
isometric ellipse template 94–95
parallel straightedge 85, 86–89
pencils 85–86
protractor 92, 94
triangles 86–89
TRIM COMMAND 178
True shape 41, 47
True size 41
, 47
U UC
SICON command 125
UNION command 395
Unioning, 3D objects 395
United States National CAD Standard (NCS) 307,
493–494
units, drawing 133–137
architectural 134
decimal 133
defined 133
dialog box 133–136
engineering 135
User Coordinate System (UCS) 125
3D 389
defined 125
icon 125
V Ve
llum 64
Vertex 32
ViewCube 116, 391
Viewing planes, visualizing drawings by using 37–47
Views
auxiliary 47, 501–515
regular 36
sections. See Sections
Visible lines 51–52
Visual Styles 397
VOLUME tool, Inquiry toolbar 207
W Wa
lls, dimensioning 308
Windows, dimensioning 308
Wireframe 3D models 397
Working drawings
defined 419
Workspace
fo
r 3D modeling 391–392
X Xaxis 30
X-coordinate 30, 389
Y Yaxis 30
Y-coordinate 30
, 389
Z Zaxis 31
Z-coordinate 389
ZOOM command 145Page numbers followed by ‡ indicate a table.
527
Symbols
3D Object, defined 28
3DROTATE command 396
AAb
solute coordinates 125
defined 29, 125, 519
drawing a line with 125–126
Adding the menu bar to 118
ADD SELECTED command 163
Alias. SeeCommandalias
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
249–250, 489
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Dimensioning and Tolerancing 249, 497
standards 51, 64, 249–253, 489
Angle(s)
acute 32
adjacent 33
AutoCAD measurement of 129–130
complementary 32
dimensioning 253
in isometric drawings 321–322, 324
obtuse 32
opposite 33
reading the protractor 92, 94
right 32
setting the direction of measurement 136
supplementary 33
Annotate tab, on the ribbon 268, 281
ARC command 153
Architect’s scale 91–92
Architectural drawing limits 138‡
Architectural drawings 305–311
dimensioning 307–311
scales 64
, 91–92
Architectural drawing units 134
Architectural fonts 308
Architectural working drawings
electrical plans 450
elevations 451
floor plans 449
sections 452
ARC LENGTH command 271
Arcs
dimensioning 252
in isometric drawings 326–327
AREA tool, Inquiry toolbar 207
ARRAY command 169–173
polar 170–173
rectangular 169–170
ASME Y14.5-2009 Dimensioning and Tolerancing
249–255
Assembly drawings 419–422
creating exploded 420
parts list 419
title block 17
, 419
AutoCAD® 114
Create page 115
drawing with 115
Learn page 115
plotting with 211–212
ribbon interface 116–117
toolbars 117–118
Auxiliary views 501–515
Axes
in Cartesian coordinate system 30, 124–125,
520
in isometric drawings 319
X 29
, 389–390
Y 29
, 389–390
Z 31, 389–390
BBi
ll of materials (BOM) 419
BLOCK command 159
Block(s) 159
base point for 367
Blocks Palette 369–370
considerations for 367
creating 368
defined 366
editing 371–372
inserting, placing 159, 369–370
insertion point for 367
BREAK AT POINT COMMAND 180
BREAK COMMAND 181
Building Information Modeling (BIM) 307
CCA
D systems 114. SeealsoAutoCAD®
Careers in technical drawing 17–23
Cartesian coordinate system 124
absolute coordinates 29
, 125
polar coordinates 129–131
relative coordinates 128–129
Center axis 35
CHAMFER COMMAND 183
CIRCLE command 154
Coaxial 35
Coincident 30
Collinear 31
Command alias 119
, 144
Computer-aided design (CAD) 15, 519. See
alsoAutoCAD®
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) 254, 520
Concentric 34
CONSTRUCTION LINE command 149
Coordinates 29
I N D E X528
Page numbers followed by ‡ indicate a table.
INDEX
absolute 29, 125
Cartesian 29
, 30, 124
polar 129–131
relative 128–129
Coplanar 30
COPY command 166
Counterbored holes, dimensioning for 254–255
Countersunk holes, dimensioning for 254–255
Cylinders 35
D Da
tum
defined 247, 263
DesignCenter 460–461
Design process
phases of 15
role of technical drawing in 15
Detail drawings 423–425
example of 423
DIAMETER DIMENSION command 273
Diameter symbol 253, 256, 360, 363
Dimensioning, architectural drawings 307–311
adding a leader 310–311
aligned text for 309
determining 307
drafting conventions 308
elevations 308
floor plans 308
guidelines 309
spacing 309
standards for 307–308
walls and partitions 308
windows and doors 308
Dimensioning, mechanical drawings 245–293
angles 253
arcs 252
baseline 261–263, 275
checking 257–258
continuous 260–262, 275
counterbored holes 254–255
countersunk holes 254–255
cylinders 253
dimension lines 248
extension lines 248
holes 252
ordinate 253–254
spacing 250–251
terminology 248
Dimension standards
alignment of text (architectural) 309
drilling and machining operations 254–255
fo
r angles 253
fo
r architectural drawings 307–310
fo
r cylinders 253
fo
r holes and arcs 252
fo
r mechanical drawings 249–257
ordinate 253–254
size and spacing 250–251
text height and style 251
Dimension style, creating new 281–290
New Dimension Style tabs 284–290
Alternate Units 288–289
Fit 287
Lines 284
Primary Units 288
Symbols and Arrows 285
Text 286
Tolerances 288–289
Dimension Style Manager 280–282
Dimension text
aligned 252
alignment of 252
architectural 308–309
editing 279
height and style 251
mechanical 251–252
unidirectional 252
Dimension toolbar 268–280
ALIGNED DIMENSION command 271
ANGULAR DIMENSION command 274
ARC LENGTH command 271
BASELINE DIMENSION command 275
CENTER MARK command 277
CONTINUE DIMENSION command
275
DIAMETER DIMENSION command 273
DIMENSION BREAK command 276
DIMENSION EDIT command 279
DIMENSION SPACE command 276
DIMENSION STYLE command 280
DIMENSION TEXT EDIT command 279
DIMENSION UPDATE command 280
INSPECTION command 278
JOGGED DIMENSION command 273
JOGGED LINEAR command 278
LINEAR DIMENSION command 270
ORDINATE DIMENSION command 272
QUICK DIMENSION command 274
RADIUS DIMENSION command 272
TOLERANCE command 277
DIMSTYLE command 281
DISTANCE command 207
Drafting Settings 191–197. See also Snap and Grid Tab
Drawing limits 137–138
defined 137
fo
r architectural units 138‡
fo
r decimal and metric units 138‡
Drawing Scale Factor (DSF) 316, 474
Drawing sheets, sizes for 64–65
Drawing units 133–137
architectural 134Page numbers followed by ‡ indicate a table.
529
INDEX
decimal 133
defined 133
dialog box 133
engineering 135
Draw toolbar 147–163
ADD SELECTED command 163
ARC command 153
BLOCK command 159
CIRCLE command 154
CONSTRUCTION LINE command 149
ELLIPSE command 157
ELLIPTICAL ARC command 158
GRADIENT command 161
HATCH command 161
INSERT BLOCK command 159
LINE command 148
MTEXT command 163
POINT command 160
POLYGON command 151
POLYLINE command 150
RECTANGLE command 152
REGION command 159
REVISION CLOUD command 155
SPLINE command 156
TABLE command 162
Dynamic Input 122–123, 126
Dynamic Input tab 195–197
E Ec
centric 34
Editing Blocks 371–372
Editing text 186
multiline text 187
single-line text 188
Electrical plans 450
Electrical symbols 450
Elevations 37, 451
defined 451
wall sections 452
ELLIPSE command 157
ELLIPTICAL ARC command 158
Engineer’s scale 90
ERASE command 165
EXPLODE COMMAND 185
Exploded assembly drawings 419–420
creating 420–422
EXTEND COMMAND 179
EXTRUDE command 394
F FE
A.
See Finite element analysis (FEA)
Fillet
defined 184
in isometric drawings 326–327
FILLET COMMAND 184
Finite element analysis (FEA) 388
First-angle projection 66–67
Fit tab, in New Dimension Style dialog box 287
Floor plans 449
creating elevations from 453–454
dimensioning 307–311
Foreshortening 37
FREE ORBIT tool 396
Full scale 63
Full sections 343
Function keys 197
G GD
T symbols 255, 497
General tolerances 260
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)
496–499
adding datum feature symbol 496
adding to a CAD drawing 498
defined 268
fe
ature control frame 496
fo
nt 254–255
interpreting 497–498
parallelism 497–498
and production costs 268
symbols 255, 497
Geometric Tolerance dialog box 498–499
GRADIENT command 161
graphic primitives 522
Graphic primitives 57–59
box 57
cone 59
cylinder 57–58
defined 57
prism 59
sphere 59
stadium 58
wedge 59
Grid snap 193
Grid spacing 192
H Ha
lf scale 63
Half sections 344
HATCH command 161, 350–352
Boundaries panel 350
Pattern panel 351
Properties panel 351
Hatch patterns
angle of 351
scale of 351
Help system 116
Hidden lines 51–53
Holes, dimensioning 252
counterbore 254–255530
Page numbers followed by ‡ indicate a table.
INDEX
countersunk 254–255
I Id
eation, in design process 15, 418
Inches
decimal 90
, 92, 93‡
fractional 91, 92, 93‡
Inquiry toolbar 207
INSERT BLOCK command 159
Insertion point, for blocks 367
Insert tab, on the ribbon 369
INSPECTION command 278
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
250, 491
Interview questions, typical 22
Isocircles 325–326
Isometric angles 324
Isometric cylinders 326
Isometric drawing 318–327
creating in AutoCAD 322
ellipses orientation 319
setting Isometric snap 322–323
J JO
GGED DIMENSION command 273
JOIN COMMAND 182
L Lay
er Properties Manager 139–143
Layers 138–144
controlling visibility of 144
creating new 139
freezing 144
setting color of 140
setting current 144
setting linetype of 141–142
setting lineweight of 143
turning off 144
Leaders
components of 291
defined 248
fo
r architectural drawings 310–311
fo
r mechanical drawings 248, 292
using Multileader command 293
using Quick Leader command 292
Lead hardness grade, pencil 86
Least material condition (LMC) 263–266
Lettering
architectural style 102
engineering style 102
Limits
architectural units 134
, 138‡
decimal and metric units 133, 138‡
engineering units 135
of a feature 263
tolerances 259–263
LINEAR DIMENSION command 270
LINE command 148
Line(s)
centerlines 51–53
dimension 52
dimension line 52
drawing 123–132
extension 52, 248, 249
hidden 51–53
leader 52
Linetype(s) 51–52
load or reload 142
Lineweight 51, 52‡
miter 60
section 340, 341
standards for 51–52, 52‡
types of 51–52
visible 51–52
with absolute coordinates 126
with direct entry method 127
with polar coordinates 129–130
with relative coordinates 128–129
LIST tool, on Inquiry toolbar 207
LMC
. See Least material condition (LMC)
LOCATE POINT tool, Inquiry toolbar 207
LTSCALE command 143
M Ma
chining operations, dimensioning for 254–255
Manufacturing
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) 254
Maximum material condition (MMC) 263–266
Measurement units 89–92
Architect’s scale 91–92
, 93‡
converting between 92, 93‡
Engineer’s scale 90, 93‡
Metric scale 90, 93‡
Mechanical drawings
dimensions for 246–258
drafter’s role in preparation 257–258
sheet sizes for 64
Mechanical drawing units 133
Mechanical working drawings
assembly 419
detail 419
, 423
Menu bar 117–118
MENUBAR command 118
MIRROR command 167
MIRRTEXT command 167
Miter line 60
MLEADER command 293, 311
MMC
. See Maximum material condition (MMC)
Modeling toolbar 393Pagenumbers followedby ‡ indicate a table.
531
INDEX
3DROTATE command 393, 396
EXTRUDE command 393, 394
PRESSPULLcommand 393, 394
REGION command 394
REVOLVE command 393, 411
SUBTRACT command 393, 395
UNION command 393, 395
Modifytoolbar 164–185
ARRAYcommand 169–173
BREAKAT POINT command 180
BREAKcommand 181
CHAMFER command 183
COPY command 166
ERASEcommand 165
EXPLODE command 185
EXTEND command 179
FILLET command 184
JOIN command 182
MIRROR command 167
MOVE command 174
OFFSET command 168
ROTATE command 175
SCALEcommand 176
STRETCH command 177
TRIM command 178
MOVE command 174
MTEXT command 163
Multileadercommand, using 293, 311
Multiline Text 163, 186–187
Multiviewdrawings 28–67
by using projection planes 37–47
defined 28
drawingobjects to scale 63
first-angleprojection 66–67
hidden features 52–53
linetypes 51–52
lineweights 51, 52‡
orthographic projection 60–62
regularviews 36
sheetsizes 64–65
third-angleprojection 66–67
traditional drafting of, 96–99
viewselectionand alignment 37
visualizingbasicgeometricshapes 57–59
NNC
S. SeeUnitedStatesNationalCAD Standard(NCS)
nominal size 523
Nominal size 259
defined 263
OOb
jects
2D 28
3D 28
drawing to scale 63
Object Snap Toolbar 198–204
SNAP FROM Osnap 202
SNAPTO CENTER 201
SNAPTO ENDPOINT 199
SNAPTO EXTENSION 201
SNAPTO INSERT 203
SNAPTO INTERSECTION 200
SNAPTO MIDPOINT 199
SNAPTO NEAREST 203
SNAPTO NODE 203
SNAPTO PARALLEL 201
SNAPTO PERPENDICULAR 200
SNAPTO TANGENT 200
TEMPORARYTRACK POINT Osnap
202
OFFSET command 168
Offset sections 348
OOPS command 165
Orbit toolbar 396
ORDINATE DIMENSION command 272
Ordinate dimensioning 253–254
Orthographic projection 60
to create multiviewdrawings 61–62
ORTHO (Mode) function key 197
PPa
ge Setup for Plotting 213–215
Page Setup Manager 213–215
PAN command 145
Parametricmodeling 388
Parts list 419–422
Pencils 85
lead hardnessgrades 86
technical 85–86
Perspectivedrawings 318
Pictorialdrawings 318
Planar 29
Plane(s)
cutting 340, 341
inclined 43
in isometricdrawings 319, 321–322
normal 41
oblique 44
projection. SeeProjectionplane(s):defined
visualizedrawingsby using 37–51
PLINE command. SeePOLYLINE command
PLOT command 211
Plotting 208–215
Output tab 211
page setup 213–215
paper size 212
plot area (What to plot) 212
plot scale 212
Fit to paper 212532
Page numbers followed by ‡ indicate a table.
INDEX
Plot style table 212
Plus-minus tolerance 259
POINT command 160
Polar angle measurement 194
Polar coordinates 129–131
defined 129
drawing lines with 131
Polar tracking
defined 194
POLYGON command 151
Polygons 34–35
POLYLINE command 150
PRESSPULL command 394
projection planes 524
Projection plane(s) 37–47
defined 37
Frontal 37, 39
Horizontal 37, 42
Profile 37, 41
PROPERTIES command 205–206
Protractor 92
, 94
Q QL
EADER command
. See QUICK LEADER command
QUICK DIMENSION command 274
QUICK LEADER command 292, 310
R RA
DIUS DIMENSION command 272
RECTANGLE command 152
Rectangular snap 193
Reference dimension 266–267
defined 263
REGION command 159
Region/Mass Properties tool, Inquiry Toolbar 207
Relative coordinates 128–129
defined 128
drawing lines with 129
REVCLOUD command 155
REVISION CLOUD command 155
Revision history block 419
Ribbon 116–117
accessing help tools from 116
adding toolbars to 117–118
Annotate tab 268
Home tab 116
Insert tab 369
Output tab 211
ROTATE command 175
Rotating, 3D Objects 396
S Sc
ale
Architect’s 91–92
, 93‡
drawing architectural plans to 64
drawing objects to 63
Engineer’s 90, 93‡
Metric 90
, 93‡
SCALE command 176
Sections
broken-out 346
defined 340
fu
ll 343
half 344–345
HATCH command for 350–352
in architectural drawings 342
in mechanical drawings 341
offset 348
removed 347
revolved 347
wall 452
Sheet sizes
ASME Y14.1-2012 standard for, 64, 138‡
ASME Y14.1M-2012 standard for, 64, 138‡
fo
r architectural units 138‡
fo
r decimal and metric units, 138‡
Snap
defined 193
Isometric 193
, 323
Snap and Grid Tab 192. See also Drafting Settings
Snap Spacing 192
SPLINE command 156
Spline leader 310. See also QUICK LEADER command
Status Bar 122–123
STRETCH COMMAND 177
SUBTRACT command 395
Symbols
electrical 450
fo
r counterbored holes 254–255
fo
r countersunk holes 254–255
fo
r projection techniques 67
GDT 254–255, 497
Symbols and Arrows tab, in New Dimension Style
dialog box 285
T TA
BLE command 162
Tangent 34
Technical drawing
defined 14
origins of 15
Technical lettering 102
Text 186–190
aligned 252
Controlling Text Style 189–190
DTEXT command 188
editing 186–188
height and style 251
mechanical 252Page numbers followed by ‡ indicate a table.
533
INDEX
MTEXT command 186
size and spacing, architectural 309
Standard style 189–190
unidirectional 252
Text alignment
aligned 252
unidirectional 252
Text Editor
editing hole note 255
editing multiline text 187
editing single-line text 188
Text Style
changing 189–190
dialog box 189–190
icon 189
Text tab, in New Dimension Style dialog box 286
Third-angle projection 66–67
Tick marks 308
Title block
defined 17
fo
r assembly drawings 419
Tolerances 259–268
allowance 263
datum 263
defined 259
displaying 259–260
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
(GD&T) 496–499
least material condition (LMC) 263
maximum material condition (MMC) 263
reference dimension 263, 266–267
terminology for 263
Toolbar menu 118
Toolbar(s)
adding to ribbon interface 117
Dimension 268
Draw 147
Inquiry 207
Modeling 393
Modify 164
Object Snap 198
Orbit 396
Tooltip 197
Traditional drafting tools 85–95
circle template 94–95
defined 84
drafting machines 85
drawing table 85
isometric ellipse template 94–95
parallel straightedge 85, 86–89
pencils 85–86
protractor 92, 94
triangles 86–89
TRIM COMMAND 178
True shape 41, 47
True size 41
, 47
U UC
SICON command 125
UNION command 395
Unioning, 3D objects 395
United States National CAD Standard (NCS) 307,
493–494
units, drawing 133–137
architectural 134
decimal 133
defined 133
dialog box 133–136
engineering 135
User Coordinate System (UCS) 125
3D 389
defined 125
icon 125
V Ve
llum 64
Vertex 32
ViewCube 116, 391
Viewing planes, visualizing drawings by using 37–47
Views
auxiliary 47, 501–515
regular 36
sections. See Sections
Visible lines 51–52
Visual Styles 397
VOLUME tool, Inquiry toolbar 207
W Wa
lls, dimensioning 308
Windows, dimensioning 308
Wireframe 3D models 397
Working drawings
defined 419
Workspace
fo
r 3D modeling 391–392
X Xaxis 30
X-coordinate 30, 389
Y Yaxis 30
Y-coordinate 30
, 389
Z Zaxis 31
Z-coordinate 389
ZOOM command 145

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