كتاب Chemical Hazards in the Workplace
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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الرئيسيةالبوابةأحدث الصورالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Chemical Hazards in the Workplace

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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كتاب Chemical Hazards in the Workplace  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Chemical Hazards in the Workplace    كتاب Chemical Hazards in the Workplace  Emptyالسبت 02 مارس 2024, 3:21 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Chemical Hazards in the Workplace
Ronald M. Scott

كتاب Chemical Hazards in the Workplace  C_h_i_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :

CONTENTS
SECTION I: BASIC TOXICOLOGY
1. Kinds of Toxic Effects 3
Local Effects and Systemic Poisons 3
DNA: The Blueprint of the Organism 5
Epidemiology 11
Effects of Chemicals on Fertility 12
Neurotoxins 13
Other Toxic Effects 14
2. Generating Safety Recommendations 15
Tolerance of Toxic Substances 15
The Target Population 16
Animal Testing 16
Designing Toxicological Experiments 18
OSHA Standards 27
3. Toxicants and the Human Body 29
Skin Structure 29
Eye and Skin Hazards 30
Entry of Toxicants into the Body 33
Distribution of Toxicants in the Body 37
Removal of Toxicants from the Body 38
Summary 41
viiSECTION II: HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE
4. Inhalation Toxicology 45
Introduction 45
Particulate Materials 45
Warning Properties of Gases and Vapors 49
Recommended Maximum Exposures 55
5. Solvents 57
Solvent Properties 57
Uses in Industry 58
Toxicology of Solvents 62
Specific Solvents 62
6. Metals 73
Manufacturing Processes Involving Metals 74
Details About Specific Metals 76
7. Plastics 91
The Chemistry of Plastics 91
Hazards in Plastics Manufacturing 99
Comments on Specific Compounds 100
Summary 109
8. Elastomers 111
The Use of Elastomers 111
Hazards of Specific Elastomers 112
9. Adhesives 119
Introduction 119
Hazards of Adhesive Use 120
Surface Preparation 124
SECTION III: REGULATION AND PROTECTION
10. Government Regulation 129
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration
The Toxic Substances Control Act 137
11. Monitoring the Plant Atmosphere 139
Analytical Chemistry 139
••©
Vlll
129Sampling 141
Analysis of Samples 150
Deciding About the Safety of the Workplace
12. Protecting the Worker 157
Identifying Hazards 158
Corrective Action 158
Monitoring 164
Glossary 167
Appendices
A. Principles of Adhesive Bonding 175
B. Simple Statistical Calculations 177
C. Selection of Detection Tubes 179
D. Unit Conversion Factors 187
154
ixINDEX
ABS 97
Acceptable ceiling See Exposure
guidelines
Acceptable maximum peak See
Exposure guidelines
Acetaldehyde 63, 70
Acetone 26, 59, 63, 70
Acetonitrile 63, 71
Acetylaminofluorene 136
Acetylene tetrachloride 67
ACGIH See American Conference
of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists
Acids 31
Acroosteolysis 101
Acrylamide 102, 104
Acrylic acid 104
Acrylonitrile 94, 101-102, 113-114,
136
ACS 97
Action level 132
Acute lethal dose 21
Acute testing 20
Addition polymers 93
Adsorption tubes 145
AIHA See American Industrial
Hygiene Association
Aldehydes 70
Alkalis 31
Alkoxysilanes 114
Alkyl aluminum 77, 105-106, 113
Alkyl mercury 85
Allergic response 24, 30
Aluminum 76
alkyls 77, 105-106, 113
aluminum-dust lungs 77
chloride 115
oxide 76
Alveoli 34
American Conference of
Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (ACGIH) 26, 129,
154
American Industrial Hygiene
Association (AIHA) 155
American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) 135, 154
4-Aminodiphenyl 136
Ammonia 31, 53, 112
Amyl acetate 59, 63
Amyl alcohol 59
Amyl chloride 59
Anesthesia 66
Angiosarcoma 101
Animal testing 16
Anionic detergent 31, 33
ANSI See American National
Standards Institute
Anthracene 59, 63
Antimony 77, 83
spots 77
Antioxidants 108
Aromatic hydrocarbons 65-66
Aromatic polyester 95
189190 CHEMICAL HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE
Arsenic 74, 78, 83, 87-88, 136
sulfide 77
trioxide 78
Arsine 74, 78, 82, 88
ASA 97
Asbestos 46, 117, 136
Asphyxiants 50
Atomic absorption spectrometry
145, 153
Autoignition temperature 58
Azo bis-isobutyronitrile 117
Azocarbonamide 117
Barium soap 107
Bauxite 77
Benign tumor 9
Benzene 59, 63, 65, 136
Benzenesulfonyl hydrazide 117
Benzidine 136
Benzothiazoyl disulfide 107
Benzoyl peroxide 105-106
Beryllium 79
Bias 140
Bile 41
Bisphenol A 95, 103, 106
Blood-brain barrier 13
Boiling point 54
Bone marrow 65
Breakthrough capacity 146
Bromine 53
Bronchial carcinoma 47
Bronchiole 36
Brown lung disease 49
Butadiene 102, 113-114
Butanediol 95
w-Butyl acetate 59, 63
rt-Butyl alcohol 59, 63, 69
rt-Butyl catechol 101
Butyl cellosolve 59, 69
terf-Butyl peroctoate 106
Butyl rubber See Rubber
Cadmium 79, 88
oxide 80
soap 107
Calcium
oxide 32
soap 107
Cancer 8
Caprolactam 95, 104
Carbon
black 116
dioxide 51
disulfide 59, 63, 71, 105
monoxide 16, 51, 56, 68, 74, 82
tetrachloride 66
Carcinogen 8
co- 9
primary 9
pro- 9
secondary 9
Casein 122
Cellosolve 59, 63, 69
Cellosolve acetate 59, 63
Central nervous system (CNS) 62
Chemical asphyxiants 51
Chloracne 66, 109
Chlorobenzene 59, 63
Chloroform 67
bis-Chloromethyl ether 136
Chloromethyl methyl ether 136
Chloronaphthalene 109
Chloroprene 113-114
Chlorosilanes 114
Chlorosulfonated polyethylenes 111
Chromates 80
Chromium 80-82
oxides 106
Chronic beryllium disease 79
Chronic testing 20
Cilia See Lungs
Cirrhosis 4
Clays 108
CNS See Central nervous system
(CNS)
Coal 48
Cobalt 81-82
naphthanoate 107
Cocarcinogen See Carcinogen
Coke oven emissions 136
Collection efficiency 145
Condensation polymers 93
95% Confidence limit 140
Conjugation, metabolic 39
Copper 81
Cornea 31
Corrosive 31INDEX 191
Cotton 49
Cresol 103
Crocidolite 47
Cryolite 77
Cumene 65
Cyanoacrylics 121
Cyanosis 46
Cyclohexane 59, 63
DDT 37
Degreasing 58, 66
Department of Health and Human
Services 130
Department of Labor 129
Desorption efficiency 145
Detergents 31, 33, 124
Determinate error 140
Diamines 104
Diaminohexane 95
1.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 13,
136
tris-(Dibromopropyl)phosphate 108
Dibutylphthalate 19
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine 136
1.2-Dichloroethylene 59
Dichromate 80, 124
Diethylaluminum chloride 115
Diethylenetriamine 113
Diethyl ether 59, 63, 69
Diglycidyl ether 102
Dihydroxybiphenyl 95
Diisopropyl ether 69
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 136
Dimethylaniline 107
Dimethylformamide 63, 71
Dimethylsulfoxide 70
Dioxane 63, 70, 104
Diphenylguanine phthalate 107
Disulfiram 107, 116
DNA 5
Dolomite 48
Dose-response curve 22
Dry cleaning 58, 66
Dusts 45, 74, 100
Dyspnea 46
Edema 24, 50
EEA 97
Electron capture detector 152
EMA 97
Emphysema 80
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) 137
EP 111
EPA See Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA)
EPDM 111-112
Epichlorohydrin 102, 111
Epidemiology 11, 164
Epidermis 29
Epoxyphenolics 120
Epoxy resins 120-121
Ethers 69
Ethyl acetate 59, 63
Ethyl alcohol 59, 63, 67, 68
Ethylbenzene 65
Ethyl chloride 59, 63
Ethylene 113
Ethylene dichloride 113, 115
Ethylene glycol 63, 69, 95
Ethylene oxide 136
Ethyleneimine 136
Ethyl formate 59, 63
EVA 97
Exposure guidelines
acceptable ceiling 27
acceptable maximum peak 27
Immediately Dangerous to Life
and Health (IDHL) 28
maximum allowable
concentration (MAC) 26
No Effect Level (NEL) 26
No Observed Adverse Effect
Level (NOAEL) 26
No Observed Effect Level .
(NOEL) 26
Permissible Exposure Levels
(PEL) 28, 131, 154
short-term exposure limit (STEL)
27
short-term public limit (STPL)
154
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) 26,
55, 131
threshold toxicity values 22
time weighted average (TWA)
26, 55192 CHEMICAL HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE
Fiberglass 48
Fibrosis 96
Fillers (plastics) 98, 107
Filters 143-145
Fire retardants 108
Flame ionization detector 152
Flammability 58
Flash point 58
Fluorine 53
Fluorocarbons 61
Fluorosis 77
Fluorospar 82
Flux 77
Formaldehyde 95, 102, 121, 136
Foundries 75
FTIR See Spectrophotometry
Fumes 45, 48, 74
Furfural 59, 63, 103
Furfuryl alcohol 63
Gas chromatography 139, 150-153
See also Flame ionization
detector; Electron capture
detector
Gases 48
Genetic damage 7
Genotoxic carcinogen 9
Glass fibers 108
Glomerulus 41 See also Kidney
Gloves 31, 160-162
Glycol 69
Glycol ether 69
Grab sample 141
Gypsum 49
Half-life 38
Hard metal disease 87
Hazard Communication Standard
132, 134
Hazard identification 158
Health exposure records 164
Hepatotoxin 4
Heptane 59, 63
Hexamethylenetetramine 103, 107
Hexane 59, 63-64, 113
2-Hexanone 63
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) 139, 153
Hydrazines 112
Hydrogen
bromide 53
chloride 49, 53, 100
cyanide 52, 100
fluoride 53
sulfide 52, 115
Hydroquinone 101
Hydroquinone monobenzylether
109, 116
Hypersensitive response 24
Ignition temperature 58
Immediately Dangerous to Life and
Health (IDHL) See Exposure
guidelines
Imminent danger 132
Indeterminate error 140
Indium 87
Infrared spectrophotometry 153
Instantaneous sample 141
Integrated sample 141
lonomer 97
Iron 82
Irritants 52
Isobutene 114
Isobutyl alcohol 59, 63
Isocyanates 24
Isoprene 133
Isopropyl acetate 63
Isopropyl alcohol 60, 63, 67-68
Isopropyl glycidyl ether 102
Itai-itai disease 80
Kerosene 59
Ketones 76
Kidney 40
Latex 112
LC50 22
LD50 22
Lead 76, 78, 83-84, 87-88, 136
oxide 116
palsy 84
Leukemia 65
Lime 32
Limestone 49INDEX 193
Linear low-density polyethylene
(LLDPE) 97
Lower respiratory tract irritant 52
Lubricants 117
Lungs 34-36
cilia 34, 46
Magnesium
alkyls 106
soap 107
Maleic anhydride 102, 104
Malignant mesothelioma 47
Manganese 82, 84, 87-88
oxide 84
Manganism 84
Mass spectrometry 154
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
31, 133, 136, 158
Maximum allowable concentration
(MAC) See Exposure
guidelines
MDI See Methylene diphenyl
diisocyanate (MDI)
MEK See Methyl ethyl ketone
(MEK)
MEK peroxide 105
Melanin 95
Melanin-formaldehyde 95
Mercaptobenzothiazole 107
Mercury 84-85
amalgam 85
fulminate 85
vapors 85
Metabolic conjugation See
Conjugation, metabolic
Metabolism 38
Metal
fume fever 48, 75, 77, 81
refining 74
soaps 107
Methyl acetate 59, 63
Methyl alcohol 59, 63, 67-68, 123
Methyl butyl ketone 63, 70
Methyl cellosolve 59, 63, 69
Methyl chloride 64, 66
Methyl chloroform 60, 67
Methyl cyclohexanone 59, 64
Methylene chloride 60, 64, 66-67,
123
Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate
(MDI) 103
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) 59, 64,
70, 123
Methyl methacrylate 94
Mica 48
Mine Safety and Health
Administration 154
Molybdenum 82
MSDS See Material Safety Data
Sheet (MSDS)
Mucous 46
Muscovite 48
Mutagen 6
Naphtha 60, 64
Naphthalene 60
alpha-Naphthylamine 136
beta-Naphthylamine 136
NAS-NRC See National Academy
of Science-National Research
Council (NAS-NRC)
Nasal passages 35
National Academy of
Science-National Research
Council (NAS-NRC) 154
National Institute of Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH)
130, 140, 146, 154, 158
Proficiency Analytical Testing
(PAT) Program 155
Natural rubber See Rubber
Neoprene 111, 114, 116
Neurotoxin 4, 13
Nickel 85
carbonyl 85
NIOSH See National Institute of
Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH)
Nitrile rubber See Rubber
4-Nitrobiphenyl 136
Nitrocellulose 121
Nitrogen dioxide 53
N-Nitrosodimethylamine 136
No Effect Level (NEL) See
Exposure guidelines
No Observed Adverse Effect Level
(NOAEL) See Exposure
guidelines194 CHEMICAL HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE
No Observed Effect Level (NOEL)
See Exposure guidelines
Nylon 95
OAS 97
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) 27,
129-137, 140, 146
Octane 60, 64
Oncogene 9
Ore processing 74
Organotin 86, 107
Orion 94
OSHA See Occupational Safety and
Health Administration
(OSHA)
Oxidation 38-39
p,p'-Oxy-bis(benzenesulfonyl)
hydrazide 117
Ozone 53, 76
PAH See Polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAH)
Paraldehyde 60
Particulates 45
PBB 37
PCB 37
Percarbonates 105-106
Percent respirability 150
Peresters 105
Permissible Exposure Levels (PEL)
See Exposure guidelines
Peroxides 105, 107, 121
Personal air sampler 142-146
Phenol 95, 102-103
Phenol-formaldehyde 95
p-Phenylene diamine 102-103
pH meter 152
Phosgene 49, 53-54, 100, 102, 104
Phosphine 82
Phyhalic anhydride 102
Pigments 96, 108
Plasticizers 96, 107
Plumbism 83
Polyacrylonitrile 94
Polyalcohol 104
Polyamide 120-121
Polyamine 120
Polybutadiene 111-112
Polybutylene terephthalate 95
Polycarbonate 95, 121
Polychloroprene 11, 112
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAH) 38, 116
Polyester 121-122
Polyethylene 94
Polyethylene-terephthalate 95
Polyglycol 95
Polyimines 120
Polyisoprene 111-112
Polymethylmethacrylate 94
Polypropylene 94
Polysulfides 11, 115
Polytetrafluoroethylene 94
Polyurethane 95, 115, 120-121
Polyvinyl acetate 122
Polyvinylchloride 94
Precancerous cell 10 See also
Carcinogen
Proficiency Analytical Testing
(PAT) Program See National
Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Promoter 9 See also Carcinogen
Radium 87
Radon 87-88
Random error 140
Records, health exposure See
Health exposure records
Red lead 83
Refining, metals See Metal refining
Renotoxin 4
Replication 6
Resorcinol 103
Respirable dust 150
Respirable particulates 144
Respirator 166
Right-to-Know standard 132, 157
Rubber
butyl 111-112
natural 112, 121
nitrile 112
silicone 11, 120
SAN 97INDEX 195
SB 97
Secondary carcinogen See
Carcinogen
Self-contained breathing apparatus
160
Sensitization 74
Serious violation 132
Shavers disease 77
Short-term exposure limit (STEL)
See Exposure guidelines
Short-term public limit (STPL) See
Exposure guidelines
Silicone rubber See Rubber
Silicosis 47, 82
Silicon tetrafluoride 82
Simple asphyxiants 50
Skin 27, 29
creams 31, 162
irritation 30, 162
Smelting 74
Smokes 45
Solvents 32-33, 57-71
nonpolar 57
Stoddard’s 65
Spectrophotometry
Fourier transform infrared
(FTIR) 154
ultralviolet 153
visible 153
Spraying 61
Stabilizers 96
Stain tubes 146-149
Standard deviation 140
Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) code 133
Standards Compensation Program
28
STEL See Exposure guidelines
Stibnine 78
STPL See Exposure guidelines
Styrene 94, 101-102, 113
sickness 101, 113
Sulfur dioxide 31, 53, 75, 113-114
Sulfuric acid 124
Systemic poison 3
Talc 48, 75, 117
Teflon® 94
Teratogen 10
Tetrachloroethane 64, 67
Tetrachloroethylene 64, 67
Tetraethyllead 84
Tetraethylthiuram bisulfide 107
Tetrahydrofuran 70
Tetramethyllead 84
Tetramethylsuccinonitrile 117
Thalidomide 11-12
Thermal conductivity detector 152
Thermo plastics 91
Thermoset plastics 92
Thiocarbanilide 107
Thiram 107, 116
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) See
Exposure guidelines
Threshold toxicity values See
Exposure guidelines
Time weighted average (TWA) See
Exposure guidelines
Tin 83, 86
soap 107
Titanium 86
chloride 86
oxide 83
tetrachloride 106
TLV See Exposure guidelines
Toluene 60, 64-65, 122
diisocyanate 55, 95, 102-103, 113
Toxic Substances Control Act
(TSCA) 137
Trachea 35
Tributyl tin 86
Trichloroethane 64, 66
Trichloroethylene 60, 64, 66
Trichlorotrifluoroethane 61
Triethylenetriamine 102
Tungsten 82, 87
carbide 87
TWA See Exposure guidelines
Ultraviolet spectrophotometry See
Spectrophotometry
Unsaturated ethers 69
Upper respiratory tract irritants 52
Uranium 87
— 88
hexafluoride 87
Uranous fluoride 87
Urea 95
Urea-formaldehyde 95196 CHEMICAL HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE
Urethanes 111
Vanadium 82, 87-88
oxychloride 106, 115
trichloride 106
Vapor 34, 54
pressure 54, 58
VDA copolymers 97
Very low-density polyethylene
(VLDPE) 97
Ventilation 159
Vinyl 94
acetate 105
chloride 94, 101-102, 136
Vinylidine chloride 105
Viscose rayon 105
Visible spectrophotometry See
Spectrophotometry
Volatility 54, 58
Welding 75
White lead 83
Whole-lung irritants 52
Wholly aromatic copolyester 95
X-ray diffraction 153
Xylene 60, 64-65, 122
Xylenol 103
Zinc 88
oxide 83, 116
oxide fume 88


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