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|موضوع: كتاب A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) - Seventh Edition الثلاثاء 13 فبراير 2024, 2:32 am
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أحضرت لكم كتاب
A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) - Seventh Edition
THE STANDARD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE
و المحتوى كما يلي :
Table of Contents
THE STANDARD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT
1.1 Purpose of The Standard for Project Management
1.2 Key Terms and Concepts
1.3 Audience for this Standard
2 A SYSTEM FOR VALUE DELIVERY
2.1 Creating Value
2.1.1 Value Delivery Components
2.1.2 Information Flow
2.2 Organizational Governance Systems
2.3 Functions Associated with Projects
2.3.1 Provide Oversight and Coordination
2.3.2 Present Objectives and Feedback
2.3.3 Facilitate and Support
2.3.4 Perform Work and Contribute Insights
2.3.5 Apply Expertise
2.3.6 Provide Business Direction and Insight
2.3.7 Provide Resources and Direction
2.3.8 Maintain Governance
2.4 The Project Environment
172.4.1 Internal Environment
2.4.2 External Environment
2.5 Product Management Considerations
3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES
3.1 Be a Diligent, Respectful, and Caring Steward
3.2 Create a Collaborative Project Team Environment
3.3 Effectively Engage with Stakeholders
3.4 Focus on Value
3.5 Recognize, Evaluate, and Respond to System
3.6 Demonstrate Leadership Behaviors
3.7 Tailor Based on Context
3.8 Build Quality into Processes and Deliverables
3.9 Navigate Complexity
3.10 Optimize Risk Responses
3.11 Embrace Adaptability and Resiliency
3.12 Enable Change to Achieve the Envisioned Future State
18A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF
KNOWLEDGE (PMBOK GUIDE)
1.1 Structure of the PMBOK Guide
1.2 Relationship of the PMBOK Guide and The Standard
for Project Management
1.3 Changes to the PMBOK Guide
1.4 Relationship to PMIstandards+
2. PROJECT PERFORMANCE DOMAINS
2.1 Stakeholder Performance Domain
2.1.1 Stakeholder Engagement
2.1.2 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
2.1.3 Checking Results
2.2 Team Performance Domain
2.2.1 Project Team Management and Leadership
2.2.2 Project Team Culture
2.2.3 High-Performing Project Teams
2.2.4 Leadership Skills
2.2.5 Tailoring Leadership Styles
2.2.6 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
2.2.7 Checking Results
2.3 Development Approach and Life Cycle Performance
2.3.1 Development, Cadence, and Life Cycle
2.3.2 Delivery Cadence
192.3.3 Development Approaches
2.3.4 Considerations for Selecting a Development
2.3.5 Life Cycle and Phase Definitions
2.3.6 Aligning of Delivery Cadence, Development
Approach, and Life Cycle
2.3.7 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
2.3.8 Measuring Outcomes
2.4 Planning Performance Domain
2.4.1 Planning Overview
2.4.2 Planning Variables
2.4.3 Project Team Composition and Structure
2.4.5 Physical Resources
2.4.10 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
2.4.11 Checking Results
2.5 Project Work Performance Domain
2.5.1 Project Processes
2.5.2 Balancing Competing Constraints
2.5.3 Maintaining Project Team Focus
2.5.4 Project Communications and Engagement
2.5.5 Managing Physical Resources
2.5.6 Working with Procurements
2.5.7 Monitoring New Work and Changes
202.5.8 Learning throughout the Project
2.5.9 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
2.5.10 Checking Results
2.6 Delivery Performance Domain
2.6.1 Delivery of Value
2.6.4 Suboptimal Outcomes
2.6.5 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
2.6.6 Checking Results
2.7 Measurement Performance Domain
2.7.1 Establishing Effective Measures
2.7.2 What to Measure
2.7.3 Presenting Information
2.7.4 Measurement Pitfalls
2.7.5 Troubleshooting Performance
2.7.6 Growing and Improving
2.7.7 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
2.7.8 Checking Results
2.8 Uncertainty Performance Domain
2.8.1 General Uncertainty
2.8.6 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
2.8.7 Checking Results
3.2 Why Tailor?
3.3 What to Tailor
3.3.1 Life Cycle and Development Approach Selection
3.3.5 Methods and Artifacts
3.4 The Tailoring Process
3.4.1 Select Initial Development Approach
3.4.2 Tailor for the Organization
3.4.3 Tailor for the Project
3.5 Tailoring the Performance Domains
3.5.2 Project Team
3.5.3 Development Approach and Life Cycle
3.5.5 Project Work
4. MODELS, METHODS, AND ARTIFACTS
4.2 Commonly Used Models
224.2.1 Situational Leadership Models
4.2.2 Communication Models
4.2.3 Motivation Models
4.2.4 Change Models
4.2.5 Complexity Models
4.2.6 Project Team Development Models
4.2.7 Other Models
4.3 Models Applied Across Performance Domains
4.4 Commonly Used Methods
4.4.1 Data Gathering and Analysis
4.4.3 Meetings and Events
4.4.4 Other Methods
4.5 Methods Applied Across Performance Domains
4.6 Commonly Used Artifacts
4.6.1 Strategy Artifacts
4.6.2 Logs and Registers
4.6.4 Hierarchy Charts
4.6.6 Visual Data and Information
4.6.8 Agreements and Contracts
4.6.9 Other Artifacts
4.7 Artifacts Applied Across Performance Domains
23CONTRIBUTORS AND REVIEWERS OF THE STANDARD
FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND A GUIDE TO THE
PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE –
X1.2 PMI Staff
X2.2 The Sponsor Role
X2.3 Lack of Engagement
X2.4 Sponsor Behaviors
X2.6 Suggested Resources
THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE
X3.2 The PMO Value Proposition—Why Have One?
X3.3 Key PMO Capabilities
X3.4 Evolving for Stronger Benefits Realization
X3.5 Learn More about PMOs
X3.6 Suggested Resources
X4.2 Global Market Shifts
X4.3 Impact on Project Delivery Practices
24X4.4 Organizational Considerations for Product
X4.6 Suggested Resources
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE STANDARD
FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT
X5.2 The Move to a Principle-Based Standard
X5.3 Research for The Standard for Project Management
X5.4 Standard Development Process
X5.5 Validating the Standard
1. Inclusions and Exclusions
2. Common Acronyms
25List of Figures and Tables
THE STANDARD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-1. Example of a System for Value Delivery
Figure 2-2. Components of a Sample System for Value
Figure 2-3. Example of Information Flow
Figure 2-4. Sample Product Life Cycle
Figure 3-1. Overlap of Project Management and General
Figure 3-2. Be a Diligent, Respectful, and Caring
Figure 3-3. Create a Collaborative Project Team
Figure 3-4. Effectively Engage with Stakeholders
Figure 3-5. Focus on Value
Figure 3-6. Recognize, Evaluate, and Respond to System
Figure 3-7. Demonstrate Leadership Behaviors
Figure 3-8. Tailor Based on Context
Figure 3-9. Build Quality into Processes and
Figure 3-10. Navigate Complexity
26Figure 3-11. Optimize Risk Responses
Figure 3-12. Embrace Adaptability and Resiliency
Figure 3-13. Enable Change to Achieve the Envisioned
27A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF
KNOWLEDGE (PMBOK GUIDE)
Figure 1-1. Relationship between Project Management
Principles and Project Performance Domains
Figure 2-1. Stakeholder Performance Domain
Figure 2-2. Examples of Project Stakeholders
Figure 2-3. Navigating Effective Stakeholder
Figure 2-4. Team Performance Domain
Figure 2-5. Components of Emotional Intelligence
Figure 2-6. Development Approach and Life Cycle
Figure 2-7. Development Approaches
Figure 2-8. Iterative and Incremental Development
Figure 2-9. Sample Predictive Life Cycle
Figure 2-10. Life Cycle with an Incremental Development
Figure 2-11. Life Cycle with Adaptive Development
Figure 2-12. Community Center Life Cycle
Figure 2-13. Planning Performance Domain
Figure 2-14. Estimate Range Decreases over Time
Figure 2-15. Low Accuracy, High Precision
Figure 2-16. Fast Tracking Examples
Figure 2-17. Release and Iteration Plan
Figure 2-18. Budget Build Up
28Figure 2-19. Project Work Performance Domain
Figure 2-20. Delivery Performance Domain
Figure 2-21. Scenario for Developing a Smart Watch
Figure 2-22. Cost of Change Curve
Figure 2-23. Measurement Performance Domain
Figure 2-24. Earned Value Analysis Showing Schedule
and Cost Variance
Figure 2-25. Mood Board
Figure 2-26. Forecast of Estimate at Completion and
Estimate to Complete
Figure 2-27. Dashboard Example
Figure 2-28. Information Radiator
Figure 2-29. Task Board or Kanban Board
Figure 2-30. Burnup Chart
Figure 2-31. Planned and Actual Spend Rates
Figure 2-32. Uncertainty Performance Domain
Figure 2-33. Risk Reduction over Time
Figure 2-34. Risk-Adjusted ROI Curve
Figure 3-1. Details of the Steps in the Tailoring Process
Figure 3-2. Selecting the Initial Development Approach
Figure 3-3. Tailoring the Approach for the Organization
Figure 3-4. Assessing the Organizational and Project
Factors When Tailoring
Figure 3-5. Tailoring the Approach for the Project
Figure 3-6. Implement Ongoing Improvement
Figure 3-7. The Tailoring Process
29Figure 3-8. Tailoring to Fit the Project Context
Figure 4-1. Tailoring to Fit the Project Context and
Figure X4-1. Global Business Trends Influencing the
Management of Products
Figure X4-2. The Changing Relationship Between an
Organization and Its Customers
Figure X4-3. Supporting Strategies for Continuous Value
Table 2-1. Types of Communication
Table 2-2. Checking Outcomes—Stakeholder
Table 2-3. Checking Outcomes—Team Performance
Table 2-4. Delivery Cadence and Development
Table 2-5. Checking Outcomes—Development
Approach and Life Cycle Performance
Table 2-6. Checking Outcomes—Planning Performance
Table 2-7. Checking Outcomes—Project Work
Table 2-8. Checking Outcomes—Delivery Performance
Table 2-9. Checking Outcomes—Measurement
Table 2-10. Checking Outcomes—Uncertainty
30Table 3-1. Common Situations and Tailoring
Table 4-1. Mapping of Models Likely to Be Used in
Each Performance Domain
Table 4-2. Mapping of Methods Likely to Be Used in
Each Performance Domain
Table 4-3. Mapping of Artifacts Likely to Be Used in
Each Performance Domain
Table X4-1. Views of Project and Product Management
Table X4-2. Unique Characteristics of Projects,
Programs, and Products
1. INCLUSIONS AND EXCLUSIONS
This combined glossary includes definitions of terms and acronyms from the
The Standard for Project Management
A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) –
This glossary includes terms that are:
Unique or nearly unique to project management (e.g., minimum viable
product, work breakdown structure, Gantt chart), and
Not unique to project management but used differently or with a narrower
meaning in project management than in general everyday usage (e.g., release
planning, contingency reserve).
This glossary generally does not include:
Terms used in project management that do not differ in any material way from
everyday use (e.g., calendar day, delay),
Compound terms whose meanings are clear from the meanings of the
Variants when the meaning of the variant is clear from the base term, and
Terms that are used only once and are not critical to understanding the point of
the sentence. This can include a list of examples that would not have each term
defined in the glossary.
3032. COMMON ACRONYMS
AC actual cost
BAC budget at completion
CCB change control board
CFD cumulative flow diagram
COQ cost of quality
CPAF cost plus award fee
CPFF cost plus fixed fee
CPI cost performance index
CPIF cost plus incentive fee
CPM critical path method
CV cost variance
DoD definition of done
EAC estimate at completion
EEF enterprise environmental factors
EMV expected monetary value
ETC estimate to complete
EV earned value
EVA earned value analysis
FFP firm fixed price
FPEPA fixed price with economic price adjustment
FPIF fixed price incentive fee
IDIQ indefinite delivery indefinite quantity
LCA life cycle assessment
MVP minimum viable product
NPS Net Promotor Score
OBS organizational breakdown structure
OPA organizational process assets
PMB performance measurement baseline
PMBOK Project Management Body of Knowledge
PMO project management office
PV planned value
RAM responsibility assignment matrix
RBS risk breakdown structure
SOW statement of work
SPI schedule performance index
304SV schedule variance
SWOT strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
T&M time and materials contract
VAC variance at completion
VDO value delivery office
WBS work breakdown structure
Many of the words defined here have broader, and in some cases, different
dictionary definitions. In some cases, a single glossary term consists of multiple words
(e.g., root cause analysis).
Acceptance Criteria. A set of conditions that is required to be met before
deliverables are accepted.
Accuracy. Within the quality management system, accuracy is an assessment of
Activity List. A documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity
description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so
project team members understand what work is to be performed.
Actual Cost (AC). The realized cost incurred for the work performed on an activity
during a specific time period.
Adaptive Approach. A development approach in which the requirements are subject
to a high level of uncertainty and volatility and are likely to change throughout the
Affinity Diagram. A diagram that shows large numbers of ideas classified into
groups for review and analysis.
Affinity Grouping. The process of classifying items into similar categories or
collections on the basis of their likeness.
Agile. A term used to describe a mindset of values and principles as set forth in the
Alternatives Analysis. A method used to evaluate identified options in order to select
the options or approaches to use to perform the work of the project.
Ambiguity. A state of being unclear, having difficulty in identifying the cause of
events, or having multiple options from which to choose.
305Analogous Estimating. A method for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or
a project using historical data from a similar activity or project.
Artifact. A template, document, output, or project deliverable.
Assumption. A factor in the planning process that is considered to be true, real, or
certain, without proof or demonstration.
Assumption and Constraint Analysis. An assessment that ensures assumptions and
constraints are integrated into the project plans and documents, and that there is
consistency among them.
Assumption Log. A project document used to record all assumptions and constraints
throughout the project.
Authority. The right to apply project resources, expend funds, make decisions, or
Backlog. An ordered list of work to be done.
Backlog Refinement. Progressive elaboration of the content in the backlog and
(re)prioritization of it to identify the work that can be accomplished in an upcoming
Baseline. The approved version of a work product, used as a basis for comparison to
Basis of Estimates. Supporting documentation outlining the details used in
establishing project estimates such as assumptions, constraints, level of detail, ranges,
and confidence levels.
Benchmarking. The comparison of actual or planned products, processes, and
practices to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate
ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
Benefits Management Plan. The documented explanation defining the processes for
creating, maximizing, and sustaining the benefits provided by a project or program.
Bid Documents. All documents used to solicit information, quotations, or proposals
from prospective sellers.
Bidder Conference. The meetings with prospective sellers prior to the preparation of
a bid or proposal to ensure all prospective vendors have a clear and common
understanding of the procurement. Also known as contractor conferences, vendor
conferences, or pre-bid conferences.
Blocker. See impediment.
306Budget. The approved estimate for the project or any work breakdown structure
(WBS) component or any schedule activity.
Budget at Completion (BAC). The sum of all budgets established for the work to be
Burn Chart. A graphical representation of the work remaining in a timebox or the
work completed toward the release of a product or project deliverable.
Business Case. A value proposition for a proposed project that may include financial
and nonfinancial benefits.
Business Model Canvas. A one-page, visual summary that describes the value
proposition, infrastructure, customers, and finances. These are often used in Lean
Business Value. The net quantifiable benefit derived from a business endeavor that
may be tangible, intangible, or both.
Cadence. A rhythm of activities conducted throughout the project.
Cause-and-Effect Diagram. A visual representation that helps trace an undesirable
effect back to its root cause.
Change. A modification to any formally controlled deliverable, project management
plan component, or project document.
Change Control. A process whereby modifications to documents, deliverables, or
baselines associated with the project are identified, documented, approved, or
Change Control Board (CCB). A formally chartered group responsible for
reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to the project, and for
recording and communicating such decisions.
Change Control Plan. A component of the project management plan that establishes
the change control board, documents the extent of its authority, and describes how the
change control system will be implemented.
Change Control System. A set of procedures that describes how modifications to the
project deliverables and documentation are managed and controlled.
Change Log. A comprehensive list of changes submitted during the project and their
Change Management. A comprehensive, cyclic, and structured approach for
transitioning individuals, groups, and organizations from a current state to a future
state with intended business benefits.
307Change Request. A formal proposal to modify a document, deliverable, or baseline.
Charter. See project charter.
Check Sheet. A tally sheet that can be used as a checklist when gathering data.
Closing Process Group. The process(es) performed to formally complete or close a
project, phase, or contract.
Communications Management Plan. A component of the project, program, or
portfolio management plan that describes how, when, and by whom information about
the project will be administered and disseminated.
Complexity. A characteristic of a program or project or its environment that is
difficult to manage due to human behavior, system behavior, and ambiguity.
Confirmation Bias. A type of cognitive bias that confirms preexisting beliefs or
Conformance. The degree to which the results meet the set quality requirements.
Constraint. A limiting factor that affects the execution of a project, program,
portfolio, or process.
Contingency. An event or occurrence that could affect the execution of the project,
which may be accounted for with a reserve.
Contingency Reserve. Time or money allocated in the schedule or cost baseline for
known risks with active response strategies.
Continuous Delivery. The practice of delivering feature increments immediately to
customers, often through the use of small batches of work and automation technology.
Contract. A mutually binding agreement that obligates the seller to provide the
specified product, service, or result and obligates the buyer to pay for it.
Control. The process of comparing actual performance with planned performance,
analyzing variances, assessing trends to effect process improvements, evaluating
possible alternatives, and recommending appropriate corrective action as needed.
Control Chart. A graphic display of process data over time and against established
control limits, which has a centerline that assists in detecting a trend of plotted values
toward either control limit.
Cost Baseline. The approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding
any management reserves, which can be changed only through formal change control
procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
Cost-Benefit Analysis. A financial analysis method used to determine the benefits
308provided by a project against its costs.
Cost Management Plan. A component of a project or program management plan that
describes how costs will be planned, structured, and controlled.
Cost of Quality (COQ). All costs incurred over the life of the product by investment
in preventing nonconformance to requirements, appraisal of the product or service for
conformance to requirements, and failure to meet requirements.
Cost Performance Index (CPI). A measure of the cost efficiency of budgeted
resources expressed as the ratio of earned value to actual cost.
Cost Plus Award Fee Contract (CPAF). A category of contract that involves
payments to the seller for all legitimate actual costs incurred for completed work, plus
an award fee representing seller profit.
Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contract (CPFF). A type of cost-reimbursable contract where
the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller's allowable costs (allowable costs are
defined by the contract) plus a fixed amount of profit (fee).
Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contract (CPIF). A type of cost-reimbursable contract
where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller's allowable costs (allowable costs
are defined by the contract), and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined
Cost-Reimbursable Contract. A type of contract involving payment to the seller for
the seller's actual costs, plus a fee typically representing the seller's profit.
Cost Variance (CV). The amount of budget deficit or surplus at a given point in time,
expressed as the difference between the earned value and the actual cost.
Crashing. A method used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental
cost by adding resources.
Criteria. Standards, rules, or tests on which a judgment or decision can be based or
by which a product, service, result, or process can be evaluated.
Critical Path. The sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a
project, which determines the shortest possible duration.
Critical Path Method (CPM). A method used to estimate the minimum project
duration and determine the amount of schedule flexibility on the logical network paths
within the schedule model.
Cumulative Flow Diagram (CFD). A chart indicating features completed over time,
features in other states of development, and those in the backlog.
Cycle Time. The total elapsed time from the start of a particular activity or work item
309to its completion.
Cycle Time Chart. A diagram that shows the average cycle time of the work items
completed over time.
Daily Standup. A brief, daily collaboration meeting in which the team reviews
progress from the previous day, declares intentions for the current day, and highlights
any obstacles encountered or anticipated.
Dashboard. A set of charts and graphs showing progress or performance against
important measures of the project.
Data Gathering and Analysis Methods. Methods used to collect, assess, and
evaluate data and information to gain a deeper understanding of a situation.
Decision Tree Analysis. A diagramming and calculation method for evaluating the
implications of a chain of multiple options in the presence of uncertainty.
Decomposition. A method used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and
project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.
Definition of Done (DoD). A checklist of all the criteria required to be met so that a
deliverable can be considered ready for customer use.
Deliverable. Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a
service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project.
Delivery Performance Domain. The performance domain that addresses activities
and functions associated with delivering the scope and quality that the project was
undertaken to achieve.
Development Approach. A method used to create and evolve the product, service, or
result during the project life cycle, such as a predictive, iterative, incremental, agile, or
Development Approach and Life Cycle Performance Domain. The performance
domain that addresses activities and functions associated with the development
approach, cadence, and life cycle phases of the project.
DevOps. A collection of practices for creating a smooth flow of deliveries by
improving collaboration between development and operations staff.
Digital Product. A product or service that is delivered, used, and stored in an
Discretionary Dependency. A relationship that is based on best practices or project
310Duration. The total number of work periods required to complete an activity or work
breakdown structure component, expressed in hours, days, or weeks. Contrast with
Earned Value (EV). The measure of work performed expressed in terms of the
budget authorized for that work.
Earned Value Analysis (EVA). An analysis method that uses a set of measures
associated with scope, schedule, and cost to determine the cost and schedule
performance of a project.
Effort. The number of labor units required to complete a schedule activity or work
breakdown structure component, often expressed in hours, days, or weeks. Contrast
Emotional Intelligence. The ability to identify, assess, and manage the personal
emotions of oneself and other people, as well as the collective emotions of groups of
Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEF). Conditions, not under the immediate
control of the team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project, program, or
Epic. A large, related body of work intended to hierarchically organize a set of
requirements and deliver specific business outcomes.
Estimate. A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome of a variable,
such as project costs, resources, effort, or durations.
Estimate at Completion (EAC). The expected total cost of completing all work
expressed as the sum of the actual cost to date and the estimate to complete.
Estimate to Complete (ETC). The expected cost to finish all the remaining project
Estimating Methods. Methods used to develop an approximation of work, time, or
cost on a project.
Executing Process Group. Those processes performed to complete the work defined
in the project management plan to satisfy the project requirements.
Expected Monetary Value (EMV). The estimated value of an outcome expressed in
Explicit Knowledge. Knowledge that can be codified using symbols such as words,
numbers, and pictures.
External Dependency. A relationship between project activities and non-project
Fast Tracking. A schedule compression method in which activities or phases
normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their
Feature. A set of related requirements or functionalities that provides value to an
Firm Fixed Price Contract (FFP). A type of fixed-price contract where the buyer
pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), regardless of the seller's
Fixed Duration. A type of activity where the length of time required to complete the
activity remains constant regardless of the number of people or resources assigned to
Fixed-Price Contract. An agreement that sets the fee that will be paid for a defined
scope of work regardless of the cost or effort to deliver it.
Fixed Price Incentive Fee Contract (FPIF). A type of contract where the buyer pays
the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), and the seller can earn an
additional amount if the seller meets defined performance criteria.
Fixed Price with Economic Price Adjustment Contract (FPEPA). A fixed-price
contract, but with a special provision allowing for predefined final adjustments to the
contract price due to changed conditions, such as inflation changes, or cost increases
(or decreases) for specific commodities.
Flow. The measure of how efficiently work moves through a given process or
Flowchart. The depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and
outputs of one or more processes within a system.
Forecast. An estimate or prediction of conditions and events in the project's future
based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast.
Function Point. An estimate of the amount of business functionality in an
information system, used to calculate the functional size measurement of a software
Gantt Chart. A bar chart of schedule information where activities are listed on the
vertical axis, dates are shown on the horizontal axis, and activity durations are shown
as horizontal bars placed according to start and finish dates.
Governance. The framework for directing and enabling an organization through its
312established policies, practices, and other relevant documentation.
Grade. A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use
but do not share the same requirements for quality.
Hierarchy Chart. A chart that begins with high-level information that is
progressively decomposed into lower levels of detail.
Histogram. A bar chart that shows the graphical representation of numerical data.
Hybrid Approach. A combination of two or more agile and nonagile elements,
having a nonagile end result.
Impact Mapping. A strategic planning method that serves as a visual roadmap for the
organization during product development.
Impediment. An obstacle that prevents the team from achieving its objectives. Also
known as a blocker.
Incremental Approach. An adaptive development approach in which the deliverable
is produced successively, adding functionality until the deliverable contains the
necessary and sufficient capability to be considered complete.
Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ). A contract that provides for an
indefinite quantity of goods or services, with a stated lower and upper limit, within a
fixed time period.
Influence Diagram. A graphical representation of situations showing causal
influences, time ordering of events, and other relationships among variables and
Information Radiator. A visible, physical display that provides information to the
rest of the organization, enabling timely knowledge sharing.
Initiating Process Group. Those processes performed to define a new project or a
new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or
Internal Dependency. A relationship between two or more project activities.
Interpersonal Skills. Skills used to establish and maintain relationships with other
Issue. A current condition or situation that may have an impact on the project
Issue Log. A project document where information about issues is recorded and
313Iteration. A timeboxed cycle of development on a product or deliverable in which all
of the work that is needed to deliver value is performed.
Iteration Plan. A detailed plan for the current iteration.
Iteration Planning. A meeting to clarify the details of the backlog items, acceptance
criteria, and work effort required to meet an upcoming iteration commitment.
Iteration Review. A meeting held at the end of an iteration to demonstrate the work
that was accomplished during the iteration.
Iterative Approach. A development approach that focuses on an initial, simplified
implementation then progressively elaborates adding to the feature set until the final
deliverable is complete.
Kanban Board. A visualization tool that shows work in progress to help identify
bottlenecks and overcommitments, thereby allowing the team to optimize the
Kickoff Meeting. A gathering of team members and other key stakeholders at the
outset of a project to formally set expectations, gain a common understanding, and
Knowledge. A mixture of experience, values and beliefs, contextual information,
intuition, and insight that people use to make sense of new experiences and
Lag. The amount of time whereby a successor activity will be delayed with respect to
a predecessor activity.
Last Responsible Moment. The concept of deferring a decision to allow the team to
consider multiple options until the cost of further delay would exceed the benefit.
Lead. The amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect
to a predecessor activity.
Lead Time. The time between a customer request and the actual delivery.
Lead Time Chart. A diagram showing the trend over time of the average lead time of
the items completed in work.
Lean Startup Canvas. A one-page template designed to communicate a business
plan with key stakeholders in an efficient and effective manner.
Lessons Learned. The knowledge gained during a project, which shows how project
events were addressed or should be addressed in the future, for the purpose of
improving future performance.
314Lessons Learned Register. A project document used to record knowledge gained
during a project, phase, or iteration so that it can be used to improve future
performance for the team and the organization.
Life Cycle. See project life cycle.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A tool used to evaluate the total environmental
impact of a product, process, or system.
Log. A document used to record and describe or denote selected items identified
during execution of a process or activity. Usually used with a modifier, such as issue,
change, or assumption.
Make-or-Buy Analysis. The process of gathering and organizing data about product
requirements and analyzing them against available alternatives including the purchase
or internal manufacture of the product.
Management Reserve. An amount of the project budget or project schedule held
outside of the performance measurement baseline for management control purposes
that is reserved for unforeseen work that is within the project scope.
Mandatory Dependency. A relationship that is contractually required or inherent in
the nature of the work.
Measurement Performance Domain. The performance domain that addresses
activities and functions associated with assessing project performance and taking
appropriate actions to maintain acceptable performance.
Measures of Performance. Measures that characterize physical or functional
attributes relating to system operation.
Method. A means for achieving an outcome, output, result, or project deliverable.
Methodology. A system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those
who work in a discipline.
Metric. A description of a project or product attribute and how to measure it.
Milestone. A significant point or event in a project, program, or portfolio.
Milestone Schedule. A type of schedule that presents milestones with planned dates.
Minimum Viable Product (MVP). A concept used to define the scope of the first
release of a solution to customers by identifying the fewest number of features or
requirements that would deliver value.
Modeling. Creating simplified representations of systems, solutions, or deliverables,
such as prototypes, diagrams, or storyboards.
315Monitor. Collect project performance data, produce performance measures, and
report and disseminate performance information.
Monitoring and Controlling Process Group. Those processes required to track,
review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in
which changes to the plan are required; and initiate corresponding changes.
Monte Carlo Simulation. A method of identifying the potential impacts of risk and
uncertainty using multiple iterations of a computer model to develop a probability
distribution of a range of outcomes that could result from a decision or course of
Mood Chart. A visualization chart for tracking moods or reactions to identify areas
Multipoint Estimating. A method used to estimate cost or duration by applying an
average or weighted average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates
when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.
Net Promoter Score. An index that measures the willingness of customers to
recommend an organization's products or services to others.
Network Path. A sequence of activities connected by logical relationships in a
project schedule network diagram.
Objective. Something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be
attained, a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or
a service to be performed.
Opportunity. A risk that would have a positive effect on one or more project
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS). A hierarchical representation of the
project organization, which illustrates the relationship between project activities and
the organizational units that will perform those activities.
Organizational Process Assets (OPA). Plans, processes, policies, procedures, and
knowledge bases that are specific to and used by the performing organization.
Osmotic Communication. Means of receiving information without direct
communication by overhearing and through nonverbal cues.
Outcome. An end result or consequence of a process or project.
Parametric Estimating. An estimating method in which an algorithm is used to
calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters.
Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB). Integrated scope, schedule, and cost
316baselines used for comparison to manage, measure, and control project execution.
Phase Gate. A review at the end of a phase in which a decision is made to continue to
the next phase, to continue with modification, or to end a project or program.
Plan. A proposed means of accomplishing something.
Planned Value (PV). The authorized budget assigned to scheduled work.
Planning Performance Domain. The performance domain that addresses activities
and functions associated with the initial, ongoing, and evolving organization and
coordination necessary for delivering project deliverables and results.
Planning Process Group. Those processes required to establish the scope of the
project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action required to attain the
objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.
Portfolio. Projects, programs, subsidiary portfolios, and operations managed as a
group to achieve strategic objectives.
Portfolio Management. The centralized management of one or more portfolios to
achieve strategic objectives.
Precision. Within the quality management system, precision is an assessment of
Predictive Approach. A development approach in which the project scope, time, and
cost are determined in the early phases of the life cycle.
Prioritization Matrix. A scatter diagram that plots effort against value so as to
classify items by priority.
Prioritization Schema. Methods used to prioritize portfolio, program, or project
components, as well as requirements, risks, features, or other product information.
Probabilistic Estimating. A method used to develop a range of estimates along with
the associated probabilities within that range.
Probability and Impact Matrix. A grid for mapping the probability of occurrence of
each risk and its impact on project objectives if that risk occurs.
Procurement Management Plan. A component of the project or program
management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services
from outside of the performing organization.
Product. An artifact that is produced, is quantifiable, and can be either an end item in
itself or a component item.
Product Breakdown Structure. A hierarchical structure reflecting a product's
317components and deliverables.
Product Life Cycle. A series of phases that represent the evolution of a product, from
concept through delivery, growth, maturity, and to retirement.
Product Management. The integration of people, data, processes, and business
systems to create, maintain, and evolve a product or service throughout its life cycle.
Product Owner. A person responsible for maximizing the value of the product and
accountable for the end product.
Product Scope. The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or
Program. Related projects, subsidiary programs, and program activities that are
managed in a coordinated manner to obtain benefits not available from managing
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