كتاب Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction - Fifth Edition
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction - Fifth Edition

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction - Fifth Edition    كتاب Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction - Fifth Edition  Emptyالأحد 11 فبراير 2024, 11:46 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction - Fifth Edition
For the NEBOSH National Certificate in Construction Health and Safety
Phil Hughes MBE, MSc, CFIOSH
Chairman NEBOSH 1995–2001. President of IOSH 1990–1991
Ed Ferrett PhD, BSc (Hons Eng), CEng, MIMechE, MIET, CMIOSH
Vice Chairman NEBOSH 1999–2008

كتاب Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction - Fifth Edition  I_t_h_16
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
2.5 Practice revision questions .60
Appendix 2.1 Health and Safety Policy checklist .61
3. Health and safety management systems –
Organising – DO 1 63
3.1 Organisational health and safety roles and
responsibilities of employers, directors,
managers and supervisors .64
3.2 Concept of health and safety culture and its
significance in the management of health and
safety in an organisation 69
3.3 Human factors which influence
behaviour at work 71
3.4 How health and safety behaviour at work can
be improved .78
3.5 Further information 89
3.6 Practice revision questions .90
Appendix 3.1 Leadership actions for directors and
board members 92
Appendix 3.2 Detailed health and safety
responsibilities 94
Appendix 3.3 Safety culture questionnaire 96
Appendix 3.4 List of typical legislation requiring
health and safety training 97
4. Health and safety management systems –
Risk assessment and controls – DO 2 .99
4.1 Principles and practice of risk assessment .100
4.2 General principles of prevention in relation to
risk reduction measures .115
4.3 Sources of health and safety information .116
4.4 Factors that should be considered when
developing and implementing a safe system
of work for general work activities .117
4.5 Role and function of a permit-to-work system .121
4.6 Emergency procedures and arrangements for
contacting the emergency services .125
4.7 Requirements for, and effective provision
of, first-aid in the workplace .127
4.8 Further information 130
4.9 Practice revision questions .131
Appendix 4.1 Hazard checklist .133
Appendix 4.2 Risk assessment example:
office cleaning 134
Appendix 4.3 Asbestos examples of safe systems
of work .136
List of illustrations ix
Preface �����������������������������������������������������������������������xviii
Acknowledgements������������������������������������������������������ xx
About the authors�������������������������������������������������������� xxi
How to use this book and what it covers��������������������xxii
List of principal abbreviations ������������������������������������xxvii
Safety signs xxx
1. Foundations in health and safety 1
1.1 The scope and nature of occupational health
and safety 2
1.2 Moral, legal and financial reasons for
promoting good standards of health and safety . 4
1.3 The legal framework for the regulation of
health and safety including sources and types
of law .7
1.4 The scope, duties and offences of
employers, managers, employees and others
under the Health and Safety at Work etc.
Act 1974 .15
1.5 The scope, duties and offences of
employers, managers, employees and others
under the Management of Health and Safety
at Work Regulations .29
1.6 The legal and organisational health and safety
roles and responsibilities of clients and their
contractors .30
1.7 The principles of assessing and managing
contractors .34
1.8 Further information 37
1.9 Practice revision questions 38
Appendix 1.1 Checklist for supply chain health and
safety management .40
Appendix 1.2 Pre-construction information .41
Appendix 1.3 Construction phase plan .42
Appendix 1.4 The health and safety file .43
2. Health and safety management
systems – PLAN .45
2.1 Key elements of a health and safety
management system .46
2.2 Purpose and importance of setting a policy
for health and safety 53
2.3 Key features and appropriate content of an
effective health and safety policy 53
2.4 Further information 59Contents
vi
Appendix 9.1 Safety at street works and
road works 250
10. Musculoskeletal hazards and risk
control 251
10.1 Musculoskeletal disorders and work-related
upper limb disorders 252
10.2 Manual handling hazards and control
measures .256
10.3 Lifting and moving equipment .262
10.4 Further information 276
10.5 Practice revision questions 276
Appendix 10.1 A typical risk assessment for the
use of lifting equipment .279
Appendix 10.2 A typical risk assessment for an
excavator to be used for lifting 280
Appendix 10.3 Examples of manually operated
load handling equipment 281
Appendix 10.4 Safe use of fork-lift trucks (based
on an HSE document) 282
11. Work equipment hazards and risk control 283
11.1 General requirements for work equipment 284
11.2 Hazards and controls for hand-held tools .293
11.3 Mechanical and non-mechanical hazards of
machinery .304
11.4 Control measures for reducing risks from
machinery hazards 309
11.5 Further information 323
11.6 Practice revision questions .323
12. Electrical safety .327
12.1 Hazards and risks associated with the
use of electricity in the workplace .328
12.2 Control measures .336
12.3 Control measures for working near
overhead power lines .344
12.4 Further information 346
12.5 Practice revision questions 347
13. Fire safety .349
13.1 Principles of fire initiation, classification,
spread and fire risks caused by construction
activities and legal requirements .350
13.2 Fire risk assessment 361
13.3 Fire prevention and prevention
of fire spread 366
13.4 Fire detection, fire alarm systems and
fire-fighting equipment for construction
activities .378
13.5 Requirements for an adequate and properly
maintained means of escape in the
construction workplace .383
13.6 Evacuation of a construction workplace in
the event of a fire .385
13.7 Further information 387
5. Health and safety management systems –
Monitoring, investigation and
recording – CHECK 139
5.1 Active and reactive monitoring 140
5.2 Investigating incidents .149
5.3 Recording and reporting incidents .156
5.4 Further information 163
5.5 Practice revision questions .163
Appendix 5.1 Workplace inspection exercises 165
Appendix 5.2 Information for insurance/
compensation claims .167
Appendix 5.3 Checklist of items to be
covered in a construction site inspection .168
6. Health and safety management systems –
Audit and review – ACT .173
6.1 Health and safety auditing .174
6.2 Review of health and safety performance .177
6.3 Further information 180
6.4 Practice revision questions .180
7. Construction law and management .181
7.1 The scope, definition and particular issues
relating to construction activities .182
7.2 The legal, moral and financial consequences
of failing to manage health and safety within
the construction industry .184
7.3 Scope and application of the Construction
(Design and Management) Regulations 2015 188
7.4 Sources of external construction health and
safety information 195
7.5 Further information 196
7.6 Practice revision questions 197
8. Construction site issues – hazards
and risk control 199
8.1 Initial site assessment .200
8.2 Appropriate general site control measures .204
8.3 Health, welfare and work environment
requirements 211
8.4 Violence at work 215
8.5 Substance misuse at work .218
8.6 Safe movement of people on
construction sites .220
8.7 Further information 227
8.8 Practice revision questions 228
Appendix 8.1 A typical set of site safety rules .230
Appendix 8.2 Smoke-free workplaces .231
9. Vehicle and plant movement – hazards
and risk control 233
9.1 Safe movement of vehicles and plant within
a construction environment .234
9.2 Driving at work .243
9.3 Further information 248
9.4 Practice revision questions 248vii
Contents
Appendix 16.6 Examples of safe systems of
work used in roof work 496
17. Excavation work and confined spaces –
hazards and risk control 497
17.1 Excavation work hazards and risk assessment 498
17.2 Control measures for excavation work 505
17.3 Confined space working hazards and risks 510
17.4 Control measures for confined
space working 511
17.5 Further information 513
17.6 Practice revision questions 514
Appendix 17.1 An example of safe digging practice 516
Appendix 17.2 Typical excavation work risk
assessment 517
Appendix 17.3 Typical confined spaces risk
assessment 518
18. Demolition and deconstruction – hazards
and risk control 519
18.1 Demolition and deconstruction
hazards and risks 520
18.2 Control measures .521
18.3 Purposes and scope of pre-demolition,
deconstruction or refurbishment survey 525
18.4 Control measures that a method statement
should include 527
18.5 Further information 529
18.6 Practice revision questions 529
Appendix 18.1 Checklist for a safe system of work 530
19. Summary of the main legal requirements 531
19.1 Introduction 532
19.2 The legal framework 533
19.3 List of Acts, orders and regulations
summarised .536
19.4 HSW Act 1974 as amended in 2013 538
19.5 Environmental Protection Act 1990 .542
19.6 New Roads and Street Works Act 1991 552
19.7 Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at
Work Regulations 2010 554
19.8 Control of Asbestos Regulations (CAR) 2012 556
19.9 Classification, Labelling and Packaging
of Substances and Mixtures Regulation
(European) adopting into EU UN Globally
Harmonised System of Classification and
Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) .565
19.10 Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 .568
19.11 Construction (Design and Management)
Regulations 2015 (CDM 2015) .570
19.12 Health and Safety (Consultation with
Employees) Regulations 1996 .579
19.13 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
Regulations (COSHH) 2002 and 2004
Amendment .581
19.14 Dangerous Substances and Explosive
Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR) 2002 585
13.8 Practice revision questions .388
Appendix 13.1 Fire risk assessment checklist
as recommended in Fire Safety Guides
published by the Department for
Communities and Local Government
in 2006 390
Appendix 13.2 Typical fire notice .391
14. Chemical and biological health hazards
and risk control 393
14.1 Forms and classification of, and the health
risks from exposure to, hazardous
substances .394
14.2 Assessment of health risks 398
14.3 Workplace exposure limits .407
14.4 Control measures .408
14.5 Specific agents .419
14.6 Safe handling and storage of waste .430
14.7 Further information 432
14.8 Practice revision questions .433
Appendix 14.1 GHS hazard (H) statements
(Health only) .436
Appendix 14.2 Health questionnaire for ongoing
surveillance of persons working with
respiratory sensitisers 437
Appendix 14.3 Hazardous properties of waste as
listed in the Hazardous Waste (England and
Wales) Regulations 2005 .438
Appendix 14.4 Different types of protective
gloves .439
15. Physical and psychological health hazards
and risk control .441
15.1 Noise 442
15.2 Vibration .448
15.3 Radiation 453
15.4 Stress .459
15.5 Further information 461
15.6 Practice revision questions 462
16. Working at height – hazards and risk
control 465
16.1 Working at height hazards and control .466
16.2 Safe working practices for access
equipment and roof work .474
16.3 Protection of others .489
16.4 Working over or near water .489
16.5 Further information 490
16.6 Practice revision questions 491
Appendix 16.1 Inspection timing and
frequency chart 493
Appendix 16.2 Checklist of typical scaffolding faults 494
Appendix 16.3 Checklist for a safety inspection of
a scaffold 494
Appendix 16.4 Scaffold design, inspection,
competence and supervision checklist .494
Appendix 16.5 Scaffold structures that need to
be designed .495Contents
viii
20. International, environmental and other
aspects of health and safety 653
20.1 Introduction 654
20.2 International issues 654
20.3 Environmental considerations 661
20.4 Health and safety in the home .667
20.5 Safe cycling 670
20.6 Further information 671
Appendix 20.1 Scaffolds and ladders .672
Appendix 20.2 International travel tips 672
21. Study skills .675
21.1 Introduction 676
21.2 Find a place to study 676
21.3 Time management .676
21.4 Blocked thinking .677
21.5 Taking notes .677
21.6 Reading for study .677
21.7 Free learning resources from the
Open University .677
21.8 Organising for revision .678
21.9 Organising information .678
21.10 Being aware of your learning style 680
21.11 How does memory work? .680
21.12 How to deal with exams 681
21.13 The examiners’ reports 682
21.14 Conclusion .683
21.15 Further information 683
22. Specimen answers to practice questions 685
22.1 Introduction 686
22.2 The written examinations 686
22.3 Unit NCC2 – Construction Health and Safety
Practical Application .691
Appendix 22.1 The practical application report 696
Appendix 22.2 The practical application
observation sheets .699
23. International sources of information and
guidance .705
23.1 Introduction 706
23.2 How to search the internet effectively 706
23.3 Some useful websites .708
23.4 Health and safety forms 710
Index 747
19.15 Health and Safety (Display Screen
Equipment) Regulations 1992 as amended
in 2002 .587
19.16 Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 .589
19.17 Employers’ Liability (Compulsory Insurance)
Act 1969 and Regulations 1998 amended in
2002, 2004 and 2008 .592
19.18 Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 .593
19.19 Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations
1981 as amended 601
19.20 Health and Safety (Information for
Employees) Regulations 1989 .602
19.21 Hazardous Waste (England and Wales)
Regulations 2005 .603
19.22 Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 603
19.23 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
Regulations (LOLER) 1998 as amended
in 2002 .606
19.24 Management of Health and Safety at Work
Regulations 1999 as amended in
2003 and 2006 .609
19.25 Manual Handling Operations Regulations
(MHO) 1992 as amended in 2002 612
19.26 Control of Noise at Work
Regulations 2005 .614
19.27 Personal Protective Equipment at Work
Regulations 1992 as amended in
2002 and 2013 .618
19.28 Provision and Use of Work Equipment
Regulations 1998 (except Part IV) as
amended in 2002 and 2013 .620
19.29 The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and
Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 2013 .624
19.30 Safety Representatives and Safety
Committees Regulations 1977 629
19.31 Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals)
Regulations 1996 .630
19.32 The Supply of Machinery (Safety)
Regulations 2008 as amended .633
19.33 Control of Vibration at Work
Regulations 2005 .634
19.34 Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare)
Regulations 1992 as amended in
2002 and 2013 .636
19.35 Work at Height Regulations 2005 as
amended in 2007 .638
19.36 The Waste (England and Wales)
Regulations 2011 .642
19.37 Other relevant legislation in brief .643ix
2.8 The policy might be good but is it put
into practice – unsafe use of a ladder (
Mikeledray – Shutterstock) .58
2.9 Emergency procedures ( Henry Ho –
Shutterstock) 62
2.10 Ladders and scaffold maintained in good
condition and frequently inspected .62
2.11 Vacuum-operated paving stone placer .62
3.1 DO part of the management cycle involves
Risk Profiling (Chapter 4), Organising and
Implementing plans .64
3.2 Everyone from senior manager down has
health and safety responsibilities .65
3.3 Safety practitioner at the front line
( Shutterstock/John Gomez) 68
3.4 Safety investment 69
3.5 Heinrich’s accidents/incidents ratios .71
3.6 Well-designed workstation for sitting or
standing .73
3.7 Most construction rubbish can burn. Make
sure that it is swept up and removed
from the site as soon as possible (
Michaelstockfoto – Shutterstock) .74
3.8 Motivation and activity .75
3.9 Visual perceptions: (a) Are the lines of the
same length? (b) Faces or vase? (c) Faces
or saxophone player? .75
3.10 Types of human failure 76
3.11 Health and Safety Law poster – must be
displayed or brochure given to
employees .81
3.12 The law on consulting employees about
health and safety in your workplace.
References to the Regulations are colourcoded to help find the parts that are
most relevant to a particular organisation:
for workplaces where the Safety
Representatives and Safety Committees
Regulations 1977 apply; for workplaces
where the Health and Safety (Consultation
with Employees) Regulations 1996 apply
(Source: HSE INDG232(rev1)) .82
3.13 Health and safety training needs and
opportunities 85
3.14 Internal influences on safety culture 87
1.1 At work in Southampton 2015 – site
operated well into the night ( Phil Hughes) . 3
1.2 Insured and uninsured costs ( Beci Phipps) .6
1.3 The court system in England and Wales for
health and safety showing the principle
courts .9
1.4 Sub-divisions and sources of law .12
1.5 Diagrammatic view of ‘reasonably practicable’ 14
1.6 HSW Act ( Phil Hughes) .16
1.7 Employees at work taking reasonable care
of themselves ( Phil Hughes) .18
1.8 The inspector inspects .19
1.9 NEBOSH is in control here 24
1.10 Typical supply chain .25
1.11 Inadequate chair – it should have five feet
and an adjustable backrest – take care
when buying second-hand .26
1.12 Diagram showing the main external
agencies that impact on the workplace .28
1.13 Good standards prevent harm and save
money 28
1.14 Domestic client: CDM applies but not
notifiable ( Phil Hughes) .33
1.15 Large-scale contract: CDM applies and it is
notifiable ( Phil Hughes) .34
1.16 Contractors at work unloading steel beams
( Phil Hughes) .35
1.17 Site safety rules ( Phil Hughes) 36
1.18 Rules at site entrance with viewing panel
to see inside the site ( Phil Hughes) 36
2.1 The Plan, Do, Check, Act cycle ( Beci
Phipps) 47
2.2 PLAN part of the management cycle
involves Policy and Planning ( Beci Phipps) .49
2.3 Well-presented policy documents ( Beci
Phipps) 53
2.4 (a) and (b) Part of a policy commitment
( Beci Phipps) .54
2.5 SMART performance standards or
objectives ( Beci Phipps) 55
2.6 (a) and (b) Good information, training and
working with employees is essential (
Beci Phipps) 57
2.7 Providing guidance and training is essential
( Beci Phipps) .58
List of illustrationsList of illustrations
x
4.29 Flow chart showing courses to be
completed over a 3-year certification
period for EFAW and FAW. The dotted
line indicates the route to be taken in
subsequent years after completion of the
relevant course at year 3 ( HSE) 130
5.1 CHECK involves measuring performance
and investigating incidents ( Beci Phipps) 141
5.2 Effective risk control (Source: HSE) ( Beci
Phipps) 142
5.3 Poor conditions: (a) inspection needed;
(b) inspection in progress ( Smikeymikey
Shutterstock; Lisa F. Young Shutterstock) .144
5.4 The use of a checklist ( Beci Phipps) .146
5.5 Dangerous occurrence: aftermath of a fire
( Jason Salmon Shutterstock) 149
5.6 Accident at work – reconstruction of
a ladder accident showing where the
deceased person was found under the
ladder which had toppled over while he
was attempting to adjust the height of the
extending ladder ( Phil Hughes) .150
5.7 (a) Accident; (b) near miss (includes
dangerous occurrence) damage only; (c)
undesired circumstances ( HSE) 151
5.8 F. E. Bird’s well-known accident triangle
( Beci Phipps) .151
5.9 Appropriate levels of investigation ( HSE) 152
5.10 Questions to be asked in an investigation
( Beci Phipps) .154
5.11 (a) The Accident Book BI 510 (Second
Edition) ISBN 97807176640580 ( HSE);
(b) Record form from BI 510 ( HSE) .157–8
5.12 Construction site ( Phil Hughes) 165
5.13 Road repair ( Phil Hughes) .165
5.14 Workshop ( Phil Hughes) .166
5.15 Roof repair and unloading flammable
liquids ( Phil Hughes) .166
6.1 ACT part of the health and safety
management system ( Beci Phipps) 174
6.2 The Audit Process ( Beci Phipps) .175
6.3 Using the audit questions for interviews
and collecting information ( Beci Phipps) .176
6.4 The audit report should be reviewed by
senior managers with an action plan and
follow-up ( Beci Phipps) .177
6.5 Review of performance ( Beci Phipps) 178
6.6 Continual improvement part of the health
and safety management process ( Beci
Phipps) 179
7.1 Building site entrance ( Phil Hughes) .182
7.2 Demolition and ground clearance ( Phil
Hughes) 183
7.3 Recent migrant workers, whose standards
may not match those in Europe, are
employed in the UK and the EU in general.
In this instance, language was a problem,
hard hats and gloves would have helped,
3.15 External influences on safety culture .88
4.1 Risk assessment or profiling is covered by
the DO part of the management cycle
( Beci Phipps) .100
4.2 Reducing the risk – finding an alternative
safer method when fitting a wall-mounted
boiler 101
4.3 Accident at work 102
4.4 Bird’s well-known accident triangle ( Beci
Phipps) 102
4.5 Five steps to risk assessment ( Beci
Phipps) 104
4.6 Proper control of gases and vapours in a
laboratory ( emin kuliyev Shutterstock) 107
4.7 Colour categories and shapes of signs 107
4.8 Examples of warning, mandatory and
prohibition signs .107
4.9 Falling object and construction site
entrance signs .107
4.10 Wet floor signs 108
4.11 Examples of chemical warning signs .108
4.12 Examples of fire safety signs .108
4.13 Examples of fire action signs .108
4.14 Examples of first-aid signs .108
4.15 LPG sign 109
4.16 Smoke-free – no smoking sign ( HM
Government) .109
4.17 Fragile roof signs .109
4.18 Welfare washing facilities: washbasin
should be large enough for people to wash
their forearms ( Phil Hughes) .111
4.19 Good dust control for a chasing operation.
A dust mask is still required for complete
protection .112
4.20 Respiratory protection and disposable
overalls are needed when working in high
levels of asbestos dust 112
4.21 A lone worker – special arrangements
required. Sand or shot blasting inside a
tank with an air-fed helmet and vest
( Shutterstock) .115
4.22 When controls break down ( Lakeview
Images Shutterstock) 115
4.23 Checking the label for health risks ( Phil
Hughes) 117
4.24 Multi-padlocked hasp for locking off an
isolation valve – each worker puts on their
own padlock ( Phil Hughes) .118
4.25 A hot work permit is usually essential for
welding, cutting and burning except in
designated areas like a welding shop 123
4.26 Entering a confined space with breathing
apparatus, rescue tripod and rescue
watcher 124
4.27 Emergency services at work
( Shutterstock) .125
4.28 (a) First-aid and stretcher sign; (b) first-aid
sign 128xi
List of illustrations
8.14 Falling from a height – tower scaffold with
inadequate handrail (too low) and no middle
rail. Access ladder should be internal and it
should never be moved with people on the
scaffold 221
8.15 Good stairs with handrail leading from site
accommodation ( Phil Hughes) 222
8.16 Typical pedestrian/vehicle crossing area
( HSE) .224
8.17 A designated waste collection area ( HSE) 224
8.18 Pedestrians separated from the work and
traffic ( HSE) .227
9.1 Telescopic materials handler ( Phil
Hughes) 235
9.2 Various construction plant with driver
protection ( Phil Hughes) .235
9.3 Site entrance to large construction site
( HSE) .238
9.4 Dumper truck with rollover protection
(ROP) ( Phil Hughes) 238
9.5 (a) Road Works Ahead; (b) Road Narrows
( HM Government) .240
9.6 Signs for Keep Right and Keep Left ( HM
Government) .241
9.7 Cone and road danger lamp ( HM
Government) .241
9.8 Red and white barrier rail ( HM
Government) .241
9.9 Road works sign for footpath closure.
Could be improved with walkway for
pedestrians beside track. But this is only
minor road, and pedestrians can cross
to a good pavement opposite ( HM
Government) .242
9.10 Typical information sign ( HM
Government) .242
9.11 Road works End sign ( HM
Government) .242
9.12 Occupational road risk increases when
construction work is undertaken – cranes
like this have to be driven to their operating
location and operated when on site ( Phil
Hughes) 244
9.13 Concrete delivery by road ( Phil Hughes) .245
9.14 Must have a valid licence for each type of
vehicle ( Shutterstock) .246
9.15 Fork-lift truck loading timber trusses onto a
trailer. Loading vehicle correctly and evenly
is most important for road stability en route
( William Milner Shutterstock) .246
9.16 Traffic control by portable traffic signals
( Phil Hughes) .250
9.17 Works on footway with temporary footway
in carriage ( Phil Hughes) .250
10.1 Loading pipes onto a barge using a
teleporter lift truck 252
10.2 A tilted worktable. The distance between
the operator and the work can be reduced
boots were good protection but not steeltoed. Concrete delivery equipment was
very up to date ( Phil Hughes) 184
7.4 A serious accident waiting to happen on
a small building site: no top guard on the
circular saw – a very common safety fault
( Phil Hughes) .185
7.5 Design and management of construction
work ( Shutterstock) 188
7.6 (a) Domestic client: CDM applies but only
a short duration contract, no notification
required – would be notifiable if a large
project; (b) Large site (over 30 days, more
than 20 workers simultaneously or exceeds
500 person days): CDM applies and client
must notify the relevant enforcing authority
( Phil Hughes) .190
7.7 Protection of the public in main shopping
area ( Phil Hughes) .191
7.8 Contractors at work ( Phil Hughes) 192
7.9 Barriers to prevent unauthorised entry
also advertising involvement with the
Considerate Constructors Scheme 193
8.1 Concrete being pumped to upper floors on
a large construction site ( Shutterstock) 200
8.2 Keeping corridors clear during
refurbishment ( HSE) .201
8.3 Secure site access gate with added
protection to prevent vehicles entering at
night or on Sundays ( Phil Hughes) 201
8.4 Prevention of drowning. Rescue and safety
equipment must always be easily available
and in good condition .202
8.5 Well organised site with internal storage
compounds and site accommodation
behind with means of escape staircase
in case of fire (also from the UK in
background on Southampton water) .207
8.6 Working in or close to occupied premises .211
8.7 A wide range of portable welfare facilities
like these are available. It may be possible
when refurbishing buildings to use the
facilities already on site 213
8.8 A large building site well lit at night (
Pavel L Photo and Video Shutterstock) .213
8.9 The heat equation 214
8.10 Security access and surveillance CCTV
camera (Source: HSE) 216
8.11 It takes a healthy liver about one hour
to break down and remove one unit of
alcohol. A unit is equivalent to 8 mg or 10
ml (1 cl) of pure alcohol 219
8.12 Tripping hazards on untidy site ( Phil
Hughes) 220
8.13 Cleaning must be done carefully to prevent
slipping or falling using bosun’s chair and
rope support with trained worker ( Anna
Baburkina Shutterstock) 221List of illustrations
xii
11.8 (a) broken and dangerous wood chisel
handle; (b) range of non-powered hand
tools 293
11.9 Range of hand-held portable power tools
( DeWalt) .295
11.10 Pneumatic hammer/chisel ( J5M
Shutterstock) 297
11.11 Electric drill with percussion hammer
action to drill holes in masonry 297
11.12 Disc-cutter/cut-off saw ( Dmitry
Kalinovsky Shutterstock) .298
11.13 Rotary drum floor sander .299
11.14 Orbital finishing sander .299
11.15 Disc sander 299
11.16 Cartridge-powered nail gun 300
11.17 Pneumatic-powered nail gun .300
11.18 Typical chainsaw with rearguard. 1 – hand
guard with integral chain brake; 2 – exhaust
outlet directed to the right-hand side away
from the operator; 3 – chain breakage
guard at bottom of rear handle; 4 – chain
designed to have low-kickback tendency;
5 – rubber anti-vibration mountings; 6 –
lockout for the throttle trigger; 7 – guide
bar (should be protected when transporting
chainsaw); 8 – bottom chain catcher; 9 –
PPE hand/eye/ear defender signs; 10 – on/
off switch. 302
11.19 Kevlar gloves, overtrousers and overshoes
providing protection against chainsaw cuts.
Helmet and face shield protect the head.
Apprentice under training – first felling 303
11.20 Range of mechanical hazards 306
11.21 Range of fixed guards 310
11.22 Adjustable guard for a rotating drill bit on a
pedestal drill .311
11.23 Self-adjusting guard on a circular wood saw 311
11.24 Typical sliding and hinged interlocking
guards 311
11.25 Schematic diagram of a telescopic trip
device fitted to a radial drill 312
11.26 Two-handed control device 312
11.27 Typical multifunction printer/photocopier 314
11.28 Typical office shredder .315
11.29 Typical bench-mounted grinder .315
11.30 Typical pedestal drill .315
11.31 Typical bench-mounted circular saw 316
11.32 Hand-fed planing machine safeguards .317
11.33 Spindle moulding machine with various
forms of safeguard 317
11.34 (a) Typical small cement mixer with a
petrol engine or electric motor; (b) dieselpowered concrete mixer fitted with a
hydraulic loading hopper .319
11.35 Plate compactor .319
11.36 (a) Ground consolidating rider-mounted
vibrating roller; (b) Ground consolidating
roller using remote control which
by putting the table at a more vertical
angle. The table is adjustable in height and
angle to suit the particular job (Source:
HSE) .253
10.3 Pump liquid from a bulk container to a
dispenser to save awkward handling
(Source: HSE) .253
10.4 Workstation design 254
10.5 Manual handling: there are many potential
hazards .256
10.6 Main injury sites caused by manual
handling accidents .257
10.7 HSE guidance for manual lifting –
recommended weights (Source: HSE) 258
10.8 Moving bricks or paving blocks using a
specially designed barrow ( HSE) 259
10.9 The main elements of a good lifting
technique ( HSE) 261
10.10 Use of a hand-operated pallet truck to raise
and move goods ( HSE) .263
10.11 Conveyor systems: (a) belt conveyors;
(b) a method of safely moving roofing
sheets along a roof valley; (c) a suggested
method for manually lifting trusses to
eaves level ( HSE) 265
10.12 A brick elevator (Source: HSE) .267
10.13 Rough terrain counterbalanced lift truck
( HSE) .267
10.14 (a) Attaching a quick hitch fly jib to a
telescopic mobile crane (hard hat missing);
(b) crane in use installing a yacht’s mast;
(c) two excavators with quick hitch bucket
couplings ( Phil Hughes) 269
10.15 Lifting roof trusses ( TFoxFoto
Shutterstock) 271
10.16 (a) Typical luffing jib tower cranes
operating on a large construction site
( Shutterstock); (b) Typical saddle jib
(horizontal) tower crane ( Phil Hughes) 272
10.17 Mobile self-erecting tower crane ( Phil
Hughes) 274
10.18 Specially designed safety hooks (Source:
HSE) .274
11.1 (a) This is the CE marking; (b) Division of
responsibility for the safety of machinery
( Beci Phipps) .285
11.2 Typical Certificate of Conformity .286
11.3 Using a bench-mounted abrasive wheel
( Draper 298
11.4 British Standard system for specifying
abrasive wheels from BS EN 12413:1999
and BS ISO 525:1999 ( HSE) .298
11.5 (a) Typical diesel-powered compressor with
air receiver and pneumatic chisel; (b) typical
electrically powered compressor with air
receiver ( Speedy) 290
11.6 Equipment controls – design features .291
11.7 Emergency stop button .292xiii
List of illustrations
13.11 Avoid lighting bonfires unless essential. If
essential, do make sure points (a)–(e) are
followed ( HSE) 362
13.12 Fire evacuation diagram suitable for
refurbishment or when the main structure
has been formed 366
13.13 Controlling waste on site – waste chute
and covered skip ( HSE) .368
13.14 Electrical cabling can often get damaged
and overloaded during a construction
project. Other poor features here include:
lack of head protection; confined space
entry; edge protection and trench supports
( serato Shutterstock) 370
13.15 (a) Storage arrangements for highly
flammable liquids; (b) LPG outside storage
compound ( HSE) .372
13.16 Multiple temporary accommodation units
(TAUs) with external staircase ( Phil
Hughes) 373
13.17 Steel structures can collapse in the heat of
a fire ( Phil Hughes) 375
13.18 Insulated core panels .375
13.19 Plasterboard partitions such as this can form
effective compartmentation. It is important
that all gaps are filled in. In this case, there
are holes in the top of the partition and
service ducts in the side rooms that need to
be sealed (Source: HSE) 376
13.20 Safe dispensing of flammable liquids
( Phil Hughes) .377
13.21 Simple electrical fire alarm system
components ( Phil Hughes) 379
13.22 A temporary wired-in fire alarm during
major renovation of a large and multi-storey
complex building ( HSE) .379
13.23 Fire point on large construction site
( Phil Hughes) .380
13.24 Types of fire extinguishers and labels
(Note: main colour of all extinguishers is
red with 5% for label) 381
13.25 Various sprinkler heads designed to fit into
a high-level water pipe system and spray
water at different angles onto a fire below 382
13.26 Fire escape route clearly signed and free
from obstructions ( HSE) .384
13.27 External access/fire escape in a large
scaffold during building construction
( Phil Hughes) .384
13.28 Fire exit sign 385
14.1 (a) Use of the GHS symbols on site;
(b) how the European packaging symbols
relate to the new GHS labels
( Phil Hughes) . 397
14.2 Paint spraying – risk of sensitising
particularly if isocyanate based paint used
and inadequate local exhaust ventilation
( Phil Hughes) .399
eliminates the whole-body vibration
exposure of the operator ( Wacker
nueson) .320
11.37 Highway line-marking lorry-mounted
equipment ( yakub88 Shutterstock) .320
11.38 Walk-behind line-marking equipment 321
11.39 Typical portable petrol engine, electric
generator .321
11.40 Larger transportable diesel-powered
electric generator in an enclosure 322
12.1 Beware of electricity – typical sign 328
12.2 Typical electric shock poster (Courtesy of
Stocksigns) .331
12.3 Keep 18 m clear of high-voltage lines 332
12.4 Electrical faults through overloading or
damaged cables cause a large number of
fires on construction sites (see Chapter 13)
( trainman111 Shutterstock) 333
12.5 (a) Typical transformer; (b) typical RCD
device 333
12.6 Prevention of static discharge; container
connected to earthed drum ( Phil
Hughes) 334
12.7 Portable hand-held electric power tools
(Courtesy of DeWalt) .335
12.8 Typical 240 volt fuses and mini circuit
breaker ( Shutterstock) 339
12.9 Double insulation sign 340
12.10 Checking for underground cables with a
cable detector ( Phil Hughes) .341
12.11 UK standard 3-pin plug wiring ( Phil
Hughes) 342
12.12 Precautions for overhead lines: (a)
‘goalpost’ crossing points beneath lines to
avoid contact by plant; (b) diagram showing
normal dimensions for ‘goalpost’ crossing
points and barriers (Reproduced from
HSG185 Health and Safety in Excavations)
( HSE) .346
13.1 Fire is still a significant risk in many
workplaces: (a) multi-storey building on fire
during refurbishment; (b) single-storey farm
building on fire in the UK ( DK.samco/
Shutterstock.com) 350
13.2 Fire triangle 354
13.3 (a) Transport flammable solid sign;
(b) GHS – packaging sign .355
13.4 (a) Transport flammable liquid sign;
(b) GHS – packaging sign .356
13.5 (a) Transport flammable gas sign;
(b) GHS – packaging sign .356
13.6 (a) Transport oxidising agent sign;
(b) GHS – packaging sign .356
13.7 Principles of heat transmission 357
13.8 Smoke spread in buildings .358
13.9 Causes of fire in recent years 359
13.10 Accidental fires – sources of ignition in
recent years .360List of illustrations
xiv
15.5 Injuries which can be caused by hand–arm
vibration (Source: HSE) .449
15.6 (a) and (b) Powered chisels or breakers
mounted on different sizes of excavators to
avoid HA vibration ( Phil Hughes) .451
15.7 (a) Vibrating roller with risk of whole-body
vibration ( Phil Hughes); (b) remote
control vibrating plate weighing 1.2 tons
with compaction in excess of a 7 ton roller
which eliminates the risk of whole-body
vibration. The operator is protected from
vibrations, noise and dust. The machine
can only be operated if line of sight is
intact. In case of a loss of control the
proximity recognition sensor keeps the
operator safe ( Wacker Nueson) 453
15.8 Typical ionising sign .454
15.9 X-ray generating unit used for weld testing
on site in Russia. The tape states: ‘beware
of radiation’ (shows the value of pictorial
signs) ( shinobi / Shutterstock.com) .455
15.10 Radon monitoring equipment 455
15.11 Metal furnace – source of infrared heat .457
15.12 Low level laser beams extensively used
for levelling and setting out in construction
work ( Wojciech Dziadosz Shutterstock) .458
15.13 Welding shields used to protect against
intense ultraviolet radiation which can
cause ‘arc eye’ ( Praphan Jampala
Shutterstock) 458
15.14 Breakdown of mental ill-health cases by
type of event which precipitated stress
between 2010 and 2012 (Source: Stress
and Psychological Disorders Great Britain
2013, HSE) .459
16.1 Working at height – mast climbing work
platforms ( Phil Hughes) 467
16.2 Working platform, pre-fabricated tower
scaffolds and bridging unit ( Speedy) .468
16.3 Industrial roof work with safety nets to
arrest falls ( HSE) .469
16.4 Proper precautions should always be taken
when working on or near fragile roofs –
access system for short-term work ( HSE) .469
16.5 Typical sloping roof edge protection:
barriers shown in (a) can be useful where
space is limited, but they are not capable of
sustaining loads so large as (b) and (c) which
also provide a working platform ( HSE) 470
16.6 Flat roof edge protection supported
at ground level. This type of support
allows work up to the roof edge without
obstruction ( HSE) 472
16.7 Ladder showing correct 1 in 4 angle
(means of securing omitted for clarity)
( HSE) .475–6
16.8 (a) Ladder tied at top stiles (correct for
working on, but not for access); (b) Tying
14.3 Route map for adequate control for SMEs
non-experts (Source: HSE) .399
14.4 Hazardous substances – principal routes of
entry into the human body .400
14.5 The upper and lower respiratory system .401
14.6 The nervous system 401
14.7 The cardiovascular system 402
14.8 Parts of the urinary system 402
14.9 The skin – main structures of the dermis 403
14.10 (a) Typical symbols and (b) product label on
containers 406
14.11 Hand pump and stain detector tubes
(Courtesy of Draeger) .407
14.12 (a) Common elements of a simple LEV
system; (b) welding with an adjustable LEV
system to remove dust and fumes 411
14.13 Natural ventilation in a building (Source:
HSE) .412
14.14 Personal protective equipment ( Corepics
VOFShutterstock) .413
14.15 Types of respiratory protective equipment:
(a) filtering half-mask; (b) half-mask –
re-usable with filters; (c) compressed
air-line breathing apparatus with full
face fitted with demand valve
(Source: HSE) .415
14.16 Variety of eye protection goggles (Courtesy
of Draper) .416
14.17 Damaged asbestos lagging on pipework
( HSE) .422
14.18 Asbestos removal enclosure ( HSE) 423
14.19 Dermatitis from wet cement or concrete
( VrisPhuket) .427
14.20 Removing waste from a roadside
excavation by lorry-mounted loading grab
( Phil Hughes) .430
14.21 A designated waste collection area with
two types of skip commonly used for
waste collection. Heavy materials would
be transported in the smaller skip. Sizes of
skip range from about 4 cu metres (small
skip shown) to about 35 cu metres (large
skip shown) ( HSE) .431
14.22 Electronic waste under WEEE .432
15.1 Better to control noise at source than wear
ear protection ( Phil Hughes) .442
15.2 Passage of sound waves: (a) The ear
with cochlea uncoiled; (b) summary of
transmission 443
15.3 Typical ear protection zone sign 446
15.4 Noise paths found in a workplace: (a) the
quiet area is subjected to reflected noise
from a machine elsewhere in the building;
(b) the correct use of roof absorption will
reduce the reflected noise reaching the
quiet area; (c) segregation of the noisy
operation will benefit the whole workplace
( HSE) .446xv
List of illustrations
17.9 (a) Timbered excavation with ladder access
and supported services (guard removed
on one side for clarity) ( HSE); (b) A long
timbered trench in soft ground ( pryzmat
Shutterstock) 507
17.10 Trench box in use ( serato Shutterstock) .508
17.11 Using a cable detector ( Phil Hughes) 509
17.12 Entering a confined space with full
breathing apparatus and watcher outside
( Shutterstock) .511
17.13 Training for confined space entry 512
17.14 Escape breathing apparatus .513
18.1 Demolition of old mill in progress 521
18.2 High hazard vacuum cleaner to clear up
asbestos material ( HSE) .521
18.3 Long-reach hydraulic arm for piecemeal
demolition ( Jozef Sowa Shutterstock) 521
18.4 Remote-controlled hydraulic arm for
pushing, nibbling or hammering ( Dmitry
Kalinovsky Shutterstock) .522
18.5 Controlled collapse ( Linda Macpherson
Shutterstock) 522
18.6 Demolition site should be well planned and
properly signed and controlled throughout
the project ( Phil Hughes) 524
18.7 Clearing up asbestos-containing materials
(hazardous waste) after demolition has
started is very difficult and expensive
( HSE) .528
18.8 Type and size of the building is particularly
important for unusual demolitions
( Konstantin Romanov Shutterstock) .528
19.1 New GHS pictograms with examples of
Hazard statements and Precautionary
statements ( Phil Hughes) .566
19.2 (a) CDM 2015 Schedule 1; (b) CDM 2015
Schedule 3 ( HSE) 574
19.3 Content of inspection reports ( HSE) .576
19.4 Principles of good practice – COSHH
( HSE) .583
19.5 Warning sign for places where explosive
atmospheres may occur ( Stocksigns) .587
19.6 Fire safety order – matters to be
considered in risk assessment in respect
of: (a) dangerous substances; (b) young
persons ( HM Government) .595
19.7 Measures to be taken in respect of
dangerous substances ( HM Government) 596
19.8 A completed Hazardous Waste
Consignment Note .604
19.9 Manual Handling Operations Regulations –
flow chart ( HSE) 613
19.10 What needs to be done under the Control
of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 ( HSE) 616
19.11 (a) and (b) Prohibition signs ( Stocksigns) 631
19.12 (a) and (b) Fire action signs ( Stocksigns) .631
19.13 (a) and (b) Warning signs ( Stocksigns) 631
19.14 (a) and (b) Mandatory signs ( Stocksigns) 631
part way down; (c) Tying near the base;
(d) Securing at the base 475
16.9 Attach paint cans and the like to the ladder .477
16.10 Access ladders should be tied, and extend
to at least 1 m above the landing point to
provide a secure handhold .478
16.11 Working with stepladders ( HSE) .478
16.12 Typical independent tied scaffold ( HSE)
( Beci Phipps) .479
16.13 Fan scaffold to protect people and passing
traffic ( Phil Hughes) 480
16.14 Hoist with interlocked gates ( Phil
Hughes) 482
16.15 Typical pre-fabricated tower scaffold
( HSE) .483
16.16 Mobile elevating work platform (MEWP) –
scissor lift ( Phil Hughes) .483
16.17 Mobile elevating work platform (MEWP)
– cherry picker with harness and lanyard
attached to cradle ( Phil Hughes) .484
16.18 Airbags to give a safe soft landing ( HSE) .486
16.19 Fall arrest harness and device .487
16.20 (a) Roof ladder. The ridge iron should be
large enough to be clear of the ridge tile;
(b) permanent protection installed at valley
gutter (the protection should be supported
by at least three rafters beneath the roof
sheets) .488
16.21 Working over or near water – large scaffold
with protection screens and a small boat
moored under the bridge in case rescue is
needed .490
17.1 A very hazardous situation for the worker
with a deep trench, a heavy machine very
close to the edge and no trench supports
( serato Shutterstock) 498
17.2 Undermining of boundary wall ( HSE) 499
17.3 Barriers around excavation by footpath
( HSE) .501
17.4 (a) Cofferdam for building a below-ground
shaft and concrete tank – cofferdam
removed and backfilled after construction;
(b) Cofferdam built for repairing bridge piers
in a river to be removed after construction
completed ( Phil Hughes) 502
17.5 (a) Massive Second World War concrete
caissons known as mulberry harbour
units – hundreds were constructed in the
UK and then towed to Normandy and sunk
in position to form a harbour wall ( Cory
Stevens Shutterstock); (b) Steel caisson
being used in construction work 503
17.6 Stop blocks for dumpers ( HSE) .506
17.7 Vehicle protection at the top of an
excavation ( HSE) .506
17.8 Trench sheets with timber walings, screw
props, puncheons and sole plates
( HSE) .507List of illustrations
xvi
19.15 (a) and (b) Safety signs ( Stocksigns) .632
19.16 Work at height – flowchart ( HSE) .639
20.1 World Cup stadium under construction,
Cape Town, 2009 ( sima Shutterstock) 655
20.2 ILO’s Strategic Approach to strengthening
National OSH Systems (Source: ILO
Introductory report: Decent Work, Safe
Work) .657
20.3 Excavator at work in France ( Phil Hughes) .657
20.4 Have to consider different solutions in
different countries: (a) safe delivery of
furniture in Certaldo, Italy; (b) dangerous
access to install overhead low-voltage data
lines in Morocco ( Phil Hughes) .659
20.5 Occupational road risk: (a) unusual and
slow-moving large animals mixed with
traffic in India; (b) overloaded truck in
Morocco ( Phil Hughes) .660
20.6 Example of heavy industrial pollution
( Jaroslav Moravcik Shutterstock) 662
20.7 Water pollution from: (a) an oil spillage;
(b) plastic and other solid waste 664
20.8 Electronic waste under WEEE 666
20.9 Environmental protection commitment .666
20.10 Gas explosion during the night in
Southampton 2015 – two people escaped
unhurt ( Phil Hughes) .668
20.11 It is very important to be clearly visible
to the driver of large vehicles particularly
when they are turning left at junctions
( Michaelpuche Shutterstock) 670
20.12 (a) and (b) New motorist awareness
posters in Southampton ( Phil Hughes) .671
21.1 Revision notes .678
21.2 Mind map report writing 679
22.1 Select a competent and experienced
person to carry out a risk assessment .686
22.2 High level of fumes from welding .688
22.3 Motivating staff ( NEBOSH) 688
22.4 Large cement silo on a construction site .689
22.5 Flat roof repair with: (a) edge protection;
(b) harness and fall arrest device ( Draper) .690
22.6 Scaffold collapse, Milton Keynes .691
M1 General health & safety risk assessment
example 1 711
M2 Risk assessment report form example 2 712
M3 Contractors’ risk assessment example for
confined spaces 713
M4 Contractors’ risk assessment example for
work on fragile roofs .714
M5 Workplace inspection report form 715
M6 Workplace inspection checklist 716
M7 Job safety analysis 718
M8 Essential elements – permit to work 719
M9 Witness statement form .720
M10 Accident/incident report 721
M11 First aid treatment and accident record 723
S1 Machinery risk assessment 725
S2a Permit time extension/transfer (front) 726
S2b Permit time extension/transfer (back) .727
H1a COSHH assessment example 728
H1 COSHH assessment (blank) .729
H2 COSHH assessment: details of substances
used or stored .730
H3 Example of a workstation self assessment
checklist 732
H4 Example of a noise assessment record form .734
H5 Manual handling of loads: assessment
checklist 735
H6 Manual handling risk assessment:
employee checklist .736
F1 Fire safety maintenance checklist 737
F2 Fire risk assessment record – significant
findings .739
C1 Construction inspection report .740
C2 Example risk assessment for contract
bricklayers .741
C3 Example risk assessment for woodwork 744
Tables
1.1 Annual accidents for different groups of
people .4
1.2 Approximate proportions (%) of cases of
work-related ill-health reported by General
Practitioners in any year 5
1.3 Typical recent annual health and safety
enforcement activity in Great Britain 5
1.4 Causes of working days lost in the UK .6
1.5 Premises inspected by HSE and Local
Authorities 19
2.1 Location and contents of the key elements
of a health and safety management system
in chapters 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 .48
3.1 A comparison of the functions of health
and safety representatives .84
4.1 Typical contents of first-aid box – low
risk 128
4.2 Number of first-aid personnel .129
7.1 Types of fatal injury in construction 185
7.2 Causes of major injuries in construction .185
7.3 Accidents to all people in various
employment sectors over a three-year
period 185
7.4 Proportion (%) of fatalities in various
construction activities .186
7.5 Annual cases and incidence rates for workrelated ill-health seen by the Health and
Occupational Reporting Network Disease
Specialists over a three-year period 186
8.1 Typical workplace lighting levels .214xvii
List of illustrations
8.2 Trend in physical assaults and threats at
work, 1999–2009 (based on working adults
of working age) .215
10.1 Safe driving of lift trucks .268
12.1 Standard wiring colours 336
12.2 Suggested intervals for portable appliance
inspection and testing .343
13.1 Enforcement in respect of fire on
construction sites .354
13.2 Maintenance and testing of fire
equipment .382
13.3 Maximum travel distances 384
14.1 Examples of the new hazard warning (H)
and precautionary statements (P) .398
14.2 Examples of workplace exposure limits
(WELs) 408
14.3 Typical airflow rates for various
woodworking machines 411
14.4 The hazards and types of PPE for various
parts of the body .414
14.5 The health effects of hydrogen sulphide 425
15.1 Some typical sound pressure levels (SPL)
(dB(A) values) 444
15.2 Some typical sound pressure levels (dB(A))
for construction processes .444
15.3 Simple observations to determine the need
for a noise risk assessment 445
15.4 Typical noise levels at woodworking
machines 448
15.5 Examples of vibration exposure values
measured by HSE on work equipment .449
15.6 Machines which could produce significant
whole-body vibration .450
15.7 The change in exposure times as vibration
increases .451
15.8 Typical radiation dose limits 454
19.1 Summary of maximum penalties under
Health and Safety (Offences) Act 2008 for
offences committed on or after 16 January
2009 540
19.2 The waste hierarchy .551
19.3 The employers’ duties 582
19.4 Classification zones 587
19.5 Provision of information under DSE
Regulation 7 589
19.6 Schedule 1 to the Manual Handling
Operations Regulations 614
20.1 Numbers of global work-related adverse
events .654
21.1 Terminology used in NEBOSH exams 682
Boxes
2.1 Example of objectives .56
5.1 Key data for medium level of investigation .156
5.2 The following categories of immediate
causes of accident are used in F2508: .161
19.1 Pollution prevention and control regimes .542
19.2 Best available techniques (BAT) .542
19.3 ‘Operator’ 545
19.4 Definition of controlled waste .549
19.5 Who has authority to take waste? 550
19.6 Filling in paperwork .550xviii
to health and safety in construction activities. Many
larger construction organisations choose the NEBOSH
National Construction Certificate as a key part of their
supervisors’ or management development programme.
By ensuring that line managers have a sound
understanding of the principles of risk management
they build an effective safety culture in the company.
Smaller construction organisations often choose the
NEBOSH National Construction Certificate as the
appropriate qualification for the manager taking the lead
on health and safety issues.
The course is divided into three distinct units, each
of which is assessed separately. The three units are:
NGC1 – Management of health and safety, NCC1 –
Managing and controlling hazards in construction
activities and NCC2 – Construction health and safety
practical application. This development offers the
opportunity for additional and more flexible course
formats and students may now study parallel courses
(in, say, general health and safety and fire) without
repeating the management unit. Students who decide
to take individual units will, on passing, receive a Unit
Certificate. However, it has necessitated the need for
an additional chapter (Chapter 7) on construction law
and management to deal with those construction topics
that were in the original management syllabus.
This fifth edition has been produced to include all the
recent syllabus changes and to update the health and
safety legislation contained within it, with particular
regard to the following changes in legislation:
XX The Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013
(Section 69)
XX The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (Civil
Liability) (Exceptions) Regulations 2013
XX The Report of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous
Occurrences Regulations 2013 (RIDDOR)
XX The Control of Asbestos Regulations 2012
XX Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances
and Mixtures Regulation (European) adopting into
EU UN Globally Harmonised System of Classification
and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS);
XX Construction (Design and Management) (CDM)
Regulations 2015
XX The revocation of The Notification of Conventional
Tower Cranes Regulations 2010
The Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction
has quickly established itself as the standard text for
students taking the NEBOSH National Certificate in
Construction Health and Safety, and for those taking
other courses in building or construction. It is also
of great value to those working in the construction
industry at all levels – particularly construction site
managers and foremen. As it has become a significant
work of reference for managers with health and safety
responsibilities, it is a matter of prime importance that
it should be kept up to date, as far as is possible, with
new legislation and recent developments.
There has been concern over a number of years at the
poor record of health and safety in the construction
industry. The legal health and safety requirements for
all places of work are numerous and complex; it is the
intention of the authors to offer an introduction to the
subject for all those who have the maintenance of good
health and safety standards as part of their employment
duties or those who are considering the possibility of a
career as a health and safety professional. Health and
safety is well recognised as an important component of
the activities of any organisation, not only because of
the importance of protecting people from harm but also
because of the growth in the direct and indirect costs
of accidents. These costs have increased higher than
the rate of retail price inflation by a considerable amount
in the last few years as the number of civil claims
and awards have risen each year. It is very important
that basic health and safety legal requirements are
clearly understood by all organisations, whether public
or private, large or small. A good health and safety
performance is normally only achieved when health and
safety is effectively managed so that significant risks
are identified and reduced by adopting appropriate high
quality control measures.
The NEBOSH National Certificate in Construction
Health and Safety is established as a leading health
and safety qualification for the construction industry,
with over 15,000 successful candidates. It is
designed for supervisors and managers within the
construction industry and to provide a sound breadth
of underpinning knowledge that enables them to
discharge more effectively their duties with respect
Contents
vi
Appendix 9.1 Safety at street works and
road works 250
10. Musculoskeletal hazards and risk
control 251
10.1 Musculoskeletal disorders and work-related
upper limb disorders 252
10.2 Manual handling hazards and control
measures .256
10.3 Lifting and moving equipment .262
10.4 Further information 276
10.5 Practice revision questions 276
Appendix 10.1 A typical risk assessment for the
use of lifting equipment .279
Appendix 10.2 A typical risk assessment for an
excavator to be used for lifting 280
Appendix 10.3 Examples of manually operated
load handling equipment 281
Appendix 10.4 Safe use of fork-lift trucks (based
on an HSE document) 282
11. Work equipment hazards and risk control 283
11.1 General requirements for work equipment 284
11.2 Hazards and controls for hand-held tools .293
11.3 Mechanical and non-mechanical hazards of
machinery .304
11.4 Control measures for reducing risks from
machinery hazards 309
11.5 Further information 323
11.6 Practice revision questions .323
12. Electrical safety .327
12.1 Hazards and risks associated with the
use of electricity in the workplace .328
12.2 Control measures .336
12.3 Control measures for working near
overhead power lines .344
12.4 Further information 346
12.5 Practice revision questions 347
13. Fire safety .349
13.1 Principles of fire initiation, classification,
spread and fire risks caused by construction
activities and legal requirements .350
13.2 Fire risk assessment 361
13.3 Fire prevention and prevention
of fire spread 366
13.4 Fire detection, fire alarm systems and
fire-fighting equipment for construction
activities .378
13.5 Requirements for an adequate and properly
maintained means of escape in the
construction workplace .383
13.6 Evacuation of a construction workplace in
the event of a fire .385
13.7 Further information 387
5. Health and safety management systems –
Monitoring, investigation and
recording – CHECK 139
5.1 Active and reactive monitoring 140
5.2 Investigating incidents .149
5.3 Recording and reporting incidents .156
5.4 Further information 163
5.5 Practice revision questions .163
Appendix 5.1 Workplace inspection exercises 165
Appendix 5.2 Information for insurance/
compensation claims .167
Appendix 5.3 Checklist of items to be
covered in a construction site inspection .168
6. Health and safety management systems –
Audit and review – ACT .173
6.1 Health and safety auditing .174
6.2 Review of health and safety performance .177
6.3 Further information 180
6.4 Practice revision questions .180
7. Construction law and management .181
7.1 The scope, definition and particular issues
relating to construction activities .182
7.2 The legal, moral and financial consequences
of failing to manage health and safety within
the construction industry .184
7.3 Scope and application of the Construction
(Design and Management) Regulations 2015 188
7.4 Sources of external construction health and
safety information 195
7.5 Further information 196
7.6 Practice revision questions 197
8. Construction site issues – hazards
and risk control 199
8.1 Initial site assessment .200
8.2 Appropriate general site control measures .204
8.3 Health, welfare and work environment
requirements 211
8.4 Violence at work 215
8.5 Substance misuse at work .218
8.6 Safe movement of people on
construction sites .220
8.7 Further information 227
8.8 Practice revision questions 228
Appendix 8.1 A typical set of site safety rules .230
Appendix 8.2 Smoke-free workplaces .231
9. Vehicle and plant movement – hazards
and risk control 233
9.1 Safe movement of vehicles and plant within
a construction environment .234
9.2 Driving at work .243
9.3 Further information 248
9.4 Practice revision questions 248vii
Contents
Appendix 16.6 Examples of safe systems of
work used in roof work 496
17. Excavation work and confined spaces –
hazards and risk control 497
17.1 Excavation work hazards and risk assessment 498
17.2 Control measures for excavation work 505
17.3 Confined space working hazards and risks 510
17.4 Control measures for confined
space working 511
17.5 Further information 513
17.6 Practice revision questions 514
Appendix 17.1 An example of safe digging practice 516
Appendix 17.2 Typical excavation work risk
assessment 517
Appendix 17.3 Typical confined spaces risk
assessment 518
18. Demolition and deconstruction – hazards
and risk control 519
18.1 Demolition and deconstruction
hazards and risks 520
18.2 Control measures .521
18.3 Purposes and scope of pre-demolition,
deconstruction or refurbishment survey 525
18.4 Control measures that a method statement
should include 527
18.5 Further information 529
18.6 Practice revision questions 529
Appendix 18.1 Checklist for a safe system of work 530
19. Summary of the main legal requirements 531
19.1 Introduction 532
19.2 The legal framework 533
19.3 List of Acts, orders and regulations
summarised .536
19.4 HSW Act 1974 as amended in 2013 538
19.5 Environmental Protection Act 1990 .542
19.6 New Roads and Street Works Act 1991 552
19.7 Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at
Work Regulations 2010 554
19.8 Control of Asbestos Regulations (CAR) 2012 556
19.9 Classification, Labelling and Packaging
of Substances and Mixtures Regulation
(European) adopting into EU UN Globally
Harmonised System of Classification and
Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) .565
19.10 Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 .568
19.11 Construction (Design and Management)
Regulations 2015 (CDM 2015) .570
19.12 Health and Safety (Consultation with
Employees) Regulations 1996 .579
19.13 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
Regulations (COSHH) 2002 and 2004
Amendment .581
19.14 Dangerous Substances and Explosive
Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR) 2002 585
13.8 Practice revision questions .388
Appendix 13.1 Fire risk assessment checklist
as recommended in Fire Safety Guides
published by the Department for
Communities and Local Government
in 2006 390
Appendix 13.2 Typical fire notice .391
14. Chemical and biological health hazards
and risk control 393
14.1 Forms and classification of, and the health
risks from exposure to, hazardous
substances .394
14.2 Assessment of health risks 398
14.3 Workplace exposure limits .407
14.4 Control measures .408
14.5 Specific agents .419
14.6 Safe handling and storage of waste .430
14.7 Further information 432
14.8 Practice revision questions .433
Appendix 14.1 GHS hazard (H) statements
(Health only) .436
Appendix 14.2 Health questionnaire for ongoing
surveillance of persons working with
respiratory sensitisers 437
Appendix 14.3 Hazardous properties of waste as
listed in the Hazardous Waste (England and
Wales) Regulations 2005 .438
Appendix 14.4 Different types of protective
gloves .439
15. Physical and psychological health hazards
and risk control .441
15.1 Noise 442
15.2 Vibration .448
15.3 Radiation 453
15.4 Stress .459
15.5 Further information 461
15.6 Practice revision questions 462
16. Working at height – hazards and risk
control 465
16.1 Working at height hazards and control .466
16.2 Safe working practices for access
equipment and roof work .474
16.3 Protection of others .489
16.4 Working over or near water .489
16.5 Further information 490
16.6 Practice revision questions 491
Appendix 16.1 Inspection timing and
frequency chart 493
Appendix 16.2 Checklist of typical scaffolding faults 494
Appendix 16.3 Checklist for a safety inspection of
a scaffold 494
Appendix 16.4 Scaffold design, inspection,
competence and supervision checklist .494
Appendix 16.5 Scaffold structures that need to
be designed .495


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