كتاب Safety at Work - Sixth Edition
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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الرئيسيةالبوابةأحدث الصورالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Safety at Work - Sixth Edition

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عدد المساهمات : 18846
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Safety at Work - Sixth Edition  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Safety at Work - Sixth Edition    كتاب Safety at Work - Sixth Edition  Emptyالخميس 08 فبراير 2024, 1:11 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Safety at Work - Sixth edition
Edited by
John Ridley and John Channing

كتاب Safety at Work - Sixth Edition  S_a_w_18
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Foreword xvii
Preface to sixth edition xix
Preface to first edition xxiii
List of contributors xxv
Part 1 Law 1
1.1 Explaining the law Brenda Watts 3
1.1.1 Introduction 3
1.1.2 The incident 3
1.1.3 Some possible actions arising from the incident 3
1.1.4 Legal issues of the incident 4
1.1.5 Criminal and civil law 4
1.1.6 Branches of law 5
1.1.7 Law and fact 7
1.1.8 The courts 7
1.1.9 Judicial precedent 17
1.1.10 Court procedure 18
1.1.11 Identity of court personnel 24
1.1.12 Employment Tribunals 26
1.1.13 European Community Courts (ECJ) 27
1.1.14 Human Rights Courts 29
1.1.15 Sources of English law 29
1.1.16 Legislation 30
1.1.17 Safety legislation before the Health and Safety at
Work etc. Act 37
1.1.18 Safety legislation today 38
1.1.19 Principles developed by the courts 41vi Contents
1.2 Principal health and safety Acts S. Simpson 49
1.2.1 The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 49
1.2.2 The Factories Act 1961 59
1.2.3 The Fire Precautions Act 1971 59
1.2.4 The Mines and Quarries Acts 1954–71 61
1.2.5 The Environmental Protection Act 1990 61
1.2.6 The Road Traffic Acts 1972–91 62
1.2.7 The Public Health Act 1936 62
1.2.8 Petroleum (Consolidation) Act 1928 63
1.2.9 Activity Centres (Young Persons Safety) Act 1995 63
1.2.10 Crown premises 63
1.2.11 Subordinate legislation 64
1.3 Influences on health and safety J. R. Ridley 67
1.3.1 Introduction 67
1.3.2 The Robens Report 67
1.3.3 Delegation of law-making powers 68
1.3.4 Legislative framework for health and safety 69
1.3.5 Self-regulation 70
1.3.6 Goal-setting legislation 71
1.3.7 European Union 72
1.3.8 European standards 75
1.3.9 Our social partners 77
1.3.10 Social expectations 77
1.3.11 Public expectations 78
1.3.12 Political influences 78
1.3.13 Roles in health and safety 79
1.3.14 Safety culture 80
1.3.15 Quality culture 80
1.3.16 No fault liability 81
1.3.17 Risk assessments 81
1.3.18 Conclusion 82
1.4 Law of contract R. W. Hodgin 84
1.4.1 Contracts 84
1.4.2 Contracts of employment 87
1.4.3 Employment legislation 88
1.4.4 Law of sale 90
1.4.5 Specialised legislation affecting occupational safety
advisers 92
1.5 Employment law R. D. Miskin updated by Amanda Jones 96
1.5.1 Introduction 96
1.5.2 Employment law 96
1.5.3 Discrimination 98
1.5.4 Disciplinary procedures 105
1.5.5 Dismissal 107
1.5.6 Summary 117Contents vii
1.6 Consumer protection R. G. Lawson 119
1.6.1 Fair conditions of contract 119
1.6.2 A fair quality of goods and services 127
1.6.3 Product safety 127
1.6.4 Product liability 132
1.6.5 Misleading advertising 134
1.6.6 Exclusion clauses 135
1.6.7 Distance selling 138
1.6.8 Stop now orders 138
1.6.9 Consumer redress 139
1.7 Insurance cover and compensation A. West 141
1.7.1 Workmen’s compensation and the State insurance
scheme 141
1.7.2 Employer’s liability insurance 144
1.7.3 Public Liability insurance 150
1.7.4 Investigation, negotiation and the quantum of damage 151
1.7.5 General 155
1.8 Civil liability E. J. Skellett 156
1.8.1 The common law and its development 156
1.8.2 The law of tort 157
1.8.3 Occupier’s Liability Acts 1957 and 1984 160
1.8.4 Supply of goods 161
1.8.5 Employer’s liability 162
1.8.6 Employer’s Liability (Defective Equipment) Act 1969 165
1.8.7 Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 165
1.8.8 Defences to a civil liability claim 166
1.8.9 Volenti non fit injuria 167
1.8.10 Limitation 168
1.8.11 Assessment of damages 168
1.8.12 Fatal accidents 170
1.8.13 ’No fault’ liability system 170
Part 2 The management of risk 173
2.1 An introduction to risk management J. E. Channing 175
2.1.1 Introduction 175
2.1.2 The components of risk 177
2.1.3 Strategies to control risk 180
2.1.4 Risk management in the 21st century 184
2.2 Principles of the management of risk L. Bamber 187
2.2.1 Principles of action necessary to prevent accidents 187
2.2.2 Definitions of hazard, risk and danger 188
2.2.3 Risk management 190
2.2.4 Loss control 193
2.2.5 Degrees of hazard 197
2.2.6 Accident causation models 198
2.2.7 Accident prevention: legal, humanitarian and
economic reasons for action 201viii Contents
2.3 Risk management: organisation and administration for
safety J. E. Channing 205
2.3.1 Introduction 205
2.3.2 Organisation structure models 206
2.3.3 Roles and responsibilities 210
2.3.4 Work groups 212
2.3.5 Organisational theory 214
2.3.6 Organisational techniques 217
2.3.7 Culture 220
2.3.8 Potential problems 221
2.3.9 The role of specialists in the organisation 224
2.3.10 Conclusion 225
2.4 Risk management: techniques and practices L. Bamber 227
2.4.1 Risk identification, assessment and control 227
2.4.2 Job safety analysis 233
2.4.3 System safety 238
2.4.4 Systems theory and design 240
2.4.5 System safety engineering 243
2.4.6 Fault tree analysis 243
2.4.7 Probabalistic risk assessments 244
2.4.8 Health and safety in design and planning 246
2.4.9 Quality, Environment, Safety and Health Management
Systems (QUENSH) 248
2.4.10 Use of data on accidents 250
2.4.11 Maintenance systems and planned maintenance 251
2.4.12 Damage control 252
2.4.13 Cost-effectiveness of risk management 253
2.4.14 Performance evaluation and appraisal 257
2.4.15 Loss control profiling 259
2.5 The collection and use of accident and incident data
Dr A. J. Boyle 263
2.5.1 Introduction 263
2.5.2 Types of accident and incident data 263
2.5.3 Collection of accident and incident data 267
2.5.4 Legal requirements to notify accidents and incidents 271
2.5.5 The use of accident and incident data 271
2.5.6 Epidemiological analysis 279
2.5.7 Accident investigation 281
2.5.8 Accident and incident data and risk assessment data 292
2.5.9 The use of computers 294
Appendix. UK requirements for reporting accidents and incidents 299
2.6 Practical safety management: systems and techniques
J. E. Channing 304
2.6.1 Introduction 304
2.6.2 Legal obligations 305
2.6.3 Generic safety management 306Contents ix
2.6.4 Implementing a regulation within a safety
management system 310
2.6.5 Safety management and housekeeping 315
2.6.6 Assessment techniques 319
2.6.7 Proprietary audit systems 322
2.6.8 Safety systems and incidents 324
2.6.9 Learning organisations 325
2.6.10 Safety management systems in small organisations 327
2.6.11 Conclusion 328
2.7 The individual and safety Andrew Hale 330
2.7.1 Introduction: What does this chapter try to do? 330
2.7.2 Individuals as controllers of danger 332
2.7.3 Behavioural science and the human information
processor 335
2.7.4 Individual behaviour in the face of danger 351
2.7.5 Change 373
2.7.6 Conclusion 385
2.8 Risk management and behaviour modification
J. E. Channing 389
2.8.1 Introduction 389
2.8.2 Behaviour modification for employees 391
2.8.3 Behaviour modification for managers and supervisors 402
2.8.4 Applying behaviour concepts to incident investigation 408
2.8.5 Behaviour concepts and the safety management system 410
2.8.6 Risk, behaviour, leadership and commitment 410
2.8.7 Behaviour modification processes: the hazards 412
2.8.8 Behaviour and safety culture 413
2.8.9 Conclusion 415
Part 3 Occupational health and hygiene 419
3.1 The structure and functions of the human body
Dr T. Coates 421
3.1.1 Introduction 421
3.1.2 History 421
3.1.3 The functions of an occupational health department 424
3.1.4 Overseas developments 424
3.1.5 Risks to health at work 425
3.1.6 Occupational hygiene 426
3.1.7 First aid at work 427
3.1.8 Basic human anatomy and physiology 428
3.1.9 Cancer and other problems of cell growth 443
3.1.10 The body’s defence mechanisms 444
3.1.11 Factors determining the effect of substances in the
body 445
3.1.12 The assessment of risk to health 446x Contents
3.2 Occupational diseases Dr A. R. L. Clark 447
3.2.1 Introduction 447
3.2.2 Toxicology 447
3.2.3 Diseases of the skin 451
3.2.4 Diseases of the respiratory system 454
3.2.5 Diseases from metals 460
3.2.6 Pesticides 464
3.2.7 Solvents 465
3.2.8 Gassing 469
3.2.9 Oxygen deficiency 471
3.2.10 Occupational cancer 473
3.2.11 Physical agents 475
3.2.12 Ionising radiations 476
3.2.13 Noise-induced hearing loss 479
3.2.14 Working in heat 482
3.2.15 Work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD) 482
3.2.16 Diseases due to micro-organisms 483
3.2.17 Psycho-social disorders 487
3.2.18 Target organs 488
3.3 Occupational hygiene Dr C. Hartley 492
3.3.1 Recognition 492
3.3.2 Evaluation 493
3.3.3 Control measures 512
3.3.4 Summary 522
3.4 Radiation Dr A. D. Wrixon and updated by Peter Shaw and
Dr M. Maslanyj 524
3.4.1 Introduction 524
3.4.2 Structure of matter 524
3.4.3 Radioactivity 525
3.4.4 Ionising radiation 525
3.4.5 Biological effects of ionising radiation 526
3.4.6 Quantities and units 527
3.4.7 Basic principles of radiological protection 528
3.4.8 Legal requirements 533
3.4.9 National Radiological Protection Board 536
3.4.10 Incidents and emergencies 537
3.4.11 Non-ionising radiation 537
3.5 Noise and vibration R. W. Smith 543
3.5.1 What is sound? 543
3.5.2 Other terms commonly found in acoustics 546
3.5.3 Transmission of sound 550
3.5.4 The sound level meter 550
3.5.5 The ear 552
3.5.6 The equivalent noise level 553
3.5.7 Community noise levels 554
3.5.8 Work area noise levels 555Contents xi
3.5.9 Noise control techniques 556
3.5.10 Vibration 564
3.5.11 Summary 566
3.6 Workplace pollution, heat and ventilation F. S. Gill 568
3.6.1 Methods of assessment of workplace air pollution 569
3.6.2 Measurement of the thermal environment 572
3.6.3 Standards for workplace environments 573
3.6.4 Ventilation control of a workplace environment 575
3.6.5 Assessment of performance of ventilation systems 577
3.7 Lighting E. G. Hooper and updated by Jonathan David 581
3.7.1 Introduction 581
3.7.2 The eye 581
3.7.3 Eye conditions 582
3.7.4 Definitions 583
3.7.5 Types of lighting 585
3.7.6 Illuminances 586
3.7.7 Factors affecting the quality of lighting 588
3.7.8 Use of light measuring instruments 591
3.8 Managing ergonomics Nick Cook 594
3.8.1 Introduction 594
3.8.2 Ergonomics defined 595
3.8.3 Ancient Egyptians and all that – a brief history of
ergonomics 596
3.8.4 Ergonomics – has designs on you 598
3.8.5 Ergonomic concepts 598
3.8.6 Managing ergonomic issues in the workplace 605
3.8.7 Work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD) 606
3.8.8 Back issues 609
3.8.9 Managing the ergonomics of disability 610
3.8.10 Legal requirements 611
3.8.11 Conclusion 614
3.9 Applied ergonomics J. R. Ridley 617
3.9.1 Introduction 617
3.9.2 Physiology 618
3.9.3 Working environment 631
3.9.4 Manual handling 638
3.9.5 Repetitive actions 639
3.9.6 Plant design 640
3.9.7 Controls and indicators 640
3.9.8 Noise and vibrations 642
3.9.9 Stress 643
3.9.10 Display screen equipment (DSE) 644
3.9.11 Signs and signals 645
3.9.12 Coda 646xii Contents
Part 4 Workplace safety 649
4.1 Science in engineering safety J. R. Ridley 651
4.1.1 Introduction 651
4.1.2 Structure of matter 651
4.1.3 Properties of chemicals 653
4.1.4 Physical properties 657
4.1.5 Energy and work 663
4.1.6 Mechanics 664
4.1.7 Strength of materials 665
4.1.8 Modes of failure 667
4.1.9 Testing 668
4.1.10 Hydraulics 668
4.1.11 Summary 669
4.2 Fire precautions Ray Chalklen 671
4.2.1 Introduction 671
4.2.2 Basic fire technology 671
4.2.3 Fire hazards and their control 674
4.2.4 Fire alarms and detectors 678
4.2.5 Classification of fires 685
4.2.6 Portable fire-fighting equipment 688
4.2.7 Fixed fire-fighting equipment 695
4.2.8 Fire safety signs 702
4.2.9 Means of escape in case of fire 703
4.2.10 Fire engineering 706
4.2.11 Fire protection measures 708
4.2.12 Legal requirements 711
4.2.13 Fire risk assessment 716
4.2.14 Access and facilities for the fire brigade 719
4.2.15 Fire terminology 720
4.3 Safe use of machinery J. R. Ridley 727
4.3.1 Introduction 727
4.3.2 Strategy for selecting safeguards 734
4.3.3 Safeguarding techniques 737
4.3.4 Powered trucks 749
4.3.5 Lifting equipment 754
4.3.6 Pressure systems 760
4.3.7 Coda 766
4.4 Electricity E. G. Hooper and revised by Chris Buck 769
4.4.1 Alternating and direct currents 769
4.4.2 Electricity supply 770
4.4.3 Statutory requirements 772
4.4.4 Voltage levels 773
4.4.5 Electrical accidents 773
4.4.6 The basic electrical circuit 774
4.4.7 Dangers from electricity 775
4.4.8 Protective means 778
4.4.9 Competence 781Contents xiii
4.4.10 Permits-to-work 782
4.4.11 Static electricity 782
4.4.12 Use of electricity in adverse or hazardous
environments 785
4.4.13 Electrical equipment in flammable atmospheres 786
4.4.14 Portable tools 789
4.4.15 Residual current devices 789
4.4.16 Maintenance 790
4.4.17 Conclusion 790
4.5 Statutory examination of plant and equipment
J. McMullen and updated by J. E. Caddick 793
4.5.1 Introduction 793
4.5.2 Legislation 794
4.5.3 Pressure systems 794
4.5.4 Lifting equipment 800
4.5.5 Power presses and press brakes 806
4.5.6 Local exhaust ventilation 808
4.5.7 Electrical equipment and installations 810
4.5.8 Other considerations 811
4.5.9 Conclusion 814
4.6 Safety on construction sites R. Hudson 819
4.6.1 Construction accidents 819
4.6.2 Safe working in the industry 820
4.6.3 Site hazards 829
4.6.4 Access 834
4.6.5 The Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
Regulations 1998 836
4.6.6 Welfare facilities 841
4.6.7 Other relevant legislation 842
4.7 Managing chemicals safely John Adamson 850
4.7.1 Introduction 850
4.7.2 Chemical data 850
4.7.3 Source of information 851
4.7.4 Risk assessments 852
4.7.5 Minimising the risk 856
4.7.6 Legislative requirements 860
4.7.7 Storage of substances 867
4.7.8 Transport 871
4.7.9 Plant and process design 872
4.7.10 Further safety studies 881
4.7.11 Plant modifications 882
4.7.12 Safe systems of work 882
4.7.13 Laboratories 884
4.7.14 Emergency procedures 887
4.7.15 Conclusions 888xiv Contents
Part 5 The environment 891
5.1 The environment: issues, concepts and strategies
J. E. Channing 893
5.1.1 Introduction 893
5.1.2 Environmental predictions 894
5.1.3 Sustainable development 895
5.1.4 Environmental hazards 898
5.1.5 Evaluating environmental risks 900
5.1.6 Environmental control strategies 904
5.1.7 Conclusion 906
5.2 Environmental management systems J. E. Channing 908
5.2.1 Introduction 908
5.2.2 Establishing an environmental management system 909
5.2.3 Additional EMAS requirements 919
5.2.4 Conclusions 919
5.3 Waste management Samantha Moss 921
5.3.1 Introduction 921
5.3.2 Waste authorities 922
5.3.3 National waste strategies 923
5.3.4 Defining waste 924
5.3.5 The waste hierarchy 926
5.3.6 Waste management in practice 927
5.3.7 Waste minimisation 942
5.3.8 The cost of failure to manage waste effectively 952
5.3.9 Conclusion 953
5.4 Chemicals and the environment J. L. Adamson 956
5.4.1 Introduction 956
5.4.2 Chemical data 956
5.4.3 Risk reduction 957
5.4.4 The Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA) 957
5.4.5 Minimising environmental harm 962
5.4.6 Air pollution: control measures and abatement
techniques 965
5.4.7 Monitoring atmospheric pollution 967
5.4.8 Control of water pollution 970
5.4.9 Groundwater pollution 972
5.4.10 Waste disposal and duty of care 973
5.4.11 Reuse or recycling of industrial waste 982
5.4.12 Environmental management systems 982
5.4.13 Conclusion 984
5.5 The environment at large G. N. Batts 986
5.5.1 Introduction 986
5.5.2 Environmental issues 987
5.5.3 The environment and the media 993
5.5.4 The global impact of environmental issues 994
5.5.5 Ethical investing and green procurement 995Contents xv
5.5.6 Increasing environmental legislation, controls and
public reporting 996
5.5.7 End-of-pipe control 997
5.5.8 Polluter pays 998
5.5.9 Producer or shared responsibility 999
5.5.10 Environmental management system (EMS) and
sustainable development 1000
5.5.11 Corporate social responsibility 1001
Appendix 1 The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health 1007
Appendix 2 Reading for Part I of the NEBOSH Diploma
examination 1008
Appendix 3 List of abbreviations 1009
Appendix 4 Organisations providing safety information 1015
Appendix 5 List of Statutes, Regulations and Orders 1017
Appendix 6 List of Cases 1025
Index 1031
Index
Abatement notices, chemical
nuisances, 961
Abbreviations list, 1009–14
ACAS (Advisory, Conciliation and
Arbitration Service), Code of
Practice, 105–6, 105–7
Accident control systems, 250
Accident costing/cost management,
253–6, 258–61
Accident investigations:
advanced techniques, 291–2
aggregated data, 292–3
feedback to all involved, 290
information collection:
interviewing for, 282–6
what happened, 282–6
why it happened, 286–9
learning from minor incidents, 291
purpose, 281–2
report writing, 289–91
single accidents, 293
Accident prevention:
Accident Prevention Advisory Unit
(APAU), 257
economic reasons for, 202–3
humanitarian reasons, 202
legal reasons, 201
Accident/incident data:
accident statistics, 229–30
accident triangles, 265, 266
collection of, 267–70
damage to assets, 265
damage to people, 265
ensuring reporting of, 268–9
epidemiological analysis, 279–81
fault tree analysis, 179, 200, 243–4,
292
frequency rates, 276
frequency/severity relationship,
265–6
incidence rates, 276
qualitative differences, 264–5
quantitative differences, 265–7
quarterly moving means, 274
recording details, 270
for risk measurement, 279
severity rate, 278
trend analysis, 271–9
types of, 263–7
UK notification legal requirements,
271, 299–303
use of data, 250–1
Accidents:
causation models, 198–200
definition, 187–8
by HSE, 264
electrical, 773–4
failure modes, 200
fatal, 170
and incidents, 187–8
inevitable, 147
modelling, 2421032 Index
Accidents – continued
multiple causation theory, 199–200
possible legal proceedings from,
19–21
prevention of, 187–8
proneness/susceptibility, 371–3
at work, benefits available, 142–3
see also Incidents; Trend analysis
Accommodation, of eye, 582
Acid rain and precipitation, 987–8
Acids and bases, 655–6
Acne, 452
Acquired immune deficiency
syndrome (AIDS), 484
Activity centres, young persons, 63
Acts of Parliament, 30–2
Actus reus, 40
Administrative law, 5–7
Adopted legislation, 33
Adrenaline, 441
Adversary law system, 18
Advertising:
Advertising Standards Authority,
134
broadcast, 135
misleading, 134–5
Office of Fair Trading (OFT), 134,
137, 138
truth in, 126
Advisory Committee of Toxic
Substances (ACTS), 506
Advisory services, health, 424
Affidavits, 23
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency
syndrome), 484
Air, composition, 657
Air pollution/sampling/control:
absorption columns, 967
air pollution control (APC), 958–60
atomic absorption spectrometry, 499
bag filters, 966
bio-technology, 967
breathing apparatus, 518, 519–20
Clean Air Acts, 61
control measures, 512–22
control measures and abatement
techniques, 965–7
cyclones, 966
direct monitoring, 500–2
dust, 499, 501–2, 515
electrostatic precipitators, 966
fabric filters, 966
fibre monitoring, 499–500
fibres, 499, 501–2
flue gas flow rates, 967
gas absorbers, 965
gas chromatography, 499
gas concentrations, 969–70
gases and vapours, measurement,
493–504, 501
grab sampling, 493–7
hygrometry, 503–4
incinerators, 967
Integrated Pollution Control (IPC),
61
international standards, 511–12
limit changes, 512
long-term, 497–500
maximum exposure limits (MELs),
506–7
mechanical separators, 965
mixtures, 508–9
monitoring methods, 967–70
neurophysiological changes, 512
Occupational Exposure Standards
(OESs), 506, 506–7, 507
oxygen analysers, 502–3
particulate concentration, 969
personal protective equipment
(PPE), 515–22
reduced time exposure, 515
respirators, 518, 519
safety specification, 513
segregation, 513–14
stain detector tubes, 493–8
temperature measurement, 968
Threshold Limit Values (TLV), 505,
511
Time Weighted Average
concentrations (TWA), 508
Time Weighted Average (TWA)
Occupational Exposure
Standard, 967
toxic substance substitution, 513
UK exposure limits, 506–9
vapour concentrations, 969–70
ventilation:
dilution, 514
local extract, 514
wet scrubbers, 966Index 1033
see also Water pollution; Workplace
pollution, heat and ventilation
Alarms see Fire alarms and detectors
Alkyl mercury, disease from, 462
All England Reports (All ER), 18
Alpha radiation, 525
Alternative dispute resolution, 23
Alveolitis, extrinsic allergic, 459–60
American Conference of
Governmental and Industrial
Hygienists (ACGIH), 505
American Industrial Hygiene
Association, 492
Ammonia, effects of, 471
Anatomy and physiology see Human
body, structure and functions
Angiosarcoma, 475
Animal handler’s lung, 460
Anthrax, 485–6
Anthropometry, 603
Aplasia, 443
Appeal, right of, 106
Appellate Committee, 24
Appellate jurisdiction, 7
Approved codes, status of, 55
Approved Codes of Practice (ACoPs),
70
Arc welding, fumes from, 513
Arms, 624
Arsenic, skin cancer from, 463
Arsine, diseases from, 463
Arson, 675
Arthritis, 611
Artificial respiration, 434
Asbestos:
construction sites, 846–7
disposal legislation, 847
and local exhaust ventilation (LEV),
809
Asbestosis, 445–6, 457–8
Asphyxia, simple and toxic, 470
Association of British Insurers, 92
Astigmatism, 582
Atmospheric pollution see Air
pollution/sampling/control
Atomic absorption spectrometry, 499
Atomic numbers, 652
Attorney General, 4, 25
Audible signals/warnings,
ergonomics of, 645–6
Audits:
DuPont Safety Management Audit
Programme, 398
HSE guidelines, 183–4
independent, 229
proprietary systems, 322–4
Auld Report, 11
Back problems, 609–10
Bagassosis, 460
Balance, defects to, 353–4
Barometer, mercury, 658
Barrier creams, 452, 521–2
Barristers, and representation, 8
Bases and acids, 655–6
Behavioural modification and risk
management, 389–418
about behavioural modification,
389–91
behaviour changing programmes,
391
behaviour observation, 398–9
behavioural analysis, 394–7
computer workstation example, 395
consequence considerations, 393–4
counselling techniques, 398–9
DuPont Safety Management Audit
Programme, 398
DuPont Safety Training Observation
program (STOP), 398
employee involvement, 400–1
example of behaviour shaping with
safety management, 410–11
failure in getting accident rate
improvement, 412–13
generic behaviour modification
model, 348, 401–7
HSE on human factors of workers,
390
incident investigation, 408–10
job hazard analysis, 396
and leadership style, 410–12
lone workers, 399–400
manager and supervisor
involvement/responsibilities,
402–7
negative reinforcement, 392–3
partnership concept, 4011034 Index
Behavioural modification and risk
management – continued
performance management approach,
391–7
pipe rupture example, 403
positive reinforcement, 391–3
post war accident trends, 415
punishment reinforcement, 392
radar screen for safety leadership,
407
refreshing to combat staleness, 401
safety culture, 413–15
CBI features for, 413–14
stress and the incident model,
408–10
structural feedback approach, 397–8
transactional and transformational
leadership styles, 410, 412
work-related stress, 409
see also Behavioural science;
Individuals and safety
Behavioural science:
accident proneness/susceptibility,
371–3
action after decision making, 347
aims of, 335–6
attitudes, 343
behavioural intentions, 343
beliefs, 343
boredom, 370
Cattell’s trait theory and personality
factors, 342
circadian rhythm, 370
decision-making, 346
and action in the control of
danger, 366–8
diagnosis and rules, 350
diurnal rhythm, 370
environmental effects on
performance, 369–71
and error correction, 368
fatigue, 369
feedback and monitoring loops, 344
generic error modelling system, 348,
401–7
goals, 338–40
and health and safety, 336–7
human being as a system, 337–8
knowledge and problem solving,
350–1
knowledge-based behaviour, 347
limitations, 336
memory, short and long term,
345–6
mental fatigue, 369
models, use of, 336, 337–8
motivation, 340–1
and night work, 370
perception process, 344–5
personalities and attitudes, 342–3
preservation of self, 341
responsibility for action, 365–6
rule-based behaviour, 347
rules and diagnosis, 350
skill-based behaviour, 347
skills and routines, 347–50
stress, 370–1
see also Behavioural modification
and risk management; Danger;
Individuals and safety
Benchmarking, 326–7
Bends, 434
Benzene, toxic effects, 469
Beryllium dust, pneumoconiosis from,
455
Best available techniques not entailing
excessive cost (BATNEEC), 901–2,
957, 963–4, 996
Beta radiation, 525–6
Bills, House of Commons, 31
Biological agents, as hazards, 510–11
Biological danger,
immediate/long-term, 198
Bird fancier’s lung, 460
Bird, F.E., 194, 199, 238, 244, 250, 259,
261
Bladder, and cancer, 489
Blindness, temporary, 582
Blood:
circulation, 619–20
red and white cells, 436
Body see Human body, structure and
functions
Boilers:
competent person reports, 798
defects, typical, 798–9
definition, 796–7
entry restrictions, 798
examinations, 797
reports, 812–13Index 1035
safe operating limits, 797
safety valves, 797
see also Pressure systems
Bone, osteolysis and necrosis, 489
Brain, 438
brain damage, 434
narcosis and encephalopathy, 489
Breach of statutory duty, 42–3
Breathing apparatus, types of, 518,
519–20
Bremsstrahlung radiation, 525–6
British Approval Service for Electrical
Equipment in Flammable
Atmospheres (BASEEFA), 787
British Occupational Hygiene Society,
426, 492, 505
British Standards:
BS 4142, 555
BS 5304, 828
BS 5750, 197, 248
BS 5973, 837
BS 7375, 786
BS 7671, 770, 778
BS 7750, 196, 248
BS 50014, 786
BS CP 6031, 825, 827
BS EN 292, 735
BS EN 953, 737
BS EN 1050, 735
BS EN 1088, 739
BS EN 1400, 248
BS EN 8800, 248
BS EN 9000, 307–9
BS EN 9001, 197, 248, 308–9
BS EN 14001, 196, 248, 307–9
BS EN 45004, 813
BS EN 60079, 786
BS EN 60529, 786
Broadcast advertising, 135
Bronchial asthma, 458–9, 472
Building site safety see Construction
site safety
Burden of proof:
civil and criminal cases, 5, 22
and corporate liability, 40
employment tribunals, 26
Burns:
electrical, 777–8
to the eye, 439
Business interruption, 197
Cadmium, illness and diseases from,
464
Cancer:
and bladder, 489
carcinogenicity tests, 448–9
carcinogens:
classification, 474
safety levels, 510
causes of, 474
from coal tar and pitch, 453–4
maldevelopment examples, 443–4
occupational, 473–5
and pneumonia, 473
and radiation, 527
of scrotum, 452–3
Candela, 583
Capability of employees, 109
Carbohydrates, 429
Carbon, and organic compounds,
653
Carbon dioxide, effects of, 471
Carbon disulphide, toxic effects,
469
Carbon monoxide:
dangers of, 470
detectors, 683–4
Carbon tetrachloride:
harmful effects, 468
uses and metabolism, 468
ventilation for, 513
Carcinogens see Cancer
Cardiovascular, illnesses with causes
of, 489
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 607
Carter R.L., 250
Case law interpretation, 41
Cases, list of, 1025–9
Cattell’s trait theory and personality
factors, 342
CE mark, 52
Central nervous system, 438
Cerebellum, 438
Chancery, 11
Chartered Institution of Building
Services Engineers (CIBSE),
587
Chemicals:
Chemical Industries Association
(CIA), 888
chemical reactions, 6531036 Index
Chemicals – continued
Chemical Weapons Convention
(CWC), 852
emergency procedures, 887–8
European Inventory of Existing
Commercial Chemical
Substances (EINECS), 852
European List of Notified Chemical
Substances (ELINCS), 852
exposure monitoring, 859–60
exposure prevention:
enclosure, 857
local exhaust ventilation (LEV),
857
personal protective equipment
(PPE), 857–9
respiratory protective equipment
(RPE), 858–9
substitution, 857
hazardous substance lists, 850
hazards, types of, 851
immediate/long-term dangers, 198
laboratories, 884–7
legislation, 860–7
carriage requirements, 863, 864
Control of Industrial Major
Accident Hazards
Regulations (CIMAH), 861–2
Control of Major Accident
Hazards Regulations
(COMAH), 861–2
COSHH regulations, 850, 860,
863, 865–7
Dangerous Substances
(Notification and Marking of
Sites) Regulations, 887
information and packaging,
862–3
installation notification, 861
labelling, 863
Management of Health and
Safety at Work Regulations
(MHSWR), 887–8
Notification of Installations
Handling Hazardous
Substances Regulations
(NIIHHS), 861
supply requirements, 863
new substances, 851–2, 899
plant/process design, 871–81
computer control systems, 877–8
functional safety life cycle
management (FSLCM), 881
Hazard and Operability Studies
(HAZOP), 874–7
modification procedures, 882
plant control systems, 877–8
risk assessment, 878–81
safety, 873–7
properties, 653–7
risk, 233
risk minimising, 856–60
risk/hazard assessment, 852–6
COSHH, 853–6, 866–7
definitions, 852–3
forms for, 854–5
manual handling, 856
process of, 853
safe systems of work, 882–4
instruction documentation, 882–3
permits to work (PTW), 883–5
training, 883
safety information, 851–2
safety monitoring, 859–60
safety records, 860
storage, 867–71
drum compounds, 867–9
gas cylinders, 871
storage tanks, 867–9
underground tanks, 868–9
warehousing, 870
tanker off-loading, 869–70
transporting, 871–2
Chemicals and the environment,
956–85
abatement notices, 962
best available techniques not
entailing excessive cost
(BATNEEC), 958, 964–5, 997
Best Practicable Environmental
Option (BPEO), 962–4
discharge to atmosphere limits, 965
emissions control, 964–5
‘end of pipe’ control, 956, 997–8
Environmental Protection Act
(EPA), 958–62
Environmental Protection
(Prescribed Processes and
Substances) Regulations, 958
harm minimising, 962–5Index 1037
hazardous chemicals, 957
integrated pollution control (IPC),
958–60
legal and regulatory requirements,
965
polluter pays policy, 960, 998
risk reduction, 957
statutory nuisances, 962
toxicity considerations, 956–7
waste disposal, 961, 973–82
see also Air
pollution/sampling/control;
Environmental issues/
management/legislation;
Environmental Protection Act
(EPA)
Chernobyl incident, 898–9
Chlorine, illness from, 470
Chromium, skin problems from, 463
Circadian rhythm, 370
Circuit judges, 24
Circulatory system, 434–6
Civil actions:
applications, 5
burden of proof for, 4
defences to, 44–5
for injury, 3–4
time limits for, 44
Civil law, 4–7
Civil liability, 156–71
claim defences, 166–7
the common law, 156–7
damage assessment, 168–9
employer’s liability, 162–5
fatal accidents, 170
health and safety at work, 165
no fault liability system, 170
occupier’s liability, 160–1
supply of goods, 161–2
time limitations, 168
tort, law of, 157–60
volenti non fit injura, 167
Clean air see Air
pollution/sampling/control
Cleanliness:
premises and equipment, 63
working environment, 632
Clerk to the Justices, 24
Clothing, protective, 521
Coal tar, cancer from, 453–4
Cobalt, pneumoconiosis from, 455
Code for Interior Lighting (CIBSE),
587–8
Codes of practice:
HSW definition, 58
and trade descriptions, 124–5
Colour, working environment, 632–3
Colour blindness, 582
Combustible dusts, 675–6
Committe European de Normalisation ´
Electrotechnique (CENELEC), 75,
76
Committee on Consumer Protection
report (Cmnd 1781), 119
Committee on Product Safety
Emergencies (EU), 129
Common law, the, 156–7, 305–6
Compensation, 141–5
claims for long past events, 148
and contracts, 86–7
defences to claims, 147
hearing loss, noise induced, 148–9
for injury, 3
investigation, negotiation and the
quantum of damage, 151–5
loss of earnings, 153–4
pecuniary/non-pecuniary losses,
153–5
and trespass by children, 150
vibration white finger (VWF),
149–50
Workmen’s Compensation scheme,
141–3
see also Damages; Defences to legal
action; Insurance
Competent persons, 812–13
boilers, 798
Complete Health and Safety
Evaluation (CHASE), 259
Compounds, 653, 654–5
Compressed air, on construction sites,
834
Computers, use of:
alphanumeric data, 296
choosing software, 298
free format text programs, 295–6
hardware and software, 294
numeric data, 297–8
programs, nature of, 294–5
question/answer programs, 2971038 Index
Conditional fee agreements, 23
Conjunctivitis, 582
Consideration, and contracts, 84
Constant Attendance Allowance
(CCA), 143
Constitutional law, 5–7
Construction site safety, 819–49
accident rates, 819
asbestos legislation, 846–7
basic requirements, 820–2
cold and wet conditions, 831
compressed air hazards, 834
Construction (Design and
Management) Regulations
(CDM), 820–2
drinking water, 842
dusty conditions, 831–2
electrocution dangers, 829–30
eye protection, 842
fire, 830
fire certificates, 844–5
fire legislation, 843–5
first aid boxes, 842
food legislation, 845
fumes, 831–2
glare problems, 830–1
head protection, 843
hot conditions, 831
industrial dermatitis, 832
ionising radiations, 833
lasers on, 833
Management of Health and Safety
at Work Regulations
(MHSWR), 821–2
mines, 846
notification of work, 822
personal protective equipment
(PPER), 842–7
petroleum spirit legislation, 846
planning supervisors, 820
principal contractor responsibilities,
820–2
Provision and Use of Work
Equipment Regulations
(PUWER), 821
quarries, 846
sewers, 832–3
vibration white finger (VWF), 833
washing facilities, 845
Weil’s disease, 833
welfare facilities, 841–2
see also Cranes; Excavation site
safety; Scaffolding
Consumer contracts, 136–8
Consumer credit advertising, 126
Consumer protection:
consumer redress, 139
distance selling, 138
exclusion clauses, 135–8
fair contract conditions, 119–26
fair quality of goods, 127
fair quality of services, 127
goods fit for purpose, 161–2
misleading advertising, 134–5
plain language, 136–7
product liability, 132–4
product safety, 127–32
stop now orders, 138
Consumer redress, 139
Consumer Safety Unit (DTI), 131
Contracts/contract law, 5–7, 84–95
consumer contracts, 136–8
contract formation, 84–7
employment, 43, 87–8
fair conditions, 119–26
faults in, 85–9
insurance, 92
law of sale, 90–2
and misrepresentation, 86
and occupational safety advisers,
92–4
plain language, 136–7
remedies/compensation, 86–7
of service and services, 87–8
unfair contracts, 92, 136–8
Contributory negligence, 151
defence, 151, 166
Controlled Waste, 61, 925–6, 972
Controls, ergonomics of, 640–2
Corporate killing proposals, 23
Corporate liability, 40
Cortisone, 441
COSHH regulations/requirements:
chemicals, 850, 853–6, 860, 863,
865–7
ventilation, 808–9
see also Appendix 5
Cost benefit analysis:
and environmental issues, 901–2
and risk, 256Index 1039
Cost of care, as a recoverable benefit,
154
Costs, insured/uninsured, 202–3
Coughing, 432, 444
Counselling techniques, 398–9
Courts:
of Appeal, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16,
24
appellate jurisdiction, 7
of Auditors (EU), 28, 74
Civil:
England, 8–11, 9, 13
Northern Ireland, 14–16
Scotland, 12–14
County, 9
County courts, 14
Court of Justice (EU), 27–9
Court of Sessions, 14
Criminal:
England, 8, 10, 11
Northern Ireland, 15, 16
Scotland, 13–14
Crown, 10, 11, 16, 24
District, 13
Divisional, 9
first instance jurisdiction, 7
High Court, 10, 11, 15
High Court of Justiciary, 13, 14
House of Lords, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14,
15, 16
Inferior courts, 7
legal personnel:
England, 24–5
Northern Ireland, 25
Scotland, 25
Magistrates Courts, 10, 14, 15, 16,
24
principles developed by the courts,
41–5
procedures, 18–23
Sheriff Court, 8, 13, 14
Superior courts, 8
see also European courts
Cramp, from heat, 482
Cranes:
access, 759
bare conductor protection, 758
checklists, 838–41
construction requirements, 755
controls, 758–9
definition, 754
emergency escape, 759
hand signals, 760, 761
load indicators, 759, 839
overtravel switches, 758
passengers, 759
safe working load, 759
safety catches, 759
see also Lifts/hoists/lifting
equipment
Credit and hire advertising, truth in,
126
Crimes, definition, 4
Criminal cases:
burden of proof for, 5
proceedings for, 8, 21
rules of evidence for, 5
where held, 4
Criminal law, 4–7
Criminal liability, 7
Criminal offences away from work,
112
Criminal proceedings, 5, 8–13
summary trials, 8
trial on indictment, 8
Crown immunity, 63–4
Crown Notices, 64
Crown premises, legislation for, 63–4
Crown Prosecution Service, 4
Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD),
606
Current Law, abbreviation list, 18
Customs officers, powers of, 56
Damage, from negligence, 160
Damage control, 194
reporting/investigating/costing,
252–3
Damages:
assessment of, 168
benefits recoverable, 153–4
provisional damage, 169
special damage, 168–9
see also Compensation; Insurance
Danger:
and acceptability of risk, 361
as an ever present fact, 351–2
and causal perceptions, 360
choice to expose to, 361–21040 Index
Danger – continued
definition, 189
fight or flight response, 355–6
forseeability, 363–4
hazard detection, 352–3
hazard perception, 360
hazard seeking, 357–8
individuals response to, 351–5
knowledge of causal networks,
359–60
and personal control, 362–3
predicting danger, 358–9
reactions to perceived risk, 360–5
and risk assessment, 358–9
and risk scales and probability,
364–5
and sensory defects, 353–4
warnings, responding to, 356–7
see also Accidents; Hazards;
Incidents; Risk
Dangerous goods/substances:
carriage of, 62
storage and use, 51
Dangerous occurrences, UK
notification legal requirements,
299
de Quervain’s disease, 607
Deafness, occupational, 480, 482, 611
Decibel, 544–6
Defences to legal action:
civil liability, 166–7
compensation and insurance cover,
147
contributory negligence, 151, 166
development risks defence, 133
due diligence defence for false
trade descriptions, 121, 123,
125
res ipsa loquitur, 147
state of the art, 151
to civil action, 44–5
volenti non fit injuria, 147, 167
Dehydration, 482
Delegated legislation, 30–2
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 526–7
Department of the Environment Food
and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), 953
Dermatitis, non-infective, 451–2
Design:
building/fire engineering, 706–7
and ergonomics, 598, 640
health and safety in, 247
plant/process, 871–81
and system safety, 239
Detectors see Fire alarms and
detectors
Development risks defence, 133
Digestive system, 430–1
Directives, European Union (EU),
33
Director disqualification, 38–9
Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP),
4, 25
Disabilities:
disability discrimination laws,
101–2, 613
and ergonomics, 610–11
Disability Living Allowance (DLA),
143
Disciplinary procedures, 105–7
ACAS Code of Practice, 105–6
gross misconduct, 106
and reasonableness, 107
right of appeal, 106–7
warnings, 106
Disciplinary rules, 88
Disclaimers, and false descriptions,
121–2
Discrimination see Disabilities; Equal
pay legislation; Race
discrimination laws; Sex
discrimination laws
Diseases see Occupational diseases
Dismissal, 107–17
automatically unfair reasons,
115–16
and capability of employees, 109
compensation awards by tribunals,
117
and continuing absences, 110
for contravention of an enactment,
114
effective date of termination, 108
exclusions from right to claim
unfair dismissal, 116
fair/unfair reasons, 89, 107–9,
115–16
and ill-health, 109–10
for lack of skill, 110–11
for misconduct, 111–13Index 1041
prima facie unfair reasons, 116
reinstatement orders, 117
for ‘some other substantial reason’,
115
unfair dismissal, 115–16
employee rights after, 116–17
see also Redundancy
Display screen equipment (DSE):
ergonomic considerations, 599–600,
644–5
legal requirements, 613
lighting for, 583
work related upper limb disorders
(WRULD), 607–9, 611
Distance selling, 138
Diurnal rhythm, 370
Domestic premises, HSW definition,
58
Domino theory of accidents, 198–9,
286–9
Double vision, 582
Douglas H.M., 261
Due diligence defence, false trade
descriptions, 121, 123, 125
DuPont Safety Management Audit
Programme, 398
DuPont Safety Training Observation
program (STOP), 398
Dust:
air pollution/sampling/control,
499, 501–2, 515
airborne dust lamps, 501–2
airborne dust measurement, 569–72
asbestos dust control, 809
combustible, 675
Duty of care:
by employers, 42, 43
environmental audit, 976–80
and negligence, 158–9
to third parties on site, 43–4
and waste management, 930–2,
939–40, 974–5
Duty standards, 40–1
practicable, 40
Ear-muffs, 517, 563
Ear-plugs, 517, 563
Ears, 439–40
inner ear, 439–40
working of, 552–3, 631
see also Hearing; Noise; Sound
Eczema, 452
Effluent discharge see Water
pollution
Electricity:
accidents, 773–4
in adverse/hazardous
environments, 785–6
alternating current, 769
British Approval Service for
Electrical Equipment in
Flammable Atmospheres
(BASEEFA), 787
burns from, 777–8
CENELEC, 770, 778
circuit breakers, 780
circuits, 774–5
competency for working, 781–2
construction site fires, 830
construction site safety, 829–30
direct current, 769–70
earth leakage circuit breaker
(RCDs), 780, 781
earthing, 778
electric discharge lamps, 584
electric fields, exposure to, 539–41
electric shock, 436, 775–7
electricity at work regulations,
772–3
in explosive atmospheres, 786–7
as a fire hazard, 676
fires from, 778
fittings, 788
flameproof equipment, 788
in flammable atmospheres, 786–7
fuses, 779–80
hazardous areas classification, 787
IEE Wiring Regulations, 760, 778
impedance, 775
inspection and test of equipment,
810–11
insulation, 779
International Electrotechnical
Commission, 786
intrinsically safe systems, 788
low frequency fields, exposure to,
540
maintenance of equipment, 790
Ohm’s law, 7741042 Index
Electricity – continued
overhead lines, work near, HSE
notes, 780
permits to work (PTW), 779, 783–4,
784–5
personal protective equipment, 779
portable tools, 789
pressurising hazardous areas (type
‘p’), 788
purging hazardous areas (type ‘p’),
788
residual current devices (RCDs),
780, 781, 789–90
static, 782, 785
statutory requirements, 772–3
supply, 770–2
type ‘e’ equipment, 787
type ‘N’ equipment, 787
underground cables, work near,
HSE notes, 780
voltage, 770, 773
work precautions, 778–9
Electrons, 524, 651
Emissions, control of, 51
Employee, HSW definition, 58
Employee responsibility for H&S, 79
and legislation, 90
Employee rights, 97–8
Employee suspension, 89
Employers:
and blatant disregard of H&S
proposals, 23
civil liability of, 162–5
for defective equipment, 165
for fellow employee selection,
146, 165
for place of work, 163–4
for plant and equipment, 164
for supervision/instruction,
164–5
for system of work, 163
and vicarious liability, 162
common law main duties, 146
duty of care, 42, 43, 51–2
duty legislation, 90, 146
general duties on, 52
HSW requirements, 54–5
liability insurance, 144–50
responsibility to observe legislation,
50
Employment:
contracts for, 88
documents and agreements, 97–8
Employment Medical Advisory
Service, 58
Employment Tribunals, 26
legislation, 88–90
Employment law, 96–118
basic features, 96–8
disciplinary procedures, 105–7
discrimination, 98–105
dismissal, 107–9
and enactment contravention, 114
misconduct, 111–13
redundancy, 113–14
see also Dismissal
Encephalopathy, 461
Endothermic reactions, 653
Energy, work and power, 663–4
English law, sources and branches, 6
Environmental
issues/management/legislation:
acid rain and precipitation, 987–8
Advisory Committee on Major
Hazards, 901
best available techniques not
entailing excessive cost
(BATNEEC), 901–2, 958, 997
Best Practical Environmental
Option (BPEO), 905, 927
carbon dioxide levels, 894–5
Climate Change Levy, 897
Contaminated Land Regulations,
897–8
control strategies, 904–6
controlled waste legislation, 61–2
corporate social responsibility,
1001–2
cost benefit analysis, 901–2
Eco-management and Audit
Scheme (EMAS), 905, 908–10,
919
end of pipe control, 996, 997–8
Environmental Agencies, 62
environmental management
systems (EMS), 905–6, 908–20,
982–5, 1000–1001
checking and corrective action,
916–18, 984
documentation, 915–16Index 1043
emergency preparedness, 916
Environmental Aspects and
Impacts analysis, 912–13
implementation and operation,
914–16, 984
improvement objectives, 914
legal requirements, 913
management objectives, 914
management review, 918–19, 984
monitoring objectives, 914
objectives and targets, 913–14
operational control, 916
planning, 911–14, 983
policies, 909–11, 983
training, 915
ethical investment, 995–6
EU Directive on Environmental
Liability, 996
eutrophication, 991
global impact of environmental
issues, 994–5
Global Warming Potential (GWP),
989
global warming/greenhouse effect,
989
green procurement, 995–6
hazards, environmental, 898–900
hazards and risks, 900–1
hazards to the eco-system, 900
hazards to people, 900
hazards to quality of life, 900
increasing legislation and controls,
996
Inspectorate of Pollution, 61
Integrated Pollution Prevention
Control Licences, 996
Inter-governmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC), 894
ISO 9000, 1000
ISO 14000, 905–6
ISO 14001, 908–10, 982–3, 1000
ISO 18000, 905–6
issues, environmental, 987–93
Landfill Tax, 998–9
lead/health effects, 899
Meadows’ ‘Doomsday Scenario’,
987–8
media and the environment, 993–4
OHSAS 18001, 909
ozone depletion, 989–90
perception of environmental risk,
902–4
photochemical smog and
particulates, 990–1
polluter pays policy, 960, 998
population growth, 893–4
predictions, environmental, 894–5
producer responsibility, 999–1000
renewable versus non-renewable
energy, 992–3
resource depletion, 991
risk evaluation, environmental,
900–4
risks and hazards, 901–2
shared responsibility, 999–1000
Slovic et al study on risk
perception, 903–4
social and political will for change,
896–7
sustainable development, 895–8,
1000–1001
Waste Management Hierarchy,
895–8
see also Air
pollution/sampling/control;
Chemicals and the
environment; Pollution;
Radiation; Waste management
Environmental Protection Act (EPA),
957–62
air pollution control (APC), 958–60
best available techniques not
entailing excessive cost
(BATNEEC), 958, 964–5
Best Practicable Environmental
Option (BPEO), 962–4
discharge to atmosphere limits,
965
emissions control, 964–5
Environmental Protection
(Prescribed Processes and
Substances) Regulations, 958
harm minimising, 962–5
integrated pollution control (IPC),
958–60
legal and regulatory requirements,
965
polluter pays policy, 960
statutory nuisances, 962
Epicondylitis, 6071044 Index
Epidemiological analysis:
with limited data, 281
purpose of, 279–80
single/multi-dimensional, 280–1
techniques for, 280–1
Epidemiology, 450–1
Equal pay, and equal value, 89
Equal pay legislation, 102
Equipment see Plant and equipment,
examination of
Ergonomics, 594–616
about ergonomics, 594–5
allocation of function, 602–3
anthropometry, 603
audible signals/warnings, 645–6
and back problems, 609–10
by design, 598
controls, 602
controls and indicators, 640–2
definitions, 595–6
and the disabled, 610–11
display screen equipment (DSE),
644–5
displays, 599–600
and error, 603–5
history of, 596–8
human-machine interface, 599–600
legal requirements, 611–13
lifting and the spine, 622–4
manual handling, 638–9
noise and vibration, 642–3
and plant design, 640
repetitive strain injury (RSI), 606,
639
signs and signals, 645–6
sitting and the spine, 622
standing and the spine, 622
stress problems, 643–4
text clarity, 600–1
usability, 598–9
and work related upper limb
disorders (WRULD), 482–3,
606–9, 611
in the workplace, 605–6
see also Human body, structure and
functions; Work related upper
limb disorders (WRULD);
Working environment
Errors, and ergonomics, 603–5
Erythema, 538
European Agency for Health and
Safety at Work, 74
European Committee for
Electrotechnical Standardisation
(CENELEC), 770, 786
European courts, 9, 12, 13, 15, 16, 27–9
Court of First Instance, 28
European community courts (ECJ),
27–9
European Court of Human Rights,
29
European Court of Justice:
and English courts, 13
and judicial precedent, 18
European Union (EU):
Court of Auditors, 28, 74
Court of Justice, 74
International Criminal Court, 29
European Parliament, 33, 73, 74
European standards, 75–6
European Union (EU):
Agency for Safety and Health at
Work, 35
co-decision procedure, 34–5
co-operation procedure for
directives, 36
Committee of Permanent
Representatives, 73
Conciliation Committee, 35
Council of, 33, 72
Decisions and Recommendations of,
74
Directives, 33, 36, 74
Economic and Social Committee
(EcoSoc), 73
European Commission, 33, 73
European Parliament (EP), 34–5
influence on HSW legislation, 39–40
legislation process, 33–4, 74
legislation to an individual, 35–7
machinery directives, 728–31
operation of, 72–5
and product information exchange,
129
Regulations of, 74
Examination of plant and equipment
see Plant and equipment,
examination of
Excavation site safety, 823–8
battering the sides, 823, 824Index 1045
benching the sides, 823, 824
Construction (Health Safety and
Welfare) Regulations, 823–9
flooding risks, 824
guardrails and barriers, 824
mobile machinery on, 824–5, 829
overhead cables, 825–6
portable tools, 829
pre-planning, 828
public access, 824
steel trench sheet runners, 827
underground cables, 826
walling poling frames, 824, 825, 826
see also Construction site safety
Exchange and barter, 91
Exclusion clauses, 135–8
Excretion, 431
Expert witnesses:
evidence, 22–3
and the Pro-Action Protocol, 152
Explosive material, 60, 61
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis, 459–60
Eyes, 438–9
accommodation, 582
burns of, 439
cataracts, 439
conditions/disorders, 582–3
eye strain, 582
illnesses with causes of, 488
intensity levels, 630–1
lines of sight, 629–30
main features, 581
protection, 521
protection on construction sites, 842
Facilities, and false descriptions,
120–1
Factories, early safety legislation, 37
Factortame litigation, 28
Factory doctor system, 423
Facts, and the law, 7
Failure modes, accidents, 200
Fairbairn, Sir W., 793
Fairground equipment, 52
False/misleading
statements/descriptions:
code of practice for, 124–5
disclaimers, 123
due diligence defence, 121, 123, 125
list of descriptions, 120–1
misleading advertisements, 134–5
penalties, 123, 125
price indications, 125–6
pricing offences, 123–6
reckless statements, 122
services, facilities and
accommodation, 121–3
strict liability offence, 121
truth in lending, 126
Farmer’s lung, 459–60
Fatal accidents, 170
fatal accident frequency rates
(FAFRs), 245–6
Fatalities, UK notification legal
requirements, 299–303
Fatigue, 369
Fault tree analysis (FTA), 179, 292
accidents, 200
risk, 243–4
Feedback, of discussions, 228
Fibres, sampling for, 499–500, 501–2
Fight or flight response, 355–6
Financial accountability, for risk
management, 257–8
Fire(s):
chemistry of, 671–4
class A fires, 686
class B fires, 686
class C fires, 686–7
class D fires, 686, 687
class F fires, 686, 687
conduction spread, 674
on construction sites, 830
construction sites, 843–5
convection spread, 674
electrical fires, 687, 778
fire triangle, 671–2
flameproof electrical equipment,
788
fuel for, 672
ignition, 672–3
and oxygen, 672
radiation spread, 674
smouldering, 673
spontaneous combustion, 673
spontaneous ignition temperature,
673
spread problems, 673–4
terminology, 720–31046 Index
Fire alarms, detectors and protection
measures, 678–85
active protection, 708–10
aspirating smoke detectors, 680–1
automatic alarms, 678–82
building structural stability, 711
carbon monoxide detectors, 683–4
control and indicating equipment,
684–5
emergency lighting, 708
emergency planning, 709
false alarms, 685
fire compartments, 710
fire dampers, 709
heat detectors, 682–3
house keeping, 709–10
ionisation detectors, 679
laser detectors, 684
manually operated alarms, 678
optical detectors, 679–80
passive protection, 710–11
radiation detectors, 683
radio fire alarm systems, 684
smoke detectors, 679
smoke extraction, 709
smoke stop doors, 709, 710
staff training, 709
video smoke detectors, 681–2
wall linings, 711
wiring for, 684
Fire Authority, 60
Fire brigade access and facilities,
719–20
access round buildings, 719–20
building access shafts, 720
premises information, 720
Fire certificates, 59–60
construction sites, 844–5
improvement and prohibition
notices, 60
Fire engineering in building design,
706–7
fire loading, 707
Fire escape considerations, 703–6
ability of occupants to respond,
704–5
building occupancy, 704
distances of travel, 705–6
escape route construction, 704
escape route protection, 706
escape route signage, 706
fire risk assessment, 703–4, 716–19
Fire fighting equipment:
carbon dioxide extinguishers,
691–2, 694
drencher/deluge systems, 697–8
dry powder extinguishers, 692, 694
dry powder fixed systems, 700
extinguisher ratings, 693–4
fire blankets, 693
fixed equipment, 695–702
foam extinguishers, 690, 694
foam systems, 699–700
gas systems, 701–2
halon extinguishers, 692–3
installed hose reels, 693
maintenance of portable equipment,
694
portable, 688–95
siting of portable extinguishers, 689
sprinkler systems, 696–7
water extinguishers, 690, 694
water mist systems, 698–9
wet chemical extinguishers, 690–1
Fire hazards and their control:
arson, 675
combustible dusts, 675–6
electric arc and burning, 677
electricity, 676
gas cutting and burning, 677
heating systems, 677
lighting, 677–8
portable heaters, 677
rubbish, 677
smoking, 676–7
Fire, legal requirements, 59–61, 711–16
appeals and offences, 714
building regulations, 716
Fire Authority powers, 714–15
fire certificates, 713–14
fire services responsibilities, 712
high risk premises, 715
Prohibition Notices, 716
regulations, 55
workplace regulations, 715–16
Fire precautions/prevention, loss
control, 195
Fire protection methods see Fire
alarms, detectors and protection
measuresIndex 1047
Fire risk assessment, 716–19
emergency plans, 717–19
risk categorisation, 718
Fire safety signs, 702–3
Fire terminology, 720–3
Fired pressure vessels see Boilers
First aid:
boxes/containers, 428
first aiders at work, 427–8
First aid boxes, construction sites, 842
First instance jurisdiction, 7
Fitness for purpose, 127, 161–2
Fitts, P.M., 603
Flameproof electrical equipment, 788
Flammable material, 60
Fletcher J.A., 261
Flight or fight response, 355–6
Fluorescent lights, 584
Foam fire fighting equipment, 699–700
Fog Index, Gunning, 601
Food:
building site legislation, 845
safety regulations, 131–2
Food and medicines, product safety,
131–2
Foodstuffs, 429–30
Force, work and power, 663–4
Forfeiture Orders, goods, 131
Friction, static and sliding, 664–5
Fuel, and fire danger, 672
Fumes, noxious or offensive, 51
Functional safety life cycle
management (FSLCM), chemical
plants, 881
Gamma-rays, 526
Gas chromatography, 499
Gas cylinders, storage, 871
Gases:
compression of, 668–9
flow measurement, 668
general Gas Law, 659
physical properties, 659–60
specific gravity, 660
Gassing, accidents from, 469–71
Generic behaviour modification model,
348, 401–7
Germain, G.L., 194
Gilbreth, F.B, 597
Glare, 589–90
glare indices, 589
protection from, 590
Gloves:
neoprene, 521
polyvinyl alcohol, 521
Goal setting, 71–2
Goods:
forfeiture orders, 131
and product liability, 132–4
Gordon, J.E., 200
Grab sampling, 493–7
Green Papers, 32
Greenhouse effect, 989
Greenhow, Dr E.H., on chest disease,
422
Grievance procedure, 88
Gross misconduct, 106
Groundwater pollution, 971–2
Guards and interlocks, 612
adjustable guards, 738
design and selection, 736–7
distance guards, 738
fixed guards, 738, 739
hazard identification, 734–7
interlocked guards:
automatic, 747
cam-operated, 740–2
captive key, 745
control guards, 749
direct manual, 740
features and choice, 739–47
key exchange system, 744–5
limit switches, 743, 745
magnetic switch, 746
mechanical, 740, 741
mechanical scotches, 747
time delayed, 747
trip devices, 747–8
two-hand control, 748
lamp indication, 743
materials for, 749
monitoring effectiveness, 737
openings, 749
reaching over, 749
risk assessment, 736
switches and valves, 742
time delay arrangements, 747
trapped key interlocks, 745
tunnel guards, 7381048 Index
Guilty plea, 22
Gunning Fog Index, 601
Hale, A.R., 286
Hale, M., 286
Hands/arms/wrists:
hand-arm vibration syndrome
(HAVS), 475–6
illnesses with causes, 488
mechanism/operation, 624–8
vibration white finger (VWF),
149–50, 476, 565, 833
Hazardous (special) waste, 926,
940–2, 972, 974–5
Hazards:
acute, 177
chronic, 177
consequence of, 177–8
definitions, 176, 188
degrees of, 197–8
hazard analysis (HAZAN), 245
hazard detection, 352–3
hazard and operability (HAZOP)
studies/techniques, 229, 244,
358–9
chemical plant, 874–7
Hazard and Risk Explained HSE
leaflet, 188
likelihood of, 178–9
perceiving hazards, 360
and risk, 188–9
see also Danger; Risk
Head protection, construction sites,
843
Health and safety, in design and
planning, 246–8
Health and safety at work legislation,
49–66
administration of 1974 act, 53–4
classes of health hazards, 493
definitions of 1974 act, 58–9
dismissal for ill-health, 109–10
Employment Medical Advisory
Service, 58
enforcement, 55–6
extensions to act, 57
framework for, 69–70
general duties on employers and
others, 51–3
goal setting for, 71–2
health assessments, 424
Health and Safety Commission
(HSC), 51, 68–9
duties of, 53
Health and Safety Executive (HSE):
duties of, 53–4
operation of, 68–9
Improvement Notices, 56
offences, 56–7
post 1974, 50–1
pre 1974, 49–50
Prohibition Notices, 56
regulations and codes of practice,
54–5
see also Appendix 5, List of Statutes,
Regulations and Orders;
Construction site safety;
Occupational diseases;
Occupational health, hygiene and
safety
Hearing:
audiogram, 481, 552
deafness and noise, 488
defects to, 353–4
ear sensitivity, 479
hearing protectors, 517
mechanism of, 479
noise exposure limits, 480–1
noise induced loss claims, 148–9
noise-induced hearing loss, 553
occupational deafness, 480, 482
protection for, 481, 517, 556
tinnitus, 480, 553
see also Ears; Noise; Sound
Heart, operation of, 434–6
Heat, as a form of energy, 663
Heat detectors, 682–3
Heat stroke, 482
Heinrich, H.W.:
on causes of accidents, 228
‘Domino theory’, 198–9
Hepatitis A/B/C, 483–4
Herbicides, dangers of, 465
Herzberg’s theory of job motivation,
215–16
Hierarchy of Human needs (Maslow),
214–15
Hire and credit advertising, truth in,
126Index 1049
Hire-purchase, supplier’s obligations,
53
HIV +ve, 484
Hooke’s Laws, 665
Hormones, 441–2
Houldsworth, H., 793
House of Lords, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16
HSW prosecutions, 21
Human body, structure and functions,
421–46
anatomy and physiology, 428–43,
618–31
arms, 624
blood:
circulation, 619–20
red and white cells, 436
cancer, 443–4
central nervous system, 438
circulatory system, 434–6
defence mechanisms, 444–5
digestion, 430–1
ears, 439–40, 631
excretion, 431
eyes, 438–9, 629–31
foodstuffs, 429–30
hands and wrists, 624–8
heart, 434–6
history, 421–3
hormones, 441–2
legs and feet, 628–9
muscles, 437, 618–19
poisons, effects of, 445–6
respiratory system, 431–4
skin, 442–3
smell and taste, 440–1
special senses, 438
spinal column, and
standing/sitting/lifting, 620–4
Human error, 334–5
Human functions and behaviour see
Behavioural modification and risk
management; Behavioural science;
Individuals and safety
Humidity:
humidifier fever, 486
working environment, 635
Hydraulics, 668–9
hydraulic power transmission, 661–2
Hydrochloric acid, illness from, 470
Hydrogen sulphide, effects of, 471
Hygiene see Occupational health,
hygiene and safety
Hygrometry/hygrometers, 503–4
Hypermetropia, 582
Hyperplasia, 443
Ill health:
and dismissal, 109–10
see also Occupational diseases
Illuminaires see Lighting
Illuminance, 583
Immune system, body, 444–5
Implied terms/conditions:
in contracts, 90
in sales, 91
Improvement Notices, 56
fire, 60
Incandescent lamps, 583, 585
Incapacity benefit (IB), 142
Incident, at Hazards Ltd, 3–4, 5, 20
Incident investigation, and
behavioural modification
management, 408–10
Incident recall technique, and loss
control, 194–5
Incidents, 187–8
and accidents, 187–8
definition by HSE, 264
UK notification legal requirements,
299–303
see also Accident/incident data;
Accidents; Trend analysis
Independent audits, 229
Indicators, ergonomics of, 640–2
Indictment trials, 8
Individuals and safety, 330–88
accidents as a deviation process,
332–3
approaching towards safe limits


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