كتاب Safety at Work and Emergency Control - A Holistic Approach - Second Edition
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Safety at Work and Emergency Control - A Holistic Approach - Second Edition

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Safety at Work and Emergency Control - A Holistic Approach - Second Edition
Benedito Cardella  

كتاب Safety at Work and Emergency Control - A Holistic Approach - Second Edition  S_a_w_17
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Contents
About the Book xv
Preface xvii
Acknowledgments .xix
Author .xxi
Introduction xxiii
Chapter 1 Holistic Approach .1
1.1 Harmonizing the Paradigms 1
1.2 Harmonizing Survival and Happiness 3
1.3 Approaching Accidents .3
1.4 Approaching Organizations .5
1.4.1 Addressing Operational Systems .5
1.4.2 Addressing Organizational Systems 6
1.4.3 Addressing Activities .6
1.4.4 Addressing the Life Cycles of the Organization,
Products, and Personnel .6
1.4.5 Making Diagnosis 7
1.4.6 Assessing the Operational System .7
1.4.7 Assessing the Organizational System 7
1.5 Performing Interventions .8
Bibliography .9
Chapter 2 Safety at Organizations 11
2.1 Safety Function 11
2.2 Organizations 11
2.3 People Needs . 13
2.4 Adherence 14
2.4.1 Adherence Client–Organization . 15
2.4.2 Adherence Organization–Client 16
2.4.3 Adherence Organization–Organization . 16
2.4.4 Perceived and Real Adherence . 16
2.4.5 Adherence and Quality . 16
2.4.6 Adherence Control . 16
2.5 Leadership . 18
2.5.1 Leadership and Administrative Game . 18
2.5.2 Relation Leader–Subordinate . 19
2.6 Organizational Culture 20
2.7 Management System 22
2.8 Holistic Management System 23viii Contents
2.8.1 Basic Principles 23
2.8.2 Policy 23
2.8.3 Responsibility .24
2.8.4 Scope 24
2.8.5 Management Methodology .24
2.8.6 Programs’ Structure .24
2.9 Organizational Climate .24
2.10 Resources of the Organizations .25
2.11 Organizational Field 27
2.12 Organizational Development .29
Bibliography . 31
Chapter 3 Risk Management . 33
3.1 Risk Control . 33
3.2 Risk Management 33
3.3 Principles . 33
3.4 Goals 33
3.5 Policy .34
3.6 Guidelines 34
3.7 Strategies .34
3.8 Organizational Systems .34
3.9 Methodology 35
3.10 Action Areas 35
3.11 Life Cycle 35
3.12 Programs 36
3.13 Monitoring .36
3.14 Indicators .37
3.15 Audits .37
3.16 Diagnosis .38
Bibliography .38
Chapter 4 Emergency Management 39
4.1 Emergency Control 39
4.2 Emergency Control Principles .40
4.3 Emergency Management Policy 40
4.4 Emergency Management Guidelines .40
4.5 Emergency Management Strategy . 41
4.6 Emergency Management Methodology . 41
4.6.1 Emergency Control Function Deployment . 41
4.7 Action Areas 41
4.7.1 Emergency Action Plan 42
4.8 Emergency Control Organization 42
4.8.1 Mission . 42
4.8.2 Clients . 42Contents ix
4.8.3 Organizational Structure 43
4.8.4 Resources . 43
4.8.5 Action Groups 43
Bibliography 49
Chapter 5 Risk Management in Interventions 51
5.1 Concept of Intervention . 51
5.2 Types of Intervention . 51
5.3 Impact and Risk Control . 52
5.4 Interfaces . 53
5.5 Permissions and Licenses 54
Bibliography .54
Chapter 6 Risk Analysis and Control 55
6.1 Concept and Methodology . 55
6.2 Harm Generation Mechanism . 55
6.2.1 Aggressive Action on Targets . 55
6.2.2 Failure of Risk Control .56
6.3 Hazard Identification .56
6.4 Risk Assessment 57
6.4.1 Risk Factors 57
6.4.2 Frequency Assessment . 57
6.4.3 Consequence Assessment .60
6.4.4 Semiquantitative and Qualitative Risk Assessment . 61
6.4.5 Risk Control Instruments .63
6.5 Risk Control .64
6.5.1 Process Control 64
6.5.2 Risk Control Model 66
6.6 Action Plan for Risk Control .68
Bibliography .70
Chapter 7 Risk Analysis Techniques 71
7.1 Preliminary Risk Analysis 71
7.1.1 PRA—Object and Focus 71
7.1.2 PRA—Method 71
7.1.3 Auxiliary Techniques . 71
7.1.4 Complementary Techniques .72
7.1.5 Formulary .72
7.2 Hazard and Operability Studies 72
7.2.1 Hazop’s Object and Focus 72
7.2.2 Hazop—Method .73
7.2.3 Continuous Process 73
7.2.4 Discontinuous Process . 74x Contents
7.2.5 Auxiliary Techniques . 75
7.2.6 Complementary Techniques . 75
7.2.7 Formulary . 76
7.3 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis 76
7.3.1 FMEA—Object and Focus 76
7.3.2 FMEA—Method 76
7.3.3 Auxiliary Techniques . 76
7.3.4 Complementary Techniques . 76
7.3.5 Formulary .77
7.4 What-If? .77
7.4.1 What-If—Object and Focus .77
7.4.2 What-If—Method .77
7.4.3 Auxiliary Techniques . 78
7.4.4 Complementary Techniques . 78
7.4.5 Formulary . 78
7.5 Checklist 78
7.5.1 Checklist—Object and Focus 78
7.5.2 Checklist—Method 79
7.5.3 Auxiliary Techniques .79
7.5.4 Complementary Techniques .79
7.5.5 Formulary .79
7.6 Fault Tree Analysis 79
7.6.1 FTA—Object and Focus 79
7.6.2 FTA Method .79
7.6.3 Auxiliary Techniques .80
7.6.4 Complementary Techniques .80
7.6.5 Formulary .80
7.7 Event Tree Analysis . 81
7.7.1 ETA—Object and Focus 81
7.7.2 ETA—Method 81
7.7.3 Auxiliary Techniques .82
7.7.4 Complementary Techniques .82
7.7.5 Formulary .82
7.8 Critical Incident Technique .82
7.8.1 Critical Incident Technique—Object and Focus 82
7.8.2 CIT—Method .83
7.8.3 Auxiliary Techniques .83
7.8.4 Complementary Techniques .83
7.8.5 Formulary .83
7.9 Comparative Analysis 83
7.9.1 Comparative Analysis—Object and Focus 83
7.9.2 Comparative Analysis—Method 83
7.9.3 Auxiliary Techniques .83
7.9.4 Complementary Techniques .83
7.9.5 Formulary .84
7.10 Interaction Matrix 84Contents xi
7.10.1 Interaction Matrix—Object and Focus 84
7.10.2 Interaction Matrix—Method 84
7.10.3 Auxiliary Techniques .85
7.10.4 Complementary Techniques .85
7.10.5 Formulary .85
7.11 Planned Inspection 85
7.11.1 Planned Inspection—Object and Focus .85
7.11.2 Planned Inspection—Method 86
7.11.3 Auxiliary Techniques .87
7.11.4 Complementary Techniques .87
7.11.5 Planned Inspection Formulary .87
7.12 Abnormal Occurrences Analysis .87
7.12.1 Abnormal Occurrences Analysis—Object and
Focus 87
7.12.2 AOA—Method .88
7.13 Cause Tree Analysis 89
Bibliography . 91
Chapter 8 Value Analysis in Safety 93
8.1 Integrating Value and Risk Analysis .93
8.2 Aggressive Function 93
8.3 Basic Concepts of Value Analysis .94
8.3.1 Object of Value Analysis 94
8.3.2 Function 94
8.3.3 Quality 94
8.3.4 Price 95
8.3.5 Absolute Value .95
8.3.6 Relative Value .95
8.3.7 Clients of the Organization 95
8.4 Functions Classification .96
8.4.1 Basic—Complementary and Supplementary
Functions 96
8.4.2 Auxiliary Function .97
8.4.3 Use Function .97
8.4.4 Esteem Function .97
8.4.5 Necessary Function 97
8.4.6 Unnecessary Function 97
8.4.7 Support and Collateral Functions .97
8.4.8 Aggressive Function .98
8.4.9 Real Function .98
8.4.10 Fictitious or Imaginary Function 98
8.4.11 Perceived Function .98
8.4.12 Revealed and Undisclosed Functions .98
8.4.13 Vital Function .99
8.4.14 Passive and Active Functions .99xii Contents
8.5 Functional Diagram .99
8.6 Comparing Functions 101
8.7 Holistic Diagram . 101
8.8 Questioning Functions . 102
Bibliography . 104
Chapter 9 Human Failures 105
9.1 Failure Analysis . 105
9.2 Technical Failure . 107
9.3 Careless Failure . 108
9.3.1 Carelessness Failure Characterization . 108
9.3.2 Inattention and Confusion 109
9.3.3 Handling Carelessness Failures . 109
9.3.4 “Inadvertent” Equipment Failures . 110
9.4 Conscious Failure 110
9.4.1 Conscious Failure Characterization . 110
9.4.2 Conscious Failure Mechanism . 112
9.4.3 Attitude . 112
9.4.4 Posture 114
9.4.5 Behavior’s Consequences . 114
9.4.6 Safe Behavior’s Driving Force . 116
9.4.7 Behavior Control 118
9.4.8 Leadership and Behavior 120
9.4.9 Cultural Change .120
9.4.10 Conscious Failure Treatment 121
9.5 Compound Failure . 121
9.6 Failure Promotors 121
9.6.1 Primary Agent 121
9.6.2 Secondary Agent 122
9.6.3 Command Agent 123
9.6.4 Intruder Agent 124
9.7 Common Cause Failure .124
Bibliography .125
Chapter 10 Safety Concepts 127
10.1 Object of Study 128
10.2 Aggregate 128
10.3 System . 128
10.4 Normal State 129
10.5 Abnormal State 130
10.6 Loss 131
10.7 Abnormal Occurrences 131
10.8 Impactful Agent and Target . 132
10.9 Harmful Agent and Susceptibility . 133Contents xiii
10.10 Aggressive Agent and Vulnerability . 134
10.11 Sources of Aggressive Agents . 136
10.12 Aggressive Action Field . 137
10.13 Exposure 138
10.14 Alarm . 139
10.15 Promoters and Inhibitors . 139
10.16 Containment and Retention . 140
10.17 Rupture Agent 141
10.18 Isolation . 141
10.19 Restoration . 141
10.20 Combat . 142
10.21 Protection . 142
10.22 Defense 143
10.23 Recovery Systems 143
10.24 Hazard and Quality . 144
10.25 Hazardous Event 145
10.26 Harmful and Damaging Events . 146
10.27 Emergency . 146
10.28 Accident—Incident—Near Miss . 147
10.29 Risk 147
10.30 Maintenance 148
10.31 Operation . 149
10.32 Project 150
10.33 Safety . 150
Bibliography . 151
Index 154
A
Ability, 2, 14, 21, 23, 26–27, 70, 86, 90, 107, 110,
114, 124, 133, 135, 143–144
Absenteeism, 35, 145
Accident
analysis of, 4, 87, 89
and behavior, 118–119
catastrophic, 54
causes of, 33, 56, 85, 121, 124
consequences, 1, 4, 6–7
fatal, 59, 112
and human factors, 1
and incident, 147
major/serious, 21, 58, 64, 67, 75, 88, 130, 150
minor, 82, 88
a multifaceted phenomenon, 3–5, 33, 36
nature of, 3, 4, 36, 65
frequency, 1, 88
outside the organization, 35
rate, 37, 65
prevention of, 1, 12, 33, 54, 110, 113
probability, 121
Accountability, 118
Adherence, see organization
Administration, 18–20
and Chess, 18–19
and man-apes relationship, 20
and man-pig relationship, 20
Agent
aggressive, 4, 7, 11, 19, 37, 39, 41, 44, 46,
53, 55–56, 60, 62–63, 69, 71–72,
86, 89–90, 105–106, 127, 130–145,
150–151
aggressor, 134
biological, 135
chemical, 133, 135–137
command, 123
elastic, 134
electric, 135
ergonomic, 135
external, 35, 56, 89–90
failure-promoter, 36, 90, 139
gravitational, 134
harmful, 127, 132–134, 136, 140,
143–144, 146
hazardous, 56, 144
impactful, 5, 51, 127, 132–133, 136
injectable, 132–133
inoculated, 60
inorganic, 135
intruder, 89, 121, 124
kinetic, 134
natural, 59
passive, 136
physical, 134, 137
primary, 121–122
of rupture, 46–48, 58, 69, 73, 86, 90, 127,
141–142, 148, 150
secondary, 91, 122–123
thermal, 135
treacherous, 139
vegetal, 135
wave, 135
Aggregate, 51, 53, 87, 99, 128
Alarm, 7, 62–63, 69, 73–75, 94, 107, 123–124,
127, 139, 142, 144, 148
Andersen, K. E. A., 18
Approach, 1–4, 24, 41, 150
Attitude, 1, 8, 20, 83, 85, 112–120
Audit, 8, 36–38
Authority, 9, 12, 21, 52, 113–114, 118
B
Barrier, 44, 48, 53, 63, 69, 127, 136, 141–142
Behavior, 1, 3, 7–9, 12–14, 20, 22, 30, 34, 37,
40–41, 57, 66, 70, 85–86, 89, 108,
112–121, 131–132, 139, 148–149
Belief, 1, 4, 6, 8–9, 17, 20–21, 30, 36, 38, 70, 89,
112–114, 116, 119–120, 128, 148
Blast, 69
Bleve, 26
“Boiled frog”, 119
Boilover, 26, 31n7, 107, 125n1
Brainstorming, 75, 77, 103
Bytheway, C., 100
C
Camouflage, 139
Carelessness, 89–91, 108–111, 121–124, 140
Cartesian–Newtonian, 1–2
Cause tree analysis, 88–89
Characters, 21, 113
Charisma, 18, 21
Checklist, 53, 67, 71–72, 75–76, 78–80, 83–84,
86–87, 124
Civil defense, 12, 40, 143
Combat, 7, 39, 41, 43–44, 47, 63, 69, 107, 128,
141–143, 146
Commitment, 9, 27, 70154 Index
Committees, 8, 24, 34, 36
Common cause failures, 57, 79, 86, 124
Communication, 23, 43–44, 47, 86–87, 89
Community, 11–12, 15, 17, 20–21, 23,
28, 40, 66, 75, 96, 102, 120,
143, 148
Competence, 14, 18, 112
Consequences analysis (CA),75–76, 78, 80
Consumer, 11, 15, 23, 42, 95–96, 99, 102, 131,
144
Containment, 4, 7, 39, 41, 44, 46, 58, 63, 69, 86,
90, 127, 138–142, 145–146
Cooperation, 15, 30
Cousteau, J., 21
Creativity, 5, 14, 26–28, 70, 73, 75, 88, 93
Critical incident technique (CIT), 7, 82–83,
87, 147
Culture, 1, 6, 8–9, 12, 14, 18, 20–21, 23, 25,
27–31, 35, 37–38, 43, 56, 67, 70,
86–89, 110, 116, 118, 120, 123–124,
130
D
Damage, 4–5, 7, 11, 36–37, 39, 41–43, 60–61,
66, 88–89, 95, 98, 107, 111, 127–128,
130–137, 139, 141, 143–149, 151
expected/potential, 60, 88, 116
generation mechanism, 43, 69, 89
moral, 131
to people, 4, 131–132
permanent, 61
to property, 61, 4, 11, 41–42, 61, 131
Danger
and alarm, 139
and careless failures, 108–110
and evacuation, 48
and exposure, 138
and risk, 60
Defense, 1, 12, 18, 39–40, 69, 106, 127, 133, 136,
143–144, 146
Deflagration, 60
Demand, 37, 39, 42, 51, 56, 59, 79, 89–90,
141–142, 146, 149
Detection, 7–8, 24, 37, 39–40, 42, 46, 67, 69,
73–77, 83, 85–88, 93, 98, 105–106,
119, 123–124, 127, 130, 139, 142,
146–149
Detonation, 60
Development, 6, 8, 11, 12–14, 18–19, 21, 22–24,
29–30, 36, 39, 42–43, 87, 99, 102–103,
113
Deviation, 7–8, 37, 64, 67, 72–78, 83, 85–87, 93,
107, 111–112, 118–119, 129–131, 150
Disturbance, 64–66, 119, 129, 132–133, 143
Dose, 133–134, 151n2
E
Ego-status, 14
Emergency, 8, 39, 41–42, 142–143, 150
alarm, 139
auxiliary functions, 40
causes and effects, 39
control, 21, 36, 39–43, 51, 53, 56, 59–60,
71–73, 75–81, 85–86, 90, 105, 113,
139, 141–143, 146, 148–150
control organization, 6–7, 12, 17, 26, 39,
42–43, 146
failure analysis in, 105–106
as a failure promoter, 109–110, 124, 146
initiator of, 39–40, 51, 127, 146
location, 40, 47
management in, 24, 39–40, 44
medical care in, 44, 46
resources in, 26–27
and risk control, 33
scenarios, 40
top event of, 39
Environment, 2, 11, 53, 139
adaptation to, 12, 29
and aggressive agents, 51, 128, 132, 136
and attitude, 112
changes of, 2, 29
damage to, 36, 41, 42, 128, 131–132
as a disposal medium, 6, 35–36, 98, 131
elements of, 5
and emergency, 40, 42
impacts on, 7, 52, 76, 103, 133
interventions in, 51
management system, 24
and organizations, 5, 11, 23, 28
preservation, 11, 24, 44, 77, 99, 102, 129
protection agency, 54
recovery of, 143
resources from, 86
risk to, 86, 103
and systems, 66, 128
and value analysis, 103
vulnerability, 60–61
and work conditions, 66, 85–86, 108,
121–124, 139, 150
Escalation, 76, 106
Esteem, 96–97
Event tree analysis, 55, 72, 75–76, 78, 80–82, 85,
88, 107
Experience, 5, 9, 13–14, 18–19, 26–27, 36, 43,
54, 58, 70, 73, 75, 87–88, 107–108,
150
Explosion, 31, 39, 60–61, 75, 82, 85, 134–135,
137, 146–147
Exposure, 37, 41, 55, 57, 60–62, 69, 86, 96, 127,
132–134, 137–140, 142–146, 148Index 155
F
Failure, 3–4, 36, 51, 55–59, 69, 71, 74–77, 79–82,
85–86, 88–91, 93, 103, 105–112,
115–119, 121–125, 130–131, 140, 142,
145–146, 149–150
Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), 55,
67, 76–77, 106
Faith, 2
Fall, 9n4, 55, 61, 70–72, 88, 90, 134–135
Fate, 3, 21
Fault tree analysis (FTA), 55, 57–58, 67, 72, 75,
78–82, 85, 88–89
Feedback, 27, 65–66, 119, 128–129
Fire, 39, 60–61, 73, 76, 82, 84–85, 108, 131–133,
136, 145–146
brigade, 6, 17
chemistry of, 26
fighter, 11, 43, 113, 143
fighting, 26, 43, 47, 73, 77, 103, 107, 139,
142–143, 145
water, 26
Flexibility, 12
Fondness, 6, 8–9, 21–22, 30, 38, 70, 112–114
Fraction dead time, 56, 80
Function, 1–2, 5–8, 11–13, 17, 19–21, 23–28,
30, 33–37, 39–49, 52–56, 66, 70–71,
74, 76, 78–79, 89, 91, 93–105, 108,
110–111, 113, 119, 122, 127–131, 141,
144–145, 148–150
H
Happiness, and survival, 3, 23
Harm, 5, 51, 55–56, 60–61, 67–69, 85, 89, 110,
127–129, 132–136, 140, 142–144,
146, 148
Hazard, 8, 35, 37–39, 53, 55–58, 63, 67,
71–73, 75, 77–79, 81–82, 84–85,
87, 89, 91, 93, 98, 107, 135,
144–147, 149–151
Hazard and operability studies (Hazop), 55, 57,
67, 72–76, 78, 80, 82, 91n1, 93
Heroes, 8, 20–21, 113
Herzberg, F., 14
Hobbes, T., 25
Holistic, 1–4, 11, 14, 23–24, 26, 30, 34, 36, 57,
66, 87, 96, 101–102, 119, 127, 150
Hurricane, 39, 137
I
Impact, 4–5, 7, 21, 44, 51–54, 97, 103, 113, 127,
132–135
Incident, 7, 37, 82–83, 87–88, 147
Indicator, 7, 37–38, 73, 75, 106, 116, 139
Information, 5, 7, 9, 17, 20–21, 26, 41, 44–49, 51,
53, 85, 87–88, 90, 94, 98, 102, 107,
112–114, 119–120, 123, 129, 132–133,
139, 142
Inhibitor, 86, 105, 139–142
Inspection, 7, 36–37, 52–53, 64, 71, 83–88, 124,
127, 142, 147–149
Integration, 2–3, 11–12, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, 34, 88,
93, 127
Interaction matrix, 67, 84–85
Interface, 53, 109
Intervention, 5, 7–9, 12, 21, 24, 35–36, 39–40,
51–55, 65, 68, 84, 105, 119, 149
Isolation, 7, 44, 47–48, 62–63, 69, 127, 139,
141, 143
K
Klink, A., 113, 125n2
Knowledge, 1, 5–6, 9, 19–21, 26–27, 35, 41,
52–53, 70, 75, 87–88, 98, 107, 109,
112, 114, 116, 121, 124, 148
L
Label, 53, 124
Language, 20
nonverbal, 7, 111, 120, 123
Law
“of the least effort”, 3
compliance with, 105
conscious failure and, 105, 115
deviation from, 83
and tyranny, 25
Leader, 6–9, 12, 17–21, 31, 34, 73, 87, 112–114,
120
Leadership, see organization
Life, 1, 6, 8, 12, 15, 112–113, 131, 151
cycle, 8, 24, 34–36, 83, 98, 103, 105, 130
Locke, J., 25
Logistics, 44, 46
Loss, 1–2, 4–7, 11, 19, 27–28, 31, 33, 37, 39, 69,
88–89, 96, 111, 116, 128, 131–134,
143–149, 151, see also damage
generation mechanism
of containment, 46, 138, 145
of control, 64
and price, 95
repairable, 131
Luck, 3
M
Maintenance, 4, 6–7, 12, 27, 35, 42, 51–52, 54,
56, 80, 84–85, 122, 124–125, 127,
136, 148–149156 Index
Managers, 19, 114, 119, 123–124, 143
Maslow, A., 13–14
Maslow’s pyramid, 13, 102
Methodologies, 1, 19, 22–25, 30, 35, 40–41,
55–56, 58, 71, 73, 76–77, 79, 81, 83,
84, 86, 88–89, 93, 98–99, 103, 107,
116, 130, 148–151
Middle Age, 2
Mission, 11, 13, 23–24, 35, 42–43, 66, 90, 96,
101–103, 105, 108, 148, 150
Mobility, 19, 37, 135, 144, 148
Modern Age, 1
Monitoring, 8, 27, 35–37, 40, 73, 109, 141,
149–150
Morale, 14, 115, 128, 131
Morphy, P., 18
Motivation, 3, 13–14, 17, 41, 88, 94, 109, 112
Myth, 4, 8, 20–21, 89
N
Near miss, 37, 82–83, 87, 147
Number one, 8–9, 18, 34
O
Occurrence, abnormal, 7–8, 33, 37, 67, 87–88,
105–106
Omission, 105, 120, 123
Operation, 6, 12, 23, 27, 36, 39, 54–56, 58, 65, 67,
80, 106, 108, 123–124, 135, 140, 142,
144–146, 149–150
Organizations, see also emergency control
activities of, 6, 8, 12, 34, 36, 40, 42
and adherence, 14–17, 23, 129
and administration, 19
characterization of, 29, 87, 128, 150
clients of, 11, 14–15, 23, 95–96, 102
and climate, 7, 14, 17, 19, 24–25, 28, 87–88,
129, 143
and culture, 6, 8, 12, 14, 20, 23, 27–31, 35, 37,
87–88, 110, 116, 120, 123–124
development of, 11, 21, 22, 29–30
and environment, 5, 11–12, 30
foundation of, 29
functions of, 17
holistic, 5, 30, 96
interventions in, 8, 21
and leadership, 6, 8–9, 12, 18, 21, 23, 27,
29–31, 34, 37, 87–88
and life cycles, 6, 35
as living systems, 12–13
and management system, 6–9, 17–27, 29, 31,
33, 37, 88, 110
mission of, 11, 13, 96
organizational field of, 8, 27–29, 89
organizational systems of, 22–23, 34
and people behavior, 13–14
and people needs, 13–14, 25
performance of, 19, 29
poles of, 17, 25, 28
products of, 35
programs of, 8, 17, 30, 36
regulatory function of, 6, 12, 23, 27, 89, 91
resources of, 25–27, 40, 42, 89
and Risk management, 33–38
and rites, 17
safety at, 11
safety diagnostic of, 7–8, 38, 128
structure of, 28, 30
survival of, 23, 101
as systems, 11, 20, 129 (see also systems)
values of, 6–9, 23, 30, 112
vision of future, 30
vital functions of, 93, 102
P
Paradigm, 1–2, 20, 22, 112, 119–120, 130
Perception, 1, 20, 117, 130, 139
Perpetuation, 3, 5, 20
Philosophy, 2, 22, 31
Piper Alpha oil platform, 54
Plan, 7–8, 14, 16, 19, 22–24, 33, 36–40, 42–43,
53, 64, 67–68, 71–72, 83, 85–88,
108, 113
Poison, 109, 134, 139, 151n2
Policy, 7, 17, 22–24, 33–34, 38, 40, 43, 70, 89
Posture, 7, 118, 120
Preliminary risk analysis (PRA), 55, 71–72,
78–80, 82
Prevention, see accident
Price, 68, 95–96, 116–118, 144
Principles, 7, 18–19, 22, 30, 33, 40
Probability, 5, 37, 40, 56–60, 66, 69, 79–80, 85,
88–89, 108–110, 115, 118, 121, 130,
139, 147
Procedure, 3, 5–8, 22–23, 26–27, 38, 40, 42–43,
46, 52–53, 62, 68, 70–71, 73–75, 77,
90–91, 102–104, 107, 109–111, 113,
115–116, 118, 121–124, 129
Process, 4–8, 12, 18, 22–23, 26, 29, 34–36, 42,
51, 52–53, 55, 64, 66–68, 70–75,
77–79, 83–76, 88–89, 99–100, 106,
108, 114, 118, 120, 128–129, 141–143,
147, 149–150
Productivity, 6, 11, 19, 23–24, 27, 73, 102, 103,
110, 129, 145, 147, 151
Program, 6–9, 17, 22, 24, 29–30, 33–34, 36,
38–40, 70, 73, 89, 119
Properties, 3
preservation of, 11, 34, 42
as target of aggressive agents, 40–41, 103,
106, 132, 146Index 157
vulnerability and damages, 60–61, 96
Protection, 7, 41, 47, 54, 58, 63, 69, 90, 115, 124,
127, 136, 138–144
Public, 6, 27, 40–41, 43–45
Q
Quality, 3, 7, 11, 16–17, 19, 23–24, 27, 37, 51,
56, 61, 63, 64, 68, 70, 77, 93–96, 98,
102–103, 110, 117, 129, 134, 144–145,
151
Quantitative risk analysis, 37, 57–58, 60, 67, 79,
81, 86
R
Radiation, 60, 133, 135–137, 139
Radioactivity, 44, 98, 137, 145
Rational, 1, 2, 26–27
Recognition, 14, 23
Recovery, 7, 61, 63, 119, 128, 143–144
Reliability, 40, 51, 64, 68–70, 94, 124, 128, 130,
140, 144, 148–150
Rescue, 7, 39, 41, 44, 47, 49, 63, 127, 139, 143
Resistance
to changes, 30
of isolation, 141
of material, 27, 44
Restoration, 39, 63, 69, 82, 90, 127, 130–131,
140–142, 146
Retention, 141, 143
Retirement, 6, 14, 35–36
Risk
“As Low As Reasonably Practicable”, 148
acceptable, 66
of activities, 6, 33–35, 52, 54, 66, 79
analysis, 7–8, 19, 22, 34–36, 40, 42, 53,
55–56, 65, 67, 71, 76–77, 79, 81,
87–88, 102, 150
assessment, 35, 55, 57, 61–64, 67, 116,
148–150
in batch process, 149
and behavior, 116–119
biological, 55
category of, 61–63
chemical, 55
concept of, 147
control, 3, 6–8, 21, 33–36, 52–57, 60–64,
66–68, 71–73, 75–78, 85–88, 150–151
controller, 53, 65–68
definition of, 33, 88, 147–148
diagnosis, 38
ergonomic, 55
of facilities, factors, 6–7, 33, 37, 39, 41, 52,
56–57, 66, 82–83, 85, 88, 105, 108,
119, 146, 148
and failures, 105, 107, 110–111, 121, 113
filter of, 36, 56, 91
and hazard, 37, 53, 55, 63, 75, 78, 144, 151
of hazardous events, 39, 61, 63, 147–148
indicators, 37
individual, 148
inference of, 66, 88
from interactions, 52, 85, 87, 149
of interfaces, 53
in interventions, 51–52, 54, 67–68, 84
in lifecycle, 36
in maintenance, 54
management, 24, 33, 35, 88, 128
occupational, 96
perceived, 116–117, 148
physical, 55
of places, 6
as a process variable, 64, 129
promoter, 86
as a random variable, 5, 51, 65–66, 87,
132, 147
reduction, 68, 150
responsibility for, 52–53
and safety, 150
and safety function, 37
sensor, 65, 67–68, 85, 89, 119
series of, 81
situations, 19, 60, 121
social, 148
tolerable, 33, 35–36, 51, 54, 64, 66–68, 151
in transportation, 34–35
treating of, 35
and value analysis, 93–94, 96, 102
Ritual, 4, 17, 20, 53, 70
Rule, 8, 21, 22–23, 25, 29–30, 34, 40, 67, 98, 110,
113, 117, 119–120, 122
S
Sabotage, 39, 111–112
Safety
in abnormal occurrences, 128
audit, 37
barriers, 63
and beliefs, 9
concepts, 4, 38, 127, 133
diagnosis, 7–8, 38
“first”, 11
and fondness, 9
function, 21, 37, 54, 89, 93, 99, 102–103,
150–151
holistic approach/view, 11, 57, 150
integration with vital functions, 11, 23, 103
and leadership, 19, 114
in the life cycles, 24
management, 24, 38
meetings, 7, 34
methods/techniques, 151158 Index
Safety (cont.)
monitoring, 8
needs, 14, 23, 25, 96
at organizations, 21, 40, 42
performance, 21
place of, 44
procedures, 102
professionals/experts/advisers, 34, 52
programs, 24, 34, 36
and reductionist view, 3
and reliability, 150
responsibility for, 24
and risk, 150
rules/standards, 21, 38, 113, 119, 129
state, 7
strategy, 89
studies, 4, 93, 128–129
and subjective view, 3
subjects/matter/aspects, 34, 87
team/group, 63, 127
and value analysis, 42, 93, 150
and values, 7
at work, 27
Scenario, 27, 29, 39–40, 42, 45, 67, 148
Self-assertion, 2, 12, 23
Self-realization, 14, 23, 96
Sensitivity, 37
Seveso, 75
Shareholder, see sponsor
Shutdown, 5–6, 12, 76, 129, 142, 145, 149–150
Signage, 3–4, 48, 139
and order-cleanliness, 8, 36, 57, 85–86
Signal, 4, 109–110, 123, 149
Skill, 6, 19, 27, 40–41, 43, 64, 68, 87–88, 107,
109, 111, 122
Society, 1, 29, 42, 67, 120
Sponsor, 11, 23, 42, 96
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP),74–75, 113
Steinitz, W., 18
Strain, 110
Stress, 3, 109, 122, 143
mechanical, 99, 108–109
Supervisors, 8, 34, 52, 91, 107, 111, 116, 119,
123–124, 102
Survival, see also happiness; perpetuation
of organizations, 2, 23, 101
Susceptibility, 60, 69, 124, 127, 133–134, 140,
144, 146, 148
Synergy, 3, 11, 68, 102
System, 2–5, 51–3, 55–56, 71, 72–68, 83–87,
90–91, 99, 101, 103, 105–106,
108–109, 111, 114, 118–120, 123–124,
128–129, 134, 150
emergency control, 36, 39–40, 47, 51, 56,
59–60, 81–82, 85–86, 89–90, 127–
128, 133, 136, 139, 142–144, 146, 148
ecological, 37, 129
immunologic, 143
living, 5–2, 12–13, 43, 51, 52, 129
management, 6–8, 11–12, 20, 22–24, 27,
29–31, 33, 37–38, 56, 70, 73, 87–89,
110
mechanical, 2, 37, 52, 109, 129
operational, 5, 7, 12, 22, 56, 70, 124, 127, 129,
146, 149–150
organizational, 6–7, 12, 22, 33–35, 40, 43, 56,
69–70, 146
risk control, 7, 33, 52–53, 56, 60–61, 64–69,
79, 86, 89, 127, 139–145, 147, 151
social, 37, 119, 129
T
Tao, 2
Target, 4, 7, 41, 47, 51, 55, 57, 60, 63, 69, 71, 86,
89–90, 98–99, 102–104, 127, 132–136,
138–139, 141–146, 148
Teamwork, 9, 93–94
“The Bridge on River Kwai”, 112–113
Theory
chess, 19
failures, 76, 88, 106
of systems, 2
Training, 6, 18, 27, 33, 36, 40–43, 56, 64, 68–70,
73, 86, 90–91, 102, 106, 109–110,
120, 145
V
Value
personal, cultural, 1, 4, 6–9, 20–21, 23,
30, 34, 36, 38, 87, 89, 111–114, 116,
119–120, 128, 130
Venom, 110, 134, 136, 138–139
Victim, 39, 44, 46, 49, 128, 132
Vision
Cartesian, 3
of future, 8, 17, 20, 25, 29–30, 89
global, 8, 34
holistic, 2, 66
Visit, 42, 44, 52, 88, 111, 123–124, 145, 147
Vulnerability, 60, 69, 127, 134, 136, 140,
144–146, 148
W
Waste, 36, 51, 129
What-If, 57, 67, 77–78, 80, 82, 85, 88
Work, see also safety
abnormal occurrences at, 67, 83
absence from, 4, 6
accident from, 8, 21, 33
aggressive agent at, 138–139, 141
carelessness at, 91, 122–123Index 159
conditions of, 66, 85–2, 108–110, 121–122
conscious failure at, 111–112, 122, 124
good practices at, 34, 57, 62, 69–70, 109–110
hazardous, 145
at home, 132
incapacity to, 61
intruder at, 91, 111
and lifecycle, 36
low load at, 147
mental, 1
needs at, 13–14
permit to, 36, 54
place of, 87, 109
repetitive, 6, 128
risk analysis of, 19
risk control at, 53, 69, 85
risk management outside of, 35–36
technical failure at, 122
unsafe behavior at, 115–116
World War II, 93, 110
Y
Yin, Yang, 2–3, 12


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