كتاب Make - FPGAs - Turning Software into Hardware with Eight Fun & Easy DIY Projects
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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 كتاب Make - FPGAs - Turning Software into Hardware with Eight Fun & Easy DIY Projects

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Make - FPGAs - Turning Software into Hardware with Eight Fun & Easy DIY Projects
David Romano

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Table of ContentsDesign 25
Peripheral Breadboard 25
FPGA Circuit Schematic Design Entry 27
FPGA Circuit HDL Design Entry 45
Simulation 60
Build . 65
Creating the Constraints File 68
Open Kelly Setup 72
Setup Test 73
Clock Frequency Experimentation . 75
Takeaways 76
3. That’s Refreshing 79
Stopwatch Concept . 79
How It Works . 80
Design 82
Peripheral Breadboard 83
FPGA Circuit 84
Digital Clock Manager (DCM) 87
Verilog Code and Concurrency 90
Simulation 98
Build 100
Assigning Physical I/O . 100
Takeaways . 101
4. Testing 1, 2, 3, 4 . 103
The Test Bench . 103
Test Bench Anatomy . 104
Reuse 105
Running the Test Bench Project . 105
Step 1: Selection and Download of Core 105
Step 2: Documentation 107
iv Make: FPGAsStep 3: RTL 109
Step 4: Adding Test Bench Files and Running the Simulation 112
Exploring the Test Bench Project 116
Overview 116
Takeaways . 124
5. It Does Not Compute . 125
The CARDIAC Computer Model . 125
Getting Started with VTACH 128
Numato Elbert V2 Setup 130
Modifications 134
Step 1: Device Section . 134
Step 2: Pin Assignments 135
Step 3: Clocking . 137
Step 4: I/O Polarity . 138
Step 5: Memory Block Update 141
Design, Build, and Simulation 145
Simulation 145
Building and Running 150
Programing and Assembler . 151
Takeaways . 153
6. It’s a Small World! 155
System on Chip 155
SoC Architecture . 157
DesignLab . 160
Installation 160
Papilio DUO Setup . 161
Step 1: Power Up 162
Step 2: Select COM Port 162
Step 3: Create Project 164
Step 4: Associate Circuit 164
Table of Contents vStep 5: Load FPGA Bit File 166
Step 6: Compile and Upload Sketch 168
Getting Started with the DesignLab Video-Audio Player . 169
How It Works 169
Design . 171
Step 1: Create New DesignLab Project 171
Step 2: Edit Your Design in Xilinx ISE 172
Step 3: Add VGA Adapter Block . 175
Step 4: Add Audio Blocks . 175
Step 5: Implement and Generate Bit File 177
Step 6: Create Sketch, Load, and Run . 178
Experiments . 179
Source Code . 181
Takeaways . 181
7. Just for the Fun of It . 183
Getting Started with VGA-Displayed Arcade Games . 183
How It Works 184
Loading a Game . 185
Source Code and ROM Files 189
Getting Started with LED Dot Matrix–Displayed Arcade Games 192
How It Works 193
Design 195
Experiments . 197
Source Code . 198
Takeaways . 199
8. Cha-Ching! 201
Getting Started with the Bitcoin Miner 202
How It Works 203
Design 204
Source Code . 207
vi Make: FPGAsTakeaways . 207
9. I Hear You! . 209
Getting Started with the SDR Receiver 210
How It Works 212
Red Pitaya Setup 213
Loading the SDR . 213
Step 1: Copy Red Pitaya SD Card Image . 213
Step 2: Install SDR Applications on PC 214
Step 3: Connect Red Pitaya to the Network . 214
Step 4: Run SDR Applications 214
Source Code . 216
Takeaways . 217
Appendix A. FPGA Boards 219
Appendix B. Papilio AVR Loading . 223
Appendix C. Text and Code Editor 229
Index 231
Index
Symbols
#define directive, 165
$display, 119
$time, 119
1-Pixel Pac-Man project, 193
; (semicolons), 51
<= (nonblocking assignment statement), 90
A
Add Symbol tool, 175
Altera, xi
always blocks, 90, 119
AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller Bus
Architecture), 105, 158
analog-to-digital converter (ADC), 212
anode configuration, 82
arcade games project
appeal of vintage games, 183
important points, 199
LED dot matrix-displayed, 192-198
VGA-displayed, 183-191
Arduino C program, 164, 168
Arduino shield ecosystem, 3
arithmetic logic unit (ALU), 128
ARM A9 processor, 8
ARM-based SoCs, 158
assign statement, 52, 90
async reset, 53
audio cores, 171
audio generator blocks, 175
AVR (Arduino microcontroller), 162, 223-228
axasm universal assembler, 151
B
baud rate clocks, 89
BCD math conversion algorithm, 145
begin statements, 90
behavioral models, 15
binary counters, 34
bit files, xii, 70, 166, 177
Bitcoin mining project
background on Bitcoin currency, 201
bill of materials, 202
block diagram, 203
designing in DesignLab, 204
device setup, 202
important points, 207
source code, 207
BitGen bistream generator, 70
blink LEDs concept, 22-25
block diagrams, 12
block memory, regenerating, 141
BoM (Bill of Materials)
for Bitcoin mining project, 202
for LED dot matrix-displayed games, 192
231for LED project, 25
for SDR receiver project, 211
for stopwatch project, 83
for VGA-displayed arcade game, 183
for video-audio player, 169
bottom-up design method, 14
BRAM, 189
breadboards, 25, 71, 83
break points, 122
buffers, 41
build phase, 18
bus functional models , 15, 158
bus taps, 40
C
C programs, 168
Cadence Design Systems, 103
CARDIAC computer, 125
(see also VTACH project)
cathode configuration, 82
CB16CE, 53
chassis-based platforms, 158
circuit verification, 103
(see also test bench method)
clock frequency divider circuit, 22
clock frequency experimentation, 75
clock pulse strobes, 86
clock signals, 119
CLR pin, 53
code editors, 229
code reuse, 105
comment text, 49
common cathode vs. common anode
configuration, 82
computer-aided design (CAD), 14, 158
concept phase, 11
connection by name, 89
constraints file, creating, 68
copying errors, 187
CORE Generator & Architecture Wizard, 88, 141
counters
cascading, 36
coding, 50
complete Verilog code for, 53
defining loops and reset, 52
symbols for, 34
wiring, 35
CPLD (complex programmable logic device), 18,
210
D
D Register, 50
D-Flip-Flop (DFF), 50
D2XX driver, 131
debugging, 44
delay control, 118
design flow
build phase, 18
concept phase, 11
design phase, 12
overview, 11
run phase, 18
synthesize phase, 17
test phase, 15
design phase, 12
design rule checks (DRC) system, 68
DesignLab
audio block addition, 175
benefits of, 160
Bitcoin mining project, 204
creating new projects, 171
creating/loading sketches, 178
downloading, 160
editing designs, 172
implementing/generating bit files, 177
installation, 160
LED dot matrix display experiments, 197
opening example designs, 195
VGA adapter block addition, 175
VGA color control, 179
video-audio player, 169
viewing designs, 196
development tools, 2
device properties, specifying, 29
device under test (DUT), 104, 118
Digilent Pmod™ Interface Specification, 3
digital clock manager (DCM), 87-90
digital down-converter (DDC), 212
232 Indexdigital frequency synthesizers, 89
DOA (dead on arrival) test, 15, 98
Dr. Dobb, 151
DUO Computing Shield, 175
E
Edimax EW7811Un, 213
Elbert V2
features of, 9
modifications for VTACH project, 134-145
setup, 130-134
Emacs text editor, 229
embedded computing devices, 195
end statements, 90
endmodule keyword, 47
EPLD (erasable programmable logic device), 210
error handling, 44
F
fabrics
defined, 158
standards for, 158
Wishbone Bus Interface Standard, 158
Fingerman, Saul, 125
flat design method, 14
flip-flops, 50
FPGA (field programmable gate array)
benefits of, x
history of, ix
implementation characteristics, 210
FPGA boards
design flow for, 11-19
Numato Lab, 8-10
Opal Kelly, 4-6
overview of, 219
Papilio DUO, 2-4
Papilio series, 3
prices of, 1, 3-4, 6, 8, 219
Red Pitaya, 6-8
selecting, 1, 19
Xilinx selection list, 219
Xilinx Zynq, 2
(see also individual boards)
FPGA circuit HDL design entry
attaching elements with assign statement, 52
compiling code with HDL synthesizer, 53
completed counter circuit Verilog code, 53
counter coding, 50
creating HDL source files, 48
declaring wires, 52
defining counter loop and reset, 52
defining counter variables, 51
defining module ports, 47
ISE HDL editor color codes, 49
logic design elements, 57
naming projects, 45
new project creation, 45
opening new source files, 46
overview, 45
propagation delay, 58
RTL view, 56
selecting preferred language, 45
Technology view, 57
timing tools, 59
Verilog design, 50
FPGA circuit schematic design entry
adding binary counters, 34
adding bus taps, 40
adding I/O pin symbols, 43
adding labels, 37
adding output buffers, 41
cascading counters, 36
debugging, 44
default settings, 30
diagram, 42
error handling, 44
implementing (compiling) modules, 44
naming projects, 28
opening new projects, 27
opening new source files, 30
opening schematic drawings, 32
saving work, 42
selecting source types, 31
specifying device properties, 29
wiring counters, 35
zooming in, 33
FPGA Mezzanine Connect (FMC), 1
framebuffers, 179
frequency configuration, 75
Index 233frequency synthesizers, 89
FrontPanel SDK, 5, 66
FTDI CDM drivers, 131
full custom implementation, 210
G
Gadget Factory, 159
"garbage in, garbage out" adage, 18
gate array implementation, 210
gedit, 229
general-purpose computing devices, 194
Generate Programming File process, 70
generating enable strobes, 86
GPIO (general purpose I/O), 67, 100
graphical analysis, 122
graphical form, 12
H
Hagelbarger, David, 125
hardware description languages (HDLs), 18
"HDL Coding Practices to Accelerate Design
Performance", 58
HDL concurrency
concept of, 79
important points, 101
7-segment displays, 80
stopwatch concept, 79
stopwatch design, 82-98
HDL form, 2, 12
HDSDR application, 214
Hierarchical Design method, 12, 89
I
I/O pins
assigning physical, 65-68, 100
constraints file creation, 68
pin mapping table, 68
polarity coding on Elbert V2, 138
remapping Elbert V2, 135
symbols for, 43
I2C serial bus, 12, 107, 117
I2C-Master Core Specification, 107
IDE (integrated development environment), 19
if statement, 52
iMPACT tool, 70
implementation technologies, 210
indicator lights, designing blinking, 22-25
input clock, 22, 66, 80
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE), 209
integrated circuits (IC), 156
Intel Corporation, 156
Intel CPU chips, 210
interface connectors, 1
Internet connections, 213-214
IP blocks, 105, 159, 175
ISE HDL editor, 49
ISE Place and Route tool, 43
K
Kilby, Jack, 156
L
labels, adding to designs, 37
LED dot matrix-displayed arcade games
bill of materials, 192
block diagram, 193
designing in DesignLab, 195
LED display experiments, 197
source code, 198
LEDs, designing blinking, 22-25
Linux support, 19
local microcontrollers, 2
Logic Cell Array (LCA), xi
loops, 52
Lopes, Alvaro, 170
M
Mac support, 19
master devices, 117
Matrixman, 193
meeting timing, 58
234 Indexmemory blocks, regenerating, 141
memory fabric, 158
memory mapping, 194
Mentor Graphics, 103
microcontrollers, 2
Mimas V2, 10
mining pools (Bitcoin), 206
MIT Scratch programming paradigm, 213
ModelSim, 216
module keyword, 47
modules
implementing (compiling), 44
instantiating, 89
Moore, Gordon, 156
multi-clock-period signals, 86
N
nonblocking assignment statement (<=), 90
Notepad, 229
Numato Lab, 8-10
O
OCP, 105, 158
one-clock pulse, 86
1-Pixel Pac-Man project, 193
Opal Kelly
assigning physical I/O, 66-68
features of, 4-6
Pins UCF file generator, 70
setup, 72-75
Open Verification Methodology (OVM), 103
open-source IP block libraries, 105
OpenCores library
benefits of, 105
downloading I2C controller core, 105
VTACH project, 128
operating precision, 118
ordered connection, 89
oscilloscopes, 8
output buffers, 41
P
Pac-Man, 183
Papilio AVR (Arduino microcontroller), 162,
223-228
Papilio DUO
features of, 2-4
in Bitcoin mining project, 202
in VGA-displayed arcade game project, 183
setup, 161-169
Papilio FPGA boards, 3
Papilio One 250K, 3
Papilio Wings connectors, 3
path delay, 58
peripheral breadboads, 25
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI), 195
peripheral fabric, 158
personal computers (PC), 194
photolithographic manufacturing process, 210
pin mapping table, 68
Pins application, 70
pixels, writing to VGA, 179
PlanAhead environment, 69
PlanAhead tool, 68
PLDs (programmable logic devices), x
PLL (phase lock loop), 66, 75
Pmod (Peripheral Module Interface), 3, 5
Pong Demo, 189
port declaration wizard, 47
ports, connecting, 89, 162
printed wiring boards (PWBs), 14, 155
projects
arcade games, 183-199
Bitcoin mining, 201-207
CARDIAC/VTACH computer, 125-153
LED blink, 22-77
naming, 28, 45
opening, 27, 45
software-defined radio, 209-217
specifying device properties, 29
stopwatch, 79-101
test bench, 103-124
updating device selection, 134
video-audio player, 155-181
propagation delay, 58
Index 235PSPad, 229
PWRSEL jumper, 162
Python mining script, 206
R
rack-based computer systems, 158
radio frequency (RF), 209
Red Pitaya
features of, 6-8
Internet connection, 214
SDR loading, 213
setup, 213
refresh rates, 83
reg reserved word, 51
register transistor logic, 17
registers, 50
reset functionality, 52
resistor-transistor logic, 156
reuse, 105
RF (anolog) frontend, 213
RGB adapter block, 193
ROM files, 189
romgen tool, 189
ROMVault
installing, 186
running, 188
RTL (register-transfer level)
bottom level view, 56
classic synchronous HDL logic design, 56
defined, 17
ISE schematic viewer, 54
run phase, 18
S
Sbuild2, 68
.sch files, 58
schematic drawings, 2, 14
schematic symbol library, 33
schematic-to-HDL conversion, 58
scope probes, 6
SDR (software-defined radio) project
antenna setup, 211
bill of materials, 211
block diagram, 212
how it works, 212
important points, 217
loading, 213
Red Pitaya setup, 213
SDR benefits, 209
SDR definitions, 209
source code, 216
tutorial page, 212
semicolons (;), 51
serial clock line (SCL), 108
serial data line (SDA), 108
7-segment displays
how they work, 80
Verilog code for, 90
VTACH project, 128
SHM (Simulation History Manager), 122
SID (sound interface device), 171
signal generators, 8
simulation test
benefits of, 60
build process, 65
creating constraints file, 68
forcing clock and reset signals, 61
opening, 60
programming target device, 70
stopwatch design, 98
VTACH project, 145-150
sketches, 164, 168, 178
slave devices, 117
smartphone block diagram, 157
SoC design
architecture, 157
functional block diagram approach, 155
history of SoCs, 155
important points, 181
Moore's law and, 156
Papilio DUO setup, 161-169
using DesignLab, 160
video-audio player, 169, 171-181
SoC development flow
blink LEDs concept, 22-25
BoM (Bill of Materials), 25
clock frequency experimentation, 75
design overview, 25
diagram, 21
236 IndexFPGA circuit HDL design entry, 45-60
FPGA circuit schematic design entry, 27-44
implementation technologies, 210
important points, 76
Opal Kelly setup, 72-75
overview, 21
peripheral breadboard, 25
simulation, 60-71
Xilinx ISE WebPACK installation, 23-25
soft designs, 165
soft IP libraries, 105
Software-Controlled Sound Generator (SSG), 171
Space Invaders, 183
"Spartan-6 Libraries Guide for Schematic
Designs", 35
Spartan 3A, 128
Spartan XC3S50A, 10
Spartan-6 LX9, 10
spectrum analyzers, 8
standard cell implementation, 210
stimuli (inputs), 104
stopwatch project
BoM (Bill of Materials), 83
build process, 100
concept for, 79
design overview, 82
digital clock manager (DCM), 87-90
FPGA circuit for, 84
peripheral breadboard, 83
7-segment display for, 80
simulation test, 98
Verilog code and concurrency, 90-98
Stratum proxy, 206
sync reset, 53
Synopsys, 105
synthesis tool, 17
synthesize phase, 17
synthesized clocks, 89
sysclk period, 100
system clock, 22
Szczys, Mike, 193
T
technologies for implementation, 210
Technology view, 57
test bench method
adding files for simulation, 112
basics of, 15, 103
block diagram of I2C core, 116
clocks and resets, 119
code examination in iSim tool, 117
code reuse and, 105
components and terminology, 104
displaying results, 119
documentation review, 107
downloading I2C controller core, 105
examining code using break points, 122
grouping commands with tasks, 119
important points, 124
instantiating DUT and generators, 118
instantiation of wrapper, 104
RTL file review, 109
viewing data with waveforms, 122
test fixture (see test bench method)
test phase, 15
Texas Instruments, 156
text editors, 229
time scale, 118
timing tools, 59
tool licenses, 2
transistors, 156
triggers, 50
U
unit under test (UUT), 15, 104
universal cross assembler, 151
USB WiFi dongle, 213
USB-Micro connector, 162
USB-Mini connector, 162
user constraints file (UCF), 68, 135
V
validation phase, 15
VCD (Value Change Dump) format, 122
Verilog
code example, 13
code for FPGA 7-segment display, 90-98
Index 237coding circuit building blocks, 50
combining elements, 52
compiling code, 53
creating module source file, 46
declaring wires, 52
defining counter loop and reset, 52
defining module ports, 47
modules in, 50, 89
selecting as preferred language, 45
semicolon use in, 51
test bench example, 103
time scale and operating precision, 118
VGA adapters, 171, 175
VGA-displayed arcade games
bill of materials, 183
block diagram, 184
how it works, 185
loading games, 185-189
source code and ROM files, 189
VHDL
ISE HDL editor color codes, 49
tools supporting, 2
vs. Verilog, 76
vi text editor, 229
video-audio player project
bill of materials, 169
block diagram, 169
designing in DesignLab, 171-181
how it works, 170
vintage arcade theme, 183
virtual breadboard sandbox, 6
virtual testing environments, 103
Visual Programming tool, 213
VTACH project
building and running, 150
design illustration, 128
downloading from OpenCores, 128
Elbert V2 modifications, 134-145
Elbert V2 setup, 130-134
generating your design, 145
important points, 153
opening, 129
programing and assembler, 151
resource pages, 128
simulation, 145-150
W
waveforms, 98, 122
Waxwing, 10, 131
WiFi connections, 213
Williams, Al, 151
Wishbone interface, 108, 158, 171
X
XEM6002 (see Opal Kelly)
Xilinx FPGA boards, 219
Xilinx ISE WebPACK
CORE Generator & Architecture Wizard, 88
creating HDL source files, 48
FPGA circuit HDL design entry, 45-60
FPGA circuit schematic design entry, 30-44
HDL editor color codes, 49
installation, 23-25
opening projects, 27, 45
Place and Route tool, 43
port declaration wizard, 47
Red Pitaya support, 216
ROM file handling, 189
Schematic Viewer, 54
schematic-to-HDL conversion, 58
timing tools, 59
wave form viewer, 98
Xilinx ISim simulator, 112, 117
Xilinx Spartan-6 XC6SLX9, 3, 4
Xilinx XC 2000, xi
Xilinx XC3S250, 3
Xilinx Zynq, 2, 6
Y
Yamaha YM2149, 171
Z
ZPUino, 165, 170, 193


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