كتاب Occupational Safety and Health Law Handbook - Second Edition
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 كتاب Occupational Safety and Health Law Handbook - Second Edition

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Occupational Safety and Health Law Handbook - Second Edition
authors
Melissa A. Bailey Margaret S. Lopez
Eric J. Conn Marshall Lee Miller
Frank D. Davis John B. O’Loughlin, Jr.
William K. Doran Arthur G. Sapper
Katie A. Duggin Rachel Schaffer
John B. Flood Francina M. Segbefia
Lauren Handel Kenneth B. Siepman
Michael T. Heenan
of:
Ogletree, Deakins, Nash, Smoak & Stewart, P.C.
McDermott Will & Emery LLP
Baise & Miller, P.C.
Weil, Gotshal & Manges, LLP

كتاب Occupational Safety and Health Law Handbook - Second Edition  O_s_a_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Summary Contents
Chapter 1 Occupational Safety and Health Act . 1
Marshall Lee Miller
Chapter 2 OSHA: The Rulemaking Process 49
Margaret S. Lopez and Francina M. Segbefia
Chapter 3 The Duty to Comply with Standards . 65
Arthur G. Sapper
Chapter 4 The General Duty Clause . 83
William K. Doran and Katie A. Duggin
Chapter 5 Recordkeeping . 101
Melissa A. Bailey
Chapter 6 Employers’ and Employees’ Rights . 143
John B. O’Loughlin, Jr.
Chapter 7 Refusal to Work and Whistleblower Protection 155
Kenneth B. Siepman
Chapter 8 Hazard Communication . 169
John B. Flood
Chapter 9 Voluntary Safety and Health Self-Audits . 191
Michael T. Heenan and Margaret S. Lopez
Chapter 10 Inspections and Investigations 207
Eric J. Conn
Chapter 11 Understanding and Contesting OSHA Citations . 221
Lauren Handel
Chapter 12 Criminal Enforcement of Violations 243
Marshall Lee Miller
Chapter 13 Judicial Review of Enforcement Actions 251
John B. O’Loughlin, Jr.
Chapter 14 Imminent Danger Inspections 263
Frank D. Davis
Chapter 15 OSHA-Approved State Plans 279
Rachel Schaffer
Appendix: Occupational Safety and Health Act . 287
Index 331
Contents
Preface . xix
About the Authors . xxi
Chapter 1 Occupational Safety and Health Act . 1
1.0 Overview . 1
Comparison of OSHA and EPA 2
OSHA, the Organization 2
2.0 Legislative Framework . 3
Purpose of the Act . 3
Coverage of the Act 4
Exemptions from the Act 5
Telecommuting and Home Workplaces . 6
3.0 Scope of OSHA Standards . 7
Areas Covered by the OSHA Standards . 7
Overview of Standards 8
Overview of Health Standards 9
Overview of Safety Standards . 9
4.0 Standard Setting 10
Consensus Standards: Section 6(a) 11
Standards Completion and Deletion Processes . 12
Permanent Standards: Section 6(b) 12
Emergency Temporary Standards . 15
General Duty Clause, 5(a)(1) 15
Feasibility and the Balancing Debate 16
5.0 Variances 19
Temporary Variances 19
Permanent Variances 20
6.0 Compliance and Inspections . 20
Field Structure . 20
Role of Inspections 21
Training and Competence of Inspectors 22
Citations, Fines, and Penalties . 22
OSHA Citation and Penalty Patterns 23
Communicating and Enforcing Company Rules . 25
Warrantless Inspections: The Barlow Case 26
7.0 Recordkeeping 27
Accident Reports . 27
Monitoring and Medical Records . 28Hazard Communication . 29
Access to Records . 29
Programmatic Standards 30
8.0 Refusal to Work and Whistle-blowing 30
Refusal to Work 30
Protection of Whistle-blowing . 30
9.0 Federal and State Employees . 32
Federal Agencies 32
State Employees 33
10.0 State OSHA Programs . 33
Concept 33
Critiques . 34
11.0 Consultation 35
Education . 35
Alliances 36
12.0 Overlapping Jurisdiction . 36
13.0 Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission . 37
OSHRC Appeal Process 38
Limitations of the Commission 38
14.0 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 39
In Theory . 39
In Practice 39
15.0 Hazard Communication Regulations . 40
Reason for the Regulation 40
Scope and Components 41
Hazard Evaluation 42
Trade Secrets 43
Federal Preemption Controversy . 44
16.0 Ergonomics Issues 45
Background . 46
Scope of the Problem 46
Scope of the Standard . 47
17.0 Legislation 48
Chapter 2 The Rulemaking Process 49
1.0 Overview 49
2.0 The Rulemaking Process 50
Petitions for Rulemaking . 50
NIOSH 51
Advisory Committees 52
viii ❖ Occupational Safety and Health Law HandbookNACOSH 52
FACOSH . 52
Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health 52
Identifying Potential Hazards 53
Request for Information and Advanced Notice of
Rulemaking . 53
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) 53
Hearings 54
The Final Rule . 55
3.0 Negotiated Rulemaking . 56
4.0 Other Applicable Statutes Concerning Rulemaking . 56
5.0 Delays in Rulemaking 57
6.0 Emergency Temporary Standards . 59
7.0 Variances 59
Temporary Variance . 60
Permanent Variance . 61
Interim Order . 61
8.0 State Law Standards/Jurisdiction 61
State Plans 62
9.0 Judicial Review . 64
Chapter 3 The Duty to Comply with Standards . 65
1.0 Overview 65
2.0 Applicability of OSHA Standards . 65
The General Principle of Preemption 65
Special Applicability Problems . 66
3.0 General Principles of the Duty to Comply 67
The Exposure Rule 67
To Whose Employee Does the Duty Run? 69
The Multi-Employer Worksite Liability Rules . 69
General Construction Contractors 70
Legal Status of the Multi-Employer Liability Rules . 71
Nonconstruction Applications of the
Multi-Employer Liability Rules . 71
Multi-Employer Worksite Defense Rules . 72
4.0 Actual or Constructive Knowledge 73
5.0 Additional Elements That OSHA Must Sometimes Prove . 73
6.0 The Employer’s Substantive Affirmative Defenses . 74
Infeasibility . 74
Contents ❖ ixThe Infeasibility Element of the Defense . 75
The Alternative Measures Element of the
Infeasibility Defense . 76
The Greater Hazard Defense 77
Unpreventable Employee Misconduct . 78
Invalidity of the Standard . 79
Violation of Statutory Procedural Requirements . 79
Violation of Constitutional Requirement of
Fair Notice of Standard’s Requirements 79
De Minimis . 80
Chapter 4 The General Duty Clause . 83
1.0 Overview 83
2.0 Who Is Protected by the General Duty Clause? . 86
3.0 The Existence of a Hazard . 87
4.0 Recognized Hazard 89
Industry Recognition 90
Employer Recognition . 91
Obvious Hazard Recognition 93
5.0 Causing or Likely to Cause Death or
Serious Physical Harm . 93
6.0 Feasible Measures to Correct the Hazard 95
7.0 Practical Enforcement of the General Duty Clause 97
8.0 Conclusion 99
Chapter 5 Recordkeeping . 101
1.0 Overview . 101
2.0 Statutory Authority . 102
3.0 Injury and Illness Recordkeeping 103
History of the Recordkeeping Requirements . 103
OSHA’s Authority for Requiring Employers to
Keep Records . 104
Identifying Injuries and Illnesses that Must be Recorded 104
Determining Whether an Injury or Illness Has Occurred . 105
Defining “Work-Related”: The Geographic Presumption 105
Preexisting Conditions 107
The Employer’s Obligation to Determine
Work-Relatedness 108
Exceptions to Work-Relatedness . 108
x ❖ Occupational Safety and Health Law HandbookInjuries or Illnesses that Occur While Traveling . 111
Injuries and Illnesses Resulting from Work at Home . 112
New Cases . 112
Recording Criteria . 114
Special Cases . 121
Hearing Losses 121
Needlestick Injuries 122
Medical Removal 123
Tuberculosis 124
Recordkeeping Forms and Retention Periods . 125
Employee Involvement and Access to Records 126
Privacy Cases . 127
Reporting Injuries and Fatalities . 128
Exemptions from Recordkeeping Requirements . 129
4.0 OSHA Standards Requiring Written Documents 130
Safety Standard Recordkeeping Requirements 130
The Health Standards 134
The Typical Health Standard . 134
Health Standards Applicable to General Industry 135
Health Communication and Bloodborne Pathogens . 136
Hazard Communication 136
Bloodborne Pathogens 137
The Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records
Standard . 138
5.0 Using Records to Prove Compliance 140
Chapter 6 Employers’ and Employees’ Rights . 143
1.0 Overview . 143
2.0 Employers’ Rights 144
Inspections and Warrants 144
Challenging Citations and Civil Penalties . 145
Judicial Review 146
Participation in Rulemakings . 146
Protection of Trade Secrets . 147
3.0 Employees’ Rights 148
Complaints 148
Refusal to Work . 149
Protection from Discrimination . 150
Participation in Inspections and Enforcement 151
Access to Information 152
4.0 Conclusion . 153
Contents ❖ xiChapter 7 Refusal to Work and Whistleblower Protection 155
1.0 Overview . 155
2.0 Refusal to Work . 156
Federal Statutes . 156
Occupational Safety and Health Act . 156
Enforcing Rights under OSHA . 157
Secretary’s Burden in Litigation 158
Burden Shifting Analysis . 158
Remedies . 159
National Labor Relations Act . 159
Protection under Section 7 159
Comparison of Section 7 and Section 502 . 161
Cooperation between OSHA and the NLRB . 161
Arbitration and Collective Bargaining Agreements . 161
Collective Bargaining Agreements . 161
Arbitration not under a Collective Bargaining Agreement . 162
Deferral . 163
State Statutes . 164
Common Law 165
3.0 Whistleblowing 165
Federal Statutes . 165
Occupational Safety and Health Act . 166
Preemption . 166
State Statutes . 166
Common Law 167
4.0 Conclusion . 167
Chapter 8 Hazard Communication: Moving toward a
Globally Harmonized System in the
21st Century 169
1.0 Overview . 169
2.0 The Hazard Communication Standard 171
Key Purpose and Scope of Application 171
Key Requirements . 173
Labels . 174
Material Safety Data Sheets 175
Training and Information for Employees 177
Hazard Communication Program . 178
3.0 Continued Problems with the HCS as the
Impetus for Change 179
4.0 The Global Harmonization System . 183
Overview of the GHS 183
xii ❖ Occupational Safety and Health Law HandbookScope of Potential Changes under the GHS 184
When Will GHS Be Implemented and
Key Areas of Concern 187
5.0 Conclusion . 189
Chapter 9 Voluntary Safety and Health Self-Audits . 191
1.0 Overview . 191
2.0 The Significance of Voluntary Safety and Health Auditing . 192
Overview of Audits 192
The Audit Team . 192
Scope of the Audit . 193
Audit Information . 193
Auditing Tips . 194
Take Steps to Protect Confidentiality of
Audit Information . 194
Be Prepared to Promptly Respond to Every Hazard
Identified in the Audit 194
Document Every Significant Step Taken to Respond to
Hazards . 195
Do Not Censor the Auditors . 195
Attribute Appropriate Gravity to Audit Findings and
Recommendations . 195
3.0 OSHA’s Voluntary Self-Audit Policy 196
Purpose . 196
Scope . 196
Provisions 197
Use of Self-Audits in Agency Inspections 197
No Citation for Corrected Conditions 197
Protection from Use of Self-Audits to Show Willfulness . 198
Penalty Reduction for Good Faith . 198
Limitations . 198
Critique . 199
“Routine” Use 199
Use of Audit Information to Supplement Other
Evidence Already Found . 199
Penalty Reduction . 199
4.0 Privileges and Protections from Disclosure of
Audit Information . 200
Introduction 200
The Self-Audit Privilege . 200
The Common Law Audit Privilege 200
General Description . 200
Factors Used in Determining Whether to Apply the
Privilege . 201
Contents ❖ xiiiOther Limitations in Application of the Audit Privilege . 202
Statutory Audit Privilege 203
The Attorney/Client Privilege 203
Attorney Work Product Doctrine 204
5.0 Conclusion . 205
Chapter 10 Inspections and Investigations 207
1.0 Overview . 207
2.0 Types of Inspections and Investigations 208
Imminent Danger Inspections 208
Accident and Fatality Investigations 208
Complaint or Referral Investigations . 208
Routine, Scheduled, or Programmed Inspections 209
3.0 OSHA’s Inspection and Investigation Rights 209
OSHA’s Right to Inspect 209
No Advance Notice 210
Warrant Requirement . 210
Exceptions to Warrant Requirement . 212
Interviews, Documents, and Subpoenas . 213
Audio and Video Recording 214
Monitoring Devices on Employees . 215
4.0 Employers’ Constitutional and Statutory Rights . 215
Challenging a Warrant 215
Right to Accompany Inspector 216
Employer and Employee Interview Rights . 217
Challenging the Conduct of the Inspection 217
5.0 Stages of OSHA Inspections and Investigations . 218
Presentation of Credentials . 218
Opening Conference . 218
Walk Around Inspection 219
Closing Conference 219
Chapter 11 Understanding and Contesting OSHA Citations . 221
1.0 Overview . 221
2.0 Why Should an Employer Contest a Citation? 221
Abatement Costs Can Be Significant and Long Term 222
Uncontested Citations Can Result in “Repeated”
Violations Later . 222
Citations Can Be Used Against an Employer in
Tort Litigation 222
xiv ❖ Occupational Safety and Health Law HandbookCitations Can Interfere with Business Opportunities and
Damage Reputations . 223
3.0 Procedural Requirements for Issuance of a Citation 224
OSHA’s Time to Issue a Citation Is Limited . 224
OSHA Must Adequately Describe the Violation 224
4.0 The Elements of OSHA Citations: What Can Be
Contested? . 225
The Alleged Violation 225
“Willful” Violations 226
“Repeated” Violations 226
“Serious” Violations 227
“Other-than-Serious” Violations . 227
“De Minimis” Violations 227
The Penalty Amount and Characterization of Violation 228
Factors Considered by OSHA in Calculating Proposed
Penalties . 228
Gravity of the Violation 229
Size of the Business . 229
Good Faith . 229
Violation History 229
Multiplied Penalties for “Egregious” Violations . 230
The Abatement Requirements 231
5.0 Contesting OSHA Citations: From Notice of Contest to
Judicial Review . 231
The Notice of Contest 232
Fifteen Working Day Contest Period . 232
Essential Contents of the Notice of Contest 233
Review by an Administrative Law Judge of the Review
Commission 233
Rules of Procedure and Evidence 233
Pre-Hearing Procedures . 233
Hearing Procedures 234
Post-Hearing Procedures 235
Simplified Proceedings 235
Review by the Commission 236
Interlocutory Review . 236
Appellate-Type Review 236
Judicial Review 237
Recovery of Attorneys’ Fees and Costs 238
6.0 Resolving Citations through Settlement with OSHA . 239
Pre-Citation Settlements 239
Informal Settlements . 239
Formal Settlements . 239
7.0 Employee Participation in Challenges to Citations . 240
Contents ❖ xvChapter 12 Criminal Enforcement of Violations 243
1.0 Overview . 243
2.0 Federal Prosecution . 244
Definition of “Employee” 245
Willful Violations Causing Death to Employee . 245
False Statements and Advance Notice . 246
3.0 State Enforcement 247
4.0 Prosecution under Environmental Statutes . 248
5.0 Recent Legislation 249
Chapter 13 Judicial Review of Enforcement Actions 251
1.0 Overview . 251
2.0 Jurisdiction . 252
Parties Who Have Standing to Bring an Appeal . 252
Courts That Have Jurisdiction over Appeals 254
3.0 Timing 254
Final Commission Orders . 254
Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies . 255
Constitutional Challenges . 257
4.0 Scope of Judicial Review . 257
Procedural Matters . 257
Standard of Review for Conclusions of Law 258
Standard of Review for Findings of Fact . 259
Precedential Effect of Judicial Decisions . 261
5.0 Conclusion . 261
Chapter 14 Imminent Danger Inspections 263
1.0 Overview . 263
2.0 Imminent Danger Defined . 264
3.0 Nuts and Bolts of an Inspection . 264
4.0 The On-Site Visit 266
5.0 Employee Representatives 269
6.0 Opening Conference 269
7.0 The Walk Around 270
8.0 Notices of Imminent Danger and Temporary
Restraining Orders 271
xvi ❖ Occupational Safety and Health Law Handbook9.0 Closing Conference . 272
10.0 Citations and Penalties . 272
11.0 Abatement . 273
12.0 MSHA Imminent Danger Inspections . 274
13.0 Employee Rights and Labor Unions . 276
14.0 Summary 277
Chapter 15 OSHA-Approved State Plans 279
1.0 Overview . 279
2.0 Establishing State Plans 279
Developmental Phase . 279
Probationary Phase . 280
Rejection and Withdrawal . 281
3.0 Preemption Issues 281
4.0 Approved State Plans 286
Appendix: Occupational Safety and Health Act . 287
Index 331
IndexEmpire State Rest. & Tavern Assn. v. New York
(2005), 62
employees:
common law, 165
definition of, 245
imminent danger, 276
labor unions, 276, 277
protection of, 156, 164–65
rights, 276, 277
employer-employee relationships:
employment at will, doctrine of, 155
employment at will:
erosion of, 155
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1,
53, 244
criminal violations, 248
Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), 30
Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs),
248
OSHA, comparisons of, 2, 6n12
OSHA, overlapping with, 37, 248
Enzi, Mike, 249
Equal Access to Justice Act, 238
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
(EEOC), 163
ergonomics, 45–47
European Union, 180
F
Federal Arbitration Act (FAA), 163, 164
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 36
federal courts, 251
Federal Mine Safety and Health Review
Commission, 276
Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), 36
Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, 232, 233
administrative law judge (ALJ), 257–58
Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure, 254, 258
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 253
Federal Water Pollution Control Act
(FWPCA), 37
Field Inspection Reference Manual (OSHA),
97, 209
Fifth Amendment:
Due Process Clause, 73, 79
Final Policy Concerning the Occupational Safety
and Health Administration’s Treatment of
Voluntary Employer Safety and Health SelfAudits (OSHA), 196
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 37
Foulke, Edwin G. Jr., 2, 38
Fourth Amendment, 26, 29
inspections, 210
warrants, 144, 210–11
Friedman, Thomas L., 170
G
Gade v. National Sold Waste Management
Association (1992), 45, 244, 247, 281
General Duty Clause, 83, 84, 85
globalization, 170
Globally Harmonized System of Classification
and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS),
183–84, 188;
costs, 188, 189;
harmonization, as defined, 188;
hazard communication standard (HCS), 184;
labeling, 184–85;
mixtures, 187;
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), 184,
185
Granite City Terminals Corp. (1986), 74
grant recipients, 329
H
hazard communication, 40–45
evaluation, 42
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), 29,
41, 42
toxic chemical labeling, 29, 40, 42
trade secrets, 43–44
warning signs, 29
worker right-to-know rule, 40, 41
hazard communication standard (HCS), 148,
153
preemption controversy, 45
hazardous chemicals, 169, 189
Health and Human Services (HHS), 13
Henshaw, John L., 2
Herman, Alexis, 7
I
imminent danger:
as defined, 264
imminent danger inspections, 263
Industrial Union Department, AFL v. Hodgson
(1974), 17
Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group (IRLG),
37
332 ❖ Occupational Safety and Health HandbookInternational Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC), 43
International Union of United Automobile,
Aerospace & Agriculture Implement
Workers of America (UAW), 51
International Union, UAW v. General Dynamics
Land System Division (1988), 16n31
Interorganization Programme for the Sound
Management of Chemicals, 183
inspections, 144, 145, 151
Intergovernmental Forum for Chemical Safety
(IFCS), 187
IPB, Inc. v. Herman (1998), 245
J
Japan, 180
K
Kepone, 32
Kelly Springfield Tire Co. v. Donovan (1984),
89
Kennedy, Edward M., 249
Kilpatrick, James J., 27
L
labeling, 44
Labor Management Relations Act (LMRA),
159
Log and Summary of Recordable
Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 27
M
Marshall v. Barlow’s Inc. (1978), 26–27, 210
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), 40, 41,
42, 148, 153, 170;
accuracy of, 179, 180, 181
Globally Harmonized System (GHS), 184,
185
Safety Data Sheets (SDSs), 185, 186
McWane Company, 248
Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs),
248
Mexico, 180
Meyers Indus. Inc., 160
mine inspections, 274
Mine Safety and Health Act, 274, 275, 276,
277
Mine Safety and Health Administration
(MSHA), 274
criminal proceedings, 275
imminent danger order, 274–75
penalties, 275
Multi-Employer Doctrine (MED), 245
musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), 47
N
Nader, Ralph, 249
National Advisory Committee on
Occupational Safety and Health
(NACOSH), 34, 52
National Association of Manufacturers, 6
National Industrial Contractors, Inc. v. OSHRC
(1978), 256
National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH), 4, 13, 13n26, 28, 36,
39–40, 51, 53, 58, 63, 140, 321–24
National Labor Relations Act (NLRA),
149–50, 153, 156, 160
refusal to work, 159
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), 159,
253, 277
deferral, 163
OSHA, cooperation between, 161
National Occupational Research Agenda
(NORA), 40
National Realty (1970), 84–85, 89, 95
National Toxicology Program (NTP), 43
New Directions Training and Education
Program, 36
New Jersey, 44, 286
New Mexico, 167
New York, 286
NLRB v. Washington Aluminum (1962), 159,
160
Notice of Contest (NOC), 255
Notice of Intent to Appear (NIA), 146
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPR), 54
O
Occupational Health and Safety Review
Commission (OHSRC), 4, 16, 19, 65,
71, 72, 75, 77, 78, 215, 216, 251, 259,
262, 307–9
abatement methods, 96
administrative law judge, 233, 237
appeal process, 37, 258
civil and criminal penalties, 311––12
civil litigation, representation in, 310
contesting, 231, 233–38
employers
Index ❖ 333administrative law judge (ALJ), 255
Notice of Contest (NOC), filing of, 255
Petition for Discretionary Review (PDR),
255
exemptions, 310
exposure rule, 67, 68
federal agencies, programs of, 314–15
federal courts, 251–52, 261
appeals, 252–54
jurisdiction, 252
Notice of Contest (NOC), 255
timing, 254
general duty clause, 83, 94
hazards, determining of, 88, 90, 91
injunction proceedings, 309–1-
limitations of, 38
Notice of Contest (NOC), 145, 146
research and related activities, 315–17
Rules of Procedure, 233
standard of review, 259–60
state jurisdiction and plans, 312–14
trade secrets, 310
training and employee education, 317–21.
See also Occupational Safety and Health
(OSH) Act; Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA)
Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act,
1, 8, 10, 48, 65, 102, 156, 166, 209,
244, 250, 277
abatement, 274
adjudicative function, 251
administration, 300–2
Administrative Procedure Act (APA), 146,
258
citations, 224, 225, 304
Clean Indoor Air Act, 62
court of appeals, 257
coverage, 4–5
criminal enforcement, 243, 244, 246, 247,
248, 249, 250
definitions, 290–91
employee:
definition of under, 245
enactment, 3, 49
enforcement procedures, 305–6
exemptions from, 5–6
field structure, 20
General Duty Clause, 83–85
geographic applicability, 291–93
imminent danger, 277
defined, 212, 264
inspections, investigations, and
recordkeeping, 207, 208, 209, 213,
302–4
role of, 20
judicial review, 251, 252, 254, 256, 257,
258, 306–7
penalties, 228, 243
purpose, 3–4, 289–90
rights:
employees, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152
refusal to work, 156
employers, 143, 147, 153
rulemaking, 50
advisory committees, 52
oral hearings, 54
standards, promulgating of, 50
rules, 49
occupational health and safety standards,
49
regulations, 49
standards, 50, 293–300
consensus standards, 9, 11–12
no-effect levels, 11
state plans, 62–63, 279, 286
toughening of, 249
variance:
permanent, 61
See also Occupational Health and Safety
Review Commission (OHSRC);
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA)
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA), 1, 10, 48, 65,
166, 169–70, 209
Access to Employee Exposure and Medical
Records standard, 138–40
Access to Employee and Medical Records,
102
accident reports, 27–28
Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
(ANPRM), 187–88
advisory committees of, 52
alliances, 36
arbitration, 161, 162–63
deferral, 163–64
Bloodborne Pathogens, 67n11, 137–38
citations, 23–24
334 ❖ Occupational Safety and Health Handbookabatement, 222
contesting of, 221, 231–38
administrative law judge, role of,
233–35, 236
petition for discretionary review
(PDR), 237
attorney fees, recovery of, 238
employee participation in, 240–41
hearing procedures, 234–35
notice of, 232, 233
post-hearing procedures, 235
prehearing procedures, 233–34
reviews of, 236–38
appellate-type, 236–37
judicial, 237–38
interlocutory, 236
elements of, 225–31
abatement requirements, 231
alleged violation, 225
de minimis violations, 227–28
other-than-serious violations, 227
penalties, 228–31
repeated violations, 226
serious violations, 227
willful violations, 226
procedural requirements, 224
repeat violations, 222
reputation, damage of, 223
settlement of, 239–40
formal settlements, 239–40
informal settlements, 239
pre-citation settlements, 239
tort litigation, 222–23
collective bargaining, 161–62
company rules, enforcing of, 25–26
compliance safety and health officer
(CSHO), 264, 265
duties of, 266–67, 269, 270, 271, 272
consultation, 35
coverage of, 4–5
creation of, 3
criticism of, 1, 40
customer approval, 1n1
discrimination, 156, 158
duty to comply, 67–72
construction contractors, 70–71
exposure rule, 67–68
liability rules, 69–70, 71–72
nonconstruction applications, 71–72
economic feasibility, 19
education, 35–36
employees,
common law, 165
discrimination, 158
remedies, 159
exposure rule, 67–70
protection of, 159–60, 164–65, 167
refusal to work, 156
state statues, 164–65
employer defenses, 74–81
de minimis violations, 80–81
greater hazard, 77–78
infeasibility, 74–77
alternative measures, 76–77
standard, invalidity of, 79
supervisory misconduct, 78–79
unpreventable employee misconduct,
78–79
employers
actual or constructive knowledge, 73
burden shifting analysis, 158
citations, contesting of, 221
as defined, 4
exposure rule, 67–70
hazardous chemicals, obligations toward,
174–75
multiemployer worksite liability rules,
69–70, 71–72
warrants, challenging of, 215–18
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
comparisons of, 2, 6n12;
overlapping with, 248
ergonomics, 45–47, 48
action trigger, 47
initial actions, 47
exemptions from, 5–6
feasibility and balancing, 16–19
federal employees, 32–33
field structure, 20–21
final rule, 55–56
general construction contractors, 70
General Duty Clause, 73, 77, 83, 84, 85
enforcement of,
limitations of, 98
as practical, 97–99
preventable hazards, 95
hazards, existence of, 87–89
accidents, 94
Index ❖ 335correction of, 95–97
employer recognition, 91–92
feasibility, and abatement, 95–97
industry recognition, 90–91
as obvious, 93
as preventable, 95
recognition, 89–90, 93
serious violations, 93–94
protection, 86–87
hazard communication regulations, 40
reason for, 40–41
worker right-to-know rule, 40, 41
hazard communication standard (HCS), 29,
40–45, 170, 171–78
change, impetus for, 179–82
evaluation, 42
global harmonization, 179, 180, 182,
183–89
changes, 184–86
globalization, 170, 171
hazardous chemical, as defined, 172
information training, 173, 177–78
labeling, 42, 172, 173, 174–75, 182
Material Safety Data Sheets, 172, 173,
175–77
accuracy of, concern of, 179, 180,
181, 182
program, 178
purpose, 171
requirements, 173
trade secrets, 43–44
worker right-to-know rule, 40, 41
health standards of, 14
hearings, 54–55
imminent danger, 264
citations, 272
notices of, 271
penalties, 272–73
temporary restraining orders, 271
imminent danger inspections, 264–65
abatement, 273–74
closing conference, 272
employee representatives, 269
Notice of Imminent Danger, 271
opening conference, 269–70
on-site visit, 266–69
temporary restrainingorder (TRO), 271,
272
walk around, 270–71
warrants, 267, 268
Information Collection Request (ICR), 57
injuries
Bloodborne Pathogens, 122–23
death, 115
hearing losses, 121
home, 112
job transfer, 117–18
loss of consciousness, 120
medical removal, 123–24
medical treatment, and first aid, 118–20
needlestick, 122
new cases, 112–14
preexisting conditions, 107–8
recording of, 104
restricted work, 117–18
traveling, 111–12
tuberculosis, 124–25
work, away from, 115–16
work-related, defining of, 105–7
work-relatedness, 108
exceptions to, 108–11
inspections, 207, 209
audio and video recordings, 214
citations, 22
correct, failure to, 22
criminal, 23
de minimis, 22
egregious, 23
interviews, 213–14, 217
nonserious, 22
repeated, 23
right to, 209–10
role of, 21–22
serious, 22
stages, 218
closing conference, 218, 219–20
inspection tour, 218, 219
opening conference, 218
types of, 208
accident and fatality, 208
complaint/referral, 208–9
imminent danger, 208
warrantless, 26, 210–11
warrants, 210–11
challenging of, 215–18
exceptions to, 212–13
willful, 23
inspectors
competence of, 22
training of,
336 ❖ Occupational Safety and Health Handbookjudicial review, 64
knowledge
reasonable diligence, 73
legislative framework of, 3
medical records, 28
Medical Records Access standard, 137
Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs),
248
monitoring and medical records, 28–29
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
cooperation between, 161
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NRPM),
53–54
Occupational Noise Exposure, 121, 122
Occupational Safety and Health Review
Commission (OSHRC), 37
Office of Management and Budget (OMB),
57
organization of, 2–3
overlapping jurisdiction, 36–37
Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA), 56, 57
preemption, 65–66
exposure rule, 67–68
special applicability problems, 66–67
Priority Planning Committee, 53
Priority Planning Process, 53
probable cause, 26
programmatic standards, 30
purpose of, 3–4
recordkeeping, 27–28, 29, 101, 102
Access to Employee Exposure and
Medical Records, 138–40
compliance, proving of, 140–41
criteria of, 114–21
hearing losses, 121–22
medical treatment, definition of,
118–20
needlestick injuries, 122–23
tuberculosis, 124–25
employee involvement, 126–27
employers, 104
exemptions, 129
forms, 125–26
health standards, 134–36
Asbestos standard, 135
Bloodborne Pathogens, 136, 137–38
Chromium standard, 135
hazard communications, 136–37
Material Safety Data Sheets
(MSDS), 136
permissible exposure limit (PEL), 134
history of, 103
injuries and fatalities, reporting of,
128–29
injuries and illnesses, identifying of, 104
injuries, work-related, 105, 108, 111–14
exceptions to, 108–11
preexisting conditions, 107
privacy, 127–28
retention periods, 125–26
written documents, 130
safety standards, 130–34
Recording and Reporting Occupational
Injuries and Illnesses, 101, 103
Regulatory Flexibility Act (REA), 57
Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA), 57
Request for Information (REI), 53, 54
reputation of, 1
Respiratory Protection standard, 140
rights, 143, 153
employees, 148–53
complaints, 148–49
discrimination, protection from, 150
information, access to, 152–53
inspections and enforcement,
participation in, 151–52
work, refusal to, 149–50
employers, 144–48
citations and civil penalties, 145–46
inspections and warrants, 144–45
judicial review, 146
rulemakings, participation in, 146–47
trade secrets, protection of, 147–48
roles of, 4, 49
rulemaking process, 50, 56–59
delays in, 57–59
negotiated, 56
petitions of, 50
safety standards of, 9–10
safety v. health, 9–10
self-auditing, 191, 192, 205
attorney client privilege, 203–4
attorney work product doctrine, 204–5
audit, scope of, 193
audit team, 192–93
censoring, 195
confidentiality, 194
good faith, 198
hazards, 194–95
health auditing, 192
Index ❖ 337policy, 196–99
safety auditing, 192
self-audit privilege, 200–2
common law, 200–2
statutory/adult privilege, 203
as voluntary, 197
Small Business Advocacy Review Panel, 57
standards:
categories,
agricultural, 49
construction, 49
general industry, 49
maritime and longshoring, 49
consensus, 9, 11–12
emergency temporary, 11, 15, 59
grave, 15
general duty clause, 15–16
health, 14
overview, 8–9
permanent, 11, 12–13
scope of, 7
setting of, 10–11
state v. federal, 61–63
Standards Completion Process, 12
state employees, 33
state programs, 33–35, 279–80, 286
critique of, 34
preemption issues, 281, 286
probationary phase, 280
rejection and withdrawal, 281
statues of, 282–85
telecommunicating and home workplaces,
6–7
variances, 59–61
interim, 61
permanent, 20, 61
temporary, 19–20, 60–61
violations, 253
criminal enforcement of, 243–44
advance notice, 246
employee deaths, 245–46
environmental statues, 248–49
false statements, 246
knowing, interpretation of, 246
recent legislation, 249–50
state enforcement, 247
willful, 245–46
whistleblowing, 30–32, 165
common law, 167
federal statues, 165–66
preemption, 166
state statues, 166
work, refusal to, 30–32, 156–57
workplaces, 6.
See also Occupational Health and Safety
Review Commission (OHSRC);
Occupational Safety and Health
(OSH) Act
Office of Compliance Programs, 6
Office of Management and Budget (OMB),
41
P
Pegasus Tower (2005), 9`
People v. Chicago Magnet Wire Corp. (1989),
247
People v. Pymm Thermometer (1991), 247
Pepperidge Farm (1997), 83
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), 131
Peterson Bros. Steel Erec. Co. (1993), 76
Petition for Modification of Abatement
(PMA), 145
P. Gioioso & Sons Inc., v. OSHRC (1997),
255
Phelps Dodge Corporation (1980), 16n30
Pitt-Des Moines (1999), 245
Process Safety Management, 131
Powered Platforms for Building Maintenance,
131
Public Citizen Health Research Group
(PCHRG), 58, 59
Public Citizen Health Research Group v. Chao
(2002), 58
R
Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA), 57
Reich v. Simpson, Gumpertz & Heger, Inc.
(1993), 259
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA), 244, 248, 249
Restatement of Torts, 43
R. T. Vanderbilt Co. v. OSHRC (1984), 253
S
Safety Data Sheets (SDSs), 185, 186
Safety and Health Achievement Recognition
Program (SHARP), 35
Safeway, 93
Secretary of Health and Human Services:
annual reports, 329–30
338 ❖ Occupational Safety and Health HandbookSecretary of Labor:
annual reports, 329–30
Sec. of Labor v. Muth, 214
self-audits, 191, 192
health, 191, 192
safety, 191, 192
Senate Labor Committee, 249
Small Business Regulatory Enforcement
Fairness Act (SBREFA), 57
Small Business Advocacy Review Panel, 57
The Society of the Plastics Industry v. OSHA
(1975), 17
South Korea, 180
Standard Threshold Shift (STS), 121
State Sheet Metal Co. (1993), 76
states:
grants to, 326–27
statistics, 327–28
Stein, Inc. (1996), 86, 87
Stoops, Roy G., 246
Sun Ship, Inc. (1982), 97
Superfund, 30–31
Supreme Court, 152, 156, 157, 238, 244,
259, 262
arbitration, 162, 163
economic feasibility, 19
employee rights, 276
inspection, 209–10
probable cause, 211
work, refusal to, 149, 150, 159
sweat shops, 6
T
Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances
and Physical Agents in the Work
Environment, 43
trade secrets, 43–44, 147–48
Turner Co. v. Secretary of Labor (1977), 18
U
UAW v. Chao (2004), 51
United Nations Committee of Experts on the
Transport of Dangerous Goods, 183
United States:
Globally Harmonized System (GHS),
implementation of, 187
V
variances, 19
permanent, 20
temporary, 19–20
Virgin Islands, 286
W
Waldon Healthcare Center, 96
warrants, 144
Wellstone, Paul, 249
Whirlpool Corp. v. Marshall (1980), 156–57,
276, 277
whistleblowing, 155, 165
federal statues, 165–66
protection of, 30–32
White, Justice, 26
Woodson v. Rowland (1991), 223n4
workplaces, 6;
hazardous conditions in, 263;
safety of, 191
work:
refusal to, 30
Workers’ Family Protection, 324–25
World Summit on Sustainable Development
(WSSD), 187


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