كتاب Project Management - The Managerial Process - Seventh Edition
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 كتاب Project Management - The Managerial Process - Seventh Edition

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Project Management - The Managerial Process - Seventh Edition
Erik W. Larson, Clifford F. Gray
Oregon State University
Chapter-by-Chapter Revisions for the Seventh Edition

كتاب Project Management - The Managerial Process - Seventh Edition  P_m_t_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Chapter 1: Modern Project Management
∙ New Snapshot: Project Management in Action 2016.
∙ Information updated.
∙ New Snapshot: Ron Parker replaced Research Highlight: Works well with others.
∙ New case: The Hokie Lunch Group.
Chapter 2: Organization Strategy and Project Selection
∙ New Snapshot: Project Code Names replaced HP’s Strategy Revision.
Chapter 3: Organization: Structure and Culture
∙ Learning objectives established.
∙ Snapshot: Google-y updated.
∙ Snapshot: Skunk Works at Lockheed Martin updated.
Chapter 4: Defining the Project
∙ Learning objectives established.
∙ New case: Home Improvement Project.Note to Student xv
Chapter 5: Estimating Project Times and Costs
∙ Learning objectives established.
∙ New Snapshot: London 2012 Olympics: Avoiding White Elephant curse.
∙ Expanded discussion of Mega Projects including the emergence of white
elephants.
Chapter 6: Developing a Project Schedule
∙ Learning objectives established.
∙ New Exercises 2-15 and Lag Exercises 18-21.
∙ Shoreline Stadium case replaces Greendale Stadium case.
Chapter 7: Managing Risk
∙ Learning objectives established.
Chapter 8 Appendix 1: The Critical-Chain Approach
∙ Learning objectives established.
Chapter 9: Reducing Project Duration
∙ Learning objectives established.
∙ Snapshot: Smartphone Wars updated.
∙ New exercises 1-7.
Chapter 10: Leadership: Being an Effective Project Manager
∙ Learning objectives established.
∙ New Research Highlight: Give and Take.
∙ Ethics discussion expanded.
Chapter 11: Managing Project Teams
∙ Learning objectives established.
∙ Expanded discussion on project vision.
Chapter 12: Outsourcing: Managing Interorganizational Relations
∙ Learning objectives established.
∙ Discussion of RFP process.
∙ New Snapshot: U.S. Department of Defense’s Value Engineering Awards 2015.
Chapter 13 Progress and Performance Measurement and Evaluation
∙ Learning Objectives established.
∙ Discussion of milestone schedules.
∙ New Snapshot: Guidelines for Setting Milestones.
∙ Discussion of Management Reserve Index.
∙ New case: Shoreline Stadium Status Report.xvi Note to Student
Chapter 14: Project Closure
∙ Major Revision of chapter with more attention to project audit and closing
activities.
∙ New Snapshot: The Wake.
∙ New Snapshot: 2015 PMO of the Year.
∙ New Snapshot: Operation Eagle Claw.
∙ Project Management Maturity model introduced.
Chapter 15: International Projects
∙ Learning Objectives established.
Chapter 16: An Introduction to Agile Project Management
∙ Learning Objectives established.
∙ New Snapshot: Kanban.xvii
Preface ix
1. Modern Project Management 2
2. Organization Strategy and Project
Selection 26
3. Organization: Structure and Culture 66
4. Defining the Project 100
5. Estimating Project Times and Costs 128
6. Developing a Project Plan 162
7. Managing Risk 206
8. Scheduling Resources and Costs 250
9. Reducing Project Duration 304
10. Being an Effective Project Manager 338
11. Managing Project Teams 374
12. Outsourcing: Managing
Interorganizational Relations 418
Brief Contents
13. Progress and Performance Measurement
and Evaluation 458
14. Project Closure 514
15. International Projects 544
16. An Introduction to Agile Project
Management 578
APPENDIX
One Solutions to Selected Exercises 603
Two Computer Project Exercises 616
GLOSSARY 633
ACRONYMS 640
PROJECT MANAGEMENT EQUATIONS 641
CROSS REFERENCE OF PROJECT
MANAGEMENT 642
SOCIO-TECHNICAL APPROACH TO
PROJECT MANAGEMENT 643
INDEX 644xviii
Contents
Preface ix
Chapter 1
Modern Project Management 2
1.1 What Is a Project? 6
What a Project Is Not 7
Program versus Project 7
The Project Life Cycle 8
The Project Manager 9
Being Part of a Project Team 11
1.2 Current Drivers of Project Management 12
Compression of the Product Life Cycle 12
Knowledge Explosion 12
Triple Bottom Line (Planet, People, Profit) 12
Increased Customer Focus 12
Small Projects Represent Big Problems 15
1.3 Project Governance 15
Alignment of Projects with Organizational
Strategy 16
1.4 Project Management Today: A Socio-Technical
Approach 17
Summary 18
Chapter 2
Organization Strategy and Project
Selection 26
2.1 The Strategic Management Process:
An Overview 29
Four Activities of the Strategic Management
Process 29
2.2 The Need for a Project Priority System 34
Problem 1: The Implementation Gap 34
Problem 2: Organization Politics 35
Problem 3: Resource Conflicts and Multitasking 36
2.3 A Portfolio Management System 37
Classification of the Project 37
2.4 Selection Criteria 38
Financial Criteria 38
Nonfinancial Criteria 40
2.5 Applying a Selection Model 43
Project Classification 43
Sources and Solicitation of Project Proposals 44
Ranking Proposals and Selection of Projects 46
2.6 Managing the Portfolio System 48
Senior Management Input 48
The Governance Team Responsibilities 49
Balancing the Portfolio for Risks and Types
of Projects 50
Summary 51
Chapter 3
Organization: Structure and Culture 66
3.1 Project Management Structures 68
Organizing Projects within the
Functional Organization 68
Organizing Projects as Dedicated Teams 71
Organizing Projects within a Matrix
Arrangement 75
Different Matrix Forms 76
3.2 What Is the Right Project Management
Structure? 79
Organization Considerations 79
Project Considerations 79
3.3 Organizational Culture 81
What Is Organizational Culture? 81
Identifying Cultural Characteristics 83
3.4 Implications of Organizational Culture for
Organizing Projects 86
Summary 89
Chapter 4
Defining the Project 100
4.1 Step 1: Defining the Project Scope 102
Employing a Project Scope Checklist 103
4.2 Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities 106
4.3 Step 3: Creating the Work Breakdown
Structure 108
Major Groupings Found in a WBS 108
How WBS Helps the Project Manager 108
A Simple WBS Development 109
4.4 Step 4: Integrating the WBS with the
Organization 113
4.5 Step 5: Coding the WBS for the Information
System 113
4.6 Process Breakdown Structure 116Contents xix
4.7 Responsibility Matrices 117
4.8 Project Communication Plan 119
Summary 121
Chapter 5
Estimating Project Times
and Costs 128
5.1 Factors Influencing the Quality of
Estimates 130
Planning Horizon 130
Project Complexity 130
People 131
Project Structure and Organization 131
Padding Estimates 131
Organization Culture 131
Other Factors 131
5.2 Estimating Guidelines for Times, Costs,
and Resources 132
5.3 Top-Down versus Bottom-Up
Estimating 134
5.4 Methods for Estimating Project Times
and Costs 136
Top-Down Approaches for Estimating Project Times
and Costs 136
Bottom-Up Approaches for Estimating Project
Times and Costs 140
A Hybrid: Phase Estimating 141
5.5 Level of Detail 143
5.6 Types of Costs 144
Direct Costs 145
Direct Project Overhead Costs 145
General and Administrative (G&A) Overhead
Costs 145
5.7 Refining Estimates 146
5.8 Creating a Database for Estimating 148
5.9 Mega Projects: A Special Case 149
Summary 151
Appendix 5.1: Learning Curves for
Estimating 157
Chapter 6
Developing a Project Plan 162
6.1 Developing the Project Network 163
6.2 From Work Package to Network 164
6.3 Constructing a Project Network 166
Terminology 166
Basic Rules to Follow in Developing Project
Networks 166
6.4 Activity-on-Node (AON) Fundamentals 167
6.5 Network Computation Process 171
Forward Pass—Earliest Times 171
Backward Pass—Latest Times 173
Determining Slack (or Float) 175
6.6 Using the Forward and Backward Pass
Information 177
6.7 Level of Detail for Activities 178
6.8 Practical Considerations 178
Network Logic Errors 178
Activity Numbering 179
Use of Computers to Develop Networks 179
Calendar Dates 182
Multiple Starts and Multiple Projects 182
6.9 Extended Network Techniques to Come Closer
to Reality 182
Laddering 182
Use of Lags to Reduce Schedule Detail and Project
Duration 183
An Example Using Lag Relationships—The Forward
and Backward Pass 186
Hammock Activities 188
Summary 189
Chapter 7
Managing Risk 206
7.1 Risk Management Process 208
7.2 Step 1: Risk Identification 210
7.3 Step 2: Risk Assessment 212
Probability Analysis 215
7.4 Step 3: Risk Response Development 216
Mitigating Risk 216
Avoiding Risk 217
Transferring Risk 217
Accept Risk 218
7.5 Contingency Planning 219
Technical Risks 220
Schedule Risks 222
Cost Risks 222
Funding Risks 222
7.6 Opportunity Management 223
7.7 Contingency Funding and Time Buffers 223
Budget Reserves 224
Management Reserves 224
Time Buffers 225
7.8 Step 4: Risk Response Control 225
7.9 Change Control Management 226
Summary 230
Appendix 7.1: PERT and PERT Simulation 240xx Contents
Chapter 8
Scheduling Resources and Costs 250
8.1 Overview of the Resource Scheduling
Problem 252
8.2 Types of Resource Constraints 254
8.3 Classification of a Scheduling
Problem 255
8.4 Resource Allocation Methods 255
Assumptions 255
Time-Constrained Project: Smoothing Resource
Demand 256
Resource-Constrained Projects 257
8.5 Computer Demonstration of ResourceConstrained Scheduling 262
The Impacts of Resource-Constrained
Scheduling 266
8.6 Splitting Activities 269
8.7 Benefits of Scheduling Resources 270
8.8 Assigning Project Work 271
8.9 Multiproject Resource Schedules 272
8.10 Using the Resource Schedule to Develop a
Project Cost Baseline 273
Why a Time-Phased Budget Baseline
Is Needed 273
Creating a Time-Phased Budget 274
Summary 279
Appendix 8.1: The Critical-Chain Approach 294
Chapter 9
Reducing Project Duration 304
9.1 Rationale for Reducing Project
Duration 306
9.2 Options for Accelerating Project
Completion 307
Options When Resources Are Not Constrained 308
Options When Resources Are Constrained 310
9.3 Project Cost–Duration Graph 313
Explanation of Project Costs 313
9.4 Constructing a Project Cost–Duration
Graph 314
Determining the Activities to Shorten 314
A Simplified Example 316
9.5 Practical Considerations 318
Using the Project Cost–Duration Graph 318
Crash Times 319
Linearity Assumption 319
Choice of Activities to Crash Revisited 319
Time Reduction Decisions and Sensitivity 320
9.6 What If Cost, Not Time, Is the Issue? 321
Reduce Project Scope 322
Have Owner Take on More Responsibility 322
Outsourcing Project Activities or Even the Entire
Project 322
Brainstorming Cost Savings Options 322
Summary 323
Chapter 10
Being an Effective Project Manager 338
10.1 Managing versus Leading a Project 340
10.2 Managing Project Stakeholders 341
10.3 Influence as Exchange 345
Task-Related Currencies 345
Position-Related Currencies 346
Inspiration-Related Currencies 347
Relationship-Related Currencies 347
Personal-Related Currencies 348
10.4 Social Network Building 348
Mapping Stakeholder Dependencies 348
Management by Wandering Around (MBWA) 350
Managing Upward Relations 351
Leading by Example 353
10.5 Ethics and Project Management 356
10.6 Building Trust: The Key to Exercising
Influence 357
10.7 Qualities of an Effective Project Manager 359
Summary 362
Chapter 11
Managing Project Teams 374
11.1 The Five-Stage Team Development Model 377
11.2 Situational Factors Affecting Team
Development 379
11.3 Building High-Performance Project Teams 381
Recruiting Project Members 381
Conducting Project Meetings 383
Establishing Team Norms 385
Establishing a Team Identity 387
Creating a Shared Vision 388
Managing Project Reward Systems 391
Orchestrating the Decision-Making Process 392
Managing Conflict within the Project 394
Rejuvenating the Project Team 398
11.4 Managing Virtual Project Teams 399
11.5 Project Team Pitfalls 403
Groupthink 403
Bureaucratic Bypass Syndrome 404Contents xxi
Team Spirit Becomes Team Infatuation 404
Going Native 404
Summary 405
Chapter 12
Outsourcing: Managing Interorganizational
Relations 418
12.1 Outsourcing Project Work 420
12.2 Request for Proposal (RFP) 424
Selection of Contractor from Bid Proposals 425
12.3 Best Practices in Outsourcing Project Work 426
Well-Defined Requirements and Procedures 426
Extensive Training and Team-Building Activities 428
Well-Established Conflict Management Processes
in Place 429
Frequent Review and Status Updates 431
Co-Location When Needed 432
Fair and Incentive-Laden Contracts 432
Long-Term Outsourcing Relationships 433
12.4 The Art of Negotiating 434
1. Separate the People from the Problem 435
2. Focus on Interests, Not Positions 436
3. Invent Options for Mutual Gain 437
4. When Possible, Use Objective Criteria 138
Dealing with Unreasonable People 438
12.5 A Note on Managing Customer Relations 439
Summary 442
Appendix 12.1: Contract Management 451
Chapter 13
Progress and Performance Measurement
and Evaluation 458
13.1 Structure of a Project Monitoring Information
System 460
What Data Are Collected? 460
Collecting Data and Analysis 460
Reports and Reporting 460
13.2 The Project Control Process 461
Step 1: Setting a Baseline Plan 461
Step 2: Measuring Progress and Performance 461
Step 3: Comparing Plan against Actual 462
Step 4: Taking Action 462
13.3 Monitoring Time Performance 462
Tracking Gantt Chart 463
Control Chart 463
Milestone Schedules 464
13.4 Development of an Earned Value Cost/Schedule
System 467
Percent Complete Rule 467
What Costs Are Included in Baselines? 467
Methods of Variance Analysis 468
13.5 Developing a Status Report: A Hypothetical
Example 470
Assumptions 470
Baseline Development 470
Development of the Status Report 471
13.6 Indexes to Monitor Progress 475
Performance Indexes 477
Project Percent Complete Indexes 474
Software for Project Cost/Schedule Systems 477
Additional Earned Value Rules 478
13.7 Forecasting Final Project Cost 476
13.8 Other Control Issues 481
Technical Performance Measurement 481
Scope Creep 483
Baseline Changes 483
The Costs and Problems of Data Acquisition 485
Summary 486
Appendix 13.1: The Application of Additional Earned
Value Rules 505
Appendix 13.2: Obtaining Project Performance
Information from MS Project 2010
or 2015 511
Chapter 14
Project Closure 514
14.1 Types of Project Closure 516
14.2 Wrap-up Closure Activities 518
14.3 Project Audits 521
The Project Audit Process 522
Project Retrospectives 525
Project Audits: The Bigger Picture 529
14.4 Post-Implementation Evaluation 532
Team Evaluation 532
Individual, Team Member, and Project Manager
Performance Reviews 534
Summary 537
Appendix 14.1: Project Closeout Checklist 539
Appendix 14.2: Euro Conversion—Project Closure
Checklist 541
Chapter 15
International Projects 544
15.1 Environmental Factors 546
Legal/Political 546
Security 547
Geography 548xxii Contents
Economic 549
Infrastructure 550
Culture 551
15.2 Project Site Selection 553
15.3 Cross-Cultural Considerations:
A Closer Look 554
Adjustments 555
Working in Mexico 556
Working in France 559
Working in Saudi Arabia 560
Working in China 562
Working in the United States 563
Summary Comments about Working in Different
Cultures 565
Culture Shock 565
Coping with Culture Shock 567
15.4 Selection and Training for International
Projects 568
Summary 571
Chapter 16
An Introduction to Agile Project
Management 578
16.1 Traditional versus Agile Methods 580
16.2 Agile PM 582
16.3 Agile PM in Action: Scrum 585
Roles and Responsibilities 586
Scrum Meetings 587
Product and Sprint Backlogs 588
Sprint and Release Burndown Charts 589
16.4 Applying Agile PM to Large Projects 592
16.5 Limitations and Concerns 593
Summary 595
Appendix One: Solutions to Selected
Exercise 603
Appendix Two: Computer Project
Exercises 616
Glossary 633
Acronyms 640
Project Management Equations 641
Cross Reference of Project
Management 642
Socio-Technical Approach to Project
Management 643
Index 644
Index
A
Abdel-Hamid, T., 328
Abdelshafi, I., 598
Abramovici, A., 501
Abrashoff, D. M., 365
acceleration options, 307–312
accounting services, 357, 438
Acer Predator 6, 306
Ackoff, Russell L., 545, 572
activity
basic relationships, 168–170
burst, 166, 169, 174
defined, 164, 166, 168
hammock, 188
level of detail, 178
merge, 166, 169, 172–173
numbering, 179
parallel, 166, 169
in project networks, 164–170
splitting, 255, 269, 295–296, 300
activity-on-arrow (AOA), 167–170
activity-on-node (AON), 167–170
versus activity-on-arrow (AOA),
167–168
automated warehouses, 169, 170,
171–177, 179–181
backward pass, 173–175
basic relationships, 168–170
computers in developing, 179–182
forward pass, 171–173
fundamentals, 167–168
laddering, 182, 183
lag relationship, 182–187
combinations, 183, 186
finish-to-finish, 186
finish-to-start, 183
start-to-finish, 186
start-to-start, 183–184
use in forward and backward
pass, 186–187
activity orientation, 557
actual cost (AC)
defined, 466
variance analysis, 468–469
Adams, A. M., 232
Adams, J. R., 395, 407
Adaptive Software Development, 593
adjourning stage of team development, 378
Adler, N., 551, 568, 572
Adler, P. S., 55
administrative support, dependencies
of, 342
Aerial Transportation, Inc., 135
aerospace industry, 72, 383
Agile Alliance, 593
Agile Manifesto, 593
Agile PM (Agile Project Management),
221n, 579–595
examples of, 584, 585
iterative incremental development
processes (IIDs), 582–584
with large projects, 592–593
limitations and concerns, 593–595
nature of, 579–580
process break-down structure (PBS), 584
scrum, 585–592
traditional methods versus, 580–582
AgileZen, 590
Ahmadi, R., 328
Air France (Concorde), 150
airlines, 150, 438
airplane production, 297, 422–423
Albaugh, Jim (Boeing), 423
Alexander, R. C., 35n6, 57
Allen, Roger E., 101n
Allen, Stephen D., 101n
all-or-nothing projects, 222
alternatives, in group decision making, 394
AMRDEC Maintenance Engineering
Division, 434
Anand, V., 365
Anbari, F. T., 501
Ancona, D. G., 365
Andersen, Arthur E., 357
Andersen, Erling S., 366
Angola, 548
Angus, R. B., 456
Aniftos, S., 539
Apocalypse Now (film), 549
Apple, 15, 32, 36, 49, 74, 306, 420, 423
Applebaum, Jeffrey, 431
apportionment, for estimating project times
and costs, 137
Arenas, Gilbert, 520
Arms, P. B., 555, 572
Arrow, K. J., 258, 291
Arthur Andersen, 356, 357
artificial intelligence, 30
Ashforth, B. E., 365
Ashley, D. B., 102, 124
Atkinson, W., 232
AT&T, 27, 67–68, 138, 535
audit. See project audit
automated warehouses, 169, 170, 171–177,
179–181
automotive industry, 13, 387
Avatar (film), 404n
avoiding risk, 217
B
backward pass-latest times, 173–175
lag relationships, 186–187
using backward pass information,
177–178
Badaracco, J. L. Jr., 365
Baker, B. M., 328
Baker, B., 232, 365
Baker, W. E., 365
balanced matrix, 76
Bangalore (India), 420. See also India
Bank of America, 138
Bard, J. F., 367
Barnes, M., 154
Barnes, R., 301, 302
baseline budget, 470–471
baselines
changes in, 483–484
developing, 273–278, 470–471
project cost, 251, 273–278
project monitoring information system,
461, 467, 470–471, 483–484
time-phased budget, 251, 273–278,
465, 467
basic nature of people, 557
BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated
agreement), 438
Baxter, Jerry B., 308n
Bay of Pigs invasion (Cuba), 403
Bedeian, A. G., 232
behavior, in organizational culture, 85
Beijing Olympics (2008), 150
BellAircraft, 222
Benko, C., 20, 55
Bennis, W., 360, 365
Benson, S., 408
Berkun, S., 389n6, 407
Bertsche, R., 365
best alternative to a negotiated agreement
(BATNA), 438
best practices in outsourcing, 426–434
co-location, 432
conflict management processes 429, 431
fair and incentive-laden contracts, 433
frequent review and status updates,
431–432
long-term outsourcing relationships,
433–434Index 645
Hector Gaming Company, 57–58
The Hokies Lunch Group, 22–25
The Home Improvement Project,
126–127
Horizon Consulting, 97–99
International Capital, Inc.—Part A,
245–246
International Capital, Inc.—Part B, 329
Introducing Scrum at P2P, 599–602
Kerzner Office Equipment, 410–412
Manchester United Soccer Club,
125–126
Maximum Megahertz Project, 542
Moss and McAdams Accounting Firm,
94–96
Nightingale Project—A, 332–333
Nightingale Project—B, 333–334
The “Now” Wedding—Part A,
334–336
The “Now” Wedding—Part B, 336
Phuket A, 576
Post Graduation Adventure, 156–157
Power Train, Ltd., 292–294
Scanner Project, 504
Sharp Printing, AG, 155–156
Shell Case Fabricators, 444–446
Shoreline Stadium Case, 204–205
Shoreline Stadium Status Report Case,
502–503
Silver Fiddle Construction. 234–235
Sustaining Project Risk management
during Implementation, 238–240
Tom Bray, 371–372
Trans LAN Project, 235–236
Tree Trimming Project, 502
Whitbread World Sailboat Race,
329–331
XSU Spring Concert, 237–238
Casey, W., 80, 80n, 92
Castro, Edson de, 389
Cavendish, J., 456
C. C. Myers, Inc., 308
CCPM. See critical-chain project
management (CCPM)
celebration in closing stage, 521
certification programs, 4
Certified Associate in Project Management
(CAPM), 4
change management systems, 227–229
change request forms and logs, 227–229
integration of, 228–229
changed priority closure, 518
Chaparral Steel, 80–81, 88
Charnes, A., 291
Chatman, J., 82n, 93
checklists
closing stage, 516, 518, 519
project scope, 103, 105–106
in project selection, 41
time-phased budget baselines, 251,
273–278, 465
Buehler, R., 147, 154
buffers
feeder, 296
project, 296
resource, 296
time, 225
Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT)
provisions, 217
bureaucratic bypass syndrome, 404
Burgess, A. R., 291
burst activities, 166, 169, 174
Button, S., 301, 302
C
Cabanis, J., 356n6, 365
Cabanis-Brewin, J., 361n, 365
Cahill, T., 547, 572
Caldwell, D., 365
Caldwell, D. F., 82n, 93
calendar dates, for project activities, 182
Calhoun, Chad, 312
California Department of Transportation
(CalTrans), 308
Callaway Golf, 104
Cameron, K. S., 92
Canan, Cystal, 431
Capability Maturity Model (CMM), 529
CAPM (Certified Associate in Project
Management), 4
career paths. See project management
career paths
Carlton, J., 74n, 92
Carr, M. J., 232
Carrier Transicold, 220
cases
The Accounting Software Installation
Project, 446–447
A Day in the Life, 20–22
Advantage Energy Technology Data
Center Migration—Part A,
202–204
Advantage Energy Technology Data
Center Migration—Part B, 246–249
Ajax Project, 412–413
Fly-Fishing Expedition, 233–234
AMEX, Hungary, 574–576
Blue Mountain Cabin, 292
The Blue Sky Project, 367–371
Buxton Hall, 447–450
The CCPM Dilemma, 303
Cerberus Corporation, 372–373
Film Prioritization, 58–59
Franklin Equipment, Ltd., 414–416
Fund Raising Project Selection, 62–63
Goldrush Electronics Negotiation
Exercise, 450–451
training and team-building activities,
428– 429
well-defined requirement and
procedures, 426–427
beta distribution, PERT, 240–241
beverage industry, 13
Beyer, J. M., 82n, 92
Biesenthal, C., 366
Big Bertha, 104
“Big Dig” (Boston), 106
Bigelow, D., 55
bio-tech industry, 309
Bird’s Nest (Beijing), 150
Block, T. R., 92, 523n
Bloom, Howard, 520n
Bloomberg Business Week, 547
Boeing, 148, 301, 422
Boeing 787 Dreamliner, 422
Bogart, Humphrey, 420
bottom-up estimates, 134–144
nature of, 134–135
parametric procedures, 140
range estimating, 140
template methods, 140
Bolman, D. G., 385n, 407
Bonar, Robert, 14
Boulter, M., 598
Bourne, Lynda, 119n, 344n, 365
Borsuk, R., 572
Bowen, D., 560n, 573
Bowen, H. K., 88, 92, 389, 407
Bowles, M., 501
Boyer, C., 55
Bradberry, T., 361n, 365
Bradford, D. L., 345, 346n, 365
brainstorming
of cost saving options, 322–323
in generating alternatives, 394
Brandon, D. M. Jr., 501
Brandt, S. E., 395, 407
bread-and-butter projects, 50
bribery, 555, 562, 565
Brin, Sergey, 84
Brooks, Frederick P. Jr., 309, 309n1,
328, 459
Brown, S., 92
Brown, Tim, 583, 583n
Brucker, P., 291
Bruzelius, N., 149, 154
Bryant, Kobe, 376
Budd, C. S., 302
Bucharest (Romania), 420
budget at completion (BAC), 466
budget reserves, 224
budgets
budget reserves, 224
percent complete index—budgeted
costs (PCIB), 477
Project Baseline Budget, 470–471646 Index
Coppola, Francis Ford, 549
core project team, in accelerating project
completion, 310
Corning Bio, 309
cost account, 113
Cost and Optimization Engineering (Jelen
and Black), 159
cost estimates, 130–148
apportion methods, 137
consensus methods, 136
factors influencing quality of, 130–132
forecasting final project cost,
479–481
function point methods, 138–139
guidelines for, 132–133
learning curves, 139, 157–161
level of detail, 143–144
mega projects, for, 149–150, 152
parametric procedures, 140
phase estimating, 141–143
range estimating, 140
ratio methods, 137
refining, 146–148
template methods, 140
time and cost databases, 148
top-down versus bottom-up, 134–143
types of costs, 144–146
cost performance index (CPI), 476
cost-plus contracts, 454–455
cost risks, in contingency planning, 222
cost saving options, brainstorming of,
322–323
cost-sharing ratio (CSR), 454
cost/schedule graph, 468, 469
cost variance (CV)
computing, 466, 478
defined, 466
variance analysis, 468–469
Coutu, D. L., 401, 407
Covance, 309
Covey, Stephen R., 358, 360n9, 365, 437,
437n, 443
Cowan, C., 426n, 443
crashing, 314–321
crash point, 315–316
crash times, 314–316, 319
Crawford, Lynn, 20, 38, 55
critical-chain project management
(CCPM), 294–302
accelerating project completion,
311, 312
in action, 296–297, 301
impact on project schedule, 298
methodology, 296
monitoring project performance,
300–301
splitting tasks, 300
time estimates, 295–296
traditional scheduling approach versus,
297–298
conflict management, 394–398
dedicated project teams and, 73–75
dysfunctional conflict, 396, 397–398
functional conflict, 396–397
low-priority projects, 395
matrix management and, 78
in outsourcing, 429–431
resource conflicts, 36–37
virtual project teams and, 402–403
Confucius, 562
Conrad, Joseph, 549
consensus methods
consensus testing in group decision
making, 393
for estimating project times and cost,
136–137
construction/demolition agencies, 254
consultants, external
as independent project facilitators,
525–526
in rejuvenating the project team, 398–399
contingencies, in project estimation, 133
contingency funding, 223–225
contingency planning, 219–223
cost risks, 222
funding risks, 222–223
schedule risks, 222
technical risks, 220–221
Contingency Planning and Management.
com, 548n, 572
contract change control system, 455–456
contract management, 451–456
contract change control system, 455–456
cost-plus contracts, 454–455
fixed-price contracts, 453–454
nature of contracts, 452
in outsourcing, 452–456
in perspective, 456
procurement management and, 452
contractors. See also outsourcing
dependencies of, 343
incentive contracts, 307, 308, 433
selection from bid proposals, 425–426
control. See also project monitoring
information system
in conflict management, 397
contract change control, 455–456
defined, 459, 461
project control process, 461–462
risk response control, 225–226
control charts, in project monitoring
information system, 462, 463–464
control tower project office, 80
Controlled Demolition Inc., 218
Cooke-Davies, T., 538
Cooper, M. J., 302
Cooper, W. W., 291
cooperation. See also project teams
in leading by example, 355
in negotiations for outsourcing, 433, 435
Chen, M., 555, 572
Chermack, T. J., 56
Chetty, T., 149, 155
Chilmeran, A. H., 124
China
cross-cultural factors in, 562–563
guanxi, 562
legal/political factors in, 562–563
Christensen, D. S., 480, 501
Chudoba, K. M., 408
Chunnel project, 149, 420
Cigna, 134
Citibank Global Corporate Bank, 523
Citigroup, 547
Clark, J., 390, 409
Clark, K. B., 92, 407
clean air industry, 13
Cleland, D. I., 407
Cleveland Cavaliers, 520
closing stage, 8–9, 515–536
adjourning stage of team
development, 378
dedicated project teams and, 75
evaluation, 516, 532–536
post-implementation evaluation, 516,
532–536
project closeout checklists, 516, 518,
539–541
of project life cycle, 8, 395–396
retrospectives, 516, 525–529
sources of conflict in, 395–396
types, 516–518
wrap-up activities, 516, 518–521
Coady, Gerry (Frontier Airlines), 42
Coca-Cola Co., 13
Cochran, Dick, 535n, 536, 538
CogniToys, 13
Cohen, A. R., 345, 346n, 365
Cohen, D. J., 20, 55
Colangelo, Jerry (Phoenix Suns), 376
Collins, J. C., 88, 92, 572
co-location
in outsourcing, 432
team identity and, 387–388
combination of lag relationships, 186
communication
cultural factors in, 551–552, 570.
See also cultural factors
in international projects, 551, 570
in outsourcing, 427, 428, 431, 433, 437
project communication plan, 119–121
virtual project teams and, 400,
402–403
compadre system, 556
computer industry, 29, 30, 35, 271
Conaway, W. A., 560n, 573
concurrent engineering, 184–186
conductor metaphor, 344
conference calls, virtual project teams
and, 402Index 647
documentation. See also reports and reporting
in outsourcing, 428
public documents in organizational
culture, 85
Doh, J. P., 572
doing it twice, in accelerating project
completion, 310
Dooley, K. J., 382, 409
Doran, G. T., 33, 33n, 55
Drexl, A., 291
Drexler, John A., 414n, 443, 444
dropped baton, 295
Drummond, Erin, 312n
Duffey, M. R., 501
Dunbar, E., 573
Duncan, David (Arthur Andersen), 357
Duncan, J., 232
DuPont, 138
duration of project. See project duration
Dvir, D., 80n, 94, 301, 302
Dworatschek, S., 92
Dyer, L., 408
Dyer, S., 443
Dyle, Dov, 28
dysfunctional conflict, 396–398
E
EAC
f (estimated cost at completion,
forecast), 479
EAC
re (estimated cost at completion,
revised), 479
Earley, Kristin, 532
early times and late times, 166
earned value (EV)
additional earned value rules, 478–479,
505–511
defined, 462, 466
development of earned value cost/
schedule system, 464–469, 505–511
50/50 rule, 478
percent complete rule, 467
percent complete with weighted monitoring gates, 478
pseudo-earned value percent complete
approach, 485
in status report, 471
in time-phased budgets, 276
variance analysis, 468–469
0/100 rule, 478
economic factors, 549–550
Economy, P., 443
Eden, L., 572
EDS, 464
Edward, K. A., 444
Einsiedel, A. A., 366
Eisenhardt, K. R., 92
Eiteman, D. K., 573
electronic bulletin boards, virtual project
teams and, 402
Davis, E. W., 258, 291
deadlines
imposed, 307
in outsourcing, 428
Deal, T. E., 81, 92, 385n, 407
Decarlo, D., 598
decision-making process, 393–394
facilitating, 393–394
importance of, 392–393
nominal group technique (NGT) in, 405
in project meetings, 383–385
dedicated project teams, 71–75
advantages and disadvantages, 72–75
examples of, 72, 74
nature of, 71
projectitis, 74
we–they syndrome, 74
defining stage, 8, 101–121
coding WBS for information system,
113–115
establishing project priorities, 106–108
organization breakdown structure
(OBS), 113
process breakdown structure (PBS),
116–117
project communication plan, 119–121
of project life cycle, 8, 396
project scope, 102–106
responsibility matrices (RM), 117–119
sources of conflict, 396–397
work breakdown structure (WBS),
108–112
Dehler, G. E., 366
De Laat, P. B., 92
Delbeeq, Andrew, 405n
Dell Children’s Medical Center, 14
Deloitte Consulting, 35
Delphi Method, 136, 212n
DeMarco, T., 310, 328, 407
Demeulemeester, E. L., 291, 302
Deneire, M., 572
Denver Airport, 106, 149, 484
dependencies,
mapping, 348–349
stakeholder, 341–343
Derby, Charles, 20
DeRosa, D., 401, 408
Descamps, J.P., 55
Developing Products in Half the Time
(Smith and Reinertsen), 220
Dexter, Susan, 309
DiDonato, L. S., 443
DiStefano, J. J., 555n, 573
Dinsmore, P. C., 365
direct costs, 145
project, 314
project overhead, 145
Disney, 464
Doctors Without Borders (Médecins Sans
Frontières), 547, 547n
critical path method (CPM), 163, 166, 167,
171, 175–177, 178, 187. See also
PERT (program evaluation and
review technique)
cross-cultural orientations, 557
Crystal Clear, 593
Cullinane, T. P., 456
cultural factors, 551–553. See also communication; organizational culture
adjustments, 555–556
in China, 562–563
cross-cultural orientations, 557
culture, defined, 554
culture shock, 565–567
in France, 559–560
Hofstede framewok, 558
in Hong Kong, 563
in international projects, 551–553,
554–568
Kluckhohn-Strodthbeck cross-cultural
framework, 557
in Mexico, 556, 558–559
in Namibia (Africa), 568
in outsourcing, 428
in Saudi Arabia, 560–561
summary comments, 565
in the United States, 563–564
culture shock, 565–568
coping with, 567–568
culture shock cycle,
four stages of, 566
nature of, 565–566
stress-related, 567
Culver, Irvin, 72
currency fluctuations, 549–550
customer relations
increased customer focus and, 12–14
met expectations, 439–441
project managers as client account
executives, 441
customers
assumption of project
responsibilities, 322
dependencies of, 343
scope checklist review with, 105
D
Dahlgren, G., 443
daily scrum, 588
DaimlerChrysler, 420
Dalkey, N. C., 154
dangler paths, 182
Daniel, Tim, 547
Darnell, R., 20
databases
project monitoring information system,
460–461, 485
time and cost, 148
Data General Corporation, 389648 Index
with slack times, 175
using forward pass information,
177–178
Foti, R., 37, 40, 56
Frame, J. D., 92, 387, 408, 523n
France, cross-cultural factors in, 559–560
Frank, L., 56
Frankel, Rob, 520
Fraser, J., 457
free float, 177
free slack (FS), 177
Fretty, Peter, 297n, 538
Friedman, Thomas L., 56
Fritz, Robert, 388
Frontier Airlines Holdings, 42
functional conflict, 396–397
functional managers
dependencies of, 343
project managers versus, 7
functional organization, 68–71
advantages and disadvantages, 69–71
nature of, 68–69
“function points,” for estimating project
times and cost, 138–139
funding risks, in contingency planning,
222–223
Fusco, Joseph C., 35, 35n4, 56, 533, 533n
G
Gabarro, S. J., 366
Gale, S. F., 598
Gallagher, R. S., 92
Gamble, J. E., 104n
Gantt, H. L., 179n, 202
Gantt chart, 179
baseline, 462–463
in critical-chain project management
(CCPM), 298, 300
in project monitoring information
system, 462–463
tracking, 462–463, 473–474
Gantz, J., 532n
Gardner, D., 523n
Gary, L., 124
GE Appliances, 405
Geary, L. K., 93
Gene Codes, 585
general and administrative (G&A)
overhead costs, 145
General Electric (GE), 15, 27, 138,
405, 535
General Motors (GM), 301
geographical factors, 548
Gersick, Connie J., 380, 380n
Giangreco, D. M., 527n
Gibson, C. B., 408
Ginter, P. M., 232
global project office (GPO), 523
Globerson, S., 125, 367
F
Facebook, 13
facilitators. See project facilitators
Faerman, S. R., 444
failed projects, 517
The Wake, 517
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
(FMEA), 215
Faris, R., 598
fast-tracking, 185, 310–311
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
(FDIC), 526
feeder buffers, 296
Fendly, L. G., 258, 291
Ferrazzi, K., 366
Ferrucci, D., 30n
FHA (Federal Housing Authority), 137
FIFA (Federation Internationale de Football Association), 149
Filipczak, B. 92
film industry, 549
final project report, 516, 518, 524–525
analysis, 525
appendix, 525
classification, 525
lessons learned, 516, 525, 526, 527,
529, 532
recommendations, 525
Financial Accounting Standards Board, 438
financial selection models, 38–40
net present value (NPV), 38–40
payback, 38–40
Financial Solutions Group of Mynd, 351
finish-to-finish lag relationship, 186
finish-to-start lag relationship, 183
Fischer, Randy, 431, 435n
Fisher, R., 435, 435n, 438, 439, 443
fixed-price contracts, 453–454
Fleming, Q. W., 457, 465n, 476n, 480, 501
float, 175–177
free, 177
total, 175–177
Floyd, S. W., 55
Flyvbjerg, Bent, 149, 150, 151, 154
FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects
Analysis), 215
folklore, in organizational culture, 85
follow-on contracts, 159
follow-up, in group decision making, 394
Ford, E. C., 232
Ford, Henry, 375
Ford Motors, 138, 387
forecasting
of final project cost, 479–480
reference class forecasting (RFC), 151
forming stage of team development, 378
Fortune 500, 34
forward pass-earliest times, 171–173
lag relationships, 186–187
electronics industry, 13
Eliyahu Goldratt Institute, 301, 301n
e-mail, virtual project teams and, 402
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 305
Emhjellenm, K., 155
emotional intelligence (EQ), 361
Emotional Intelligence (Goleman), 361
empathy, 361
Endurance Antarctic expedition, 354
energy conservation, 14
energy efficiency, 14
Englund, R. L., 92
Enron, 356, 357
environmental factors, 546–553
culture, 551–553
economy, 549–550
geography, 548
infrastructure, 550–551
legal/political, 546–547
security, 547–548
environmental sustainability, 12
Dell Children’s Medical Center, 14
London Olympics (2012), 150
Studio Roosegaarde, 13
equipment factor, as resource
constraint, 255
Ericksen, J., 408
Ernst, H., 409
errors
as acceptable, 226
network logic, 178
project estimation, 134
reporting, 226
escalation, 429
estimated cost at completion (EAC)
defined, 466, 479
EAC
f (forecast), 479
EAC
re
(revised), 479
estimated cost to complete (ETC), 466
estimation. See project estimation
ethics, 355–357
bribery, 555, 562, 565
code of conduct, 356
collapse of Arthur Andersen, 357
in leading by example, 355
top management and, 356
evaluation. See project evaluation
Evans, J., 269, 291
Everest (film), 221
exchange rate fluctuations, 549–550
excessive multitasking, 295–296
executing stage, 8. See also implementation
of project life cycle, 8, 396
sources of conflict, 395–396
expectancy theory of motivation,
320, 320n
expectations
managing, 351
met expectations, 439–441
Extreme Programming (XP), 584, 593Index 649
performance indexes, 476
project percent complete indexes, 477
software for project cost/schedule
systems, 477–478, 511–513
technical performance
measurement, 481
India
infrastructure factors in, 550
outsourcing in, 428
indirect costs, project, 313–314
individual reviews, 536–536
inflation, 550
“influence currencies.” See law of
reciprocity
information system. See also project
monitoring information system
coding work breakdown structure for,
113–115
in project communication plan,
120–121
infrastructure factors, 550–551
Ingebretsen, M., 124, 232
inspiration-related currencies, 346, 347
integrity, 360
Intel, 27, 301
internal staff specialists, in rejuvenating the
project team, 398
International Business Machines (IBM),
88, 138, 148, 300, 558
international projects, 545–571
cross-cultural factors, 554–568
environmental factors, 546–553
personnel selection and training,
568–570
project site selection, 553–554
virtual project teams in, 399, 400
International SOS Assistance, Inc., 547
Into Thin Air (Krakauer), 221
invitation for bid (IFB), 453
IPC Media, 595
iPhone 7, 306
Irix Pharmaceuticals, 309
iterative incremental development
processes (IIDs), 582–584
J
Jackson, M. B., 598
Jago, A. G., 393, 409
Jakarta (Indonesia), 548
James, LeBron, 376, 520
James, M., 598
Jamieson, A., 56
Janis, I. L., 403, 408
Jassawalla, A. R., 93
Jedd, Marcia, 538
Jeffery, R., 154
Jensen, M. C., 377, 409
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 383
Jobs, Steve, 74
Head, 583
health care industry, 14
Heart of Darkness (Joseph Conrad), 549
Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker’s
Apocalypse (film), 549n
Hedberg, B., 443
Heise, S., 501
Helm, J., 56
Helpdesk Automated Site (HASS), 389
Henricks, Paul, 309
Hendrickson, Chet, 579
Hendrix, K., 125
Henry, R. A., 210, 232
Herroelen, W. S., 291, 302
heuristics, 258, 259
Hewlett-Packard (HP), 67–68, 399, 405, 535
Highsmith, J., 598
high-tech toy industry, 13
Hildebrand, C., 598
Hill, L. A., 366
Hirschman, A. O., 149, 154
Hoang, H., 443
Hobbs, B., 38, 55, 79, 93
Hobday, M., 93
Hodgetts, R. M., 573
Hoegl, M., 409
Hoffman, R., 535n, 538
Hofstede framewok, 558
Hofstede, Geert, 558, 558n, 573
Holloway, C. A., 92, 407
Hollywood, 3, 13, 320
Homans, G. C., 379n, 408
Homeland Security, 526
Hong Kong, cross-cultural factors in, 563
Hooker, J., 560n, 562n, 573
Hulett, D. T., 232
Hurowicz, L., 258, 291
Hurricane Katrina, 526
Hutchens, G., 56
I
IBM, 88, 138, 148, 300, 558
IBM System/360, 309
IBM Watson’s Jeopardy Project, 13, 29, 30
Ibbs, C. W., 328, 538
IDEO, 583
implementation
implementation gap in project portfolio
system, 34–35, 36–37
projects in organization strategy, 33
incentives, 320
incentive contracts, 307, 308
project reward systems, 391–392
independence
in project estimation, 133
project facilitators, 523
indexes to monitor progress, 475–479
additional earned value rules, 478–479,
505–511
Goal, The (Goldratt), 294–301
Gobeli, D. H., 77, 79, 92, 93, 102, 124, 538
Godfather movies, 549
Gold, Dan, 309
Goldberg, Aaron, 74
Goldberg, A. I., 93
Golden Gate Bridge (San Francisco), 255
Goldratt, Eliyahu, 269, 291, 294–296,
301, 302
Goldsman, L. P., 457
Goleman, Daniel, 361, 361n
going native, 545
Goo, S. K., 84n
Google, 13, 15, 84
Gordon, R. I., 309n2, 328
governance. See project governance
government agencies. See also names of
specific government agencies
dependencies of, 343
Governor’s Office of Planning and
Research (California), 308
Gradante, W., 523n
Graham, J. L., 562n, 572
Graham, R. J., 20, 55, 92
Grant, Adam, 345, 345n, 366
Graves, J., 361n, 365
Gray, Clifford, 8, 20, 79, 92, 232, 426n,
443, 616n
Gray, N. S., 154
Green, S. G., 366
Greenland, 548
Griffin, D., 147, 154
Griffiths, M., 598
Gringo, 556
Griswold, T. A., 527n
groupthink, 403–404
Gryglak, Adam, 387
guanxi, 562
Gudergan, S., 366
Gundersen, A., 551, 568, 572
Gundersen, N. A., 456
Gustafson, D. H., 405n
H
Habitat for Humanity, 312, 312n
Hackman, J. R., 408
Haliburton, 519
Hall, C., 306n
Hallowell, R., 560n, 573
Hamburger, D. H., 232
hammock activities, 188
Hansson, J., 443
Harris Semiconductor, 301
Harris, P. R., 561n, 573
Harrison, M. T., 82n, 92
Hartman, Frances, 388n
Harvard Business School, 584
Hawkins, K., 434
HBO, 583650 Index
Leading at the Edge (Perkins), 354
leading by example, 353–355
learning curves, for estimating project
times and costs, 139, 157–161
leave-takings, 561
Leavitt, H. J., 404, 408
Lechler, T., 94
LEED (Leadership in Energy &
Environmental Design), 14
Lee, S. A., 328
legal/political factors, 546–547. See also
organization politics
Leifer, R., 56
Lerner, Matthew, 309n
lessons learned
final project report, 516–518
from Hurricane Katrina, 526
from Operation Eagle Claw, 527
letters of recommendation, 392
Leus, R., 302
leveling, 253, 256–257
level of detail
for project activities, 178
in project estimation, 143–144
for project networks, 178
Levine, H. A., 302
Levi Strauss, 464
Levy, F. K., 202
Levy, S. L., 392, 392n, 409
Lewis, J. P., 124
Lewis, M. W., 366
Lewis, R., 154
Li, M. I., 328
Lieberthal, G., 573
Lieberthal, K., 573
Likert, R., 377n, 408
Lilly, Bonnie, 312
Lincoln, Abraham, 345
Lindberg, Mike, 135
linearity assumption, 319
Linetz, B. P., 408
Lipman-Blumen, J., 404, 408
Lipsinger, R., 401, 408
Lister, T., 407
Loch, C. H., 232
The Lodge at Snowbird (Utah), 593
Logitech, 583
Loizeaux, Mark, 218
London Olympics (2012), 150
Lone Ranger analogy, 352
long-term relationships, in outsourcing,
433–434
Lonza Biologics, 309
Lockheed Aerospace Corporation, 72
Lockheed Martin, 72, 208
looping, 166, 178
Lorsch, J. W., 93
Lovallo, D., 147, 155
Low, G. C., 154
Lowe, D., 457
Krause, Melissa, 585n
Kruchten, P., 598
Krupp, Goran, 221
Kryzewski, Mike, 376
Kurtulus, I., 291
Kuruppuarachchi, P., 408
Kvalnes, Ø., 366
Kwak, Y. H., 538
L
Lackey, Michael B. (Trojan Nuclear Plant),
482n
laddering, 182, 183
Ladika, S., 538
lags, 182–187
in forward and backward pass
procedures, 186–187
to reduce schedule detail, 182–184
Lam, N. M., 562n, 572
Lamb, J. C., 309n2, 328
Landau, F., 209n
Lane, H. W., 555n, 573
Lange, Merete, 568
Lansing, Alfred, 354, 354n
Larman, C., 598
large projects. See also mega projects,
149–151
Larson, Erik W., 69, 72, 77, 79, 92, 93,
102, 124, 355n, 366, 367n, 426n,
443, 538, 616n
Larsson, U., 93
Laslo, Z., 93
Latham, G. P., 535, 538
Lavell, Debra, 538
law of reciprocity, 345–348
inspiration-related currencies,
346, 347
personal-related currencies, 346, 348
position-related currencies, 346–347
relationship-related currencies,
346, 347
styles of social interaction, 545
task-related currencies, 345–346
Lawrence of Arabia (film), 404n
Lawrence, P. R., 94
Leach, L. P., 296n, 302
leadership, 339–362. See also project
managers
ethics and, 355–356
law of reciprocity and, 345–348
leading at the edge, 354
leading by example, 353–355
managing versus leading a project,
340–341
project stakeholders and, 341–343
qualities of effective project managers,
359–362
social network building, 348–355
trust and, 357–359
Johansen, R., 404, 408
Johnson, Clarence L. “Kelly,” 72, 93
Johnson, Magic, 376
Johnson, R. E., 56
Joint Chiefs of Staff, 527
Jonas, D., 20
Jonasson, Hans, 598
Jones, C., 154
Jordan, Michael, 376
Joshi, M., 365
K
Kahneman, D., 147, 155
Kalaritis, Panos, 309
Kanban, 590
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, 358, 366, 419, 443
Kaplan, R. E., 345, 366
Kaplan, R. S., 56
Karif, O., 13n
Katz, D. M., 124
Katz, Ralph, 385n, 388, 408
Katzenbach, J. R., 385n, 408
Keifer, S., 483n
Kellebrew, J. B., 291
Kelly, J. E., 202
Kendrick, Tom, 538
Kennedy, A. A., 81, 92
Kenny, J., 56
Kerth, Norman L., 538
Kerzner, Harold, 81n, 93, 124, 501
Kezsbom, D. S., 444
Khang, D. B., 328
Kharbanda, O. P., 56, 129n, 130n, 154
Kidd, Jason, 376
Kidder, Tracy, 389, 389n, 390, 390n, 408
Kim, E. H., 501
King, J. B., 355n, 366
Kipling, Rudyard, 163
Kirk, Dorothy, 351, 351n, 366
Kirkman, B. L., 408
Kluckhohn, F., 557, 557n, 573
Kluckhohn-Strodthbeck cross-cultural
framework, 557
Knoepfel, H., 92
Knoop, C. I., 560n, 573
knowledge explosion, 12
Koh, Aileen, 20
Kokkla (Finland), 548
Kolawa, Adam Dr., 428, 428n
Konda, S. L., 232
Koppelman, Joel M., 465n, 476n,
480, 501
Korto, R. F., 56
Kotter, J. P., 340, 366
Kouzes, J. M., 353, 366
Krakauer, Jon, 221n
Kraków (Poland), 567
Krane, J., 573
Kras, E., 559n, 573Index 651
Morigeau, Stuart, 233n
Morris, P. W., 56
Morrison, T. 560n, 573
Morton, Danelle, 383, 383n
motivation
for extraordinary performance, 320
incentives in, 307, 308, 320
Motorola, 420
Motta, Silva, 56
Müller, R., 356, 360, 366, 367
multi-criteria selection models, 40–43
multiproject environments
project networks in, 182
resource scheduling in, 272–273
multiproject resource schedules, 272–273
multitasking, 36–37, 295–296
multi-weighted scoring models, 41–43
Murch, R., 124
Murphy, C., 390, 409
N
Nabisco, 535
Naeni, L., 501
NAFTA, 559
Nambisan, S., 444
Namibia, Africa, cross-cultural factors
in, 568
NASA Mars Climate Orbiter, 208–209
Nash, Steve, 520
National Basketball Association (NBA),
376, 520
National Guard, 526
Navistar, 387
Navy Federal Credit Union, 532
NCR, 464
NEC, 27
negotiation
components of principled,
435–439
in outsourcing, 434–439
Nelson, K. A., 356n7, 367
Nelson, Ryan R., 538
net present value model (NPV)
in project selection, 38, 39
in risk assessment, 215
Netflix, 13
network logic errors, 178
Newbold, R. C., 269, 291, 302
Newmann, L., 291
new products, concurrent engineering
in, 184–186
NIH (not invented here), 379
Nike, 583
Nissen, M. E., 444
Nobel Peace Prize, 547
Nofziner, B., 360, 367
Nokia, 583
nominal group technique (NGT) in, 405
Nonaka, Ikujiro, 585, 598
McDougall, Lorna, 357n
McFarlan, F. W., 20, 55
McGrath, M. R., 444
McNerney, Jim, 423
McPherson, S. O., 408
Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), 547, 547n
mediating conflict, 397
meetings. See project meetings
mega projects, estimation for, 149–151
Melnyk, Les A., 526n
Ménard, 79, 93
Mendenhall, M. E., 569n, 573
Menon, R., 232
merge activities, 166, 169, 172–173
Merritt, G. M., 232
met-expectations model, 439
Meyer, A. D., 232
Meyer, D., 269, 291
Meyer, E., 573
Mexico, cross-cultural factors in, 556,
558–559
MGM, 320
Miami Heat, 520
Microsoft Project, 385, 478, 511–513
middle management. See also top
management
implementation gap in project portfolio
management, 34–35, 36–37
level of detail in project estimates,
143–144
managing versus leading a project,
340–341
milestones
guidelines for setting, 465
in project scope, 103
schedules, 463–464
Millard, Candice, 552, 552n
Miller, D., 555, 572
Miller, J., 72n, 93
Mills, E., 84n
Milosevic, D. Z., 56, 155, 564n, 573
mission of organization
project manager, understanding of, 28
in strategic management process, 30
Mitchel, Russ, 271n
mitigating risk, 216–217
Mittman, R., 408
Mobil Oil, 535
Moffett, M. H., 550, 573
Mohring, R., 291
Molinski, D., 13n
Molloy, E., 149, 155
Monarch, I., 232
Monroe, Marilyn, 420
Montreal Olympics (1976), 150
Moran, James, 202n
Moran, R. T., 561n, 573
Moran, S. V., 561n, 564n, 573
Morgan, Pat, 387
loyalty, 352
Luby, R. E., 124
Lucas, E., 555, 572
Lucas George, 549
Lucent Technologies, 301
Luthans, F., 573
M
MacCormack, Alan, 584, 584n
MacIntyre, Jeff, 35, 35n3, 56
Mackey, J., 302
MacLeod, G., 155
Madnick, S., 328
Magenau, J. M., 444
Magne, E., 155
Magretta, Joan, 56
Maier, N. R. F., 393n, 408
Majchrzak, A., 93, 408
Malhotra, A. A., 408
“management by wandering around”
(MBWA), 350–351, 393
Management Reserve index (MRI), 477
management reserves, 224–225
managing expectations, 351
Managing Martians (Shirley and
Morton), 383
managing upward relations, 351–353
mañana syndrome, 556
Mannakau (New Zealand), 312
Mantel, S. K., 351n3, 367
Marlin, Mark, 538
Marriott Corp., 405
Mars Exploration Program (JPL), 383
Martin, A., 408
Martinelli, Russ, 538
Martin, M., 456
Mass Fatality Identification System
(M-FISys), 585
materials factor, as resource constraint, 254
Matheson, David, 50–51, 50n, 56
Matheson, Jim, 50–51, 50n, 56
matrix management, 75–81
advantages and disadvantages, 77–78
balanced matrix, 76
example of, 89
nature of, 75
performance reviews, 534–535
project versus functional manager
responsibilities, 7, 75
recruiting project members, 381–382
strong matrix, 77
weak matrix, 76–78, 81
maturity models, 529–532
growth levels, 529–532
Maurer, I., 444
MBWA (“management by wandering
around”), 350–351
McConnel, S., 598
McDermott, C. M., 56652 Index
overhead costs, 145
direct, 145
general and administrative (G&A), 145
oversight. See project audit; project
offices (POs)
overtime
in accelerating project completion,
308, 310
cross-cultural attitudes toward, 560
ownership, in team building, 399
oyster projects, 50
P
pace of life, 555
padding estimates, 131
Panama Canal expansion project, 13
parametric procedures, for estimating
project times and costs, 140
parallel activities, 166, 169
Parker, Ron, 10–11
Pakinson’s law, 295
Parsi, N., 13n
partnering charters, 429, 430
Pascoe, T. L., 258, 291
past experience, in project estimation,
130, 157
path, 166
Patheon Inc., 309
Patterson, J. H., 258, 291
Patterson, J., 258, 291
Patzelt, A. H., 538
Paulus, P. B., 379n, 409
Pavlik, A., 232
payback, model, 38
PBS (process breakdown structure), 102,
116–117
pearl projects, 50
Peck, W., 80, 80n, 92
Peel, D., 124
people factor
in assigning project work, 271
dealing with unreasonable people,
438–439
in negotiation process, 434–439
in project estimation, 131
as resource constraint, 254
separating people from problem,
435–436
People’s Republic of China (PRC).
See China
Pepsi-Cola, 583
percent complete index—actual costs
(PCIC), 477
percent complete index—budgeted costs
(PCIB), 477
percent complete rule, 467
percent complete with weighted monitoring
gates, 478
performance-based contracts, 433
implications for organizing projects,
86–88
nature of, 81–83
in project estimation, 131
relationship with project structure, 88
organizational culture review
questionnaire, 528
Organizational Project Management
Maturity Model (OPM3), 529
organization breakdown structure (OBS),
109, 110, 113
integrating with organization,
113, 114
time-phased budget and, 274–276
organization politics
project managers and, 361
in project portfolio system, 35–36
in recruiting project members, 382
trust and, 357–359
organization strategy, 28–51
implementation through projects, 33
managing portfolio system, 48–51
project alignment with, 28
project manager understanding of, 28
project portfolio management system,
37–38
project priority system, 34–37
project selection criteria, 38–43
project selection models, 44
selection model application, 43–48
strategic management process
overview, 29–34
strategy, defined, 27
Orlando Sentinel, 209, 232
Osmundsen, P., 155
outdoor experiences/retreats, 399
outsourcing, 419–441
in accelerating project completion,
309, 322
advantages and disadvantages, 421–424
best practices, 426–434
co-location, 432
communication in, 427–428, 433
conflict management processes,
429–431
contract management, 433, 451–456
customer relations, 439–441
defined, 420
examples of, 422–423, 428, 431
long-term relationships, 433–434
negotiation in, 434–439
in resource allocation, 272–273
review and status updates, 431–432
team-building activities, 426,
428–429
traditional approach versus partnered
approach, 426–427
training activities, 428–429
well-defined requirements and procedures, 426–427
nonfinancial selection models, 40–43
checklist models, 40–41
multi-weighted scoring models, 41–43
nonproject factors, in project estimation, 131
Noreen, E., 302
normal closure, 516–517
normal conditions in project estimation,
132–133
norming stage of team development, 378
Nortel Networks Corp., 547
Northridge earthquake (California), 308
Norton, D. P., 56
not invented here (NIH), 379
Novell, Inc., 271
numbering activities, 179
O
objectives
characteristics of, 33
in project scope, 102–103
strategy formulation to meet, 32–34
in supporting organization strategy, 33
O’Boyle, B., 306n
OBS (organization breakdown structure),
109, 110, 113
O’Connor, G. C., 56
Oculus Rift, 13
Oddou, G. R., 573
Office of the Chief Medical Examiner
(New York), 585
Ohio School Facilities Commission, 431
Olson, E. M., 93
Olve, N., 443
Olympic Forest, 270
Olympic games, 376
O’Neal, Shaquille, 520
operational projects, 37–38
Operation Eagle Claw, 527
Operations and Technology for Global
Cash Management, 523
OPM3 (Organizational Project
Management Maturity
Model), 529
opportunity management, 223
opportunity, defined, 223
responses to opportunity, 223
optimism, 361
Oregon Health Sciences University
(OHSU), 135
O’Reilly, Brian, 535n
O’Reilly, C. A., 82n, 93
organizational culture, 68, 81–89. See also
cultural factors
characteristics of, 83–86
countercultures and, 83, 86, 88
diagnosis worksheet, 85
ethics in, 355–357
example of, 84
functions of, 82–83Index 653
classification of, 37–38, 43, 50
defined, 6–7
everyday work versus, 7
examples of for college students, 5
implementing organization through,
33–34
program versus, 7
size, 15
project audits, 516, 521–532
bigger picture of, 529–532
data collection and analysis, 524
external consultants in, 525–526
guidelines for conducting, 522–525
importance of, 521
in-process, 521
initiating and staffing, 522–523
nature of, 521–522
postproject, 521
project maturity models in, 529–532
project offices (POs) and, 522, 523
reporting, 524–525
retrospectives, 525–529
senior management in, 522
Project Baseline Budget, 470–471
project buffers, 296
project charters, 11–12, 105–106,
project classification
in project selection, 43
types of projects, 37–38, 50
project closure, 516. See also closing stage
wrap-up closure activities, 516,
518–521
project code names, 49
project communication plan, 119–121
project control process, 461–462
project complexity, in project
estimation, 130
project cost baselines, 273–278
Project Cost–Duration Graph, 313–321
crashing, 314–321
determining activities to shorten,
314–316
project direct costs, 314
project indirect costs, 313–314
simplified example, 316–318
time reduction decisions, 320–321
using, 318–319
project definition. See defining stage
project duration, 305–323
acceleration options when resources
are constrained, 310–312
acceleration options when resources
are not constrained, 308–310
cost as issue in, 321–323
lags and, 183–186
practical considerations, 318–321
Project Cost–Duration Graph,
313–321
in project estimation, 131
rationale for reducing, 306–307
position-related currencies, 346–347
positive synergy, 375–377
Posner, B. Z., 125, 353, 360, 366, 367,
395, 409
post-implementation evaluation, 532–536
individual reviews, 535–536
performance reviews, 534–536
team evaluation, 532–534
360-degree reviews, 534–535, 536
postproject retrospectives, 525–529
Powell, M., 93
premature closure, 517
Pressman, R. S., 155
Price, M., 56
PricewaterhouseCoopers, 547
Primavera, 385
principled negotiation, 435
priorities
changed priority closing stage, 518
leading by example, 353
low-priority projects, 395
priority matrix, 107
priority system in project selection,
34, 36–37
project reward systems, 391–392
responsibility for prioritizing projects,
47–48, 50
priority matrix, 107–108
priority system, 34, 36–37, 47–48, 50
priority team, 42
proactive approach, 360
probability analysis, in risk assessment,
215–216
problem identification, in group decision
making, 393
problem solving
in leading by example, 355
in recruiting project members, 382
process breakdown structure (PBS), 102,
116–117
procrastination (student syndrome), 296
Procter and Gamble, 27, 583
procurement management
components of, 452
Request for Proposal (RFP), 44, 45,
63–64, 452
product backlog, 588–589
product life cycle, compression of, 12, 27
product owner, 586–587
program(s)
defined, 7–8
project versus, 7
program evaluation and review technique
(PERT), 140, 216, 240–244
program goals, 8
program management, 8
progress measurement. See project
monitoring information system
project(s), 6–12
characteristics of, 7
performance indexes, 476
performance measurement. See project
monitoring information system
performance reviews, 534–536
individual, 535–536
project manager, 534
team member, 532–534
360-degree reviews, 535, 536
performing stage of team development, 378
Perkins, Dennis N. T., 354, 354n
perpetual closure, 517
Perrow, L. A., 328
personal integrity, 360
personal-related currencies, 347, 348
PERT (program evaluation and review
technique), 140, 216, 240–244
development of, 240
hypothetical example of, 242–244
Pesch, E., 291
Peters, J. F., 538
Peters, Lawrence H., 366, 389, 389n
Peters, L. S., 56
Peters, T., 20, 353, 366, 409
Pethokoukis, J. M., 583n
Pettegrew, A. M., 93
phase estimating, for project times and
costs, 141–143
Philippines, 547, 549, 553
physical characteristics, in organizational
culture, 84–85
Pich, M. T., 232
Pinto, J. K., 56, 102, 124, 129n, 130n, 154.
232, 301, 302, 351n3, 367, 444
Pippett, D. D., 538
Pitagorsky, G., 124
planned value (PV)
costs included in, 467–468
defined, 276, 466
in time-phased budgets, 276
variance analysis, 468–469
planning decisions, 384
planning horizon, in project
estimation, 130
planning stage, 8. See also project estimation; resource scheduling
of project life cycle, 8, 396
sources of conflict, 395–396
PMBOK (Project Management Body of
Knowledge), 223n, 232
PM Network, 538
PMI. See Project Management
Institute (PMI)
PMI Standards Committee, 124
PMI Today, 4n
Poli, M., 94
Porras, J. I., 88, 92
portfolio management, 37–38
senior management input to, 48–49
portfolio risks, balancing, 50–51
Portland General Electric Company, 480654 Index
understanding strategy, 28
work breakdown structure (WBS) and,
108–109
working in a multicultural environment,
555, 565–568
project measurement. See project monitoring information system
project meetings, 383–387
establishing ground rules, 384–385
project kick-off meeting, 383
scrum, 587–589
subsequent meetings, 386–387
team identity and, 387–388
project monitoring information system,
459–486
baseline changes, 483–484
costs and problems of data acquisition,
485–486
critical-chain project management
(CCPM) in, 300–301
data collected in, 460–461, 485
earned value (EV) cost/schedule
system, 462, 464–469, 505–511
examples of use, 464, 480
forecasting final project cost, 479–481
indexes to monitor progress, 475–479
Microsoft Project and, 478, 511–513
process overview, 467
project control process, 461–462
reports and reporting in, 460–461,
470–475
scope creep, 483
status report, 470–475, 478, 481
structure of, 460–461
time performance, 462–464
tracking Gantt, 462–463
project networks, 163–189
activities in, 163–164, 166–170
activity numbering, 179
activity-on-arrow (AOA), 167–170
activity-on-node (AON), 167–170
activity-on-arrow (AOA) versus,
167–168
backward pass, 173–175
forward pass, 171–173
backward pass-latest times in, 173–175
basic rules for developing, 166
calendar dates


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