كتاب Health and Safety - Risk Management - Fifth Edition
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


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 كتاب Health and Safety - Risk Management - Fifth Edition

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كتاب Health and Safety - Risk Management - Fifth Edition  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Health and Safety - Risk Management - Fifth Edition    كتاب Health and Safety - Risk Management - Fifth Edition  Emptyالسبت 27 يناير 2024, 12:42 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Health and Safety - Risk Management
Fifth Edition
Dr Tony Boyle

كتاب Health and Safety - Risk Management - Fifth Edition  H_a_s_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Contents
List of figures vii
List of tables x
1 Preliminaries 1
Part 1.1: Risk management – introduction 5
2 Part 1.1 – overview 7
3 Risk management – setting the scene 9
4 Key elements of risk management 16
5 Risk and opportunity assessment 23
6 Risk control 36
7 Safe systems of work 49
8 Monitoring and measuring losses 58
9 Identifying causes and patterns 73
10 Monitoring and measuring conformity and achievement 101
11 Other elements of occupational health and safety management
systems 110
12 Communication and training 122
Part 1.2: Human factors – introduction 135
13 Part 1.2 – common themes and overview 137
14 The individual – sensory and perceptual processes 145
15 The individual – psychology 175
16 The human factors environment 192
Part 2.1: Risk management – advanced 213
17 Part 2.1 – overview 215
18 Management systems 217
19 Measuring performance 242
20 Advanced accident investigation and risk assessment 291
21 Advanced risk control techniques 335vi Contents
22 Emergency planning 358
23 Advanced audit and review 372
24 Financial issues 400
Part 2.2: Human factors – advanced 413
25 Part 2.2 – overview 415
26 Individual differences 416
27 Human error 436
28 Perception and decision making 442
29 External influences on human error 460
30 Improving human reliability 480
Index 493Figures
3.1 What you need to know about hazardous events 9
3.2 Loss and the nature of assets 10
4.1 The elements in the risk and opportunity management model 17
4.2 ISO 45001 planning requirements 20
5.1 Summary of the risk and opportunity assessment process 24
6.1 Illustration of various terms used in discussing risk 46
6.2 Representation of risks in Figure 6.1 46
7.1 Partial HTA diagram for taking a bath 51
8.1 Quarterly figures for major accidents in 2016 64
8.2 Days lost per month through sickness in 2016 64
8.3 Hours of downtime per year (2013–16) 65
8.4 Damage costs in financial years 2012/13–2015/16 65
8.5 Monthly minor injury figures for 2016 66
8.6 Quarterly minor injury figures for 2016 66
8.7 Monthly accidents and moving mean (2016) 67
9.1 Accident investigation procedure 75
9.2 The Hale and Hale model 79
9.3 Generalised Domino Theory 83
9.4 The Swiss Cheese Model 86
10.1 Monitoring ‘cascade’ and audit 103
10.2 Upward monitoring 104
11.1 A simple electromechanical system 118
12.1 Systematic training model 132
12.2 Competency stages for the individual 133
14.1 Cross-section of the human eye 145
14.2 Small sections of the retina 149
14.3 Reversible figures 155
14.4 Cross-section through the human ear 156
14.5 Section through the nasal cavities showing the location of the receptors
for smell 162
14.6 Cross-section through the skin 165
14.7 The organs of balance 167
14.8 How a macula works 168
14.9 How semi-circular canals work 169
14.10 Diagrammatic representation of the semi-circular canals 170
14.11 The proprioceptors in a muscle (adapted from Kroemer and Grandjean) 171
14.12 Links between eye, muscles and brain (adapted from Kroemer and Grandjean) 172
15.1 Fuel consumption at different speeds 178
15.2 The relationship between the amount of work and recovery time 179
15.3 Typical daily IS and RAS activity 181
16.1 Cranfield Man 194
16.2 Organisation chart for a small service organisation 202
16.3 Organisation chart for a medium-sized production company 203
16.4 Top-level organisation chart for a large organisation (Chart 1) 204viii Figures
16.5 Intermediate-level organisation chart for a large organisation (Chart 60) 204
16.6 Final-level organisation chart for a large organisation (Chart 61) 205
16.7 Non-hierarchical organisation chart for a small service company 205
16.8 Non-hierarchical organisation chart for a small production company 206
18.1 Generalised Plan–Do–Check–Act cycle 220
18.2 Figure A.16 Concepts of the class ‘audit’ and related concepts 231
18.3 Main elements in the MORT HSMS 233
18.4 The EFQM Excellence Model (reproduced with the permission of EFQM
Private Stichting) 237
19.1 An illustrative causation continuum 246
19.2 A management model based on safety culture 247
19.3 How many people have how many accidents? 255
19.4 Numbers of people having a specified number of accidents in a factory
department (n = 40, whole department) 256
19.5 Numbers of men and women involved in assembly and packing having a
specified number of accidents (n = 40, whole department) 257
19.6 Organisation’s expenditure on safety posters, 2014–16 257
19.7 Organisation’s expenditure on safety posters, 2014–16 258
19.8 Numbers of people having a specified number of accidents in a factory
department (n = 40, whole department) 258
19.9 The main ways of distorting the information presented in a histogram 259
19.10 Histograms showing the effect of suppressing the zero 259
19.11 Numbers of managers getting particular scores on a safety test (n = 36) 265
19.12 Costs of 10 accidents selected at random from 254 accidents 266
19.13 Numbers of people having a specified number of accidents in a factory
department (total number of people = 40) 267
19.14 Time to failure of 10,000 light bulbs 274
19.15 Cumulative probability of light bulb failure 274
19.16 Distribution of sampling variability for samples of 10 marbles drawn from a
population of 50 white and 50 black marbles 278
19.17 Chart for recording the number of accidents in each month for 2017 283
19.18 Chart for recording monthly accident frequency rates for 2011 (expected
frequency calculated on 2016 figures) 284
19.19 Chart for recording monthly running total frequency rates for 2011 (expected
frequency calculated on 2016 figures) 286
19.20 Accidents by day of week for two departments 287
19.21 Time of accident occurrence in one department 288
19.22 Month of accident occurrence in one department 289
20.1 Simple events and causal factors analysis chart 295
20.2 General format for ECFA chart 296
20.3 Simplified MORT fault tree for barrier failure analysis 299
20.4 Simplified MORT fault tree for energy flow analysis 301
20.5 Simplified MORT fault tree for target analysis 302
20.6 Bird’s accident triangle 303
20.7 Severity distribution for a deep manhole shaft 310
20.8 Severity distribution for a shallow manhole shaft 310
20.9 Severity distribution for minor harm 311
20.10 Severity distribution for moderate harm 311
20.11 Simplified system description for a domestic gas boiler 317Figures ix
20.12 System description for domestic gas boiler following HAZOP 322
20.13 Risk assessment map 324
20.14 Sample page of worksheet for FMEA of a domestic gas boiler 326
20.15 Sample FMEA summary sheet for a domestic gas boiler 327
20.16 Simplified Event Tree Analysis diagram 327
20.17 Partial ETA for a domestic gas boiler 328
20.18 Simplified fault tree 329
20.19 Partial FTA for an explosion in a domestic gas boiler casing 330
20.20 Sample of FTA symbols 331
21.1 Usual problem-solving strategy 339
21.2 The main features of a system 340
21.3 System diagram for a health and safety committee 342
21.4 Simple system diagram for hard hat wearing 343
21.5 Richer system diagram for hard hat wearing 344
21.6 Simple system diagram for a road traffic accident 345
21.7 Richer system diagram for a road traffic accident 345
21.8 An illustrative causation continuum 348
21.9 Links in ‘think, say and do’ 349
21.10 Feedback loops in ‘think, say and do’ 349
22.1 Planning the outcome 364
22.2 Action following the implementation of a plan 365
22.3 Summary of plan preparation procedure 366
22.4 Use of question sets for monitoring 367
22.5 Links between outcome and monitoring data 367
23.1 Flowchart of the ISO 19011 process 373
23.2 Information flow in the risk management system 391
24.1 Relationship between expenditure on risk management and losses 407
26.1 Generalised structure of intelligence 422
26.2 Dimensions of personality 425
27.1 Human error types 437
27.2 Individual behaviour in the face of danger model 438
28.1 The attention mechanism 443
28.2 Low- and high-association memory items 450
28.3 The attention mechanism and long-term memory 451
28.4 The place of short-term memory and expectancies in information processing 453
29.1 A simple sociogram for a nine-person group 468
30.1 Cranfield Man 486
30.2 Human–machine system, and the human–machine interface 486Tables
5.1 Scale for rating the likelihood of a hazardous event 29
5.2 Scale for rating severity of most likely harm 30
5.3 Sample risk calculation 31
5.4 Qualitative risk rating 32
5.5 Sample guidance on action required by different risk levels 32
6.1 Hazard elimination and reduction methods 37
8.1 Typical losses 59
8.2 Numbers of incidents and severity for a range of key losses 62
8.3 Comparisons using incidence, frequency and severity rates 70
9.1 Summary of the Domino Theory variants 85
10.1 Possible questions for a monitoring checklist 105
11.1 Combining loss data and conformity data 120
12.1 Behavioural objectives and underpinning knowledge 127
14.1 Pleasantness of smell and toxicity 164
15.1 Subjective feelings associated with levels of IS and RAS activity 182
15.2 Relationships between behaviour and attitudes 187
16.1 Average anthropometric data (in millimetres) estimated for 20 regions of the
world – adapted from Jurgens et al. 196
16.2 Hand and wrist sizes (in millimetres) – adapted from Jurgens et al. 197
18.1 First part of the ‘Strategy and policy self-assessment’ (Table A.3 from ISO 9004) 232
18.2 First part of the ‘Monitoring, measurement, analysis and review self-assessment’
(Table A.6 from ISO 9004) 233
18.3 EFQM description of criteria and criterion parts 238
19.1 Performance indicator data from BS 18004 244
19.2 Data types and passive and active monitoring 245
19.3 Quantitative and qualitative measures 249
19.4 Numbers of accidents incurred by each person in a factory department 254
19.5 Numbers and percentages of accidents incurred by the 40 people in a factory
department 254
19.6 Numbers and percentages of accidents incurred by the 40 people in a factory
department 254
19.7 Results from 36 managers who answered a nine-question safety test 260
19.8 Results from 36 managers who answered a nine-question safety test 261
19.9 Numbers of managers getting particular scores in a safety test (n = 36) 261
19.10 Scores of six senior managers and their 30 deputies in a safety test 263
19.11 Variations in frequency distributions having the same mean and range 263
19.12 Steps in calculating the standard deviation 264
19.13 Variations in standard deviations of distributions with the same mean and range 265
19.14 Costs of 10 accidents selected at random from 254 accidents 266
19.15 Diagrammatic representation of the main methods of expressing probability 271
19.16 Expected numbers of samples (from a total of 1,024) having a specified number
of black marbles (binomial distribution, p = q = 0.5, n = 10) 279
19.17 Number of accidents in each calendar month for 2016 280
19.18 Probabilities of 0, 1, 2 . . . accidents (Poisson distribution mean = 3.5) 281Tables xi
20.1 Risk ratings of 5 or less 292
20.2 Definitions of hazard and risk 305
20.3 Examples of categories for likelihood of harm (BS 18004, Table E3) 308
20.4 Examples of harm categories (BS 18004, Table E2) 309
20.5 A simple risk estimator (BS 18004, Table E4) 309
20.6 A simple risk-based control plan (BS 18004, Table E6) 313
20.7 Partial HAZOP for a domestic gas boiler 321
20.8 Severity categories 324
20.9 Probability levels 324
21.1 Activities and associated risk control measures with the same risk rating 336
21.2 Form for recording reliance on risk control measures 337
21.3 Illustrative error rates for a variety of tasks 338
21.4 Examples of inputs and unintended outputs 346
21.5 Examples of inappropriate and appropriate links 349
22.1 Guide words for helping to generate aims 361
22.2 Partial structure for a generalised emergency plan 363
22.3 Comparison of outcome data and conformity data 369
23.1 Closed and open questions 381
23.2 Table for preparing a stratified random sample 384
23.3 General checks on individual elements of the risk management system 390
24.1 Break-even point data for a training course 408
24.2 Insured and uninsured costs 410
26.1 Cattell’s 16 personality factors 427
26.2 Occupational personality questionnaire traits 428
26.3 Examples of attributional and non-attributional forms of statements 430
26.4 The components of attitudes and their measurement 431
28.1 Influences on wearing PPE 458
30.1 Comparison of human and machine capabilities for allocation of function
(Adapted from Fitts’ list, amended by Singleton and the present author) 482
30.2 Allocation of function (adapted from Sanders and McCormick with additions
from the present author) 483
30.3 Error categories for Predictive Human Error Analysis 484
Index
absolute risk see risk
accident: causation 82; comparisons of accident data
68–70; definition 12; triangle 303; UK reporting
see UK legislation
accident investigation: reasons for 74, 291–3;
terminology 73; which accidents to investigate
74
accident investigation procedure: collecting
information 91–2; feedback of results 94;
interviews 77–8, 86–91; notifications 76;
overview 75; reports 92–4; site visits 76–7
accident rates 275–6
ACoPs see approved codes of practice (ACoPs)
active monitoring see monitoring
analysis of numerical data 253–90
anthropology 140
a priori probability 269
approved codes of practice (ACoPs) 26, 91–2
assets: damage to 59–9; nature of 10
attention mechanism see perception
attitudes 186–8, 429–33; changing 432–3; definition
429; measuring 429–31
audit: competence of auditors 117; criteria 374–5;
definition 114; independence of auditors 116–7;
ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 requirements 227;
ISO 19011 process 372–88; objectives 373–4;
output 115; sampling 382–4; scope 374; software
388; standards 115; structured approach 115–6;
weaknesses 388
awareness: ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 requirements
224; ISO 45001 requirements 134
balance (sense of) 167–70
ballistic movements 172–3
barriers: for risk control 37–8; Swiss Cheese Model
86
bel scale 252
Binet 419
binomial distribution 277–80
blame culture 61
body language 89, 90, 434
boredom 177–82
Boring, E.G. 419
brainstorming 339–40
break-even analysis 407–8
British and International standards 26
BS 76000 24
BS EN 60300 24
BS EN ISO 19011 see ISO 19011
BS EN ISO 22000 24
BS EN ISO 50001 24
BS ISO 18788 24
BS ISO/IEC 27001 24
BS OHSAS 18001 22, 243
BS OHSAS 18002 22
BS OHSAS 18004 22, 19–20, 117, 242–4
business risk see risk
categories of people 3
Cattell 16 personality factor questionnaire (16 PF)
426–7
causation continuum 246
change management 473–4
checklists see monitoring
chemicals: and dose limitation methods 38; effect on
reliability 489–90
Clarke, S.G. 436, 437, 440
communication: effective 122–3; in organisations
207; ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 requirements 224;
media 123–4; oral 124; skills 122–3; UK legal
requirements see UK legislation; written 124
competence 460–3; and vocational standards 128;
assessing 461–2; competent versus trained 130–1;
health and safety competences 128–132; health
and safety professional’ competences 132;
ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 requirements 224;
ISO 45001 requirements 133–4; management of
131,133; provision 129–130; UK legal
requirements see UK legislation
compliance obligations 223
component reliability: estimating 273–4
computer use in risk management 393–9;
choosing software 398–8; hardware and system
software 393–4, 398–9; nature of programs
394–7
conflict management 474–7
conformity 17; measuring 108–9
consultation 111, 125
context of the organisation 332–3
continual improvement see improvement
correction 18
corrective action 18, 97; ISO 14001 and ISO 9001
requirements 228
cost–benefit analysis 401–7
costing risk control measures see risk control measures
Cranfield Man 194decision making 456–8
descriptive statistics: dishonest use 253–5, 257;
histograms 258–9; ideographs 256–8; pie charts
255–6; tables 253–4
documented information: ISO 14001 and ISO 9001
requirements 224–5; ISO 45001 requirements
113–4
documents see documented information
Domino Theories 82–6
dose limitation 38–9
Duncan, W.J. 201
ear: brain and hearing 160–1; checks on structure and
function 160; deafness 159, 160; links with vision
161; structure and function 156–8
ECFA see Events and Causal Factors Analysis
EEGs see electroencephalograms (EEGs)
EFQM Excellence Model 236–9
electroencephalograms (EEGs) 430
emergency plan: recording 362–7; testing 367–70;
UK legal requirements see UK legislation
emergency planning 358–70; identifying events
358–9; identifying required actions 359–62
emergency preparedness and response 114
empirical probability 269–70
environmental aspects 223
epidemiological analysis 97–9, 286–90
EPQ see Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ)
ergonomics 140, 193–4; applied ergonomics 195–7,
490–1; as a discipline 480–1; environmental
factors 488–90; error ergonomics 492; research
ergonomics 194–5; systems ergonomics 491–2
error see human error
ETA see Event Tree Analysis
European Safety Agency 69
evaluation of compliance 108
Events and Causal Factors Analysis (ECFA) 294–7
Event Tree Analysis (ETA) 325–8
expectancies see perception
expectations see needs and expectations
eye: brain and vision 153–6; checks on structure and
function 160; defects in visual system 150–2;
structure and function 145–50
Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) 426
Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
320–5
fatigue: causes 182–3; effects 183–4; general or
nervous fatigue 180–1; inhibitory system 181;
muscular fatigue 178–80; reticular activating
system 181–2
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) 328–31
financial issues 13–4, 400–11; break-even analysis
407–8; cost–benefit analysis 401–7; cost of injuries
in Great Britain 13; costing risk control measures
408–10; difficulties with 401
Fitts, R.M. 482
FMEA see Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
frequency rate 68
FTA see Fault Tree Analysis
galvanic skin response (GSR) 429–30
General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ)
125
Glendon, A.I. 436–8, 440, 441, 463
GNVQ see General National Vocational Qualification
(GNVQ)
goal setting theories of motivation 418–9
groups: characteristics of 198–9; norms 199–200;
motivation 467–8; size 199
GSR see galvanic skin response (GSR)
Guidelines on occupational safety and health management
systems 21
Guide to achieving effective occupational health and safety
performance 22
Guttmann, H.E. 337
Hale and Hale model 79–82
Haddon, W. 298
Hale, A.R. 82, 303, 439, 463
Hale, M. 82
Handy, C. 208, 209, 474
hazard 9: identification 27–8, 307–8, 319–9;
reduction methods 37
Hazard and Operability studies (HAZOPs)
319–20
hazardous event 9–11
HAZOPs see Hazard and Operability studies
health and safety committee 477–8
Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 4, 13, 14, 26
Health and Safety Executive Northern Ireland
(HSENI) 4
health and safety management systems (HSMSs)
see management systems
health and safety policy see UK legislation
hearing see ear
Heinrich, H.W. 85
Herzberg, F. 471–2
hierarchical task analysis (HTA) 50–2
hierarchies of risk control 39–41
histograms see descriptive statistics
HSE see Health and Safety Executive
HSENI see Health and Safety Executive Northern
Ireland
HSG65 21
HTA see hierarchical task analysis (HTA)
human error: classification of 436–9; identifying
error prone tasks 481–5; in disasters 440–1;
494 Indexorganisational factors 473–8; reduction strategies
439–40
human reliability: effect of environmental factors on
488–90; fatigue and stress as mediators 490;
feedback on 470–1; rewarding 468–70
ideographs see descriptive statistics
ILO see International Labour Organization
improvement: and risk and opportunity management
model 17–9; ISO 14001 and ISO 9001
requirements 228; ISO 45001 requirements 21
IMSs see management systems integrated
incidence rate 67
incident 12, 18, 19
individual differences 141–2, 175–6; cultural factors
433–4; genetic factors 433; sources of 176–7
individual variability 142
industry and trade association guidance 27
information from manufacturers or suppliers 21
inhibitory system 181–2
INSHPO see International Network of Safety
and Health Practitioner Organisations
(INSHPO)
implementing management systems see management
systems
insurance 410–1
integrated management systems 234–6
integrating management systems see management
systems
intelligence 190–1, 419–23; nature of 421;
nature/nurture controversy 421–2; quotient
419–20; structure of 422–3
intelligence and aptitudes 142
interested parties 110–1
internal audit see audit
International Labour Organization (ILO) 21–2, 69
International Network of Safety and Health
Practitioner Organisations (INSHPO) 132
interval scale 251–2
interviews: coverage 86–7; getting people to talk
87–90; keeping an open mind 87; on and off site
77–8; recording 90–1; technique 78
investigation types 97; see also accident investigation
ISO management system standards 219
ISO 9000 228–30
ISO 9001 219–28
ISO 9004 230–2
ISO 14001 220–28
ISO 19011 372–88
ISO 45001 19–21, 41, 110–4
JND see just noticeable difference
Jurgens, H.W. 196–7
just noticeable difference 164
lack of management controls 85–6
lagging indicators see lagging performance indicators
lagging performance indicators 242–4
leadership 208–9
leadership and commitment 222
leadership and management style 208–9
leading indicators see leading performance indicators
leading performance indicators 242–4
legislation see UK legislation
likelihood 29–30
limit lines 282–6
logarithmic scale 252
long-term memory see perception
losses 9–10: as a measure of risk 71; causation
continuum 246; choosing 60; identifying 61;
measuring 62–3; monitoring 60, 99; non-reporting
checks 61–2; trend analysis 63–8; types of 58–60
McCormick, E.J. 480, 483
machines and work 192–3
Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT)
232–4, 297–303
management review see review
management style and leadership 208–9
management system standards see ISO management
system standards
management systems: certification of 218–9; sources
of 217–8; topics covered by 218; implementing
240–1; integrated (IMSs) 234–40; integrating 240
Managing for health and safety see HSG65
managing risk, reasons for 12–4
man–machine interface 485–8
Maslow, A.H. 416–7, 471
Maslow’s five classes of need 416–7
measures: numeric and non-numeric 250; objective
and subjective 246–7; quantitative and qualitative
248–50; reliability 247–8; validity 247–8
measuring: and risk and opportunity management
model 17–8; conformity 108–9; losses 62–3
mediation process 473
medicine 139
monitoring: active 242–5; and other inspection
activities 107–8; and risk and opportunity
management model 18; checklists 105–6; dealing
with nonconformities 108; failures in 106–7;
frequency of 106; ISO 14001 and ISO 9001
requirements 226–7; passive 243–5; proactive and
reactive 242–5; key losses 60; purposes 101–2;
scope 102–4; techniques 104–6
MORT see Management Oversight and Risk Tree
motivation 188–9, 416–9, 464–72; higher level
motivations 471–2
muscular fatigue see fatigue
mutuality of effects 142–3
Index 495National Examination Board in Occupational Safety
and Health (NEBOSH) 1
National or Scottish Vocational Qualification
(N/SVQ) 1, 128
nature/nurture controversy 421–2
near miss definition 12
NEBOSH see National Examination Board in
Occupational Safety and Health
needs and expectations: ISO 14001 and 9001 222;
ISO 45001 110–1
noise: and hearing 159; dose limitation methods 38;
effect on reliability 490
nominal scale 250
nonconformity: and risk and opportunity
management model 17–8; dealing with 108;
ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 requirements 228;
ISO 45001 requirements 21
non-numeric measures see measures
N/SVQ see National or Scottish Vocational
Qualification (N/SVQ)
numerical scales 250–3
numeric measures see measures
objective measures see measures
objectives 16; ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 requirements
223–4; ISO 45001 requirements 107
occupational health and safety (OH&S) 2
occupational health and safety management systems
(OH&SMSs) 19–22
occupational hygiene 139
off-line processing 459
OH&S see occupational health and safety
OH&S policy see policy
OH&SMSs see occupational health and safety
management systems
OHSAS 18001 see BS OHSAS 18001
OHSAS 18002 see BS OHSAS 18002
OHSAS 18004 see BS OHSAS 18004
operation 114
on-line processing 459
operational planning and control; ISO 14001 and
ISO 9001 requirements 225–6; ISO 45001
requirements 113–4
opportunity 3
ordinal scale 250–1
organisations: charts 202–6; conflict within 209–10;
culture 208; definition 200–1; roles 202; structures
201–2, 207–8
OSH 2001 21
participation 111, 419
passive monitoring see monitoring
pattern analysis see epidemiological analysis
PD 0018 24
PDCA see Plan–Do–Check–Act
perception: attention mechanism 443–6; expectancies
454–5; long-term memory 446–51; short-term
memory 451–3; stereotyping 455–6;
performance measurement see measurement
performance monitoring see monitoring
permits to work 52–5
personality 189–90; psychoanalytic theories 423–4;
trait theories 425–8
PHEA see Predictive Human Error Analysis
physiology 140
pie charts see descriptive statistics
Plan–Do–Check–Act 16, 220
planning: BS 18004 planning process 359–61;
ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 requirements 223–4;
ISO 45001 requirements 19–20
PAS 99 see Publicly Available Specification (PAS) 99
Poisson distribution 280–2
policy: ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 requirements 222;
ISO 45001 requirements 111; UK requirements
see UK legislation
Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA) 482–4
presentation of numerical data 253–90
preventive maintenance 11, 44
proactive monitoring see monitoring
probability 268–75; calculating 271–3; numerical
description of 270–1
procurement 111, 114
proprioception 170–3
psychoanalytic theories of personality 423
psychologists, categories of 138
psychology 137–8
Publicly Available Specification (PAS) 99 237–40
QHRA see Quantified Human Reliability Assessment
(QHRA)
qualitative measures see measures
qualitative risk rating 31–2
quantification 3
Quantified Human Reliability Assessment 485
quantitative measures see measures
RAS see reticular activating system
Rasmussen, J. 436–9
ratio scale 252
reactive maintenance 11
reactive monitoring see monitoring
Reason, J. 86, 437–8
records see documented information
reliability of measures see measures
reliability of humans see human reliability
residual risk see risk
resources: ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 requirements
224
496 Indexreticular activating system (RAS) 181–2
review: advanced techniques 389–93; categories of
117, 389; closing the feedback loop 117–8;
continual improvement 118–9; functions of
119–20; ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 requirements
227; review of reviews 393; ISO 45001
requirements 21
risk 2, 9–11, 31; absolute risk 12; acceptability of 32,
310–4; business risk 400; reasons for managing
12–4; residual risk 12; UK risk terms 45–7
risk assessment: advanced techniques 315–31;
management of 314–5; risk rating 28–32, 308–11;
terminology 304–7; UK legal requirements see UK
legislation
risk and opportunity assessment 23–34; checking legal
and other requirements 26; identifying hazards and
predicting hazardous events 27–8, 307–8;
inventory preparation 25–6; ISO 45001
requirements 111–3; other uses for 33–4; reasons
for using 291–3; recording 32–3; reviewing
assessments 33; reviewing incidents and
nonconformities 26–7
risk and opportunity management model 16–9
risk control measures 11, 36–45; choosing 43–4;
costing 408–10; effects on likelihood and severity
36; effects (other) 41–2; generating ideas for
339–46; hierarchies of 39–41; reliability of 337–9;
reliance on 336–7
risk management tools 411
risk reduction: measuring 335–6; methods of 37–9
rules see safety rules
SaaS see software as a service
safe systems of work 49–56
safe work procedures 49–52
safety committee see health and safety committee
safety culture 347–57
safety rules 55–6
Sanders, M.S. 480, 483
scientific management 464–7
scope: ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 221
separation methods 37
severity 30, 308–11
severity rate 69–70
SHL occupational personality questionnaire (OPQ32)
426, 428
short-term memory see perception
SIC see Standard Industry Classification (SIC)
side effects: and risk and opportunity management
model 17–8; monitoring and measuring 72; types
of 71–2
Simon, T. 419
Singleton, W.T. 482
Skinner, B.F. 465
SMART goals 418
smell (sense of) 161–4
society 210–2
sociology 140
software as a service (SaaS) 398
spin-offs: and risk and opportunity management
model 17–8; monitoring and measuring 72; types
of 71–2
Standard Industry Classification (SIC) 69
Statutory Rules (SRs) 4
stereotyping see perception
stimulus–response 463
stress 184–6
subjective measures see measures
Successful health and safety management see HSG65
summary statistics: frequency distributions 261;
mean (arithmetic) 261–3; median 265–7; mode
267–8; range 263; ranking 260; standard deviation
263–5
support: ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 requirements
224–5
Swain, A.D. 337
Swiss Cheese Model 86
SWOT analysis 331–3
systems failure analysis 346–7
systems thinking 340–6
tables see descriptive statistics
TAFEI see task analysis for error identification
task analysis: for error identification (TAFIE) 481–2;
for health and safety 52; general 50–2
taste (sense of) 161–4
Taylor, F.W. 201
Taylorism see scientific management
TLC see total loss control
top management 3, 21
total loss control (TLC) 234
total quality management (TQM) 234–6
touch (sense of) 165–7
TQM see total quality management
training: basic principles 125–6; behavioural
objectives 126–7; performance criteria 127;
pre-course assessment 128; range statements 127;
training needs analysis 127–8; UK legal
requirements see UK legislation
trait theories of personality 425–8
trend analysis: loss data 63–8; statistical techniques
277–286
UK accident data 70
UK legislation 4; communication 125; competence
133; emergency planning 371; health and safety
policy 112; incident reporting 94–7; risk
assessment 34; training 133
Index 497unsafe act 84–5
unsafe condition 84
validity of measures see measures
vision see eye
Vroom, V.H. 417–8
Vroom’s expectancy theory 417–8
Waring, A. 347
workers 110
work-related upper limb disorders (WRULDs)
38
World Health Organization (WHO) 69
WRULDs see work-related upper limb disorders
(WRULDs)


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