كتاب Occupational Safety and Health Simplified for the Industrial Workplace
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Occupational Safety and Health Simplified for the Industrial Workplace

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Occupational Safety and Health Simplified for the Industrial Workplace    كتاب Occupational Safety and Health Simplified for the Industrial Workplace  Emptyالجمعة 29 ديسمبر 2023, 11:51 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Occupational Safety and Health Simplified for the Industrial Workplace
Frank R. Spellman

كتاب Occupational Safety and Health Simplified for the Industrial Workplace  O_s_a_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Contents
Introduction vii
1 Occupational Safety and Health Practice 1
2 Safety and Health Terminology and Hispanic Outreach 25
3 Regulatory Requirements 49
4 Occupational Safety and Health Management 61
5 Industrial Hygiene Concepts—Including Ventilation and Noise Controls 85
6 Worker Right-To-Know 111
7 Emergency Response and Process Safety 129
8 Industrial Facility Design 157
9 Ergonomics and Manual Lifting 193
10 Toxic Substances and Hazardous Wastes 209
11 Noise Control 245
12 Fire, Welding, and Hot-Work Safety 257
13 PPE, First Aid, and Thermal Hazards 277
14 Confined Space Entry 301
15 Lockout/Tagout 333
16 Electrical Safety 339
17 Fall Protection 349
18 Pressure Vessel Safety 357
19 Rigging and Material Handling Safety 367
20 Radiation Safety 389
21 Machine Guarding 395
22 Worksite Security 411
23 Violence in the Industrial Workplace 421
24 Recordkeeping 435
Appendix: Sample Confined Space Certification Exam 441
Index 451
About the Author 471
Index
abatement period, 27
absolute pressure (psia), 360
absorption, 27, 91, 219, 225
acceptable entry conditions, 304
acceptable lift (AL), 204–5
acceptable risk, 219
accident analysis, 27
accident investigation: accident reporting,
73–74; in analytical approach to hazard
avoidance, 69–74; benefits, 74; company
policy, 73; Employer’s First Report
of Accident, 73–74; fact-oriented, 72;
process, 72–74; purpose, 72; reducing
repetition, 72
accident prevention, 3–5, 27, 71
accidents, 26–27, 70, 73–74, 152
accommodation, 27
accumulator, 360
ACGIH. See American Conference of
Governmental Industrial Hygienists
acoustics, 27
action level, 28
acts of nature, 71
acute, 28, 219
acute toxicity, 28
adjustable guards, 400
administrative controls: in back injury
prevention, 201–5; control methods,
105–8; housekeeping practices, 107;
noise control, 254; PEL and, 106–7;
TLV and, 106–7; worker training and
awareness, 108
adsorption, 28
AED. See Automated External Defibrillator
aerosols, 28, 226, 286
affected employee, 334–35
Affordable Care Act (Obamacare), 16
Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease
Registry (ATSDR), 216
AIHA. See American Industrial Hygiene
Association
air contamination, 28
air dose, 391
Airline Hose Mask systems, 285
airline respirators, 287–88
air pollution, 28, 212
air-purifying respirators, 283
air sampling, 28
air-supplying respirators, 283
alkaloid, 219
allergens, 28
Alpaugh, E. L., 295
AL. See acceptable lift
ambient, 28
American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 90, 94,
106, 113, 228
American Gas Association, 360
American Industrial Hygiene Association
(AIHA), 34, 85
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), 90, 100, 160; on emergency
eyewash/showers, 166; machine hazard
warnings, 407–8, 408; Practice for Office
Lighting, 161; website, 332, 392
American Petroleum Institute (API), 363452 Index
American Red Cross, 293
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME), 360, 365, 375; Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code, 359, 362, 363
Ames assay, 219
analytical approach to hazard avoidance:
accident investigation, 70–74; hazard
analysis, 68–69; hazard assessment, 70
Anderson, C. K., 200
anesthetic, 219
angle of loading, 369
animal toxins, 221, 222
ANSI. See American National Standards
Institute
anthrax, 221–22
anti-fatigue mats, 206
API. See American Petroleum Institute
aprons, 280
arc welding, 269–70
Army Corps of Engineers, U.S., 136
arsenic, 92, 235; CCA, 211; changing form,
212; exposure, 212, 215; ingesting, 216;
naturally occurring, 210
asbestos, 28, 86, 92, 202, 222, 286
asbestosis, 34, 86, 92, 222
ASME. See American Society of Mechanical
Engineers
asphyxiation, 28, 222, 303, 306, 308, 323
ASSE Dictionary of Safety Terms, 27
atmosphere: defined, 28; explosive, 30, 265;
hazardous, 305; oxygen deficient, 36,
306; oxygen enriched, 306; stratified,
314, 328
atmospheric testing: confined space entry,
314, 327–29; duration, 328; evaluation
testing, 327–28; instrument calibration,
329; OSHA and, 328–29; procedures,
327–28; for stratified atmospheres, 328;
training, 328; verification testing, 328
at-risk behaviors, 75
ATSDR. See Agency for Toxic Substances
& Disease Registry
attendant, 304, 321–22
attenuation, 29, 249
audible range, 29, 249
audiogram, 29, 249
audiologist, 249
audiometric testing, 29, 248–50, 252–54
authorized employee, 335
authorized entrant, 304
authorized person, 29
auto-ignition temperature, 29
Automated External Defibrillator (AED),
293–94
avian influenza, 222
awareness: administrative controls, 108;
barriers, 403; first aid, 293–94; hazardous
waste, 209; OSH Act raising, 86;
worker, 108
Ayoub, M., 201
background checks, 412
background noise, 249
back injuries: causes of, 198–99; controlling
on-the-job, 199–201; statistics, 197–98.
See also material handling
back injury prevention, 197–99;
administrative controls, 201–5;
engineering controls, 203–5;
recommended lifting procedures, 203;
selection and, 201–2; training and, 203
baghouse, 29
banana oil, 286
Bardo, Robert, 422
barriers, 278, 311, 403
baseline audiogram, 249
baseline data, 29
basket hitch, 369
beams, 162–63, 163
behavior-based management models, 29;
ABC principles of observation, 77;
behavior modification theory and, 75–76;
extinction, 76; for hazard avoidance,
75–77; human factors and, 77; identifying
at-risk behaviors, 75; linked steps, 76;
negative and positive reinforcement, 76;
success and disadvantages, 77
behavior modification theory, 75–76
bel, 29
benchmarking: defined, 29; in hazard
avoidance, 77–79; process, 78, 79; results
and targets, 78; steps, 79
bending forces, 372
best-in-class programs, 77
Bhopal gas tragedy, 4–5, 111–13, 137
bioactive substances, 213
bioassay, 219
biohazard, 29
biological aerosols, 29
biological stressors, 89Index 453
biomechanical approaches to material
handling, 199–201, 200
blanking and blinding, 304
blasting abrasive, 286
blocks, 403
bloodborne pathogens, 222, 293
Bloodborne Pathogens and Needlestick
Prevention, 222
BOCA. See Building Officials and Code
Administrators
boiler code, 29
boots, 280
botulism, 222
Boyle’s Law, 29
brainstorming, 75
Brauer, R. L., 200, 258, 398
breathing resistance, 286
bridle wire rope sling, 369
briefing sessions, 18–19
Bugbee, P., 257
Building Officials and Code Administrators
(BOCA), 159
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 199, 302,
353, 421
Bush, George W., 194–95
CAAA. See Clean Air Act Amendments
cable laid endless sling-mechanical joint, 369
cable laid rope, 369
cable laid rope sling-mechanical joint, 369
cadmium, 92, 235, 268, 286, 306
Caillet, R., 199
Caligula, 211
calorie, 296
capable of being locked out, 335
capacitance grounds, 344
carbon monoxide, 28, 222, 230, 287–88, 314
carcinogens, 29, 219, 228–29
cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 25,
293–94, 324
cardiotoxic effects, 227
carelessness, 350, 395
carpal tunnel syndrome, 29
Carson, R., 206, 209, 230, 231
Caruey, A., 334
casual factor, 30
catalyst, 29, 235
catastrophe, 30, 130, 137
Catteral, M. J., 200
caution, 21–22
CCA. See copper chromate arsenate
CCPS. See Center for Chemical Process
Safety
CDC. See Centers for Disease Control
Census for Fatal Occupation Injury
Statistics, 421
Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS),
68, 143
Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 216, 421
central nervous system (CNC), 223–24, 227
CERCLA. See Comprehensive
Environmental Response, Compensation,
and Liabilities Act of 1980
Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH), 328
Certified Safety Professional (CSP), 328
CFR. See Code of Federal Regulations
Chapanis, A., 194
Charles’s Law, 30
chemical, 125
chemical cartridge respirators, 287
chemical change, 30
chemical engineering exposure, 4
chemical hazards, 30, 286
Chemical Hygiene Plan, 35
chemical name, 125
chemical spill, 30
chemical stressors, 89
chemical suits, 280
Chernobyl nuclear power disaster, 4–5, 389.
See also radiation safety
choker, 369
choker hitch, 369
chronic, 30, 219
CIH. See Certified Industrial Hygienist
circuit breakers, 342
civil engineering exposure, 3
Claudius, 211
Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), 137
cleaning respirators, 286
clothing: aprons, coveralls, gloves, 280;
checklist, 190; machine guarding and,
409; PPE, 108, 268
CNCI. See cyanogens chloride
CNC. See central nervous system
coating, 369
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 28, 35
coefficient of friction, 30
cold hazards, 298
cold stress, 298
collective leadership style, 65454 Index
columns, 164–65
combustible gas indicator, 30
combustible liquids, 30, 125, 261–62
combustibles, 184–85, 263–65
combustion, 30
commercial chemical products, 235–36
common law, 54
common name, 125
company policy, 73, 355. See also safety
policy
competent person, 30
Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liabilities
Act of 1980 (CERCLA), 238. See
also Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act
compressed gas, 125
compression forces, 372
conduction, 294
confined space entry: alternative protection
methods, 325–27; assignment of on-site
personnel, 321–22; atmospheric testing,
314, 327–29; attendance roster, 317;
attendant duties, 321–22; authorized
entrants’ duties, 321; barriers and
shields, 311; certification exam, 319–20;
Confined Space Entry Standard, 18;
entry supervisor duties, 322; equipment
testing and monitoring, 309–10; fatalities,
301–2; hierarchy of permit-required
confined space entry, 325–27; ladders,
311–12; lighting, 310–11; non-entry
rescue, 324–25; OSHA audit items,
329–31; OSHA’s Confined Space
Entry Program, 302–7, 303; overview,
301–2; permit-required written program,
308–13; permit requirements, 316; permit
system, 315–16; PPE, 310; pre-entry
requirements, 314–15; rescue equipment,
312–13; rescue services, 323–24; rescue
services by outside contractors, 324;
terms and definitions, 304–7; training,
316–21; unauthorized entry and, 314;
ventilating equipment, 310; workplace
evaluation, 307–8
confined spaces: checklist, 181–82; defined,
30, 304; hot work in, 272; PPE and, 268;
welding, 265–66
conflict resolution, 429
containers, 125; cutting used, 265; portable,
126; stationary, 127
containment, 30
contingency plan, 30
continuous lifting, 204
contractor training: briefing sessions
and, 18–19; case study, 18; hostcontractor safety interface, 17–20;
OSHA compliance and, 16–17; outside
contractor safety briefing roster, 19, 20;
profit and, 15–16; safety inspections and,
20; stopping operations and, 20
control methods: administrative controls,
105–8; engineering, 94; industrial
hygiene, 93–108; industrial noise control,
100–105; ventilation, 94–100
controls: environmental controls checklist,
182–84; pressure vessel safety, 361;
radiation safety, 392, 393; safety,
400–401; for workplace violence,
430–32; worksite security, 414. See also
administrative controls; engineering
controls
convection, 294
copper chromate arsenate (CCA), 211
corrosive material, 30, 234
Cote, A., 257
cots, 280
cotton dust, 222
CoVan, J., 134
CPR. See cardio-pulmonary resuscitation
criterion sound level, 249
critical or buckling load, 164
cross rod, 369
CSP. See Certified Safety Professional
Cullen, L., 56
cumulative injury, 31
cumulative trauma, 31
customers, 80
custom houses, 11
cyanide, 219–20, 223, 236
cyanogens chloride (CNCI), 223
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures, 31
danger: IDLH, 283, 287, 306, 308; pressure
vessel safety and, 357–58; signal word,
21–22
data protection, 417–18
Dateline, 56–57
decibel (dB), 31, 249
decontamination, 31
Delaney Clause, 221
density, 31Index 455
Department of Health and Human Services,
U.S., 210
Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 34
Department of Labor, U.S., 334
Department of Transportation (DOT):
employee training and, 12; on hazardous
material, 232–33
depressurizing valve, 363
dermal contact, 219
dermatitis, 31
designated, 369
design load, 31
devices: electromechanical sensing, 401;
energy isolating device, 335–36;
feeding and ejection, 398, 402; gates,
402; lockout, 336; machine guarding,
400–402; overcurrent, 341; personal
monitoring, 391; personal protective,
250; photoelectric sensing, 400; pointof-operation, 398; presence sensing, 400;
pullback, 401; radiofrequency sensing,
400–401; restraint, 401; safety trip, 401;
switching, 342; tagout, 336; temperature
limit, 364; two-hand control, 401;
two-hand trip, 402
DHS. See Department of Homeland Security
dike, 31
dilute, 31
dilution ventilation, 99–100
dioxin (TCDD), 220
discharge, 364
distribution, 225, 288
distribution of stress, 162
dose, 31, 217, 391
dose response, 217, 218
dosimeter, 31
DOT. See Department of Transportation
double block and bleed, 304
double hearing protection, 249–50
dual capacity doctrine, 56
ducts, 265
dusts, 31, 90, 93, 222, 226, 286
dynamic pressure, 360
ear plugs, 279
education, 13, 248, 253. See also training
88:10:2 ratio, 66–67
elastic buckling, 165
elastic stability, 165
electrical circuits, 347
electrical engineering exposure, 4
electrical grounding, 31, 345
“Electrical Grounding: Safe or Hazardous”
(Lee), 345
electrical safety: checklist, 186–88; circuit
breakers, 342; control of electrical
hazards, 341–42; fuses, 341–42;
grounding and bonding, 342–47, 343;
interlocks, 342; lockouts, 342; lowvoltage systems installation, 341; OSHA
and, 340; overcurrent devices, 341; over
speed switch, 342; overview, 339–40;
precautions for electrical circuits, 347;
program elements, 340; switching
devices, 342; thermal cutout, 342
electrolytes, 297
electromechanical sensing devices, 401
elephant trunk, 310
elevated falls, 354
Ellis, J. L., 349, 354
emergency eyewash/showers, 166
emergency lighting, 161
emergency plan, 31
emergency response: bottom line, 153–54;
defined, 31, 133–34; emergency response
plan, 132–36, 135, 136; OSHA and,
131–36; overview, 129–31; PSM and,
137–45; RMP and, 145–53
emergency response plan, 30, 132–36,
135, 136
employee participation, 141
employee training: acknowledgment of
training and understanding statement,
14, 15; for all, 13; employee input, 15;
frequency, 13–14; needs assessment,
13; New Employee Safety and
Health Orientation Training, 13–14;
OSHA, DOT, EPA and, 12; PSQ, 14;
videotaping, 15; worker right-to-know,
123
employers: compensation fraud, 57;
Employer’s First Report of Accident,
73–74; OSH Act requirements, 6; posting
information checklist, 168
empowerment, 65
energized, 31, 335
energy: defined, 32; KE, 32, 35; PE, 32;
stored pressure, 360; zero energy state,
38, 333
energy isolating device, 335–36
energy isolation, 333
energy source, 336456 Index
enforcement, 13; approach to hazard
avoidance, 65–66; machine guarding,
404–5; OSH Act, 59
engineering, 13; chemical engineering
exposure, 4; civil engineering exposure,
3; definition, 26, 32; environmental
engineering exposure, 4; hazard
avoidance, 66–67; human factor, 34;
industrial engineering exposure, 3
engineering controls: in back injury
prevention, 203–5; defined, 32; in
industrial hygiene, 94; industrial noise
control, 103–4; noise control, 254
engineering rigging concepts: determining
safety factor, 372; force vector quantities,
373; inclined plane, 380, 380–82, 381;
materials and principles of mechanics,
382; parallelogram law, 376; resolution
of forces, 371–75; for rigging safety,
370–82; slings, 375–79; triangle law,
373, 374
English markings, 22
engulfment, 304
entry, 304–5; primary routes of entry, 126;
routes of entry, 219. See also confined
space entry
entry permit, 305
entry supervisor, 305
environmental engineering exposure, 4
environmental heat, 295
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
22, 113; CAAA duties, 137; employee
training and, 12; on hazardous substances,
233; on hazardous waste, 230, 233–34;
listed hazardous waste, 235–36;
mandatory modeling parameters, 147–48;
on pesticides, 220; PPCPs and, 215; RMP
and, 134, 139, 145–46
Epidemiological Theory, 32
EP Toxicity Test. See extraction procedure
equipment: checklist, 173–74; confined
space entry, 309–10, 312–13; equipment
grounds, 344–45; oxyacetylene, 271;
protection, 417–18; rescue, 312–13;
retrieval, 313; rigging safety, 385;
worksite security, 414. See also personal
protective equipment
equivalent entity, 369
ergonomics: back injury prevention,
197–99, 201–6; controlling on-the-job
back injuries, 199–201; defined, 32;
final thoughts, 206; lower back pain
and standing, 206; OSHA and, 193–95;
overview, 193–96; program elements,
195, 196–97; stressors, 89
ergonomics program elements, 195;
evaluation, 197; hazard identification,
prevention, control, 196; management
commitment and employee participation,
196; medical management, 196–97;
training, 197
etiology, 32
evaporative cooling, 296
exclusive remedy, 56
excretion, 214, 226
exhaust ventilation, 96
explosions, 31, 135–38, 145, 226, 261, 357
explosives, 137–39, 160, 232; atmospheres,
265; defined, 125; LEL, 35;
manufacturing, 161; UEL, 38
exposure, 32, 125, 219
exposure ceiling, 32
extinction, 76
extraction procedure (EP Toxicity Test), 234
extremely hazardous substances, 233
face shields, 279
facility design, 206, 278; codes and
standards, 159–60; emergency eyewash/
showers, 166; fatality incident, 157; high
hazard potential work areas, 161–62;
illumination, 161; ladders, 165; loadbearing components, 162–65; minimum
levels for industrial lighting, 161;
personal and sanitation facilities, 165–66;
plant layout, 160; safety inspection
checklist, 166–90; workplace health and
safety, 157–59
facility visibility, 416
failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA),
69, 145
fall arresting system, 32
fall protection: causes of falls, 349; defining
problem, 350–54; elevated falls and,
354; factors at work in fall, 351–52;
friction, momentum, gravity and, 351–52;
measures, 354–55; overview, 349–50;
policy, 355; program elements, 350; slips
and, 352–53; stair falls and, 353–54; trips
and, 353Index 457
fatalities, 395; confined space entry,
301–2; facility design, 157; industrial
hygiene, 85; occupational safety and
health practices, 1; PPE, 277; regulatory
requirements, 49; safety and health
management, 61; safety and health
terminology, 25
fault tree analysis, 69, 145
f/cc. See fiber per cubic centimeter
FDA. See Food and Drug Administration
Federal Emergency Management Agency
(FEMA), 136
feeding and ejection devices, 398, 402
FEMA. See Federal Emergency Management
Agency
fencing, 416
Ferry, Ted, 49–54, 74, 395, 396, 435
FEV1. See forced expiratory volume
fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc), 28
fire: defined, 32; Fire Emergency Plan,
260–61; Fire Prevention Plan, 259–60;
fire safety, 258; fire triangle, 258, 259;
flammable and combustible liquids,
261–62; hazards, 263; OSHA and fire
safety, 258–59; overview, 257; prevention
and control, 259–61; prevention and
control checklist, 168–69; protection
program, 259; temperature, fuel, oxygen
for, 258, 259; welding safety, 263–66.
See also heat
fire extinguishers, 261, 263, 313
fire watch: hot work, 273–74; welding,
263–64
first aid: AED and, 293–94; awareness
and training, 293–94; first aid kits, 313;
overview, 292; services, 293
fit-testing: defined, 286; facial hair and,
290–91; initial and annual, 290; for
leakage, 290; negative pressure check
procedure, 290; positive pressure check
procedure, 290; pre-use self-testing, 290;
in respiratory protection, 289–91
fixed guards, 399
flammable aerosol, 125
flammable gas, 125
flammable liquids, 32, 261–62
flammable solid, 125
flash point, 32, 126
floods, 71, 135
floors, 163–64, 164, 264
FMEA. See failure mode and effect analysis
Food Additives Amendment, 221
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 221
foodborne illnesses, 223
foot-candle, 32
foot rails, 206
footwear, 206, 280
force: parallelogram, 382; resolution of,
371–75; tensile, compression, torsional,
bending, 372; vector quantities, 373
forced expiratory volume (FEV1), 286, 291
forced vital capacity (FVC), 286, 291
forklifts checklist, 179–80
Foster, Jodi, 422
frangible discs, 364
frequency, 250, 400–401
friction, 30, 351–52
frostbite, 298
frostnip, 298
full-body harness, 313
fumes, 32, 93, 286
fungi, 223
furans, 220
fuses, 341–42
FVC. See forced vital capacity
GAO. See General Accounting Office
gas, 287; Bhopal gas tragedy, 4–5, 111–13,
137; characteristics, 226; combustible
gas indicator, 30; defined, 32; flammable
gas, 125; industrial health hazard, 93;
Institute, West Virginia, gas spill, 5, 113;
“Standards of Acceptable Concentrations
of Toxic Dusts and Gases,” 90
Gasaway, D. C., 245–46
gas welding, 270–71
gate devices, 402
gathering ring, 370
gauge pressure (psig), 360
Geller, E. Scott, 75
General Accounting Office (GAO), 193
general ventilation, 99–100
GFCI. See ground-fault circuit interrupter
The Ghost in the Looking Glass
(Walkley), 11
GHS. See Globally Harmonized System
Giachino, J., 271
Gifford, Kathy Lee, 12
Globally Harmonized System (GHS):
HazCom alignment, 113–15; signal458 Index
words and, 21–22; worker right-to-know
communication, 115–17
gloves, 280
Goetsch, D. L., 157
goggles, 267, 267–68, 279
gravity, 351–52
grounded system, 33
ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI), 33,
311, 346, 346
grounding and bonding: capacitance grounds,
343; electrical safety, 342–47, 343;
equipment grounds, 344–45; GFCI, 346,
346; grounding and grounded wire, 343;
reactive grounds, 343; requirements, 345;
resonant grounds, 343; solid grounds,
343; static electricity, 346; system
ground, 343; voltage to ground, 343–44
growth industries, 3
guards: adjustable, 400; fixed, 399;
interlocked, 399–400; for machine
guarding, 399–400; point-of-operation,
398; self-adjusting, 400; welding, 263
Haddon, W., Jr., 27
Hammer, Willie, 70–72, 159, 339, 342, 359
Hammurabi, 159, 160
handle eye, 369
handles, 369
hand shields, 266–67
hand tools, 403
hantaviruses, 223
harassment, 425
hardhats, 66, 109, 279. See also helmets
harm, 1, 418
Hawthorne Effect, 75
Hazard, W. G., 98
hazard analysis, 69; in analytical approach
to hazard avoidance, 68–69; defined, 33;
fault tree analysis, 69; FMEA, 69; what-if
checklist, 68–69; what-if questions, 68
hazard assessment: in analytical approach to
hazard avoidance, 70; defined, 33; PPE
and, 281–82; RMP and, 146–47
hazard avoidance: analytical approach,
68–75; behavior-based models for,
75–77; benchmarking, 77–79, 78,
79; collective leadership style, 65;
controlling, 63; dealing with unknown,
66; directing, 63; enforcement approach,
65–66; engineering approach, 66–67;
management aspects, 62–65; organizing,
63; participative management, 64;
planning, 63; PPE for, 67; psychological
approach, 66; right way of, 62–65; TQM
and, 79–80
hazard communication program, 123,
124–25
Hazard Communication Standard (HazCom),
35; audit items, 127–28; changes
and worker right-to-know, 117–20;
classification under, 117–18; defined,
33; definition of terms, 125–27; GHS
alignment, 113–15; labels, 118, 119,
120, 124, 126; occupational safety and
health professionals and, 120–25; OSHA
mandate, 113–14; phase-in period,
116, 116–17; SDS requirement,
12, 114
hazard control, 33
hazard-free work places, 5
hazard identification, 33
Hazard Operability Analysis (HAZOP), 69;
defined, 33; PSM and, 144–45
hazardous atmosphere, 305
hazardous chemical inventory list, 126
hazardous chemicals, 113, 126
hazardous material (HazMat): checklist,
185–86; defined, 33; DOT on, 232–33;
hazardous waste, 232–33; release of, 133;
responders, 130–31; teams, 136
Hazardous Material Identification System
(HMIS), 120
hazardous substances: defined, 33; EPA and
OSHA on, 233; hazardous waste,
233, 234
hazardous waste: America as throwaway
society, 231–32; awareness of, 209;
commercial chemical products, 235–36;
defined, 33; EPA list, 235–36; EPA
on, 230, 233–34; extremely hazardous
substances, 233; handling, 230–31;
hazardous chemicals, 233; hazardous
material, 232–33; hazardous substances,
233, 234; ignitability, corrosive, reactive,
toxicity, 234; legislation, 236–38;
nonspecific source wastes, 235; origins,
236; OSHA’s hazardous waste standard,
238–39; overview, 233–35; RCRA on,
237–38; safety program, 239–41, 240;
specific source wastes, 235Index 459
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency
Response (HAZWOPER), 133
hazards, 219; action, 398–99; chemical, 30,
286; cold, 298; defined, 33; engineeringout, 341; fire, 263; health, 126; industrial
health, 92–93; PPE and, 277; workplace
violence checklist, 432–33. See also
thermal hazards
hazard statement, 118
hazard warning, 126
HazCom. See Hazard Communication
Standard
HazMat. See hazardous material
HAZOP. See Hazard Operability Analysis
HAZWOPER. See Hazardous Waste
Operations and Emergency Response
HCN. See hydrogen cyanide
health, 51; Department of Health and
Human Services, U.S., 210; hazards, 126;
IDLH, 283, 287, 306, 308; industrial
hazards, 92–93; New Employee Safety
and Health Orientation Training, 13–14;
ventilation and health protection, 268–69;
workplace, 157–59. See also National
Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health; Occupational Safety and Health
Act; Occupational Safety and Health
Administration; occupational safety and
health practices; occupational safety
and health professional; safety and
health management; safety and health
terminology
hearing acuity tests, 202
hearing conservation: defined, 33; Hearing
Conservation Record, 250; OSHA
Hearing Conservation Standard, 247–51;
program, 246
hearing loss, 245
hearing protection, 252–53
heat: body’s response to, 295–96; cramps,
297; defined, 296; disorders, 296–97;
environmental, 295; exhaustion, 297;
fatigue, 297; metabolic, 35, 294–95, 296;
radiant, 36, 295; rashes, 297; stress, 295;
terms and definitions, 296
heatstroke, 33
heavy metals, 220
HEHS, 193–94
Heinrich, H. W., 66–67
helmets, 266–67, 279
hematoxic effects, 227
Henry, K., 411
hepatotoxic effects, 227
hertz (Hz), 250
high-radiation area, 391
Hinckley, John, Jr., 422
Hispanic outreach: English to Spanish
dictionary, 40–47; examples, 40; OSHA
priority, 38; OSHA Workplace Poster, 39;
tools, 38
hitch, 369
HMIS. See Hazardous Material Identification
System
Homeland Security, 34
Hood, Thomas, 12
hot tap, 336
hot work: checklist, 175–77; in confined
spaces, 272; defined, 34; fire watch
requirements, 273–74; overview, 257,
271–72; permit procedure, 271–73, 273,
305; permits, 140, 142. See also fire;
welding
human factor engineering, 34
hurricanes, 71
hydrogen cyanide (HCN), 223
hypothermia, 298
Hz. See hertz
Iacocca, Lee, 79
IAQ. See Indoor Air Quality
IARC. See International Agency for
Research on Cancer
ICRP. See International Commission on
Radiological Protection
IDLH. See Immediately Dangerous to Life
or Health
ignitability, 234
ignition temperature, 34
IH. See industrial hygienist
illumination, 32, 34, 161
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health
(IDLH), 283, 287, 306, 308
immediate use, 126
immune system, 227
impulse noise, 34
inclined plane, 380, 380–82, 381
individual susceptibility, 218
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), 34
industrial engineering exposure, 3
industrial health hazards, 92–93460 Index
industrial hygiene: control methods,
93–108; defined, 34; fatality incident,
85; industrial health hazards and, 92–93;
industrial toxicology and, 90–92;
organization size and type, 87; overview,
85–89; PPE, 108–9; workplace stressors
and, 88–89
industrial hygienist (IH), 66, 86–88, 90
industrial noise control: as control method,
100–105; daily noise dose, 103;
determining noise levels, 100–103;
engineering controls, 103–4; permissible
noise exposures, 101, 102; vibration
control, 104–5
industrial toxicology: exposure and, 91;
industrial hygiene and, 90–92; ingestion,
injection, absorption, inhalation, 91;
overexposure effects, 92; short- and longterm effects, 92; threshold levels and, 90;
toxicity and, 90
Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of
Recommended Practice, 94
inerting, 306, 309
infrared radiation, 390–91
ingestion, 34, 91, 126, 165, 216
injuries, 34; Census for Fatal Occupation
Injury Statistics, 421; cumulative, 31;
definition, 26; Injuries Resulting From
Falls on Stairs, 353; Log and Summary
of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 35;
machine-related, 397; maiming, 395; RSI,
197. See also back injuries; back injury
prevention
insecticides, 219, 224
inspections: contractor training and,
20; facility design, 166–90; machine
guarding, 404–5; pressure vessel safety,
365; recordkeeping, 439; regulatory
requirements, 51–53; respirators, 288–89;
rigging safety, 385–86
Institute, West Virginia, gas spill, 5, 113
interlocked guards, 399–400
interlocks, 34, 342
International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC), 113, 228
International Commission on Radiological
Protection (ICRP), 230
ionizing radiation, 34, 391–92, 393
irritants, 34, 224
irritant smoke, 287, 290. See also stannic
oxychloride
isolation, 88, 94, 254, 306, 333
JHA. See Job Hazard Analysis
jigs, 403
job hazard analysis, 34
Job Hazard Analysis (JHA), 75
John Wayne syndrome, 302
Kaliokin, Alex, 202
KCN. See potassium cyanide
Kelleher, M. D., 421–25
KE. See kinetic energy
Keyserling, W. M., 205
kinetic energy (KE), 32, 35
kneeling pads, 280
Kohr, R. L., 349
labels: defined, 126; HazCom, 118, 119, 120,
124, 126; NFPA Hazardous Chemical
Label, 126
Laboratory Safety Standard, 35
ladders, 165, 311–12; checklist, 172–73
LD50/LC50. See Lethal Dose 50/Lethal
Concentration 50
lead toxicity, 92, 211–12
Lee, R. H., 345
Legionnaires’ disease, 223
LEL. See lower explosive limit
LEPCs. See Local Emergency Planning
Committees
Lethal Dose 50/Lethal Concentration 50
(LD50/LC50), 218
LFL. See Lower Flammable Limit
lighting, 161, 161, 310–11
light radiation, 390–91
lightsticks, 311
line breaking, 306
links, 369, 370
load-bearing components: beams, 162–63,
163; columns, 164–65; distribution of
stress, 162; in facility design, 162–65;
floors, 163–64, 164
Local Emergency Planning Committees
(LEPCs), 136
local exhaust ventilation, 98–99, 99
lockout, 336
lockout device, 336Index 461
lockout/tagout procedure: checklist,
169–70; defined, 35; electrical safety,
342; elements, 335; informing outside
contractors, 338; machine guarding, 409;
overview, 333–34; sample, 336–38; terms
and definitions, 334–36; when authorized
employee is absent, 337–38
Log and Summary of Occupational Injuries
and Illnesses, 35
loss, 35, 245
lower back pain, 206
lower explosive limit (LEL), 35
Lower Flammable Limit (LFL), 259
low-voltage systems installation, 341
machine guarding: accessories, 403;
awareness barriers, 403; basics of,
396–99; checklist, 174–75, 405–7;
clothing and jewelry and, 409; common
methods, 399–403; devices, 400–402;
feeding and ejection devices, 398, 402;
guards, 399–400; hand tools, 403; by
location and distance, 402–3; lockout/
tagout, 409; machine hazard warnings,
407–8, 408; machine-related injuries,
397; mechanical motion and action
hazards, 398–99; overview, 395; pointof-operation devices, 398; point-ofoperation guards, 398; program elements,
397; purpose of, 396; push sticks,
blocks, jigs, 403; required types, 398;
safeguarding defined, 396, 398; safe work
practices, 403–4; shields, 403; spreaders,
403; training, enforcement, inspections,
404–5
machine hazard warnings, 407–8, 408
maiming injuries, 395
Management Information Systems (MIS),
417–18
manometer, 97
Mansdorf, S. Z., 277, 357
manual lifting, 198; AL and MPL, 204–95;
occasional and continuous, 204;
recommended procedures, 203; Work
Practices Guide for Manual Lifting, 201,
204–5
Manuele, F. A., 74
master link, 370
Material Data Safety Sheet (MDSS), 325
material handling: biomechanical
approaches, 199–201, 200; checklist,
189–90; NIOSH, 199; physiological
approach, 201;
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), 35
Mathis, T., 75
maximum acceptable weight of load
(MAWL), 201
maximum permissible lift (MPL), 204–5
McElroy, F. E., 262
McSween T., 75, 77
means of retrieval, 313
mechanical coupling link, 370
mechanical state, 333
medical emergencies, 132
medical monitoring, 35
medical pathology, 250
medical records, 439–40
medical surveillance, 291
mercuric nitrate, 223
mesothelioma, 92, 222
metabolic heat, 35, 294–95, 296
metabolism, 225–26, 295, 297
metal mesh, 369
methyl alcohol, 223
methylene chloride, 223
methyl isocyanate (MIC), 223
Meyer, Eugene, 389
microwave radiation, 390–91
MIC. See methyl isocyanate
Minter, J. G., 145
MIS. See Management Information Systems
mists, 35, 93, 287
Mital, A., 201
mixture, 31, 121, 126
molds, 35, 223
momentum, 351–52
monitoring: equipment testing and, 309–10;
medical, 35; noise levels, 247, 251–52;
personal monitoring devices, 391
Moretz, S., 238
MPL. See maximum permissible lift
MSDs. See musculoskeletal disorders
MSDS. See Material Data Safety Sheet;
Material Safety Data Sheet
musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), 40, 193,
195
mutagens, 219, 228–29
mycotoxins, 35462 Index
NaCN. See sodium cyanide
National Coalition on Ergonomics (NCE),
195–96
National Electric Code (NEC), 150,
269–70, 340
National Fire Prevention Code, 159
National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA), 120, 160, 258
National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health (NIOSH), 28, 113; on
carcinogens, 228; material handling and,
199; Occupational Health Guidelines
for Health Hazards, 92; Work Practices
Guide for Manual Lifting, 201, 204–5
National Priorities List (NPL), 238
National Safety Council (NSC), 199, 258,
302, 333, 349, 367
natural disasters, 34, 71, 135
NCE. See National Coalition on Ergonomics
NEC. See National Electric Code
negative consequences/punishment, 76
negative pressure check procedure, 290
negative reinforcement, 76
NEL. See no effect level
nephrotoxic effects, 227
Nero, 211
Newton’s second law of motion, 372
NFPA Hazardous Chemical Label, 126
NFPA. See National Fire Protection
Association
NIOSH. See National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health
NOAEL. See no observed adverse effect
level
no effect level (NEL), 218
noise control: administrative and engineering
controls, 254; audiometric testing, 252;
checklist, 188–89; hearing conservation
program, 246; hearing protection,
252–53; monitoring program, 251;
occupational noise exposure, 248;
overview, 245–47; permissible noise
exposures, 249; recordkeeping, 253–54;
safe work practices, 253; sound level
survey, 251–52; training, 253; written
program, 248–51. See also OSHA
Hearing Conservation Standard
noise dose, 250
noise dosimeter, 250
noise hazard area, 250
noise hazard work practice, 250
noise level measurement, 250
noise reduction ratio, 250
nonionizing radiation, 35, 390–92, 393
non-permit confined space, 306, 308
nonspecific source wastes, 235
no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL),
217–18
normal production operation, 336
NPL. See National Priorities List
NSC. See National Safety Council
OCA. See offsite consequence analysis
occasional lifting, 204
Occupational Health magazine, 238
occupational noise exposure, 248
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH
Act), 35; employer requirements, 6;
enforcement, 59; General Duty Clause,
8; for occupational safety and health
professionals, 5–8; passage, 85; raising
awareness, 86; workers’ rights, 6, 8
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA): on accidents, 70;
action level use, 28; atmospheric testing
and, 328–29; Bloodborne Pathogens and
Needlestick Prevention, 222; compliance
and contractor training, 16–17; confined
space entry audit items, 329–31; Confined
Space Entry Program, 302–7, 303;
Confined Space Entry Standard, 18;
electrical safety and, 340; emergency
response and, 131–36; employee training
and, 12; English markings and, 22;
ergonomics and, 193–95; exposure
limits, 106; fire safety and, 258–59;
General Duty Clause, 194; on hazardous
substances, 233; hazardous waste
standard, 238–39; HazCom mandated,
113–14; Hispanic outreach as priority,
38; job safety health poster, 7; lockout/
tagout procedure, 35, 333–38; machine
hazard warnings, 408; Occupational
Health Guidelines for Health Hazards,
92; Occupational Safety and Health
Standards for General Industry, 304;
OSHA Subpart Q, 262–63; OSHA-
200/300 logs, 17; PPE requirements,
281–82; PPE standard, 279–82, 280;
pressure vessel safety requirements, 359;Index 463
radiation safety requirements, 391–93;
recordkeeping requirements, 437;
regulating worker health and safety, 158;
respiratory protection standard, 284–85,
285; rigging safety standard, 367
occupational safety and health practices:
contractor training, 15–21; employee
training, 12–15; fatality incident, 1;
organization’s safety policy, 9–12; signal
words, 21–22
occupational safety and health professionals:
bottom line in industry, 21; chemical
engineering exposure, 4; civil engineering
exposure, 3; electrical engineering
exposure, 4; environmental engineering
exposure, 4; HazCom and, 120–25;
industrial engineering exposure, 3;
knowledge and expertise, 2; mechanical
engineering exposure, 3–4; OSH Act
for, 5–9; OSHA Standards and, 8–9;
overview, 2–3; preventing major
accidents and disasters, 3–5; regulatory
influence, 5–8
Occupational Safety Management and
Engineering (Hammer), 70–72, 342
Office of the Federal Register, 315–16
offsite, 152
offsite consequence analysis (OCA),
146–47, 151
Olishifski, J. B., 85
organic peroxide, 126
organochlorine insecticides, 224
organophosphate insecticides, 224
OSHA auditor, 19, 51, 127–28, 324,
328–29, 436
OSHA Form 300, 36
OSHA Hearing Conservation Standard:
audiometric testing, 152; education and
training, 248, 253; hearing protection,
252–53; medical surveillance, 247;
monitoring noise levels, 247, 251–52; for
noise control, 247–48; personal protection
and, 247–48; recordkeeping, 253–54; safe
work practices, 253; written program,
248–51
OSHA. See Occupational Safety and Health
Administration
OSHA Standards: occupational safety
and health professionals and, 8–9;
recordkeeping, 440
OSHA-200/300 Log, 17, 35, 437–39
otolaryngologist, 250
otoscopic examination, 250
outside contractor safety briefing roster,
19, 20
overcurrent devices, 341
oxidation, 36
oxidizer, 36, 126
oxyacetylene equipment, 271
oxygen bottles, 313
oxygen deficiency, 287
oxygen deficient atmospheres, 36, 306
oxygen enriched atmosphere, 306
paradichlorobenzene, 224
parallelogram law, 374–75
participative management, 64
particulate matter, 32, 36, 287
particulates, 93, 287
PCBs, 224
Peirce, D., 89
PEL. See permissible exposure limit
permanent threshold shift (PTS), 250
permissible exposure limit (PEL), 36,
106–7, 287
permit-required confined space, 306, 308
permit space program, 306
personal and sanitation facilities, 165–66
personal monitoring devices, 391
personal protective device, 250
personal protective equipment (PPE), 5,
35, 241; case study, 278–79; checklist,
170; classifications, 279–82; clothing,
108, 268; confined space entry, 310;
confined spaces, 268; defined, 36;
drawbacks and problems, 108–9; fatality
incident, 277; goggles, 267, 267–68;
hand shields, 266–67; hazard assessment
and, 281–82; for hazard avoidance,
67; hazards and, 277; head, eye, hand,
foot protection, 108; helmets, 266–67;
industrial hygiene and, 108–9; need
for, 277; OSHA requirements, 281–82;
OSHA standard, 279–82, 280; overview,
277–78; providing barrier, 278; railing
and welding cable, 266; respiratory
protection, 108; role of, 157–58;
training, 282; welding, 266–68. See also
respiratory protection; specific equipment
Personnel Qualification Standard (PSQ), 14464 Index
PE. See potential energy
pesticides, 21, 209–12, 219–23, 232, 236
pharmaceuticals and personal care products
(PPCPs), 213–15
PHA. See Process Hazard Analysis
Phillips Petroleum Company explosion, 137
photoelectric sensing devices, 400
physical hazard, 126
physical stressors, 89
physiological approach to material
handling, 201
pictogram, 118
pilot tube, 98
pipes, 189, 265
plague, 224
plant layout, 160
plant toxins, 220
Plog, B. A., 85
PM. See preventive maintenance
point-of-operation devices, 398
point-of-operation guards, 398
Poisson processes, 67
pollutants, 35, 210, 213, 230
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 224
portable container, 126
positive pressure check procedure, 290
positive reinforcement, 75–76
potassium cyanide (KCN), 223
potential energy (PE), 32
pounds per square inch (psi), 28
PPCPs. See pharmaceuticals and personal
care products
PPE. See personal protective equipment
precautionary statement, 118
preliminary assessment, 36
presbycusis, 250
presence sensing devices, 400
pressure, 36; Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, 362, 363; Dalton’s Law of Partial
Pressures, 31; dynamic, 360; negative
pressure check procedure, 290; positive
pressure check procedure, 290; psia,
360; psig, 360; SP, 96–98, 360; standard
atmospheric, 360; standard water
pressure, 360; stored pressure energy,
360; ventilation total, 96–98; VP, 96–98;
water, 360
pressure regulator, 360
pressure relief systems: depressurizing valve,
363; discharge, 364; frangible discs, 364;
in pressure vessel safety, 362–64; relief
valves, 363; safety valve, 363; shut-off
valves, 363; temperature limit devices,
364; water draws, 364
pressure relief valve, 360
pressure vessel safety: checklist, 177–79;
controls, 361; dangers of high and low
pressure, 357–58; OSHA requirements,
359; overview, 357–58; pressure
definitions, 359–61; pressure relief
systems, 362–64; pressure vessel defined,
358–59; program elements, 358, 361–65;
proof testing, 362; required inspections,
365; training, 361–62; written safe work
practices, 361
preventive maintenance (PM), 166
primary routes of entry, 126, 219
Process Hazard Analysis (PHA), 139, 141,
147; checklist, 144; what-if checklist,
144; what-if questions, 143–44
process safety management (PSM):
application, 138–40; compliance audits,
143; contractors, 142; definition of terms,
138; emergency response and, 137–45;
employee participation, 141; fault tree
analysis, 145; final word on, 143–45;
FMEA and, 145; HAZOP and, 144–45;
hot work permits, 140, 142; incident
investigation, 142; management of
change, 142; mechanical integrity, 142;
operating procedures, 141–42; PHA, 139,
141, 143–44; planning and response,
142; pre-startup safety review, 142;
process safety information, 141; RMP
similarities and differences, 150–52;
SDS, 139; SOPs, 140; trade secrets, 143;
training, 142
Profiling the Lethal Employee: Case Studies
of Violence in the Workplace (Kelleher),
421–25
prohibited condition, 306
proof load, 370
proof test, 370
protection from harm, 418
psia. See absolute pressure
psig. See gauge pressure
psi. See pounds per square inch
PSM. See process safety management
PSQ. See Personnel Qualification Standard
psychological approach hazard avoidance, 66Index 465
psychological approach to material
handling, 201
PTS. See permanent threshold shift
pullback devices, 401
pulmonary effects, 227
pulmonary function, 202
purging, 265
The Purple Book, 115
push sticks, 403
Putnam, A., 197–98
PVC. See polyvinyl chloride
pyrophoric, 126
rad, 391
radiant heat, 36, 295
radiation: defined, 36, 220, 391; ionizing, 34,
391–92, 393; nonionizing, 35, 390–91,
393; ultraviolet, light, infrared, and
microwave, 390–91
radiation area, 391
radiation safety: controls, 392, 393;
ionization and, 390; nonionizing radiation
and, 390–91; OSHA requirements,
391–93; overview, 389; program
elements, 390; terms and definitions, 391;
training, 392
radioactive materials, 220, 389, 391
radiofrequency sensing devices, 400–401
radios, 313
rated capacity, 370
RCRA. See Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act
reactive, 36, 234
reactive grounds, 343
reactivity hazard, 36
recordkeeping: bottom line, 440; CYA file,
436; medical records, 439–40; OSHA
requirements, 437; OSHA Standards,
440; OSHA-200/300 Log, 437–39;
overview, 435–37; training and inspection
records, 439
regulatory requirements: costly modifications
and, 51; fatality incident, 49; inspections,
fines, legal hearings, 51–53; network
of confusing and constraining rules and
standards, 51; OSH Act enforcement,
59; overview, 49–54; record keeping
and paperwork burden, 53; Title 29, 58;
workers’ compensation, 54–57
relief valves, 363
rem, 391
repetitive strain injury (RSI), 197
reportable quantity (RQ), 36
representative exposure, 250
reproductive system, 228
rescue and retrieval line, 313
rescue equipment, 312–13
rescue service, 306
resonant grounds, 343
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA), 36, 233–34; on hazardous
waste, 237–38; tracking, permitting,
disposal control systems, 237
respirators, 279; airline, 287–88; airpurifying, 283; air-supplying, 283;
chemical cartridge, 287; cleaning
respirators, 286; defined, 283, 287;
inspection, maintenance, cleaning,
storage, 288–89; SCBA, 283, 285, 288,
310; selection and distribution, 288
respiratory hazard, 287
respiratory protection: documentation
procedures, 292; medical surveillance,
291; OSHA Standard, 284, 284–85;
overview, 282–83; program, 283–92,
284; program evaluation, 292; respirator
fit-testing, 289–91; respirator inspection,
maintenance, cleaning, storage, 288–89;
respirators, 283, 287–88; respirator
selection and distribution, 288;
responsibilities, 285–86; terms, 286–87;
training, 291
restraint devices, 401
restricted area, 391
retrieval equipment, 313
retrieval system, 307
ricin, 224
Ridge, Tom, 411
rigging safety: chains, 384; checklist,
179; engineering concepts, 370–82;
inspections, 385–86; OSHA standard,
367; overview, 367–68; proof testing
equipment, 385; rope slings, 383–84;
safe work practices, 386–87; terms and
definitions, 369–70; training, 384–85;
wire rope, 384; written program, 368,
368–70
“right to know” station binder, 126
“right to know” work station, 127
risk, 36, 215–20, 230466 Index
risk assessment, 37, 229–30
risk characterization, 37
risk management, 37
Risk Management Planning (RMP):
definitions and requirements, 149;
emergency response and, 145–53;
environmental receptor, 149; EPA and,
134, 139, 145–46; hazard assessment,
146–47; plan versus program, 146;
prevention program, 148; process, 149;
program levels, 149–50; PSM similarities
and differences, 150–52; public
receptor, 149; regulated substance, 149;
requirements, 146; response program,
148–49; SIC codes, 150; stationary
source, 149; summary, 152–53; terms,
152; threshold quantity, 149; vessel, 149
routes of entry, 219
RQ. See reportable quantity
RSI. See repetitive strain injury
rupture disc, 361
saccharin, 287
safeguarding, 396, 398
safety: definition, 26, 37; view of, 1.
See also electrical safety; National
Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health; Occupational Safety and Health
Act; Occupational Safety and Health
Administration; occupational safety and
health practices; occupational safety and
health professionals; pressure vessel
safety; process safety management;
radiation safety; rigging safety;
specific topics
safety and health management: bottom
line, 62–65; fatality incident, 61; hazard
avoidance concepts, 65–80; hazard
avoidance management aspects, 62–65;
overview, 61
Safety and Health: Management Planning
(Ferry), 51
safety and health terminology: accident
definition, 26–27; fatality incident, 25;
overview, 26; terms, 27–38
Safety Compliance Alert, 194
safety controls, 400–401
Safety Data Sheets (SDS), 114, 120, 127; for
caustics, 166; location of, 123; minimum
information for, 121–22; in PSM, 139
safety policy, 10; legal ramifications of
workplace provisions, 9–10; tell-it-likeit-is, 9; Victorian seamstress case study,
10–12
safety standard, 37
safety trip devices, 401
safety valve, 363
safe work practices: arc welding, 269–70;
fiber and synthetic rope slings, 386–87;
gas welding, 270–71; machine guarding,
403–4; noise control, 253; OSHA Hearing
Conservation Standard, 253; pressure
vessel safety, 361; rigging safety, 386–87;
workplace violence, 433–34
SARA. See Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act
SARS. See Severe Acute Respiratory
Syndrome
SCBA. See self-contained breathing
apparatus
Schaeffer, Rebecca, 422
SDS. See Safety Data Sheets
secondary containment, 37
security assessment, 37
selective toxicity, 216
self-adjusting guards, 400
self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA),
283, 285, 288, 310
selvage edge, 370
sensitive sub-population, 218
sensitivity, 219
sensitizers, 37
sensorineural, 251
September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks,
411, 415
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
(SARS), 224
shields: confined space entry, 311; face, 279;
hand, 266–67; machine guarding, 403
shoe inserts, 206
shoes, 280
short term exposure limit (STEL), 37
SIC codes, 150
sick water, 212–15
signal words, 118, 127; danger, warning,
caution, 21–22; English markings, 22;
GHS and, 21–22
significant accidental release, 152
Silent Spring (Carson), 231
silica, 37, 224Index 467
sit/stand chairs, 206
Skinner, B. F., 29, 75–76
sling manufacturer, 370
slings, 376; alloy steel chain sling load angle
factors, 379; angle and load examples,
378; chain, 384; defined, 370; examples,
375–79; rated sling loads, 379; rope,
383–84; safe work practices, 386–87
slips, 352–53
Slote, L., 363
smallpox, 224
Smith, R. B., 230
smoke, 93, 287, 290
sodium cyanide (NaCN), 223
solid grounds, 343
solvents, 220
“Song of the Shirt” (Hood), 12
SOPs. See Standard Operating Procedures
sound level, 251
sound level meter, 251
sound level survey, 251–52
specific gravity, 37
specific source wastes, 235
speed switch, 342
spiral, 370
spirometric evaluation, 287
spreaders, 403
SP. See static pressure
stair falls, 353–54
standard atmospheric pressure, 360
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), 140
“Standards of Acceptable Concentrations of
Toxic Dusts and Gases,” 90
standard water pressure, 360
standing, 206
stannic oxychloride, 287
static electricity, 346
static pressure (SP), 96–98, 360
stationary container, 127
stationary source, 152
STEL. See short term exposure limit
Sterlington, Louisiana, explosion, 137
stored pressure energy, 360
strand laid endless sling-mechanical
joint, 370
strand laid rope, 370
stratified atmosphere, 314, 328
stressors, 88–89
sulfur dioxide, 92, 133
Sultana explosion, 357
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization
Act (SARA), 13, 228, 233
Superman Scenario, 67
supply ventilation, 96
sweatshops, 12
switching devices, 342
system ground, 343
tagout, 336. See also lockout/tagout
procedure
tagout device, 336
talc, 222
target organ, 219
TCDD. See dioxin
TCLP. See Toxicity Characteristics Leaching
Procedure
technological advances, 3
temperature limit devices, 364
temporary employees, 16
temporary threshold shift (TTS), 251
tensile force, 372
teratogens, 219, 228–29
terrorism, 34, 415, 422
testing, 307; equipment for confined space
entry, 309–10; proof testing, 362, 385.
See also atmospheric testing; audiometric
testing; fit-testing
thalidomide, 224
thermal cutout, 342
thermal hazards: conduction and, 294;
convection and, 294; environmental heat
and, 295; metabolic heat and, 294–95;
overview, 294; radiant heat and, 295;
thermal comfort and, 294–95
threat assessment team: hazard assessment,
412–13; workplace security analysis,
413; workplace survey, 413; for worksite
safety, 412–13
threatening behavior, 425
Three Mile Island nuclear power disaster,
4–5, 389. See also radiation safety
three-way winch system, 313
threshold dose, 217–18
threshold limit value (TLV), 113;
administrative control and, 106–7;
carcinogens and, 228; defined, 37
throwaway society, 231–32
time, 80
time-weighted average (TWA), 28, 37,
249, 251468 Index
Title 29, 58
TLV. See threshold limit value
torsional forces, 372
total quality management (TQM), 65;
defined, 37; elements and characteristics,
80; hazard avoidance and, 79–80
toxic, 216
toxicant, 216
toxic effects, 216
toxic effects = potency x exposure, 229
toxicity, 37, 219–20; factors affecting,
225–26; hazardous waste, 234; industrial
toxicology and, 90; scale of relative
toxicity, 220
Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure
(TCLP), 234, 235
toxicology: carcinogens, mutagens,
teratogens, 228–29; chemical and
biological toxins and effects, 221–25;
chemical world and, 210–15;
classification of toxic agents, 220–21;
classification of toxic materials,
226–27; defined, 37, 209; definitions,
219–20; factors affecting toxicity,
225–26; industrial, 90–92; for industrial
workplace, 209–10; overview, 209; risk
and, 215–20; risk assessment, 229–30;
scale of relative toxicity, 220; sick water,
212–15; targets affected by toxins,
227–28; terms, 216–19; toxic effects =
potency x exposure, 229
toxic symptom, 216
toxins: animal, 221, 222; chemical and
biological and effects, 221–25; defined,
216; inhaled, 11; mycotoxins, 35; plant,
220; targets affected by, 227–28
TQM. See total quality management
trade secrets, 120, 138, 143, 153
training: administrative controls, 108;
atmospheric testing, 328; back injury
prevention and, 203; confined space
entry, 316–21; ergonomics program
element, 197; first aid, 293–94; IH, 87;
machine guarding, 404–5; noise control,
253; OSHA Hearing Conservation
Standard, 248, 253; PPE, 282; pressure
vessel safety, 361–62; PSM, 142;
radiation safety, 392; recordkeeping, 439;
respiratory protection, 291; rigging safety,
384–85. See also contractor training;
employee training
trenchfoot, 298
triangle law, 373, 374
trips, 353
TTS. See temporary threshold shift
tuberculosis, 11
tularemia, 224
TWA. See time-weighted average
two-hand control devices, 401
two-hand trip devices, 402
two-way winch system, 313
typhoons, 71
Tyvek®, 107
UEL. See upper explosive limit
UFC. See Uniform Fire Code
UFL. See Upper Flammable Limit
ullage, 361
ultraviolet radiation, 390–91
Uniform Fire Code (UFC), 159
United Nations Hazard Class Number
System, 232–33
United Steelworkers of America (USWA),
194–95
unrestricted area, 391
unsafe condition, 37–38
unstable reactive chemical, 127
upper explosive limit (UEL), 38
Upper Flammable Limit (UFL), 259
USWA. See United Steelworkers of America
vacuum, 360
vapor, 93, 220, 226, 287. See also fumes;
mists
velocity pressure (VP), 96–98
ventilation: components, 96; concepts,
95–98; as control method, 94–100;
exhaust and supply, 96; functions, 95;
general and dilution, 99–100; industrial,
94; local exhaust, 98–99, 99; SP, 96–98;
spray paint operations checklist, 180–81;
supply, 96; total pressure, 96–98; VP,
96–98; welding, 268–69
vents, 265
verbal abuse, 425
vertical hitch, 370
VHFs. See viral hemorrhagic fevers
vibration control, 104–5
Victorian seamstress case study, 10–12
vinyl chloride, 224–25
violence. See workplace violence
viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs), 225Index 469
voltage to ground, 343–44
VP. See velocity pressure
vulnerability assessment, 38
Walkley, Christina, 11
Wal-Mart, 12
warnings: hazard, 126; machine hazard,
407–8, 408; signal words, 21–22; of
workplace violence, 429–30
waste: defined, 80; nonspecific source, 235;
specific source, 235. See also hazardous
waste
wastewater, 214
water draws, 364
water pressure, 360
Weeks, W., 271
welding: arc welding, 269–70; authorization,
264; combustible cover, 265; combustible
material, 263; combustible walls, 265;
confined spaces, 265–66; cutting used
containers, 265; defined, 262; ducts, 265;
fire extinguishers, 263; fire hazards, 263;
fire precautions, 265; fire prevention and
protection, 263–66; fire watch, 263–64;
floors, 264; gas welding, 270–71; guards,
263; managers and supervisors, 266;
OSHA Subpart Q, 262–63; overview, 257;
pipes, 265; PPE, 266–68; prohibited areas,
264–65; relocation of combustibles, 265;
restrictions, 263; safety program, 263–69,
264; ventilation and health protection,
268–69; venting and purging, 265
windchill factor, 298
wire rope, 384
work center, 127–28, 315, 416
work center supervisors, 13, 21, 73, 127,
288–89, 291
worker right-to-know: better communication
with GHS, 115–17; Bhopal gas tragedy
and, 111–13; changes to HazCom and,
117–20; employee training, 123; hazard
communication program, 123, 124–25;
Hazard Communication Right to Know
Stations, 14; HazCom and occupational
safety and health professionals, 120–25;
HazCom audit items, 127–28; HazCom
terms, 125–27; overview, 112–14
workers: OSH Act rights, 6, 8; OSHA
regulating health and safety, 158; training
and awareness, 108; USWA, 194–95; in
worksite security, 414–15
workers’ compensation: defined, 38;
exclusive remedy, 56; financing, 55;
fraud, 56–57; insurance companies and,
55; objectives of laws, 54–55; regulatory
requirements, 54–57
working load limit, 370
workplace: confined space entry evaluation,
307–8; environment checklist, 170–71;
facility design, 157–59; industrial hygiene
and, 88–89; OSHA Workplace Poster, 39;
radiation safety, 390–91; safety policy,
9–10; toxicology for, 209–10; walkways
and exits checklist, 171–72
workplace violence: case study, 421–25;
CDC on, 421; conflict resolution, 429;
controls for, 430–32; defined, 425;
early warning signals, 429–30;
examples, 425, 426; hazards checklist,
432–33; media-intensive events, 421;
preventing, 419–30; reasons for, 425–27;
reporting, 427–28; safe work practices
for external violence, 433–34; what to do,
427–28
Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting,
201, 204–5
worksite security: background checks
and, 412; for buildings, workstations,
areas, 413–14; checklist questions, 415;
equipment, 414; equipment and data
protection, 417–18; facility visibility and,
416; fencing and, 416; hazard control
and prevention, 413–14; in industrial
setting, 415–18; knowing fellow
workers, 414–15; meeting security needs,
415–16; protection from harm, 418; theft
protection, 416–17; threat assessment
team, 412–13; upgrading security,
411–13; work practice controls and
procedures, 414
xenobiotic, 220
zero energy state, 38, 333


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