كتاب Biopolymers: Applications and Trends
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Biopolymers: Applications and Trends

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كتاب Biopolymers: Applications and Trends  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Biopolymers: Applications and Trends    كتاب Biopolymers: Applications and Trends  Emptyالإثنين 25 ديسمبر 2023 - 22:15

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Biopolymers: Applications and Trends
Michael Niaounakis

كتاب Biopolymers: Applications and Trends  B_a_a_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Abbreviations of Biopolymers
γ-PGA Poly(γ-glutamic acid)
ε-PL Poly(ε-lysine)
CA Cellulose acetate
CAB Cellulose acetate butyrate
CAP Cellulose acetate propionate
CMC Carboxymethyl cellulose
CN Cellulose nitrate
HEC Hydroxyethyl cellulose
P2HB Poly(2-hydroxybutyrate)
P2HBLA Poly(2-hydroxybutyrate-co-lactate)
P3DD Poly(3-hydroxydodecanoate)
P3HB Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (or PHB or
β-PHB)
P3HB4HB Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate)
P3HBLA Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-lactate)
P3HD Poly(3-hydroxydecanoate) (or PHD)
P3HN Poly(3-hydroxynonanoate) (or PHN)
P3HO Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)
P3HP Poly(3-hydroxypropionate)
P3HV Poly(3-hydroxyvalerate)
P3UD Poly(3-hydroxyundecanoate)
P4HB Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate)
P4HB2HB Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate-co-2-hydroxybutyrate)
P4HHx Poly(4-hydroxyhexanoate)
P4HP Poly(4-hydroxypropionate)
P4HV Poly(4-hydroxyvalerate)
P5HB Poly(5-hydroxybutyrate)
P5HHx Poly(5-hydroxyhexanoate)
P5HV Poly(5-hydroxyvalerate)
P6HHx Poly(6-hydroxyhexanoate)
PA 1010 Polyamide 1010
PA 1012 Polyamide 1012
PA 11 Polyamide 11
PA 410 Polyamide 410
PA 610 Polyamide 610
PAA Poly(alkylene alkanoate)
PADC Poly(alkylene dicarboxylate)
PASP Poly(aspartic acid)
PBA Poly(butylene adipate)
PBAT Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)
PBAzT Poly(butylene azelate-co-terephthalate)
PBT Poly(butylene carbonate)
PBP Poly(butylene pimelate)
PBS Poly(butylene succinate); see also poly-
(tetramethylene succinate) (PTMS)
(different CAS)
PBSA Poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate)
PBSC Poly(butylene succinate-co-carbonate)
PBSE Poly(butylene sebacate)
PBSET Poly(butylene sebacate-co-terephthalate)
PBSEAT Poly(butylene sebacate-co-adipate-coterephthalate)
PBSL Poly(butylene succinate-co-lactate)
PBST Poly(butylene succinate-co-terephthalate)
PCHC Poly(cyclohexene carbonate)
PCL Poly(ε-caprolactone)
PDLA Poly(d-lactide), poly(d-lactic acid)
PDLLA Poly(d,l-lactide), poly(rac-lactide);
see also racPLA
PDLGA Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)
PDO Polydioxanone (or PDS)
PE Polyethylene (bio-based)
PEA Poly(ethylene adipate)
PEAM Poly(ester amide)
PEAz Poly(ethylene azelate)
PEC Poly(ethylene carbonate)
PEDe Poly(ethylene decamethylate)
PEF Poly(ethylene furanoate)
PEOx Poly(ethylene oxalate)
PES Poly(ethylene succinate)
PESA Poly(ethylene succinate-co-adipate)
PESE Poly(ethylene sebacate)
PEST Poly(ethylene succinate-co-terephthalate)
PESu Poly(ethylene suberate)
PET Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (bio-based)
PEUU Poly(ester urethane urea) (biodegradable)
PGA Polyglycolide, poly(glycolic acid)
PGCL Poly(glycolide-co-ε-caprolactone)
PGS Polyglycerol sebacate
PGTMC Poly(glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate)
PHA Polyhydroxyalkanoate
PHBHD Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-
hydroxydecanoate)
PHBHHx Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate), poly(hydroxybutyrate-cohydroxyhexanoate)
PHBHP Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxypropionate)xiv Abbreviations of Biopolymers
PHBO Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate)
PHBHV Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)
PHD Poly(3-hydroxydecanoate) (or P3HD)
PHHp Poly(3-hydroxyheptanoate)
PHHx Poly(3-hydroxyhexanoate) or poly(3-
hydroxycaproate) (or P3HHx)
PHN Polyhydroxynonanoate (or P3HN)
PHP Poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (or P3HP)
PHSE Poly(hexamethylene sebacate)
PLA Polylactide, poly(lactic acid)
PLCL Poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)
PLGA Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)
PLDA poly(l-lactide-co-d-lactide)
PLLA Poly(l-lactide), poly(l-lactic acid)
PLDLLA poly(l-lactide-co-d,l-lactide)
PLLCL Poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)
PLLGA Poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide)
PLTMC Poly(lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate)
PM Polymandelide
PMLA Poly(β-malic acid)
POE I Poly(ortho ester) I
POE II Poly(ortho ester) II
POE III Poly(ortho ester) IIII
POE IV Poly(ortho ester) IV
PPA Polyphthalamide
PPHOS Polyphosphazene
PPF Poly(propylene fumarate)
PPL Poly(β-propiolactone) (or β-PPL)
PPS Poly(propylene succinate)
PPSA Poly(propylene succinate-co-adipate)
PPT Poly(propylene terephthalate) (bio-based);
see also PTT
PSI Polysuccinimide
PTeMAT Poly(tetramethylene adipate-coterephthalate)
PTeMC Poly(tetramethylene carbonate)
PTMC Poly(trimethylene carbonate)
PTMS/PTeMC Poly[(tetramethylene succinate)-co-
(tetramethylene carbonate)]
PTMA Poly(trimethylene adipate)
PTMAT Poly(methylene adipate-co-terephthalate)
PTeMA Poly(tetramethylene adipate)
PTMG Poly(tetramethyl glycolide)
PTeMS Poly(tetramethylene succinate); see also
poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) (different
CAS)
PTT Poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (biobased); see also PPT
PU Polyurethane (bio-based)
PVOH Poly(vinyl alcohol)
racPLA Poly(rac-lactide); see PDLLA
sbPLA Stereoblock PLA
scPLA Stereocomplex PLA
TPS Thermoplastic starch
Table of contents
Foreword
Abbreviations of Biopolymers
1. Definitions of Terms and Types of Biopolymers
1.1. General
1.2. Definition of Terms
1.3. Classification of Biopolymers
1.4. Types and Chemistry of Biopolymers
1.5. Polyesters
1.6. Poly(ether-esters) (Bio-Based)
1.7. Aliphatic Polycarbonates
1.8. Polyamides
1.9. Poly(ester amides)
1.10. Poly(ether amides)
1.11. Polyurethanes (Bio-Based PU)
1.12. Polysaccharides
1.13. Lignin
1.14. Vinyl Polymers
1.15. Diene Polymers
1.16. Other Biodegradable Polymers
1.17. Sources of Biopolymers
Patents
2. Properties
2.1. Intrinsic Properties
2.2. Processing Properties
2.3. Product Properties
Patents
3. Packaging
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Films
3.3. Bags, Sachets, and Nets
3.4. Containers
3.5. Funeral Devices
Patents
4. Agriculture/Forestry/Fishery
4.1. Agriculture/Forestry
4.2. Fishery
Patents
5. Electronics
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Electronic Devices
5.3. Audio Devices
5.4. Printed Circuit Boards
5.5. Insulators
Patents
6. Automotive Applications
6.1. General
6.2. Vehicle Components
6.3. Interior Parts
6.4. Exterior Parts
6.5. Door Components
6.6. Electrical Components
6.7. Steering
6.8. Fuel and Exhaust System
6.9. Engine, Transmission, and Radiator
6.10. Wheel Parts
6.11. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning
6.12. Hybrid and Electrical Vehicles
Patents
7. Medical, Dental, and Pharmaceutical Applications
7.1. Biopolymers
7.2. Wound Enclosures, Body Implants, and Tissue Engineering Materials
7.3. Drug Delivery Matrices or Vehicles
7.4. Dentistry
7.5. Diagnostic or Therapeutic Imaging
Patents
8. Cosmetics
8.1. Cleansing Preparations
8.2. Makeup and Other Facial Preparations
8.3. Hair Care Preparations
8.4. Sunscreen Preparations
8.5. Manicure and Pedicure Preparations
8.6. Accessories and Containers for Handling Cosmetic Substances
Patents
9. Sports/Toys/Board Games
9.1. Sports Articles
9.2. Amusements
Patents
10. Building and Construction Applications
10.1. Biopolymers Used as Building and Construction Materials
10.2. Construction and Building Materials
10.3. Biocomposites
10.4. Insulation Materials and Structures
10.5. Materials and Components of Interior Design/Decoration
10.6. Soil Erosion
10.7. Foundations, Pavings
10.8. Artificial Stones
10.9. Subterranean Constructions
Patents
Glossary
Index
Index of Companies
Index of Inventors
Index of Patents 527
A
ABS. See Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
ACL. See Anterior cruciate ligament
Acrylic polymers, 415
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS),
104, 105t
Actifit® (Orteq® Ltd), 304
Acufex TAG Bioabsorbable Anchors, 301
Adhesion barriers, 320–321
Adhesives, 337, 462–464
Admixture, 453–460
air-entraining agents, 458–460
patents, 460t
dispersing agent, 454
pore-forming agents, 458–460
patents, 460t
rheology modifiers, 457–458
set retarders, 454–455
superplasticizer, 454
water-reducing agents, 454
water retention agents, 455–457
Aesthetic properties, 109
color, 109
color stability, 110–111
decoration, 109
gloss, 109
surface effects, 109–110
Agar, 210, 452–453
Agricultural coverings, 185
mulch fabrics, 189–191
mulch films, 185–189
nets, 191
Agriculture/forestry
agricultural coverings, 185
mulch fabrics, 189–191
mulch films, 185–189
nets, 191
beehives, 202–203
biocides, 200–201
fertilizers, 200–201
firefighting formulations, 203
growth substrate media, 191–194
mowers, 200
packaging, 201–202
patents, 213–231
pesticides, 200–201
receptacles, 194–200
Air-conditioning, 276–277, 277t
Air-entraining agents, 458–460
patents, 460t
Algae germination device, 210, 211f
Aliphatic homo-polyanhydrides, 53
Aliphatic–aromatic (co)polyesters, 3,
26, 27t, 187. See also Bio-based
aromatic polyesters; Poly(alkylene
alkanoates) (PAAs)
biodegradable, 26–27
components, 26
PBAT, 27–28
PBST, 187
Aliphatic–aromatic copolyetheresters, 26
Aliphatic polycarbonates (APCs), 30
PBC, 32
PEC, 31, 31f
PPC, 31–32, 31f
PTMC, 32, 32f
Aliphatic polyesters, 202
biodegradable, 156–157, 197
hydrolyzable, 108
linear, 10–15
PMLA, 22
range of, 97t–98t
synthetic, 3
Alkali lignin, 45–48
Alkylhydroxyalkyl celluloses, 456
AlloDerm®, 327
α-amino acid-based poly(ester amides),
38, 39f
α-hydroxyalkanoic acids, 5, 5f, 6t
Amido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid
(AMPS), 454–455
Amino alcohol, 459
Amorphous PLA, 94, 100, 143–145
Ampoule, 201, 201f
AMPS. See Amido-2-methylpropane
sulfonic acid
Amusements
board games, 434–435
patents, 439–442
toys, 431–433
Anhydride copolymer, 203, 203f
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), 304
Antistatic properties, 108
APCs. See Aliphatic polycarbonates
Apinat®, 238
ApliGraf®, 328
AQ® copolyesters, 210
Aquaculture, 210–212
Arboblend®, 49
Arboform®, 165, 239, 243, 274
Arnitel® Eco, 30, 246
ArthroRivet™ implant, 297
Articular cartilage repair, 321–322, 321t
Artificial baits, 207–210
Artificial honeycomb, 202, 202f
Artificial stones, 477–478
ASTM D1003-13. See International
Standards
ASTM D2457-70. See International
Standards
ASTM D5488-94de1. See International
Standards
ASTM D6002 (withdrawn). See
International Standards
ASTM 6400-12. See International
Standards
ASTM D6866-12. See International
Standards
Atactic PLA, 7
Atrisorb™ Bioabsorbable GTR Barrier,
345
Audio devices, 239–242
Automotive applications, 257
bio-based materials, 257
bio-based nonbiodegradable polymers,
258
bio-PCs, 258
biopolymers, 257
door components, 270–271, 272t
electrical components, 273t
engine, transmission, and radiator, 274t
exterior parts, 268–270, 270t
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” indicate figures, tables respectively.528 Index
Automotive applications (Continued)
fuel and exhaust system, 273t
heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning,
276–277
hybrid and electrical vehicles, 277–278
interior parts, 259–268, 259f–260f,
268t
patents, 280–288
steering, 273t
vehicle components, 258–259, 259f
vinyl polymers, 258
wheel parts, 274–275
B
Badminton, 427
Bags, 146–149, 148f–149f
BAK®, 38
Bard® Permasorb® Disposable Fixation
Device, 297
Battery packaging, 156–157, 157f, 277,
277f
Baypure® DS 100, 478
Baypure® DS 100/40%, 478
Beehives, 202–203
β-elimination, 112
β-hydroxyalkanoic acid:
β-hydroxypropanoic acid, 16f
β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), 301
Biaxially oriented films, 143–146. See
also Cling films; Shrink films
Biaxially oriented PLA film (BOPLA
film), 143
Biaxially oriented polypropylene film
(BOPP film), 143
Bioabsorbable
antiadhesive material, 346–347, 347f
fabric, 344, 344f
meshes, 312, 313t–314t
polymers, 291
screw, 305, 305f
surgical fasteners, 302, 303t
sutures, 297, 298t–300t
Bioagri® mulch film (BioBag), 186
BioBacksheet™, 239
Bio-based aromatic polyesters, 28, 28t.
See also Aliphatic–aromatic
(co)polyesters; Poly(alkylene
alkanoates) (PAAs)
bio-based PET, 28–29
bio-based PTT, 29–30
PEF, 29, 29f
Bio-based binder, 461
Bio-based high-density polyethylene
(Bio-HDPE), 3
Bio-based low-density polyethylene
(Bio-LDPE), 3
Bio-based materials, 1, 257
Bio-based nonbiodegradable polymers, 258
Bio-based PET. See Bio-based
poly(ethylene terephthalate)
Bio-based polycarbonate (bio-PC), 258
Bio-based poly(ether-esters), 30
PDO, 30
Bio-based polyethylenes (bio-PEs), 49–50
Bio-based poly(ethylene terephthalate)
(Bio-based PET), 28–29
Bio-based polymer, 1, 3t, 139
Bio-based polypropylene. See Biopolypropylene (Bio-PP)
Bio-based poly(trimethylene
terephthalate) (Bio-based PTT),
29–30, 449
Bio-based polyurethane (Bio-based PU),
38–39
Bio-based product, 2
Bio-based PTT. See Bio-based
poly(trimethylene terephthalate)
Bio-based PU. See Bio-based
polyurethane
Bio-based PVC, 50
Biocides, 200–201
Biocomposites, 233, 237, 464
cross-sectional diagram, 465f
PHBHV, 464–465
WPCs, 465–467
Biodegradability, 1
of cellulose esters, 42
of PLA, 116–117
Biodegradable
aliphatic–aromatic (co)polyesters, 26–27
auricular prosthetic device, 336, 336f
elastomer, 208
inorganic polymers, 292
medical device, 319, 319f
mesh-and-film stent, 331, 332f
organic polymers, 291–292
polymer, 1, 3t, 233, 291, 407
comparison of properties, 292t
dispersion, 413
POEs, 51–52, 52f
polyanhydrides, 52–53, 53f
PPHOSs, 53–54, 53f
polymeric rheology modifiers, 457
spacer, 306, 306f
(Bio)degradation, 1, 111, 116–117, 291
hydrolysis, 115–116, 115f
mechanical degradation, 113–115
photodegradation, 112–113
thermal degradation, 111–112, 112f
Bioerodible polymers, 291
BioFiber®-CM, 311
BioFiber™, 311
Biofix™ Meniscal Arrow, 302
Bio-Flex®, 186
Bio-Flex® A 4100 CL, 141
Bio-Flex® F 1130, 141, 151
Bio-Flex® F 2110, 151
Bio-Flex® F 6510, 156
Biograde® 7500, 239
Biograde® C 7500, 239
Bio-HDPE. See Bio-based high-density
polyethylene (Bio-HDPE)
BioIsoprene™ technology, 275
Bio-LDPE. See Bio-based low-density
polyethylene (Bio-LDPE)
Bio4life. See Self-adhesive label
Biologically active agent, infusion of,
322–323, 323f
Biomax® 4026, 148
Biomax® polymers, 210
Biomax® PTT, 30
Biomax® PTT 1100, 30
bio-monoethylene glycol (b-MEG), 157
Bionolle®, 148, 153–154, 276
Bionolle® 1001, 190, 205
Bionolle® 3001, 237
bio-PC. See Bio-based polycarbonate
bio-PEs. See Bio-based polyethylenes
Bioplastic. See Biopolymers
Biopolyamides, 33t–35t
Biopolyethylene, 3
Biopolymers, 2–3, 233, 257, 291–295,
407. See also Polymer properties
APCs, 30–32
bio-based poly(ether-esters), 30
biodegradable polymers
POEs, 51–52, 52f
polyanhydrides, 52–53, 53f
PPHOSs, 53–54, 53f
in building and construction industries,
445, 446t–447t
agar, 452–453
bio-based PTT, 449
casein, 451–452
cellulose ethers, 449–451, 450t
lignosulfonates, 451
PASP, 453
PGA, 449
PLA, 445–449
use of vegetable fibers, 445
welan gum, 452
classification, 3–5, 4t
CPPs, 295
diene polymers, 50
patents, 56–85
PCL, 293
PDLA, 307, 311–312, 323
PDLLA, 293
PDO, 294
PGA, 293
PHA, 293–294
PLGA, 293
PLLA, 293
PLDLLA, 293
POE, 295
polyamides, 32–37
polyanydrides, 295
poly(ester amides), 38
polyesters, 5–30
poly(ether amides), 38
polysaccharides, 41–45
polyurethanes, 38–41
PPF, 294Index 529
PPHO, 295
PTMC, 294
sources, 54
first-generation feedstock, 54, 54t
second-generation feedstocks, 54t,
55
third-generation biomass, 55
types and chemistry, 2–3, 5
uses in sports, games, toys, and
amusements, 435t–438t
vinyl polymers, 258
bio-PE, 49–50
bio-PP, 3, 258
biopolyolefins, 50t
polyolefins, 49–50
PVC, 50
PVOH, 50, 51t–52t
Biopolypropylene (bio-PP), 3, 258
Biopoly(vinyl chloride) (bio-PVC), 3
bio-PP. See Biopolypropylene
bio-PVC. See Biopoly(vinyl chloride)
Bioresorbable Pins®, 308
Bioresorbable polymers, 291
Bioroc EZT™ Suture Bone Fastener, 301
Biosafe™, 186
Biosleeve® heat shrink film, 142
Bio-Statak® Resorbable Soft Tissue
Attachment Device, 301
BioStinger® Meniscal Fixation System,
302
Bio tape (Logotape), 146
Blotting sheets. See Films
Blue crab trap, 206–207, 207f
b-MEG. See bio-monoethylene glycol
BMP. See Bone morphogenetic protein
Board games, 434–435
Bone dowel devices, 309–310, 309f
Bone fracture fixation device, 307, 307f
Bone graft substitutes, 322–323
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), 322
BOPLA film. See Biaxially oriented PLA
film
BOPP film. See Biaxially oriented
polypropylene film
Bottles, 157–164, 158t, 161f–162f
Bottomless plant pot, 198–199, 199f
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
(BSE), 296
Braided multifilaments, 296
Bristles, 416
BSE. See Bovine spongiform
encephalopathy
Building and construction applications
artificial stones, 477–478
biocomposites, 464–467
biopolymers as building and
construction materials, 445–453
construction and building materials,
453–464
foundations and pavings, 476–477
hydraulic fracturing, 479–481
insulation materials and structures,
467–469
interior design/decoration materials
and components, 470–473
soil erosion, 473–476
subterranean constructions, 478–481
Bulk erosion. See Erosion
Bulking agents, 325–327
C
CA. See Cellulose acetate
CAB. See Cellulose acetate butyrate
CABG. See Coronary artery bypass
grafting
Calcium polyphosphates (CPPs), 292,
295
Cap, 236–237, 236f
CAP. See Cellulose acetate propionate
Capa® polylactones, 22
Carbon dioxide (CO2), 1–2
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), 454,
458
Carboxymethylhydroxyethyl cellulose
(CMHEC), 458
Cardiac patch application, 316, 317t
Casein, 451–452
Catgut, 296
CD player. See Compact disc player
CE. See Conformity Europe
Celgreen® PH7, 205
Celluloscrub™, 410
Cellulose, 42, 43t–44t, 117. See also
Vinyl polymers
chitin, 45
chitosan, 45
derivatives, 42
esters, 42
ethers, 42, 449–451, 450t, 457
lignin, 45–49, 47f
starch, 44–45
starch-based products, 46t
Cellulose acetate (CA), 42
Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), 42
Cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), 42
Cellulose nitrate (CN), 44
Cement compositions, 453
Central Sterilization & Supplies
Department (CSSD), 334
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 323–324
Cerenol™, 30, 41, 430–431
Chitin, 45
Chitosan, 45
Circuit board, 233, 243f
substrate, 242–243, 243f
Cis-1,4-Polyisoprene, 50
Cleansing preparations, 408
films, 410–411
scrubs, 408–410
Cling films, 142–143, 144t. See also
Biaxially oriented films; Shrink
films
Cling wrap. See Cling films
CMC. See Carboxymethyl cellulose
CMHEC. See Carboxymethylhydroxyethyl cellulose
CN. See Cellulose nitrate
Coatings/paints, 460–462
patents, 463t
Coefficient of friction (COF), 145
COF. See Coefficient of friction
Coffins, 164–165
Color stability, 110–111
Colorant, 461
Commercial applications, 430–431
Commercial biodegradable stents, 334,
335t
Commercial products, 268
audio devices, 242
door components, 271
electronic devices, 238–239
engine, transmission, and radiator, 274
exterior parts, 269t
fuel and exhaust system, 274
hybrid and electrical vehicles,
278t–279t
insulators, 246
wheel parts, 275
Compact disc player (CD player), 237
Composite graft fasteners, 311–312,
311f
Compostable polymer, 2
Concrete, 453
biodegradable polymer arrangement
in, 474f
lightweight concrete consolidated
body, 468f
mesh for molding, 473f
porous, 476f
Conformity Europe (CE), 325
Constantia Tobepal. See Twist wrap film
Construction and building materials.
See also Insulation materials
and structures; Interior design/
decoration materials and
components
adhesives, 462–464
admixtures, 453–460
cement compositions, 453
coatings/paints, 460–462
patents, 463t
Containers, 151–164, 194–200
battery packages, 156–157, 157f
bottles, 157–164, 158t, 161f–162f
foam containers, 153–155
multilayered containers, 151–153
rigid containers, 155–156
Contour™ Meniscus Arrow™ (Linvatec),
302
Controlled-release granular fertilizer, 200,
200f
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG),
315530 Index
Cosmetics, 407
biodegradable polymers, 407
biopolymers, 407
cleansing preparations, 408
films, 410–411
scrubs, 408–410
conventional, 407
hair care preparations, 412–414
handling cosmetic substances
accessories, 416
containers and packages, 416–418,
418t–419t
industry, 407
makeup and facial preparations,
411–412
manicure preparations, 415–416
patents, 420–424
pedicure preparations, 415–416
sunscreen preparations, 414–415
types, 407
CPPs. See Calcium polyphosphates
Crosslinking, 26, 38, 45, 51–52, 56t–85t,
102, 104, 112–113, 146, 189, 203,
207–208, 236–237, 242–244,
247t–254t, 260–262, 260f,
262f, 266t–267t, 294, 296, 303t,
325, 344–345, 348t–399t, 414t,
435t–438t, 470, 482t–504t
Crystalline aliphatic polyesters, 93, 101
Crystalline PLA, 94
Crystallinity, 91–94
CSF. See Cerebrospinal fluid
csPLA. See isotactic stereocomplex PLA
CSSD. See Central Sterilization &
Supplies Department
D
Decoration, 109
Degradable polymer, 1
DegraPol®, 41
Degree of polymerization (DP), 428
Degree of substitution (DS), 117
Density, 91, 92t
Dentistry, 341–345
Depolymerization, 111
DermaGraft™, 328
Diagnostic imaging, 345–347
Diamond-like carbon film (DLC film),
163
Diene polymers, 50
Differential scanning colorimeter (DSC),
103, 262
Digital versatile disc player (DVD
player), 237
Dispersants. See Superplasticizer
Dispersing agent, 454
Dispersion
biodegradable polymer, 413
thixotropic PSI, 453
d-lactide, 6, 7f–8f
DLC film. See Diamond-like carbon film
d, l-lactide, 7, 8f
Donlar® A-2C, 478
Donlar® A-3C, 478
Donlar® C-50D, 478
Door components, 270–271, 272t
exemplary patents, 272t
Door panel, 271, 271f
DP. See Degree of polymerization
Drug delivery matrices, 337–341
DS. See Degree of substitution
DSC. See Differential scanning
colorimeter
Dual cannulated interference screw,
305–306, 306f
Dural substitutes, 323–324
DVD player. See Digital versatile disc
player
E
Ear implants, 336
EarthFirst® film, 151
EarthFirst® TDO film, 142
Eastar Bio®, 153, 186, 191. See also
Origo-Bi®
Eastman™, 239
EC. See Ethyl cellulose
Ecoflex®, 27–28, 113, 141, 148, 152–153,
155, 186, 191, 237, 270
Ecoflex® F Blend C1200, 187
Ecoflex® FBX 7011, 187
Ecomann® PHA, 410
Ecovio®, 4–5, 141, 155
Ecovio® F Film, 151
Ecovio® F mulch film, 186
Ecovio® FS Shrink Film, 142
Ecozen®, 164
EHEC. See Ethylhydroxyethyl cellulose
Elastomers, 258
Electrical components, 273t
Electrical vehicles, 277–278
Electromagnetic properties, 102
Electronics, 233
audio devices, 239–242
commercial products, 242
electronic devices, 233–239
commercial products, 238–239
insulators, 243–246, 244f–245f
commercial products, 246
patents, 247
PCBs, 242–243
Elongation at break, 10, 20, 30, 93–94,
93t–94t, 99t–100t, 99, 203–205,
241, 292t, 331
EN 13432:2000. See International
Standards
EN 14995:2006. See International
Standards
Environmental behavior, 111–117
EpiCel™, 327
ε-poly(l-lysine) (ε-PL), 35, 37
Erosion
bulk erosion, 10, 15–16, 291–292, 339
surface erosion, 291, 294–295, 305
Ethyl cellulose (EC), 458
Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), 185
Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer
(EVOH), 99
Ethylene–vinyl ester copolymer (EVOH),
164
Ethylhydroxyethyl cellulose (EHEC), 449
EVA. See Ethylene-vinyl acetate
EVOH. See Ethylene-vinyl alcohol
copolymer; Ethylene–vinyl ester
copolymer
Evolence® Collagen Filler, 327
Exemplary biodegradable controlled
release formulations,
342t–344t
Exemplary patents, 266t–267t, 269t, 272t,
276t–277t
Exemplary vascular grafts, 318, 318t
Exfoliants. See Scrubs
Exoseal® Vascular Closure Device
(Exoseal® VCD), 320
Exoseal® VCD. See Exoseal® Vascular
Closure Device
Exterior parts, 268–270, 270t
F
Facial preparations, 411–412
Farm Security and Rural Investment Act
of 2002 (FSRIA), 1–2
Fasal®, 431
Fasteners, 297–301
FasT-Fix™ AB Meniscal Repair System
(Smith & Nephew), 302
FDA. See US Food and Drug
Administration
FDCA. See 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid
Fepol® 2040, 152
Fertilizers, 200–201
Fibers, 15
Fibrolon® F 8530, 156
Filled mesh-shaped molding, 211, 211f
Filling agents, 325–327
Films, 139–146, 410–411
biaxially oriented films, 143–146
cling films, 142–143
shrink films, 142
Filter medium, 276, 276f
Firefighting formulations, 203
First-generation feedstock, 54
Fishery
aquaculture, 210–212
artificial baits and lures, 207–210
fishing lines, 203–204
nets, 204–206
patents, 213–231
traps, 206–207Index 531
Fishing
lines, 203–204
lure, 208–209, 209f
tackle basket, 206, 206f
Flame retardancy, 108–109
Flammability. See Flame retardancy
Flowerpots, 194–200
Foam containers, 153–155. See also
Multilayered containers; Rigid
containers
Forest fires, 203
Forestry. See Agriculture/forestry
Foundations, 476–477
Fracballs, 481
Fracking. See Hydraulic fracturing
Freeze/thaw cycles, 210
Friction resistance, 104–106
FSRIA. See Farm Security and Rural
Investment Act of 2002
Fuel and exhaust system, 273t
Funeral devices, 164
coffins, 164–165
urns, 165
2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid (FDCA), 29
FW 50+. SI Green façade system, 469
G
Gadalinium–diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA), 345–346
γ-hydroxyalkanoic acid:
γ-hydroxybutanoic acid, 16f
γ-PGA. See Poly(γ-glutamic acid)
Gas barrier properties, 99–100
Gd-DTPA. See Gadalinium–
diethylenetriaminepentaacetate
GEM Neurotube®, 325
GENU® Pectin USP/100, 478–479
GENU® X-914, 478–479
GHG emissions. See Greenhouse gas
emissions
Gloss, 109
Golf, 427–429
biodegradable golf ball, 430f
Golf ball marker, 430f
golf tee, 429f
tee, 427, 429f
Gore Resolut XT™, 345
Gore® Seamguard® Bioabsorbable Staple
Line Reinforcement, 302
Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG
emissions), 467
Grout, 453
Growth substrate media, 191–194
Guidor™, 345
Gynecare Interceed® Adhesion Barrier, 321
H
Hair care preparations, 412–414
shampoo formulation, 413t–414t
shampoo solid formulation, 413t
Handling cosmetic substances
accessories, 416
containers and packages, 416–418,
418t–419t
Haze, 109, 140, 146, 151, 187–188
3HB. See 3-hydroxybutyrate
HDT. See Heat deflection temperature
Headliner panel, 263, 263f
Headrest, 261, 261f
Heart valves, 319–320
Heat deflection temperature (HDT),
445–449
Heat resistance, 106–107
Heating, 276–277, 277t
HEC. See Hydroxyethyl cellulose
Hemostats, 328–329
HEPC. See Hydroxyethylpropyl cellulose
3HHx. See 3-hydroxyhexanoate
HMEC. See Hydroxymethylethyl
cellulose
HMG Co-A. See 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A
HMHEC. See Hydrophobically modified
hydroxyethyl cellulose
Hollow inflatable balls, 427, 428f
Housing model, 234, 234f
HPC. See Hydroxypropyl cellulose
HPMC. See Hydroxypropylmethyl
cellulose
Huhtamaki Films, 151
3HV. See 3-hydroxyvalerate
Hyaff/LaserSkin™, 328
hybrid TEVC. See hybrid tissueengineered valved conduit
hybrid tissue-engineered valved conduit
(hybrid TEVC), 319–320
Hybrid vehicles, 277–278
Hydraulic
cements, 453–454
fracturing, 479–481
Hydrolysis, 115–116, 115f
inhibitor, 241
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A
(HMG Co-A), 323
Hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl
cellulose (HMHEC), 449
Hydroxyalkyl celluloses, 456
3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 236
4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB), 21
Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), 449, 458
Hydroxyethylpropyl cellulose (HEPC),
458
3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx), 21
Hydroxymethylethyl cellulose (HMEC),
458
Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), 467–468
Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC),
458
3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), 17–19, 93
Hyperbranched poly(ester amides), 38
Hytrel®, 246
Hytrel® elastomers, 210
Hytrel® RS, 30, 431
I
Impact resistance, 106
Ingeo®, 141, 151, 186, 238, 475–476
Inion system, 308
Inorganic fibers, 428
Insulation materials and structures,
467–469. See also Construction
and building materials; Interior
design/decoration materials and
components
adaptation-to-environment type
board-like heat, 468f
fiber interior and exterior material,
469f
wall material, 469f
Insulators, 243–246, 244f–245f
Integra™, 327
Interior design/decoration materials
and components, 470–473. See
also Construction and building
materials; Insulation materials and
structures
biodegradable polymer arrangement in
concrete, 474f
decorative sheet, 471f
flooring material formed of PLA, 473f
laminated decorative sheet, 470f
lightweight concrete consolidated
body, 468f
mesh for molding concrete, 473f
plant-derived resin layers, 471–472
plaster board, 472f
porous concrete, 476f
Interior parts, vehicle, 259–268,
259f–260f, 268t
International Standards
ASTM D1003-13, 109
ASTM D2457-13, 109
ASTM D5488-94de1, 1
ASTM D6002 (withdrawn), 2
ASTM 6400-12, 1–2
ASTM D6866-12, 2, 49
EN 13432:2000, 1–2
EN 14995:2006, 1–2
ISO 17088:2012, 1–2
Intrinsic properties, 91. See also
Processing properties; Product
properties
crystallinity, 91–94
density, 91, 92t
electromagnetic properties, 102
gas barrier properties, 99–100
mechanical properties, 94–99
solubility, 94
transition temperatures, 91–94
transparency, 100–102532 Index
ISO 17088:2012. See International
Standards
Isocyanate components, 39
Isotactic stereoblock PLA, 7
Isotactic stereocomplex (scPLA), 8–10
Isotactic poly(d-lactide) (PDLA), 7
Isotactic poly(l-lactide) (PLLA), 7
Isotactic stereocomplex PLA (scPLA), 8
Isotatic PLA, 7
J
Japan Bioplastics Association (JBPA), 1
K
Kelcoloid® HVF, 478–479
Kelcoloid® LVF, 478–479
Kenaf fiber, 234, 240
Kraft lignin, 45–48
Kraft process, 45–48
L
Lacea® H-100J, 234
Lacea® H-280, 237
Lacea® H400, 159–160
Lacea® H440, 159–160, 208
Lactide
melting temperature, 7t
stereoisomeric forms, 7f
Lactosorb® Trauma Plating System, 308
Lacty® 9000, 148, 153–154
LDPE. See Low density polyethylene
Ligaments, 310–312, 311f
Lignin, 45–49, 47f
Lignocellulose
by-products, 55
feedstocks, 55
fibers, 199–200
gasification, 55
Lignosulfonates, 451
Linear low density polyethylene
(LLDPE), 99
Linvatec. See Contour™ Meniscus
Arrow™; Meniscal Arrow
Liquid crystal display device, 235, 235f
Liquid wood. See Arboform®
l-lactide, 6, 7f–8f
LLDPE. See Linear low density
polyethylene
Logotape. See Bio tape
Low density polyethylene (LDPE), 152
Lures, 207–210
M
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 300
Makeup, 411–412, 412f
Manicure preparations, 415–416
Manugel® GHB, 478–479
Maropack. See Transparent bag
Mascara applicator brush, 416, 416f
Mater-Bi®, 141, 149–150, 186, 276, 417
MC. See Methyl cellulose
MD player. See Mini-disc player
Mechanical degradation, 113–115
medium-chain-length PHAs (PHAMCL), 16
Melt flow index (MFI), 243
Melting temperature (Tm), 91, 244
Meniscal Arrow (Linvatec), 302
Meniscus regeneration, 302–304
Meniscus repair devices, 302
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), 32
Meso-lactide, 7, 7f
Methyl cellulose (MC), 449, 458
Methylhydroxyethyl cellulose (MHEC),
449, 458
Methylhydroxypropyl cellulose (MHPC),
449
MFI. See Melt flow index
MHEC. See Methylhydroxyethyl
cellulose
MHPC. See Methylhydroxypropyl
cellulose
Microballoon, 346, 346f
Microdispersion, 326–327
Mini-disc player (MD player), 237
Mirel™ M2100, 410
Mirel™ M2200, 410
Modulus, 10, 15, 20, 27, 33t–35t, 41, 91,
94, 100t, 102–103, 105t, 145, 193,
212, 236, 239, 242, 272t, 292t,
294, 302–304, 310, 323
Moisture vapor transmission rate
(MVTR), 150
Monofilament sutures, 296
Monopropylene glycol, 210
Mortar, 453
Mouth guards, 429–430
Mowers, 200
MRI. See Magnetic resonance imaging
MSCs. See Mesenchymal stem cells
Mulch fabrics, 189–191
Mulch films, 185–189
Multicoated containers. See Multilayered
containers
Multifilament sutures, 296
Multilayered containers, 151–153. See also
Foam containers; Rigid containers
Mvera™ B5010 compostable PHA, 151
Mvera™ B5011 biodegradable PHA, 151
MVTR. See Moisture vapor transmission
rate
Mycelium, 265
N
Nail lacquer formulation, 415
National Organic Program standards
(NOP standards), 187
Nativia™, 146, 151
Naturacell™, 239
Natural occurring biopolymers, 2–3
NatureFlex™, 150
NatureWorks® 7000D, 159–160
NatureWorks® 7032D, 159–160
Near–infrared range (NIR range), 191
Nerve guides, 325
Nets, 150–151, 151f, 191, 204–206
NIR range. See Near–infrared range
Nirotec Evo, 469
Nitrocellulose, 415
Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
(N-P-K), 198
Nodax™, 150
Nonbiodegradable bio-based
biopolymers, 3
NOP standards. See National Organic
Program standards
Norrisch reactions, 112–113
N-P-K. See Nitrogen, phosphorus, and
potassium
O
Ocular cell implants, 334–336
OneMoment®, 431
Orbital implant, 335–336, 336f
OrCel™, 328
Origo-Bi®, 27–28, 141, 153. See also
Eastar BIO®
Orteq® Ltd. See Actifit®
Orthopedic fixation
devices, 304–308
screw, 306, 306f
Orthosorb™ pins, 308
OTPS Biodegradable Pins™, 308
Outdoor sports, 427
P
PA 11. See Polyamide 11
PAA. See Poly(alkylene alkanoate)
Packaging, 139, 201–202
bags, 146–149
containers, 151–164
films, 139–146
funeral devices, 164–165
materials, 139
nets, 150–151
patents, 166
sachets, 149–150
PADC. See Poly(alkylene dicarboxylate)
Palgreen®, 148
PAs. See Polyamides
PASP. See Poly(aspartic acid)
Patches, 314–318
Patents
agriculture/forestry, 213–231
automotive applications, 280–288
biopolymers, 56–85
building and construction applications,
482–504
cosmetics, 420–424
electronics, 247
fishery, 213–231Index 533
medical, dental, and pharmaceutical
applications, 348–399
packaging, 166
polymer properties, 118–135
sports/toys/board games, 439–442
Pavings, 476–477
PBA. See Poly(butylene adipate)
PBAT. See Poly(butylene
adipate-co-terephthalate)
PBC. See Poly(butylene carbonate)
PBS. See Poly(butylene succinate)
PBSA. See Poly(butylene
succinate-co-adipate)
PBST. See Poly(butylene
sebacate-co-terephthalate)
PBT. See Poly(butylene terephthalate)
PC/ABS blend. See Polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene blend
PCBs. See Printed circuit boards
PCHC. See Poly(cyclohexene carbonate)
PCL. See Poly(ε-caprolactone); Posterior
cruciate ligament
PCs. See Personal computers
PDLA. See Poly(d-lactide)
PDLLA. See Poly(d,l-lactic acid)
PDLLCL. See Poly(d,l-lactide-co-ε-
caprolactone)
PDO. See Polydioxanone
PDS. See Polydioxanone (PDO)
PEA. See Poly(ethylene adipate)
Pearlthane® ECO, 430–431
Peat pots, 194
Pebax® Rnew, 427, 430
PEC. See Poly(ethylene carbonate)
Pedicure preparations, 415–416
PEF. See Poly(ethylene furanoate)
Personal computers (PCs), 233–234
PES. See Poly(ethylene succinate)
Pesticides, 200–201
PET. See Poly(ethylene terephthalate)
PEU. See Poly(ester urethane)
PGA. See Poly(glycolic acid)
PGCL. See
Poly(glycolide-co-ε-caprolactone)
PGS. See Poly(glycerol sebacate)
PGTMC. See Poly(glycolide-cotrimethylene carbonate)
PHAMCL. See medium-chain-length
PHAs
PHAs. See Poly(β-,γ-,δ-
hydroxyalkanoates);
Polyhydroxyalkanoates
PHASCL. See short-chain-length PHAs
PHB. See Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)
(P3HB)
P3HB. See Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)
P3HB4HB. See Poly(3-hydroxybutyrateco-4-hydroxybutyrate)
P4HB. See Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate)
PHBHHx. See Poly(3-hydroxybutyrateco-3-hydroxyhexanoate)
PHBHV. See Poly(3-hydroxybutyrateco-3-hydroxyvalerate)
P4HB shunts, 336
P3HO. See Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)
Photodegradation, 112–113, 114f
PHP. See Poly(3-hydroxypropionate)
(P3HP)
P3HP. See Poly(3-hydroxypropionate)
P3HV. See Poly(3-hydroxyvalerate)
PLA. See Poly(lactic acid)
Plant pots, 194, 196f
Plant shell, 194–195, 195f
Plastic material, 3
Plastic packaging, 139
Plasticizer, 210
PLCL. See
Poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)
PLDLLA. See
Poly(l-lactide-co- d,l-lactide)
PLGA. See Poly(l-lactic acid-co-glycolic
acid)
PLLA. See Poly(l-lactide)
PLLCL. See
Poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)
PLTMC. See Poly(lactide-co-trimethylene
carbonate)
PM. See Polymandelide
PMLA. See Poly(β-malic acid)
PMMA. See Poly(methyl methacrylate)
PMP. See Polymethylpentene
“Pod”, 162
POEs. See Poly(ortho esters)
Poly(alkylene alkanoate) (PAA), 23, 24t,
141, 148. See also Aliphatic–
aromatic (co)polyesters;
Bio-based aromatic polyesters
PBA, 25, 25f
PBS, 24–25, 25f
PBSA, 25, 26f
PES, 24
Polyoxalates, 26
PPF, 26, 27f
Poly(alkylene dicarboxylate) (PADC),
5, 23
aliphatic–aromatic (co)polyesters,
23–26
bio-based aromatic polyesters, 28–30,
28t
PAAs, 23–26
Poly(alkylene ether) glycol, 26
Poly(α-amino acids), 35
γ-PGA, 35–36, 36f
ε-PL, 37
poly(α-aspartic acid), 36–37
Poly(α,β-d,l-aspartate), 37f
Poly(α-hydroxyalkanoic acids), 5
α-hydroxyalkanoic acids, 5, 5f, 6t
PGA, 10–15
PLA, 6–10
PLGA, 15–16
PM, 10, 15f
Poly(α-aspartic acid), 36–37
Polyamide 11 (PA 11), 35, 36f
Polyamides (PAs), 32, 237–238
bio-based aliphatic, 35f
biopolyamides, 33t–35t
poly(α-amino acids), 35–37
polycondensation
ω-amino carboxylic acids or
lactams, 35
of diamines and dicarboxylic acids,
32
Polyanhydrides, 52–53, 53f, 295
Poly(aspartic acid) (PASP), 453
Polyaspartate. See Poly(α-aspartic acid)
Poly(β-,γ-,δ-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs),
16, 16f, 17t
compositional diversity, 16
monomers, 16
P3HB, 17–19, 19f
P3HOs, 21–22, 22f
P4HB, 19–20, 20f
PHBHV, 20, 20f
PMLA, 22, 22f
production, 16
Poly(butylene adipate) (PBA), 25, 25f,
414, 462
Poly(β-malic acid) (PMLA), 22, 22f
Polybio film (Polyfilms), 151
Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)
(PBAT), 27–28, 28f, 113,
186–187, 236, 462
Poly(butylene carbonate) (PBC), 32
Poly(butylene sebacate-co-terephthalate)
(PBSET), 187
Poly(butylene-co-succinate adipate)
(PBSA), 25, 26f, 147–148,
188, 236
Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), 3, 24–25,
25f, 101, 105t, 140, 189, 237, 332,
408, 429, 445
Poly(2,3-butylene succinate), 25
Poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), 29,
145, 310
Polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene blend (PC/ABS blend),
233–234
Poly(cyclohexene carbonate)
(PCHC), 31
Polydioxanone (PDO), 30, 291, 294
Poly(d-lactic acid). See Poly(d-lactide)
(PDLA)
Poly(d-lactide) (PDLA), 9, 91–93,
234–235, 257–258, 291
crystallinity and thermal properties,
293t
Poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLLA), 291, 293,
301
Poly(d,l-lactide), 149. See also Poly
(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLLA).
Poly(d,l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)
(PDLLCL), 326534 Index
Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), 1–2, 22, 22f,
93–94, 100t, 142, 188, 234, 291,
293, 408, 429, 445
processing properties, 104
transition temperatures and crystallinity, 93–94
Poly(ester amides), 38
Poly(ester urethane) (PEU), 39–41,
315
Polyesters, 5
PADCs, 23–30
poly(hydroxy acids), 5–22
Poly(ether amides), 38
Poly(ethylene adipate) (PEA), 23
Poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), 31, 31f
Poly(ethylene furanoate) (PEF), 29, 29f
Poly(ethylene oxalate). See Polyoxalates
Poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), 24, 24f,
148, 192
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), 2,
29f, 139–140, 244, 310
Polyfunctional monomer, 236
Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA), 35–36,
36f
Polyglutamate. See Poly(γ-glutamic acid)
(γ-PGA)
Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS), 319–320
Poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), 1–2, 10–15,
91, 100t, 141, 188, 291, 293, 408,
445, 449, 481
crystalline behavior, 15
crystallinity and thermal properties,
293t
fibers, 15
gas barrier property, 15
processing properties, 103–104
transition temperatures and crystallinity, 93
Polyglycolide. See Poly(glycolic acid)
(PGA)
Poly(glycolide-co-trimethylene
carbonate) (PGTMC), 292
Poly(glycolide-co-ε-caprolactone)
(PGCL), 22, 291
Poly(hydroxy acids), 5
α-hydroxycarboxilic acid-derived,
11t–14t
PHAs, 16–22, 16f
poly(α-hydroxyalkanoic acids), 5–16
poly(ω-hydroxyalkanoates), 22, 22f
polylactones, 23t
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB), 17–19,
19f, 93, 99t, 139, 291, 408
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), 1–2, 93,
139, 187, 234, 257, 291, 293–294,
408, 445
commercial, 18t–19t
mechanical properties, 94–99
processing properties, 104
transition temperatures and crystallinity, 93
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-
hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx),
17, 21, 93, 94t, 291, 408
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-
hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV), 17,
20, 20f, 92t, 93, 96t–98t, 99–100,
104, 107, 109, 188, 291, 473
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-
hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB4HB),
17, 21, 21f, 93, 93t, 209
Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (P3HO), 16,
21–22, 22f
Poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP), 32
Poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (P3HV), 417
Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB), 19–20,
20f, 93, 100t, 291
Polylactide. See Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)
Polylactones, 23t
Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA). See Poly
(l-lactide) (PLLA)
Poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)
(PLLCL), 316
Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA), 91–93, 149,
234–235, 257–258, 291, 293
Poly(l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)
(PLGA), 15–16, 140, 188, 291,
293
crystallinity and thermal properties,
293t
Poly(l-lactide-co- d, l-lactide)
(PLDLLA), 291
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), 2–3, 6, 7f, 91,
105t, 139, 187, 233–234, 257,
291, 408, 445–449
crystallinity and thermal properties,
293t
fibers, 104–105
lactide
melting temperature, 7t
stereoisomeric forms, 7f
l,d-lactide, 8f
mechanical properties, 94–99
meso-lactide, 7
non-crystalline and crystalline state, 101f
PDLA, 9
PLA-molded articles, 100
PLLA, 9–10
processing properties, 102–103
properties, 8–10
scPLA, 9–10
stereoisomeric forms, 8f–9f
stereoisomers, 7
syndiotactic, 8–9
transition temperature, 9t
and crystallinity, 91–93
types, 7
Poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide). See Poly
(l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)
(PLGA)
Poly(lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate)
(PLTMC), 291
Poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL),
291
Polymandelide (PM), 10, 15f, 333
Polymeric dental implant, 344–345, 345f
Polymer panels, 470
Polymer properties, 91. See also
Biopolymers
intrinsic properties, 91
crystallinity, 91–94
density, 91, 92t
electromagnetic properties, 102
gas barrier properties, 99–100
mechanical properties, 94–99
solubility, 94
transition temperatures, 91–94
transparency, 100–102
patents, 118–135
processing properties, 102
PCL, 104
PGA, 103–104
PHA, 104
PLA, 102–103
product properties, 104
aesthetic properties, 109–111
antistatic properties, 108
environmental behavior, 111–117
flammability, 108–109
heat resistance, 106–107
mechanical behavior, 104–106
water resistance, 107–108
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), 449
Polymethylpentene (PMP), 109
Poly(oligo(tetramethylene succinate)-
co-(tetramethylene carbonate))
(PTMS/PTeMC), 32
Polyols, 40t, 258
Polyoxalates, 26
Poly(ortho esters) (POEs), 51–52, 52f,
292, 295
Poly(p-dioxanone). See Polydioxanone
(PDO)
Polyphosphazenes (PPHOSs), 53–54, 53f,
292, 295
Polypropylene, 99t
Poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC), 31–32,
31f
Poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), 26, 27f,
291, 294
Polysaccharides, 41
applications, 41
cellulose, 42–44
in foods and industrial applications,
41
vinyl polymers, 49–50
Polystyrene, 105t
Polysuccinimide (PSI), 453
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 315
Poly(tetramethylene adipate-coterephthalate) (PTeAT), 191
Poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC),
32, 291–292, 294Index 535
Poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT),
3, 29f, 263, 445
bio-based, 449
Polyurethanes, 38–41, 257–258
foams, 258
Poly(3-valeric acid) (P3HV), 317–318.
See also poly(3-hydroxyvalerate)
Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), 208
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH), 50, 51t–52t,
147, 188–189, 428, 445
Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), 50, 143,
185
Poly(vinylidene chloride) (PVDC), 143
Pore-forming agents, 458–460
patents, 460t
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), 304
PPC. See Poly(propylene carbonate)
PPF. See Poly(propylene fumarate)
PPHOSs. See Polyphosphazenes
Pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA), 337
Printed circuit boards (PCBs), 242–243
Processing properties, 102
PCL, 104
PGA, 103–104
PHA, 104
PLA, 102–103
Product properties, 104. See also Intrinsic
properties
aesthetic properties, 109–111
antistatic properties, 108
environmental behavior, 111–117
flammability, 108–109
heat resistance, 106–107
mechanical behavior, 104–106
water resistance, 107–108
Proppants, 457
PSA. See Pressure-sensitive adhesive
PSI. See Polysuccinimide
PTeAT. See Poly(tetramethylene
adipate-co-terephthalate)
PTFE. see Polyfluorotetraethylene
PTMC. See Poly(trimethylene carbonate)
PTMS/PTeMC. See Poly(oligo
(tetramethylene succinate)-co-
(tetramethylene carbonate))
PTT. See Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)
Pumping aids, 457
PushLock®, 307
Suture Anchor, 301
PVAc. See Poly(vinyl acetate)
PVC. See Poly(vinyl chloride)
PVDC. See Poly(vinylidene chloride)
PVOH. See Poly(vinyl alcohol)
Q
QPAC® 25, 31
QPAC® 60, 32
R
rac-lactide. See d, l-lactide
Random scission, 111–112
RapidLoc™ Meniscal Repair System
(Mitek), 302
Rapidsorb® plates, 308
Receptacles, 194–200
Recoil, 330
Repel-CV Bioresorbable Adhesion
Barrier, 321
Resorb X™, 308
Resorbable Fixation System (RFS™), 308
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE), 334
RFS™. See Resorbable Fixation System
RFS™ Screw System, 308
Rheology modifiers, 457–458
Rigid containers, 155–156. See also
Foam containers; Multilayered
containers
Ring-opening polymerization (ROP), 5
ROP. See Ring-opening polymerization
RPE. See Retinal pigment epithelial
S
Sachets, 149–150
Samsung Reclaim™, 239
s-bag®, 151
sbcPLA. See stereoblock copolymer PLA
scPLA. See isotactic stereocomplex;
stereocomplex poly(lactic acid)
SCR-100™ retarder, 454–455
Scrubs, 408–410
facial cleansing lotion, 409t
foaming body scrub, 409t
Sculptra®, 327
Seaweed fiber-reinforced biocomposite,
237, 238f
SEBS. See
Styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene
Second-generation feedstocks, 55
Seed tape, 198, 198f
Seedling raising pot, 198, 199f
Self-adhesive label (Bio4life), 146
Seprafilm™ adhesion barrier, 321
Set retarders, 454–455
patents, 456t
Sheet material, 264, 264f
short-chain-length PHAs (PHASCL), 16
Showa Highpolymer (JP), 25
Shrink films, 142. See also Biaxially
oriented films; Cling films
Shuttlecock for badminton game, 428f
Skin substitutes, 327–328
Slings, 312–314, 315f
SMS. See Spunbond–Meltblown–Spunbond
Soccer balls, 427
Soda lignin, 45–48
Soil erosion, 473–476
control blanket, 476f
erosion control sheet, 474f
multipart reusable levee bag, 475f
Solubility, 94
Sorbafix® fastener, 297
Sorona® EP thermoplastic polymers, 30
Sound absorbing structure, 263, 263f
Soy oil, 258
Speaker diaphragm, 240, 240f–241f
Spherulites, 106
Spinal fusion cages, 324–325
Sports articles, 427
badminton, 427
commercial applications, 430–431
golf, 427–429
biodegradable golf ball, 430f
Golf ball marker, 430f
golf tee, 429f
hollow inflatable balls, 427, 428f
patents, 439–442
shuttlecock for badminton game, 428f
sports accessories, 429–430
sports areas, 431
Spunbond–Meltblown–Spunbond (SMS),
334
Staples, 301–302, 301f
Starch, 44–45
starch-based products, 46t
Steering, 273t
Stents, 329–334, 330f
stereocomplex poly(lactic acid) (scPLA),
91–93, 234–235, 257–258, 291
String trimmer, 200, 200f
Styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene
(SEBS), 260
Subterranean constructions, 478–481
Sulfur dioxide (SO2), 451
Sulfurous acid (H2SO3), 451
Sunscreen preparations, 414–415
Superplasticizer, 454
Supla™ 155, 239
Surface effects, 109–110
Surface erosion. See Erosion
Surgical mesh, 312
Sutures, 295–297
SutureTak®, 301, 308
Syndiotactic PLA, 7–9
Synthesis gas, 49, 55
Synthetic grafts, 315
T
Tacks. See Meniscus repair devices
Tenacity, 203–206, 264
Tendons, 310–312, 311f
Tensile strength, 9–10, 20, 27, 32, 45, 91,
94, 99, 115, 141, 147, 157–158,
162–163, 186–187, 190, 193,
203, 205, 209, 234, 258, 292t,
293–294, 310, 331, 474–475
TephaFLEX®, 19, 312
Terramac®, 148, 239
Therapeutic imaging. See Diagnostic
imaging
Thermal degradation, 111–112
pathways of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate),
113f
PLA, 112f536 Index
Thermoplastic elastomer film (TPE film),
427
Thermoplastic polyurethane film (TPU
film), 39–41, 427
Thermoplastic starch film (TPS film), 150
Thermoplastic(s), 237–238
PAs, 238
polymer, 44, 185, 198
Thickener, 457
Thickening agent. See Thickener
Third-generation biomass, 55
Tissue-engineered vascular grafts, 316
Tm. See Melting temperature
TMC. See Trimethylene carbonate
Tone® polylactones, 22
Tone® series, 23t
Toys, 431–433
TPE film. See Thermoplastic elastomer film
TPS film. See Thermoplastic starch film
TPU film. See Thermoplastic
polyurethane film
Transition temperatures, 91–94
biopolymers, 95t–96t
Transparent bag, 146
Transparent nucleating agent, 106–107
Traps, 206–207
Trimethylene carbonate (TMC), 302–303,
325
Twist wrap film (Constantia Tobepal
S.L.), 146
U
Ultraviolet radiation (UV radiation),
112–113
Unexpanded stent, 331, 332f
Urns, 165
US Food and Drug Administration
(FDA), 325
UV radiation. See Ultraviolet radiation
V
Vascular closure devices (VCDs), 320
Vascular grafts, 314–318
VCDs. See Vascular closure devices
Vegetable oils, 38–39, 258
Vehicle
components, 258–259, 259f
door, 270, 270f
interior board, 262, 262f
panel, 271, 271f
seat assembly, 261, 261f
Vein valves, 318–319
Ventev™, 239
Ventilating, 276–277, 277t
Veofix resorbable pins, 308
Vestamid® Terra DS, 246
Vicryl™ Periodontal Mesh, 345
Vinyl polymers, 258
bio-PE, 49–50
bio-PP, 3, 258
biopolyolefins, 50t
polyolefins, 49–50
PVC, 50
PVOH, 50, 51t–52t
Viscosifiers, 457
Viscosity, 10, 17–19, 91–93, 102–103,
110, 158, 203–204, 209, 243, 325,
408–410, 428, 449, 451–454,
456–457, 461, 463–464, 467, 479
Viscosity enhancing agent. See Thickener
Vyloecol BE-400™, 155
Vyloecol BE-410™, 155
Vyloecol BE-450™, 155
Vyloecol BE-910™, 155
W
Water
resistance, 107–108
retention agents, 455–457
water-reducing agents, 454
water-soluble cellulose ethers, 455–456
waterproof sunscreen preparation, 415,
415t
Wave Creation® 10, 430
Wave Inspire® 5, 430
Wave Nirvana®, 430
Wave Rider® 12, 430
Wearing resistance, 104–106
Welan gum, 452
Wet-laid nonwovens, 334
Wheel cap, 275, 275f
Wheel parts, 274–275, 276t
Wood plastic composites (WPCs),
465–467
patents, 466t
window assembly, 467f
Wound dressings, 328–329
WPCs. See Wood plastic composites
Wraps, 334
Z
Zytel®, 246
Zytel® RS, 431
Zytel® RS HTN, 238537
A
ABBOTT CARDIOVASCULAR
SYSTEMS INC, 10, 56t–85t
ABE SHUNSUKE, 56t–85t, 118t–135t
ADVANCED CARDIOVASCULAR
SYSTEM, 331, 332f, 333,
348t–399t
AESCULAP AG, 297, 348t–399t
AGRI BIOINDUSTRY KK, 236,
247t–254t
AGRI POLYMERIX LLC, 467, 467f,
482t–504t
AGROFERM A G, 94, 97t–98t,
118t–135t
AICELLO CHEMICAL CO, 5, 433,
433f, 435t–442t
AJINOMOTO KK, 455, 456t,
482t–504t
AKAD WISSENSCHAFTEN DDR,
97t–98t, 118t–135t
AKZO NOBEL NV, 451–452, 482t–504t
ALKERMES INC, 339, 342t–344t,
348t–399t
ALT ECKHARD, 342t–344t, 348t–399t
ALZA CORP, 51–52, 56t–85t
AMCOR FLEXIBLES TRANSPAC NV,
166t–182t
AMERICAN CYANAMID CO, 97t–98t,
110, 118t–135t, 413, 420t–424t
AMERICAN HOSPITAL SUPPLY
CORP, 320, 348t–399t
ANDERSEN CORP, 445–449, 470,
482t–504t
ANVAR, 307, 348t–399t
AQUALON GMBH, 451, 455–456,
482t–504t
ARACO CORP, 266t–267t, 269t,
280t–288t
ARJOWIGGINS PALALDA SAS, 334,
348t–399t
ARTHREX MED INSTR GMBH, 309,
309f, 348t–399t
ASAHI CHEMICAL IND, 143, 144t,
166t–182t, 189, 213–231
ASAHI DENKA KOGYO KK, 9–10,
56t–85t
ASAHI KASEI CHEMICALS CORP,
408–410, 420t–424t
ASAHI KASEI LIFE & LIVING CORP,
109, 118t–135t
ASAHI KOSAN, 276, 276f, 280t–288t
ASTRA MEDITEC AB, 20, 56t–85t
ATRIX LAB INC, 329, 348t–399t
AUSTRIA TECH & SYSTEM TECH,
292, 348t–399t
AUTOLIV DEV, 264, 280t–288t
AUTONETWORKS TECHNOLOGIES
LTD, 245, 246f, 247t–254t
AVON PROD INC, 416, 416f, 420t–424t
AVRAHAM AMIR, 327, 348t–399t
AWATA TATSUYA, 420t–424t
B
BALL HORTICULTURAL CO,
198–199, 199f, 213–231
BASF AG, 4–5, 26–28, 56t–85t, 95t–96t,
100, 113, 118t–135t, 186
BASF CONSTRUCTION POLYMERS
GMBH, 457, 482t–504t
BASF SE, 41, 56t–85t, 97t–98t,
118t–135t, 187, 213–231
BAYER AG, 38, 56t–85t, 95t–96t,
446t–447t, 453, 482t–504t
BAYER MATERIALSCIENCE AG, 41,
56t–85t
BEIJING AUTOMOBILE CO LTD,
266t–267t, 272t, 280t–288t
BENTLE PRODUCTS AG, 198, 198f,
213–231
BERG GEBERT ALEX, 194, 213–231
BIAX INTERNAT INC, 166t–182t
BILLERUDS AB, 166t–182t
BIO DYNAMICS LTD, 428, 435t–442t
BIO MATERIAL UNIVERS KK,
56t–85t
BIO MATERIARU YUNIBAASU KK,
328–329, 348t–399t
BIOAT INC, 188, 188f, 213–231
BIOENGINEERED MATERIALS INC,
331, 332f, 348t–399t
BIOGENICS INC, 412, 412f, 420t–424t
BIOP BIOPOLYMER GMBH, 56t–85t
BIOTEC BIOLOG NATURVERPACK,
477, 482t–504t
BIOTRONIK MESS & THERAPIEG,
334, 348t–399t
BIT KK, 276, 276f, 280t–288t
BK GIULINI CHEM GMBH & CO
OHG, 456t, 482t–504t
BOEHRINGER INGELHEIM INT, 6,
56t–85t
BOEHRINGER INGELHEIM KG, 6,
56t–85t, 107, 118t–135t
BOSTON SCIENT SCIMED INC, 314,
315f, 348t–399t
BOUYA HIDEKAZU, 118t–135t,
247t–254t
BRANDCASTER LIMITED, 446t–447t,
459, 460t, 482t–504t
BRASKEM SA, 49, 50t, 55, 56t–85t
BROOKWOOD PHARMACEUTICALS
INC, 338–339, 348t–399t
BSES LTD, 199, 213–231
BUNA SOW LEUNA OLEFINVERB
GMBH, 97t–98t, 118t–135t
C
CABRERA BARJA GUSTAVO, 194,
213–231
CANON KK, 209, 213–231
CARGILL DOW LLC, 106, 118t–135t
CARGILL INC, 5, 56t–85t, 103, 110,
118t–135t
CELANESE ACETATE LLC, 42, 56t–85t
CELONOVA BIOSCIENCES INC, 308,
319, 348t–399t
CENTRAL RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT CONCRETE
INDUSTRY “CEBET”,
446t–447t, 459, 460t, 482t–504t
CEREPLAST INC, 152, 166t–182t
CERESTAR HOLDING BV, 45, 56t–85t
Index of Companies
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” indicate figures and “t” indicate tables.538 Index of Companies
CERVINO KIM, 407–408, 409t,
420t–424t
CHANGCHUN APPLIED CHEMISTRY,
31, 56t–85t
CHANGCHUN INSTITUTE OF
APPLIED CHEMISTRY
CHINESE ACADEMY OF
SCIENCES, 31, 56t–85t
CHILDRENS MEDICAL CENTER, 325,
348t–399t
CHISSO CORP, 213–231
CHUBU TOKUSHU GOHAN KK,
434–435, 435t–442t
CHUKOH CHEM IND, 206, 206f,
213–231
CLARIANT GMBH, 455–456, 482t–504t
COCA COLA CO, 28, 28t, 56t–85t, 162,
166t–182t
CODMAN & SHURTLEFF, 324,
348t–399t
COHERA MEDICAL INC, 337,
348t–399t
COLLEGE WILLIAM & MARY,
206–207, 207f, 213–231, 407,
410, 420t–424t
COLOPLAST AS, 312, 348t–399t
COLOR & PAINT MALEREIBETRIEB
G, 446t–447t, 461, 482t–504t
CONCEPT, 302, 303t, 304f, 348t–399t
CONNAUGHT LAB, 35, 56t–85t
CONSTR RES & TECH GMBH, 445,
446t–447t, 459–460, 482t–504t
CONWED CORP, 194, 213–231
CONWED PLASTICS LLC, 191,
213–231
COOK LYNNWOOD C, 194–195, 195f,
213–231
COOKE JR CLAUDE E, 463t, 482t–504t
CORDIS CORP, 305, 319–320, 319f,
348t–399t
CORNELL RES FOUNDATION INC,
38, 39f, 56t–85t
COSMETICS ROORANDO KK,
410–411, 420t–424t
COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC &
INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH,
21–22, 56t–85t
CRESCENT INNOVATIONS INC, 36,
56t–85t
CROWN CORK JAPAN, 163–164,
166t–182t
D
DAICEL CHEM, 9, 147, 150, 166t–182t,
187–189, 213–231, 244,
247t–254t
DAIMLER CHRYSLER AG, 265,
266t–267t, 277t, 280t–288t
DAINIPPON INK & CHEMICALS,
200–201, 213–231
DAINIPPON PLASTICS, 150, 166t–182t
DAINIPPON PRINTING CO LTD, 201,
201f, 213–231, 277, 277f,
280t–288t, 432–433, 433f,
435t–438t, 470, 471f, 482t–504t
DAITO KASEI KOGYO CO LTD,
415–416, 420t–424t
DAIWA SEIKO INC, 208–209, 209f,
213–231
DAN LORRAINE ELLEN, 416,
420t–424t
DANUBIA PETROCHEM POLYMERE,
97t–98t, 118t–135t
DARLING & CO, 48, 56t–85t
DAVIS & GECK INC, 348t–399t
DEBIO RECH PHARMA SA, 25,
56t–85t
DEBIOPHARM SA, 339–340,
342t–344t, 348t–399t
DEGRADABLE SOLUTIONS AG, 345,
345f, 348t–399t
DEGUSSA CONSTRUCTION
POLYMERS, 457, 482t–504t
DENTIGENIX INC, 293t, 348t–399t
DEBIOPHARM S A, 338, 342t–344t,
348t–399t
DEPUY MITEK INC, 302–303,
348t–399t
DONLAR CORP, 36–37, 56t–85t, 478,
482t–504t
DOW CHEMICAL CO, 451, 457,
482t–504t
DOW WOLFF CELLULOSICS GMBH,
449–451, 482t–504t
DOWNNARA CO LTD, 466t, 482t–504t
DSM IP ASSETS BV, 38, 56t–85t
DU PONT, 5, 9, 26–27, 30, 56t–85t, 110,
118t–135t, 199, 213–231, 233,
238, 247t–254t
DU PONT (ETHICON INC), 30, 56t–85t
DURETTE JEAN-FRANCOIS, 335–336,
348t–399t
E
EASTMAN CHEM CO, 56t–85t,
118t–135t, 185–186, 213–231
EBLING-SCHNEIDER KURT,
446t–447t, 482t–504t
ECO K & C CO LTD, 462, 463t,
482t–504t
ECOLGREEN CO LTD, 431, 435t–442t
E2E MATERIALS, 257, 271, 271f, 272t,
280t–288t
EE T GIKEN KK, 468, 469f, 482t–504t
ELC MAN LLC, 416–417, 420t–424t
ELIXIR MEDICAL CORP, 333, 335t,
348t–399t
ELLIS FOSTER CO, 26, 56t–85t
ELOTEX AG, 464, 482t–504t
ENSO OYJ, 152, 153f, 166t–182t
EPA JAPAN KK, 148, 166t–182t
ERBA CARLO SPA, 339, 342t–344t,
348t–399t
ERFURT & SOHN KG, 482t–504t
ETHICON INC, 22, 23t, 30, 56t–85t
ETHOX CHEMICALS LLC, 415, 415t,
420t–424t
EVOLVE GOLF INC, 429, 429f,
439t–442t
EXTRUWOOD GMBH, 466t, 482t–504t
F
FABER CASTELL A W, 417, 420t–424t
FAR EASTERN TEXTILE LTD, 106,
118t–135t, 152, 166t–182t
FASALEX PATENT UND
LIZENZVERWE, 466t, 482t–504t
FISCHER ARTUR, 433, 434f, 435t–442t
FLAMEL TECH SA, 36, 56t–85t
FOODSOURCE LURE CORP, 207–208,
213–231
FOOESU KK, 468, 469f, 482t–504t
FORD GLOBAL TECH LLC, 258, 265,
265f, 280t–288t
FRAUNHOFER GES FORSCHUNG, 45,
48, 56t–85t, 154, 166t–182t, 418,
420t–424t, 482t–504t
FRAZIER TECHNOLOGIES LLC,
482t–504t
FUJI MOLD KK, 208, 213–231
FUJI OIL CO LTD, 446t–447t, 459, 460t,
482t–504t
FUJI PHOTO FILM CO LTD, 234,
247t–254t
FUJI XEROX CO LTD, 108–109,
118t–135t
FUJIKO KK, 190, 213–231
FUJIKURA LTD, 244, 244f, 247t–254t,
273t, 280t–288t
FUJIOKA YUKIYA, 207–208, 213–231
FUJITSU LTD, 108–109, 118t–135t,
234–236, 234f, 242, 247t–254t
FURUKAWA ELECTRIC CO LTD, 244,
247t–254t
G
G C DENTAL IND CORP, 429–430,
435t–442t
G5 INTERNAT HOLDINGS PTE LTD,
209, 213–231
GALATEA CORP, 312, 313t–314t,
348t–399t
GEN HOSPITAL CORP, 325, 348t–399t
GEN VASCULAR DEVICES LTD, 331,
332f, 348t–399t
GENENCOR INT, 30, 56t–85t
GORE & ASS, 321, 348t–399t
GOSEN KK, 205, 213–231, 430,
435t–442t
GRACE W R & CO, 97t–98tIndex of Companies 539
GRANDE DANIEL A, 322, 348t–399t
GREEN PRODUCTS BV, 193, 198, 199f,
213–231
GULF OIL CORP, 6, 56t–85t
GUNZE KK, 147, 166t–182t, 192,
203–204, 213–231
GUSTAFSSON GERT OVE, 446t–447t,
459, 460t, 482t–504t
H
HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERV
INC, 446t–447t, 454–455, 456t,
478–480, 482t–504t
HANKOOK B F CO LTD, 198, 213–231
HARIMA CHEMICALS INC, 446t–447t,
459, 460t, 482t–504t
HAVERICH AXEL, 318–319,
348t–399t
HEISEI POLYMER KK, 190, 213–231
HELMERICH GMBH, 461, 482t–504t
HELMUT LINGEMANN GMBH & CO
KG, 469–470, 482t–504t
HERAEUS MEDICAL GMBH, 292,
348t–399t
HERCULES INC, 428, 435t–442t,
455–456, 464, 482t–504t
HIKARI KEIKAKU SEKKEI JIMUSYO
CO LTD, 477, 482t–504t
HITACHI PLANT TECHNOLOGIES
LTD, 24–25, 56t–85t
HITACHI SHIPBUILDING ENG CO,
10, 56t–85t
HOECHST AG, 455–456, 458, 482t–504t
HOLZER T, 48, 56t–85t
HONDA TAKASHI, 280t–288t
HOWA TRAMICO, 263, 266t–267t,
280t–288t
HOWMEDICA, 307, 348t–399t
HUETTERMANN A, 48, 56t–85t
HUMACYTE, 316, 318t, 348t–399t
HYUNDAI MOTOR CO LTD, 97t–98t,
118t–135t, 257–258, 264,
266t–267t, 280t–288t
I
IBM, 242, 247t–254t
ICI PLC, 17, 20, 56t–85t, 97t–98t,
118t–135t, 149, 166t–182t
ICON INTERVENTIONAL SYSTEMS
IN, 348t–399t
IMP INNOVATIONS LTD, 36, 56t–85t
IMPLANT DESIGN AG, 324, 348t–399t
INCISIVE SURGICAL IN, 303t,
348t–399t
IND TECHNICAL R & D LAB INC,
213–231
INDE PLASTIK BETR SGMBH, 154,
166t–182t
INFLOW DYNAMICS INC, 342t–344t,
348t–399t
INNOCORE TECHNOLOGIES B V,
340–341, 348t–399t
INNOVASIVE DEVICES INC, 303t,
348t–399t
INNOVIA FILMS LTD, 155, 166t–182t
INOUE MTP KK, 272t, 280t–288t
INST CHIMII MACROMOLECULAR,
316, 317t
INST FIZIOL IM I S BERITASHVIL,
41, 56t–85t
INT PAPER CO, 152–153, 153f,
166t–182t
IRE CHEMICAL LTD, 24t, 26–27, 27t,
56t–85t
ISHIDA CO LTD, 148, 149f, 166t–182t
ITN JAPAN CO LTD, 468, 468f,
482t–504t
J
JAPAN VILENE CO LTD, 411,
420t–424t
JFE STEEL KK, 211, 213–231
JMS CO LTD, 320, 346–347, 347f,
348t–399t
JOHNSON & JOHNSON
ORTHOPAEDICS, 304–305,
348t–399t
JOHNSON & JOHNSON PROD INC,
348t–399t
JOHNSON CONTROLS TECH CO, 263,
263f, 266t–267t, 280t–288t
JSR CORP


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