كتاب Safety at Work Seventh Edition
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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الرئيسيةالبوابةأحدث الصورالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Safety at Work Seventh Edition

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مدير المنتدى
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عدد المساهمات : 18606
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Safety at Work Seventh Edition  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Safety at Work Seventh Edition    كتاب Safety at Work Seventh Edition  Emptyالأربعاء 13 ديسمبر 2023, 11:30 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Safety at Work Seventh Edition
Edited by
John Ridley and John Channing  

كتاب Safety at Work Seventh Edition  S_a_w_15
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Contents
Foreword xvii
Preface to seventh edition xix
Preface to first edition xxi
List of contributors xxiii
Part 1 Law 1
1.1 Explaining the law Brenda Watts 3
1.1.1 Introduction 3
1.1.2 The incident 3
1.1.3 Some possible actions arising from the incident 3
1.1.4 Legal issues of the incident 4
1.1.5 Criminal and civil law 4
1.1.6 Branches of law 5
1.1.7 Law and fact 7
1.1.8 The courts 7
1.1.9 Judicial precedent 17
1.1.10 Court procedure 18
1.1.11 Identity of court personnel 23
1.1.12 Employment Tribunals 25
1.1.13 European community courts (ECJ) 26
1.1.14 Human Rights Courts 28
1.1.15 Sources of English Law 29
1.1.16 Legislation 30
1.1.17 Safety legislation before the Health and Safety at
Work etc. Act 36
1.1.18 Safety legislation today 37
1.1.19 Principles developed by the courts 40vi Contents
1.2 Principal health and safety Acts S. Simpson 48
1.2.1 The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 48
1.2.2 The Factories Act 1961 58
1.2.3 Fire precautions 58
1.2.4 The Mines and Quarries Acts 1954–71 58
1.2.5 The Environmental Protection Act 1990 58
1.2.6 The road traffic Acts 1972–91 59
1.2.7 The Public Health Act 1936 59
1.2.8 Petroleum (Consolidation) Act 1928 60
1.2.9 Activity Centres (Young Persons Safety) Act 1995 60
1.2.10 Crown premises 60
1.2.11 Subordinate legislation 61
1.3 Influences on health and safety J. R. Ridley 64
1.3.1 Introduction 64
1.3.2 The Robens Report 64
1.3.3 Delegation of law-making powers 65
1.3.4 Legislative framework for health and safety 66
1.3.5 Self-regulation 67
1.3.6 Goal-setting legislation 68
1.3.7 European Union 69
1.3.8 European standards 72
1.3.9 Our social partners 74
1.3.10 Social expectations 74
1.3.11 Public expectations 75
1.3.12 Political influences 75
1.3.13 Roles in health and safety 76
1.3.14 Safety culture 77
1.3.15 Quality culture 77
1.3.16 No fault liability 78
1.3.17 Risk assessments 78
1.3.18 Risk aversion 79
1.3.19 Conclusion 80
1.4 Law of contract R. W. Hodgin 82
1.4.1 Contracts 82
1.4.2 Contracts of employment 85
1.4.3 Employment legislation 86
1.4.4 Law of sale 88
1.4.5 Specialised legislation affecting occupational
safety advisers 90
1.5 Employment law R. D. Miskin, updated by Sabahhit Ali 94
1.5.1 Introduction 94
1.5.2 Employment law 94
1.5.3 Discrimination 96
1.5.4 Disciplinary procedures 104
1.5.5 Dismissal 107
1.5.6 Summary 116Contents vii
1.6 Consumer protection R. G. Lawson 118
1.6.1 Fair conditions of contract 118
1.6.2 A fair quality of goods and services 126
1.6.3 Product safety 128
1.6.4 Product liability 134
1.6.5 Misleading advertising 136
1.6.6 Exclusion clauses 138
1.6.7 Distance selling 141
1.6.8 Stop now orders 141
1.6.9 Consumer redress 142
1.7 Insurance cover and compensation A. West 145
1.7.1 Workmen’s compensation and the State
insurance scheme 145
1.7.2 Employer’s liability insurance 148
1.7.3 Public Liability insurance 154
1.7.4 Investigation, negotiation and the quantum of
damage 155
1.7.5 General 159
1.8 Civil liability E. J. Skellett, updated by David Greenhalgh 160
1.8.1 Introduction 160
1.8.2 The common law and its development 160
1.8.3 The law of tort 161
1.8.4 Occupier’s Liability Acts 1957 and 1984 165
1.8.5 Supply of goods 166
1.8.6 Employer’s liability 167
1.8.7 Employer’s Liability (Defective Equipment) Act 1969 170
1.8.8 Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 170
1.8.9 Defences to a civil liability claim 170
1.8.10 Volenti non fit injuria 171
1.8.11 Limitation 172
1.8.12 Assessment of damages 172
1.8.13 Fatal accidents 174
1.8.14 ‘No fault’ liability system 175
Part 2 The management of risk 177
2.1 An introduction to risk management J. E. Channing 179
2.1.1 Introduction 179
2.1.2 The components of risk 181
2.1.3 Strategies to control risk 184
2.1.4 Risk management in the 21st century 188
2.2 Principles of the management of risk L. Bamber 191
2.2.1 Principles of action necessary to prevent accidents 191
2.2.2 Definitions of hazard, risk and danger 192
2.2.3 Risk management 194
2.2.4 Loss control 197
2.2.5 Degrees of hazard 202viii Contents
2.2.6 Accident causation models 202
2.2.7 Accident prevention: legal, humanitarian and
economic reasons for action 204
2.3 Risk management: organisation and administration
for safety J. E. Channing 209
2.3.1 Introduction 209
2.3.2 Organisation structure models 210
2.3.3 Roles and responsibilities 213
2.3.4 Work groups 216
2.3.5 Organisational theory 218
2.3.6 Organisational techniques 220
2.3.7 Culture 224
2.3.8 Potential problems 225
2.3.9 The role of specialists in the organisation 228
2.3.10 Conclusion 229
2.4 Risk management: techniques and practices L. Bamber 230
2.4.1 Risk identification, assessment and control 230
2.4.2 Job safety analysis 236
2.4.3 System safety 241
2.4.4 Systems theory and design 243
2.4.5 System safety engineering 246
2.4.6 Fault tree analysis 247
2.4.7 Probabilistic risk assessments 248
2.4.8 Health and safety in design and planning 249
2.4.9 Quality, Environment, Safety and Health
Management Systems (QUENSH) 251
2.4.10 Use of data on accidents 253
2.4.11 Maintenance systems and planned maintenance 254
2.4.12 Damage control 255
2.4.13 Cost-effectiveness of risk management 257
2.4.14 Performance evaluation and appraisal 260
2.4.15 Loss control profiling 263
2.5 The collection and use of accident and incident data
Dr A. J. Boyle 267
2.5.1 Introduction 267
2.5.2 Types of accident and incident data 267
2.5.3 Collection of accident and incident data 271
2.5.4 Legal requirements to notify accidents and
incidents 275
2.5.5 The use of accident and incident data 275
2.5.6 Epidemiological analysis 283
2.5.7 Accident investigation 285
2.5.8 Accident and incident data and risk assessment data 296
2.5.9 The use of computers 297
Appendix. UK requirements for reporting accidents and
incidents 302Contents ix
2.6 Practical safety management: systems and techniques
J. E. Channing 307
2.6.1 Introduction 307
2.6.2 Legal obligations 308
2.6.3 Generic safety management 309
2.6.4 Implementing a regulation within a safety
management system 313
2.6.5 Safety management and housekeeping 319
2.6.6 Assessment techniques 321
2.6.7 Proprietary audit systems 326
2.6.8 Safety systems and incidents 327
2.6.9 Learning organisations 328
2.6.10 Safety management systems in small organisations 330
2.6.11 Limitations of safety systems 331
2.6.12 Conclusion 331
2.7 The individual and safety Andrew Hale 333
2.7.1 Introduction: What does this chapter try to do? 333
2.7.2 Individuals as controllers of danger 335
2.7.3 Behavioural science and the human information
processor 340
2.7.4 Individual behaviour in the face of danger 355
2.7.5 Change 377
2.7.6 Conclusion 389
2.8 Risk management and behaviour modification
J. E. Channing 393
2.8.1 Introduction 393
2.8.2 Behaviour modification for employees 395
2.8.3 Behaviour modification for managers and
supervisors 406
2.8.4 Applying behaviour concepts to incident
investigation 411
2.8.5 Behaviour concepts and the safety management
system 412
2.8.6 Risk, behaviour, leadership and commitment 415
2.8.7 Behaviour modification processes: the hazards 416
2.8.8 Behaviour and safety culture 417
2.8.9 Conclusion 418
Part 3 Occupational health and hygiene 423
3.1 The structure and functions of the human body
Dr T. Coates 425
3.1.1 Introduction 425
3.1.2 History 425
3.1.3 The functions of an occupational health department 427
3.1.4 Overseas developments 428
3.1.5 Risks to health at work 429
3.1.6 Occupational hygiene 429x Contents
3.1.7 First aid at work 431
3.1.8 Basic human anatomy and physiology 432
3.1.9 Cancer and other problems of cell growth 447
3.1.10 The body’s defence mechanisms 448
3.1.11 Factors determining the effect of substances in
the body 449
3.1.12 The assessment of risk to health 449
3.2 Occupational diseases Dr A. R. L. Clark 451
3.2.1 Introduction 451
3.2.2 Toxicology 451
3.2.3 Diseases of the skin 455
3.2.4 Diseases of the respiratory system 458
3.2.5 Diseases from metals 463
3.2.6 Pesticides 468
3.2.7 Solvents 468
3.2.8 Gassing 473
3.2.9 Oxygen deficiency 475
3.2.10 Occupational cancer 476
3.2.11 Physical agents 478
3.2.12 Ionising radiations 479
3.2.13 Noise-induced hearing loss 482
3.2.14 Working in heat 485
3.2.15 Work related upper limb disorders (WRULD) 485
3.2.16 Diseases due to micro-organisms 486
3.2.17 Psycho-social disorders 489
3.2.18 Target organs 490
3.3 Occupational hygiene Dr C. Hartley 494
3.3.1 Recognition 494
3.3.2 Evaluation 494
3.3.3 Control measures 514
3.3.4 Summary 522
3.4 Radiation Dr A. D. Wrixon and updated by
Peter Shaw and Dr M. Maslanyj 524
3.4.1 Introduction 524
3.4.2 Structure of matter 524
3.4.3 Radioactivity 525
3.4.4 Ionising radiation 525
3.4.5 Biological effects of ionising radiation 526
3.4.6 Quantities and units 527
3.4.7 Basic principles of radiological protection 528
3.4.8 Legal requirements 532
3.4.9 Health Protection Agency 536
3.4.10 Incidents and emergencies 536
3.4.11 Non-ionising radiation 537
3.5 Noise and vibration R. W. Smith and updated by Terry Bramer 542
3.5.1 What is sound? 542
3.5.2 Other terms commonly found in acoustics 545Contents xi
3.5.3 Transmission of sound 548
3.5.4 The sound level meter 549
3.5.5 The ear 550
3.5.6 The equivalent noise level 552
3.5.7 Community noise levels 553
3.5.8 Work area noise levels 554
3.5.9 Noise control techniques 555
3.5.10 Vibration 564
3.5.11 Summary 565
3.6 Workplace pollution, heat and ventilation F. S. Gill 567
3.6.1 Methods of assessment of workplace air
pollution 568
3.6.2 Measurement of the thermal environment 571
3.6.3 Standards for workplace environments 572
3.6.4 Ventilation control of a workplace environment 574
3.6.5 Assessment of performance of ventilation systems 576
3.7 Lighting E. G. Hooper and updated by Jonathan David 581
3.7.1 Introduction 581
3.7.2 The eye 581
3.7.3 Eye conditions 582
3.7.4 Definitions 583
3.7.5 Types of lighting 585
3.7.6 Illuminances 586
3.7.7 Factors affecting the quality of lighting 588
3.7.8 Emergency lighting 591
3.7.9 Recycling and dangerous substances 592
3.7.10 Use of light measuring instruments 592
3.8 Applied ergonomics J. R. Ridley 594
3.8.1 Introduction 594
3.8.2 Physiology 596
3.8.3 Working environment 609
3.8.4 Manual handling 615
3.8.5 Repetitive actions 616
3.8.6 Plant design 617
3.8.7 Controls and indicators 617
3.8.8 Noise and vibrations 620
3.8.9 Stress 621
3.8.10 Display screen equipment (DSE) 622
3.8.11 Signs and signals 623
3.8.12 The written word 624
3.8.13 Coda 624
Part 4 Workplace safety 627
4.1 Science in engineering safety J. R. Ridley 629
4.1.1 Introduction 629
4.1.2 Structure of matter 629xii Contents
4.1.3 Properties of chemicals 631
4.1.4 Physical properties 635
4.1.5 Energy and work 641
4.1.6 Mechanics 642
4.1.7 Strength of materials 643
4.1.8 Modes of failure 645
4.1.9 Testing 645
4.1.10 Hydraulics 646
4.1.11 Summary 647
4.2 Fire precautions Ray Chalklen 649
4.2.1 Introduction 649
4.2.2 Basic fire technology 649
4.2.3 Fire hazards and their control 652
4.2.4 Fire alarms and detectors 656
4.2.5 Classification of fires 663
4.2.6 Portable fire-fighting equipment 665
4.2.7 Fixed fire-fighting equipment 672
4.2.8 Fire safety signs 680
4.2.9 Means of escape in case of fire 680
4.2.10 Fire engineering 684
4.2.11 Fire protection measures 685
4.2.12 Legal requirements 689
4.2.13 Fire risk assessment 694
4.2.14 Access and facilities for the fire brigade 697
4.2.15 Fire terminology 698
4.3 Safe use of machinery J. R. Ridley 704
4.3.1 Introduction 704
4.3.2 Strategy for selecting safeguards 711
4.3.3 Safeguarding techniques 714
4.3.4 Powered trucks 725
4.3.5 Lifting equipment 728
4.3.6 Pressure systems 736
4.3.7 Coda 740
4.4 Electricity E. G. Hooper and revised by Chris Buck 743
4.4.1 Alternating and direct currents 743
4.4.2 Electricity supply 744
4.4.3 Statutory requirements 746
4.4.4 Voltage levels 747
4.4.5 Electrical accidents 748
4.4.6 The basic electrical circuit 748
4.4.7 Dangers from electricity 749
4.4.8 Protective means 752
4.4.9 Competence 755
4.4.10 Permits-to-work 756
4.4.11 Static electricity 758
4.4.12 Use of electricity in adverse or hazardous
environments 759Contents xiii
4.4.13 Electrical equipment in flammable atmospheres 760
4.4.14 Portable tools 762
4.4.15 Residual current devices 763
4.4.16 Maintenance 764
4.4.17 Conclusion 764
4.5 Statutory examination of plant and equipment
J. McMullen and updated by Cameron Sinclair 767
4.5.1 Introduction 767
4.5.2 Legislation 768
4.5.3 Pressure systems 768
4.5.4 Lifting equipment 774
4.5.5 Power presses and press brakes 779
4.5.6 Local exhaust ventilation 781
4.5.7 Electrical equipment and installations 783
4.5.8 Other considerations 785
4.5.9 Conclusion 787
4.6 Safety on construction sites R. Hudson 792
4.6.1 Construction accidents 792
4.6.2 Safe working in the industry 793
4.6.3 Construction site hazards 797
4.6.4 Access 808
4.6.5 Lifting and Equipment Operations 810
4.6.6 Welfare facilities 815
4.6.7 Other relevant legislation 816
4.7 Managing chemicals safely John Adamson 821
4.7.1 Introduction 821
4.7.2 Chemical data 821
4.7.3 Source of information 822
4.7.4 Risk assessments 823
4.7.5 Minimising the risk 827
4.7.6 Legislative requirements 831
4.7.7 Storage of substances 837
4.7.8 Transport 841
4.7.9 Plant and process design 843
4.7.10 Further safety studies 851
4.7.11 Plant modifications 852
4.7.12 Safe systems of work 852
4.7.13 Laboratories 854
4.7.14 Emergency procedures 857
4.7.15 REACH 857
4.7.16 Conclusions 858
Part 5 The environment 861
5.1 The environment: issues, concepts and strategies
J. E. Channing 863
5.1.1 Introduction 863
5.1.2 Environmental predictions 864xiv Contents
5.1.3 Sustainable development 865
5.1.4 Environmental hazards 867
5.1.5 Evaluating environmental risks 870
5.1.6 Environmental control strategies 874
5.1.7 Conclusion 876
5.2 Environmental management systems J. E. Channing 878
5.2.1 Introduction 878
5.2.2 Establishing an environmental management system 880
5.2.3 Additional EMAS requirements 889
5.2.4 Conclusions 889
5.3 Waste management Samantha Moss 891
5.3.1 Introduction 891
5.3.2 Waste authorities 892
5.3.3 National waste strategies 893
5.3.4 Defining waste 895
5.3.5 The waste hierarchy 897
5.3.6 Waste management in practice 897
5.3.7 Waste minimisation 913
5.3.8 Other waste management legislation 922
5.3.9 The cost of failure to manage waste effectively 924
5.3.10 Conclusion 925
5.4 Chemicals and the environment J. L. Adamson 928
5.4.1 Introduction 928
5.4.2 Chemical data 928
5.4.3 Risk reduction 929
5.4.4 The Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA) 929
5.4.5 Minimising environmental harm 933
5.4.6 Air pollution: control measures and
abatement techniques 936
5.4.7 Monitoring atmospheric pollution 938
5.4.8 Control of water pollution 941
5.4.9 Groundwater pollution 942
5.4.10 Waste disposal and duty of care 944
5.4.11 Reuse or recycling of industrial waste 952
5.4.12 Environmental management systems 953
5.4.13 Conclusion 955
5.5 The environment at large G. N. Batts 956
5.5.1 Introduction 956
5.5.2 Environmental issues 957
5.5.3 The environment and the media 963
5.5.4 The global impact of environmental issues 963
5.5.5 Ethical investing and green procurement 964
5.5.6 Increasing environmental legislation, controls and
public reporting 966
5.5.7 End-of-pipe control 9665.5.8 Polluter pays 967
5.5.9 Producer or shared responsibility 968
5.5.10 Environmental management system (EMS) and
sustainable development 969
5.5.11 Corporate social responsibility 971
Appendix 1 The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health 977
Appendix 2 Reading for the NEBOSH level 6 Diploma
examination 978
Appendix 3 List of abbreviations 980
Appendix 4 Organisations providing safety information 986
Appendix 5 List of Statutes, Regulations and Orders 988
Appendix 6 List of Cases 994
Index 999
Contents xv k999
5S’s approach, 319–21
16 personality factors, 347
Abatement equipment, 936–8
Abatement Notices, 932–3
ABC model, 396–400
ABS see Anti-locking braking systems
Absorption, 527–8, 557–62, 937
Abstraction of water, 924
AC see Alternating current
ACAS disciplinary procedure Code of
Practice, 105
Acceptable risk values, 183
Access
construction sites, 808–11
cranes, 734
fire brigade, 697–8
Accident and incident data, 267–306
accident investigations, 285–95
collection, 271–5, 286–93
computer usage, 297–302
definitions, 268, 271, 281
epidemiological analysis, 283–5
legal requirements, 275, 302–6
qualitative differences, 268–9
quantitative differences, 269–71
reporting, 271–4, 293–4, 302–6
risk assessment data, 296–7
trend analysis, 275–83
types, 267–71
usage, 275–83
Accident investigations, 285–95
advanced techniques, 295
information collection, 286–93
minor incidents, 294–5
near misses, 294–5
what happened, 286–90
why things happened, 290–3
writing reports, 293–4
Accident prevention, 205–7
definitions, 191–2
economic reasons, 205–7, 260–1, 263
humanitarian reasons, 205–6, 260–1,
263
legal reasons, 205, 260–1, 263
Accident Prevention Advisory Unit
(APAU), 260
Accident proneness theory, 333
Accident triangles, 270–1
Accidents
age distribution, 376
audit performance correlations, 325
causation models, 202–4
cause perception, 333, 334
construction sites, 792, 807–8
control systems, 254
costing, 257–9, 261–3
data, 267–306
definitions, 191–2
as deviation process, 335, 336
distribution by age/experience, 376
electrical, 748, 754–5
experience distribution, 376
individual susceptibility, 375–7
performance evaluation, 261–3
post-war rates, 419
prevention, 191–2, 204–7, 260–1, 263
radioactive substances, 536–7
IndexAccidents (continued)
reasons, 393
statistics, 232–3
systems theory, 245–6
see also Injuries
Accommodation
eye, 582
stairways, 698
statements, 121–2
Accountability, accident costs, 261–2
the Accused, 22
ACGIH see American Conference of
Governmental Industrial
Hygienists
Acid rain/precipitation, 958–9
Acids, 633–4
ACoP see Approved Codes of Practice
ACoPs (Approval to Codes of
Practice), 67
Acoustic temperature measurement,
939
Acoustics see also Noise; Sound
Acquired immune deficiency
syndrome (AIDS), 487
Action
control of danger, 371–2
information processing, 351
plans, 250–1
responsibility, 369–71
Active protection measures, fire, 685–7
Activity Centres, young persons, 60
Acts of God, 333, 334
Acts of Parliament, 6, 30–1, 48–63, 66
see also individual Acts; Tables of
Statutes
Acute hazards, 181, 452, 453
Administration, 52, 174, 186, 209–29
ADS see Approved dosimetry services
Advertising, 136–8
Advice, 70, 72, 228–9, 428, 508
Advocate General, 27
Age discrimination, 101
Age distribution, 376
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency
syndrome), 487
Air, 507–10, 576, 635
see also Atmospheric pollution;
Pollution; Ventilation
Air conditioning, 567
Air supply, 614–15
Airborne contamination
assessment, 568–71
dusts and fibres, 501–2, 568–70
exposure limits, 507–10, 572–4
gases and vapours, 495–501, 571
monitoring, 502–4
radioactive materials, 531
ventilation, 515–16
Airflow, 576–7, 615
Alarm systems see Fire alarms
Alpha radiation, 525
Alternating current (AC), 743, 744, 750
Amber List wastes, 913
American Conference of
Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (ACGIH), 507,
512–13, 572
American Industrial Hygiene
Association, 494
Ammonia, 475
Amplitude, sound waves, 542–4
Analogue control displays, 617
Anatomy, 432–47
Ancillary materials, 917
Anemometers, 576, 578, 939
Angiosarcoma, 478
Antecedents, behaviours and
consequences (ABC) model,
396–400
Anthrax, 488–9
Anthropology, 595
Anti-locking braking systems (ABS),
382
APAU (Accident Prevention Advisory
Unit), 260
Appellate Committee, 24
Appellate jurisdiction, 7
Appointed person, first aid, 431
Approval to Codes of Practice
(ACoPs), 67
Approved bodies, 708
Approved Codes of Practice (ACoP),
53–4, 708–9, 770, 772, 782–4
Approved dosimetry services (ADSs),
534
Approved Supply List, 822, 911–12
Aquifers, 943
‘Arc eye’, 803
‘Arising out of and in the course of his
employment’ criteria, 149
Arms, 491, 601–4
Arsenic, 467
Arsine, 467
Arson, 653
Asbestos, 501–2, 569, 782, 807
Asbestosis, 461
Aspects and impacts analysis, 875,
881–4
Asphyxia, 473–5
Aspirating smoke detectors, 659
1000 IndexAssessment
air pollution, 568–71
of damages, 172–4
specialists, 228–9
systems, 312–15, 321–5
ventilation performance, 576–9
see also Risk assessment
Assumptions, interviewing, 287
Asthma, 462–3
Astigmatism, 582
ATEX directives, 761
Atmospheric concentration
monitoring, 830–1
Atmospheric emissions, 50
Atmospheric pollution, 938–41, 950,
960
see also Pollution...
Atomic absorption spectrometry, 501
Atoms, 524, 629–31
Attachment of Earnings Orders, 96
Attitudes, 64–81, 346–8, 394
Attorney General, 24
Audible signal usage, 623–4
Audiograms, 484, 551–2
Audit systems, 187, 232, 323, 325–7,
414
Duty of Care Regulations, 947–52
Environmental Management
Systems, 886–8
see also Eco-management and Audit
Scheme
Authorised Transport Purposes,
909–10
Authority, 214–15
Auto-ignition temperature, 698
Automatic fire systems, 656–60, 686
Automatic guards, 722
Automatic safe load indicator, 813
Backdraught, 699
Bag filters, 937
Bagassosis, 463
Band width, 546–7
Bare conductors, 733
Barrier creams, 521–2
BASEEFA see British Approval Service
for Electrical Equipment in
Flammable Atmospheres
Bases, chemicals, 633–4
BAT see Best available techniques
BATNEEC see Best available
techniques not entailing
excessive cost
‘Battering the sides’, 797
Becquerel (Bq), 527–8
Before HSWA, 36–7
Behaviour, 343, 347–8, 351–5, 408–10
reinforcers, 396
wearing eye protection, 394
see also ABC model
Behaviour modification process,
393–421
commitment, 415–16
employees, 395–406
generic model, 405–6, 407
the hazards, 416
incident investigation, 411–12
involvement, 404–5
leadership, 415–16
lone workers, 403–4
managers, 406–11
observation, 402–3
performance management, 395–401
refreshing the process, 405
safety culture, 417–18
safety management, 412–15
structural feedback approach, 401–2
supervisors, 406–11
workplace intervention, 400
Behavioural science, 340–55
definition, 340–1
models, 342–3, 412
relevance to health and safety, 341–2
see also Behaviour
Beliefs, 347
‘Benching the sides’, 797
Benchmarking, 329–30
the Bends, 438
Benefits recoverable, 157, 177
Benzene, 472
Bereavement damages, 174
Best available techniques (BAT), 931,
935
Best available techniques not entailing
excessive cost (BATNEEC), 871,
930, 935, 967
Best Practicable Environmental Option
(BPEO), 875, 897, 933–5
Beta particles, 525–6, 939–40
Bio-technology, 937–8
Biological agents, 486–9, 495, 512
Biological danger, 202
Biological hazards, 429, 526–7
Biological waste treatment, 945
Bird, F.E., 198, 203, 242, 254, 263–4, 270
Bladder, 492
Blame cultures, 273
BLEVE (boiling liquid expanding
vapour explosion), 639
Blindness, 582
Index 1001Blood, 135, 438–40, 448, 491, 597–8
Boards, scaffolding, 808–9
Boilers see Pressure systems
Boiling liquid expanding vapour
explosion (BLEVE), 639
Bone, 492
Boredom factors, 375
Bowtie model, 337
BPEO see Best Practicable
Environmental Option
Bq see Becquerel
Brain, 441–2, 491
Brakes, 779–81
Breach of duty of care, 164
Breach of statutory duty, 41–2, 43, 151
Breathing see Respiratory system
Breathing apparatus, 475, 518–21
Bremsstrahlung, 525–6
Brent-Spar oilrig, 964
Brightness, illumination, 583
British Approval Service for Electrical
Equipment in Flammable
Atmospheres (BASEEFA), 760
British Institute of Occupational
Hygienists, 430
British Occupational Hygiene Society,
430, 494
British Standards Institution (BSI), 252,
746, 752–3, 760, 765
Broadcast advertising, 137–8
Bronchial asthma, 462–3
BS EN standards, 66, 252, 310, 760
BS Standards, 66, 799–801, 808–11
BSI see British Standards Institution
Budgetary systems, 262
Buildings
escaping fires, 682
fire engineering, 684
fire loading, 685
Regulations, 694, 784
Scotland, 784
sprinkler systems, 674–5
stability, fire, 688–9
Burden of proof, 22
Bureaucracy, 225–6
Buried cables see Underground cables
Burns, electrical, 751–2
Byssinosis, 463
CAA see Constant Attendance
Allowance
Cables, 755, 799–801, 802
Cadmium, 467–8, 804, 869
Caissons, 798
Calibration, light meters, 592–3
Cam-operated limit switch interlocks,
716–23
Cancers, 447–8, 456–7, 461–2, 476–8,
527, 528
see also Carcinogens
Candela, 583
Capability, 108
Capacitance, 749
Captive key interlocks, 719, 721
Car use, 876
Carbon, 631
Carbon dioxide, 474, 669, 679, 864, 959
Carbon disulphide, 473
Carbon monoxide, 474, 661–2, 804
Carbon tetrachloride, 471–2
Carcinogens, 452–3, 456–7, 477–8, 511
see also Cancers
Cardiovascular system, 491
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 485
Carriage see Transport
Carrying loads, 598–602, 616
Cartridge fuses, 754
Case law, 40–1
see also Common law
Cattell’s 16 personality factors, 347
Causal network knowledge, 364–5
Causation, 164–5, 333, 334
‘Caused during the period of
insurance’ phrase, 151–2
Cavity barriers, 699
CDM coordinators, 793, 796
CDM Regulations, 793, 795–6, 815
CE mark, 706, 708, 737
CEHR see Commission for Equality
and Human Rights
Ceilings, 681
Cells, human body, 432–3, 447–8, 526–7
CENELEC see Committee for
Electrotechnical Standardisation
Central nervous system, 441–2
Certification, first aiders, 431–2
CET see Corrected Effective
Temperature index
Chain of utility, 895–6
Chains, 814–15
Change processes, 377–89
Change of state, matter, 637–41
Charges, 125, 908, 968
Chartered Institution of Building
Service Engineers (CIBSE), 587,
588
Checking actions, 886–8, 954
Checklists, 314, 318, 320, 812–15
Chemical agents, 451–78
Chemical hazards, 202, 429, 495–501
1002 IndexChemical oxygen demand (COD), 942
Chemicals, 821–60
1996/1999 Regulations, 842
2002 Regulations, 833–5
CDG, 833–4
chemical data, 928–9
CHIP 3 Regulations, 833–5
CIMAH, 832–3
COMAH Regulations, 857
construction sites, 805
COSHH, 831, 835–7
data, 821–2
emergency procedures, 857
environmental pollution, 869,
928–55
exposure prevention, 827–30
fume cupboards, 856
gas cylinder storage, 841
handling risk assessment, 827
HAZOP study, 843, 844–7, 851–2
information sources, 822–3
instruction documentation, 852–3
labels, 834–5
laboratories, 854–6
legislation, 831–7, 842, 929–33, 936
liquid waste, 950
management, 821–60
MHSWR, 823, 857
NIIHHS, 831–2
NONS, 835
packaging, 833–4
permits-to-work, 853–4
plant, 843–51, 852
process design, 843–51
properties, 631–5
rail transport, 842
reactors, 849
records, 831
risks, 236
assessment, 823–7
minimisation, 827–31
phrases, 834
reduction, 929
storage, 837–41
substance definitions, 823
substitution, 827–8
symbols, 834
tanker off-loading, 840
training, 853
transport, 833–4, 841–2
treatment of waste, 945
warehousing, 840–1
waste management, 907
work systems, 852–4
Children, 101–2
CHIP 3 Regulations, 833–5
Chlorine, 473
Chromium, 467
Chronic hazards, 181, 452, 453
CIBSE see Chartered Institution of
Building Service Engineers
CIMAH (Control of Major Accident
Hazards Regulations 1984), 832,
833
Cinematograph Regulations, 783
Circadian rhythms, 374
Circuits, electrical, 748–9, 751–2, 753–5
Circulatory system, physiology,
438–40, 597–8
Citizen action, 875–6
Civil courts, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15
Civil Justice System, 18–19
Civil law, 4–5, 20, 43
Civil liability, 160–75
assessment of damages, 172–4
contributory negligence, 171
defences, 170–1
employer’s liability, 167–9
fatal accidents, 174
HSWA, 170
limitation, 172
‘no fault’ liability system, 175
supply of goods, 166–7
volenti non fit injuria defence, 151,
171–2
see also Common law
Civil Procedure Rules, 156, 161
Classification
fires, 663–5
risks, 243
Cleanliness, 516, 530, 610
Clerk to the Justices, 24
Climate Change Levy, 867, 926
Clinical waste, 896–7
Closed systems, 245
Clothing, 521, 612, 829
Co-decision procedure, 34–5
Co-operative Bank, 965
Coal tar, 457–8
Coastal waters, 941
COD see Chemical oxygen demand
Coda, 740
Code for Lighting, 587–8
Codes of Practice
ACAS disciplinary procedure, 105
advertising, 138
approval, 67
Commission for Racial Equality, 99
definition, 57
disciplinary procedure, ACAS, 105
Index 1003Codes of Practice (continued)
Earthworks, 799–801
EAW Regulations, 746–7
HSWA, 53–4, 57
pressure systems, 785
pricing offences, 123–4
see also Approval to Codes of
Practice; Approved Codes of
Practice
Coffer-dams, 798
Cold and wet environments, 804
Collection of data, 267–306
Colorimetry paper tape, 940–1
Colour, 581, 591, 610–11, 614
Colour blindness, 582
Combustible dusts, 653–4
Commercial cycle, 895–6
Commission for Equality and Human
Rights (CEHR), 101
Commission of European Union, 70
Commissioning projects, 251
Commitment, 408–10, 415–16
Committé European de Normalisation
(CEN), 72–3
Committee for Electrotechnical
Standardisation (CENELEC),
72–3, 746, 760
Common law, 6, 50–2, 150, 160–1,
308–9
see also Civil liability
Communications, 137–8, 384–6, 623–4,
885, 922
Company environmental performance,
963, 964–6
Compensation, 80, 145–7, 157–8, 163–4
see also Damages; Insurance cover
Competence, 755–6, 884–5
Competent person, 777, 785–6
Complaints, 951
Complex accidents, 295
Compounds, 631–3
Compressed air work, 807
Compressible fluids, 646–7
Computers, 297–302, 327, 398–9
Concepts in learning processes, 380
Conditioning, 379
Conductimetry, 941
Conduction of fire, 652
Conductor protection, 733
Confederation of British Industries,
224
Confined spaces, 805–6
Conflicts, 223, 226–7, 244–5
Conformity assessments, 731, 737
Conjunctivitis, 582
Consents, 905, 907
Consequences, 181–2, 233, 396–400
‘Consideration’, 82
Consignment notes, 946–7
Constant Attendance Allowance
(CAA), 147
Construction finishes, 681
Construction sites, 792–820
access, 808–11
accidents, 792, 807–8
CDM Regulations, 793, 795–6, 815
electricity use, 760, 802–3
emergency plans, 807–8
hazards, 797–808
head protection, 816–17
legislation, 808, 816–18
lifting, 802, 810–15
management, 792–3
notification of work, 796
Regulations, 793, 795–6, 802, 810–15
welfare facilities, 815–16
Consultations with employees, 404–5
Consumable materials, 918
Consumer credit, 125–6, 140
Consumer protection, 118–44
1987 Act, 91–2, 122–3, 132–9, 155, 167
consumer redress, 142–3
distance selling, 141
enforcement orders, 142
exclusion clauses, 138–41
fair conditions of contract, 118–26
fair quality of goods and services,
126–8
misleading advertising, 136–8
product liability, 134–6
product safety, 128–33
stop now orders, 141–2
unfair contract terms, 138–41
Consumer redress, 142–3
Container labelling, 904
Contaminated land, 867
Continuing periodic absences, 109
Continuous improvement, 273, 888,
889
Contractors, 794–5, 947
Contracts
employment, 7, 42, 85–6
fair conditions of, 118–26
faults in, 83
formation, 82–5
occupational safety advisers, 90–2
rights of third parties, 82
unfair terms, 138–41
see also Law of contract
Contrast, 610, 613
1004 IndexContributory negligence, 158, 171
Control
advertisements, 136, 137
air pollution, 930–1, 936–8
asbestos, 782
chemicals, 849, 928–31, 933–8, 941–2
colours, 610–11
cranes, 733, 734–5
damage control, 255–7
of danger, 371–2
end-of-pipes, 966–7
environmental, 871–2, 874–6, 886, 966
equipment, 662–3
ergonomics, 617–19
fire hazards, 652–6
foot-operated, 606–7
guards, 724
hazards, 408–10, 514–22
liquid wastes, 905–7
loss control profiling, 263–4
plant systems, 847–8
pollution, 200, 891
strategies, risk, 184–8, 195–7, 235–6
systems, 254, 847–8
techniques, 555–63
water pollution, 941–2
Control of Industrial Major Accident
Hazards Regulations 1984
(CIMAH), 832, 833
Control of Lead at Work Regulations
2002, 783
Control of Major Accident Hazards
Regulations 1999 (COMAH),
832–3, 857
Control of Substances Hazardous to
Health Regulations 1998, 78
Control of Substances Hazardous to
Health Regulations 2002
(COSHH), 782–3, 821–2, 824–6,
831, 835–7
air quality, 508
biological agent definition, 512
carcinogen definition, 511
occupational exposure limits, 573
Controllability, 367–8
Controlled waste, 896, 944, 946
Convection, 652
Conveyor trip devices, 723
Corporate social responsibility, 971–2
Corrected Effective Temperature index
(CET), 572
COSHH see Control of Substances
Hazardous to Health
Regulations 2002
Cost benefit analysis, 259–60, 871–2
Cost-effectiveness, 257–60
Costings, 206–7, 256, 257–9, 585–6
Council, European Union, 69–70
Counselling techniques, 402–3
County Courts, 9, 15, 16
Court of Appeal, 24
England, 9, 10, 11
Northern Ireland, 12, 15, 16
Court of Auditors, 71
Court procedure, 18–23
the accused, 22
burden of proof, 22
civil law, 20
enforcement, 19
imaginary incident, 21
reform, 23
stages, 18–21
tracks, 20
witnesses, 22–3
Court of Session, 12, 13
Courts, 5, 7–16
appellate jurisdiction, 7
criminal proceedings, 8
defences, 43–4
duties to third parties on site, 42–3
English hierarchy, 8–12
first instance jurisdiction, 7
inferior, 7–8
Northern Ireland, 12–16
personnel, 23–4
principles, 40–4
representation, 8
Scotland, 12, 13, 14, 25
superior, 7–8
tort, 41–2
Cranes, 729, 730, 733–5, 812–13
Crime, definition, 4
Criminal courts, 10, 11, 14, 16
Criminal law, 4–5, 43–4, 111
Criminal proceedings, 8
Crown Courts, 10, 11, 12, 16
Crown Notices, 61
Crown premises, 60–1
Culture, 77–8, 224, 388–9
Currents, electric, 743–4, 748–51,
754–5, 763–4
Cyclones, 936
D type equipment see Flameproof
equipment
Damage, 180, 198
Damage control, 255–7
Damages, 85, 150–3, 157, 172–4
see also Compensation
Damping, 560, 686
Index 1005Danger, 192–3, 202, 302–4, 335–9, 368–9
construction sites, 803–7
decision-making, 371–2
electricity, 749–52
goods Regulations, 842
prediction, 362–3
see also Facing danger
Data, 253–4, 267–306, 821–2
Databases, 299–300
DB see Decibels
DC see Direct current
De-layered organisational structures,
212–13, 218
Deafness, 152–3, 483–4, 551–2
Death, 183
Decibels (dB), 543–4, 547, 609
Decision-making, 71, 350–1, 371–2
Decking boards, 808–9
Decompression procedures, 807
Defects
equipment, 161, 170
fired pressure vessels, 771–3
lifting equipment, 778, 779
reporting, 787
unfired pressure vessels, 774
Defences
civil liability claims, 170–1
courts, 43–4
damage claims, 150–1
employer’s liability insurance, 151–2
mechanisms, 448
Defined operational boundary, 338–9
Deformation, materials, 643–4
DEFRA see Department of the
Environment Food and Rural
Affairs
Degradation of performance, 373–5
Deliveries of waste, 904, 915, 949
Deluge systems, 675
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 526
Department of the Environment Food
and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), 926
Dermatitis, 455–6
Design, 958, 965
change, 383–4
controls, 617–19
health and safety, 249–51
machinery guards, 713
Management of Health and Safety at
Work Regulations 1999, 794
noise enclosures, 557
plants, 617
systems theory, 243–6
workplaces, hazard controls, 514
Detectors, 656–63, 685
Developing countries, 958
‘Development risks’ defence, 135
Deviation process, 335, 336
DGs see Directorate Generals
Diagnosis, behaviour, 354–5
Diet requirements, 433–4
Difficult waste, 896
Diffuse source pollution, 943
Digestive system, 434–5
Dilution
hazardous environments, 762
ventilation, 515–16, 567, 576
Direct current (DC), 743–4, 750
Directives, 33, 35, 71, 127, 131–2, 895,
966
defective products, 154–5
environmental liability, 966
Framework Directive, 102–3
General Product Safety, 131–2
packaging, 922–3
waste, 895, 911
Director of Public Prosecutions, 24
Directorate Generals (DGs), 70
Directors, 188–9
Disability, 99–101, 147, 609
Disaster plans, 808
Discharge Consents, 905
Disciplinary procedure, 104–7, 110–11
Disclaimers, 122
Disclosure, documents, 21
Discrimination, 96–104
1995 Act, 99–101
age, 101
employment law, 96–8
joint consultation, 102–3
sex discrimination, 96–8
working time, 103–4
Diseases, occupational, 304–5, 451–93
biological agents, 486–9
cancer, 476–8
chemical agents, 451–78
epidemiology, 454–5
gassing, 473–5
metals, 463–8
oxygen deficiency, 475–6
pesticides, 468
physical agents, 478–86
psycho-social disorders, 489–90
respiratory system, 458–63
skin, 455–8
solvents, 468–73
target organs, 490–2
Dismantling power presses, 780
Dismissal
capability, 108
1006 Indexcontinuing periodic absences, 109
criminal offences, 111
disciplinary procedure, 106
employees, 109–10, 115–16
employment law, 107–16
enactment contravention, 113–14
ill-health, 108–9
misconduct, 110–12
other reasons, 114
qualification, 108
redundancy, 112–13
rights exclusions, 115
unfair dismissal, 114–16
Display screen equipment (DSE), 583,
588, 608, 622–3
Disposal see Waste disposal
Disputes, fire safety, 694
Distance selling, 141
Diurnal rhythms, 374, 581–2
Diving work, 438, 807
Divisional Court, 9
DNA see Deoxyribonucleic acid
Documentation, 21, 885, 888
chemicals, 852–3
Duty of Care audit, 950–1
machinery legislation, 706
risk assessments, 221–2
see also Records
Domino incident model, 412
Domino Theory, 202–3, 290–3
Dose-response relationship, 868–9
Doses of radiation, 527–8, 533
Dosimeters, 554
Double vision, 582
Dreadfulness, 368
Drencher systems, 675
Drum compound storage, 837–40
Dry powder extinguishers, 669–70,
677–8
Dry rising main, 699
Dry sprinkler system, 699
DSE (display screen equipment), 583,
588, 608, 622–3
Due diligence defence, 120–1, 124,
737, 740
Dupont STOP program, 402
Dust lamps, 503–4
Dusts and fibres
airborne pollutants, 568–70
construction sites, 804–5
direct monitoring instruments, 502–4
environmental measurement
techniques, 501–2
local exhaust ventilation, 781–3
occupational diseases, 458–62, 463
Duties
employers, 50–2
HSC, 52
landlords, 51
liability, 40
standards, 39–40
to third parties on site, 42–3
Duty of care, 150, 162–4, 205–6
Regulations, 928
audits, 947–52
Environmental Management
Systems, 885
off-site waste management,
909–10
on-site waste management, 901–2
waste disposal, 932, 945–7
Dynamic risks, 194
E type equipment, 761
Ear, 550–2
frequency response, 545–6
hearing loss, 482–4, 551–2
noise, 482–4, 551–2, 609
occupational diseases, 491
physiology, 443–4
protectors, 518, 561–2
Ear–eye line (EE line), 607–8
Earthing, 752, 754–5, 763
Earthworks Code of Practice, 799–801
EAW Regulations see Electricity at
Work Regulations 1989
EC see European Union
EC-Type examination Certificate, 706,
708
ECFA (Events and Causal Factors
Analysis), 295
ECJ see European Court of Justice
Eco-management and Audit Scheme
(EMAS), 874, 878–80, 884–5,
887–9, 953
Eco-system effects, 870
Economics, 70, 205–7, 260–1, 263, 920
EE line see Ear-eye line
EEC see European Union
Effluent see Liquid waste
Electric fields, 539–40
Electric shock, 749–51, 754
see also Electrocution
Electrical equipment, 759–62, 763–4,
783–5, 923
Electricity, 743–66
accidents, 748, 754–5
alternating and direct currents,
743–4, 750
circuits, 748–9, 751–2, 753–5
Index 1007Electricity (continued)
construction site safety, 802–3
dangers, 749–52
fires, 654, 665
fittings, 762
in hazardous environments, 759–62
maintenance, 764
permits-to-work, 753, 756–8
portable tools, 762–3, 784–5
protective means, 752–5
residual current devices, 754, 763–4
static electricity, 757, 759
statutory requirements, 746–7
supply, 744–6
voltage levels, 747–8
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
(EAW Regulations), 746–7,
752–3, 755–6, 759–60, 764–5, 784
Electrocution, 802
see also Electric shock
Electromagnetic radiation, 525, 526,
537–40
Electromechanical delay devices, 722
Electronic communication, 386
Electronic equipment, 923
Electrons, 524–5, 629–30
Electrostatic precipitators, 937
Elimination
hazards, 408–10
risk, 184–5
EMAS see Eco-management and Audit
Scheme
Emergencies
cranes, 734
lighting, 591, 686, 699
public places, 624
radioactivity, 536–7
see also Fire
Emergency plans/procedures, 686–7,
695–7
chemicals, 857
construction sites, 807–8
environmental emergencies, 886
waste, 905, 906, 915
Emissions
atmospheric, 950
controlling, 935, 966–7
into atmosphere, 50
product outputs, 918
reduction, 871
see also Pollution; Statutory
nuisances
Employees
behaviour modification, 395–406
consultations, 404–5
definition, 57
dismissal, 109–10
duties, 52
fire duties, 692–3
imaginary incident, 3
involvement, 404–5, 408–10
selection, 169
skill lack, 109–10
trade unions, 87
unfair dismissal rights, 115–16
waste minimisation, 914
wearing eye protection, 394
work suspension, 87
Employer’s liability, 4, 50–2, 150, 167–9
compulsory insurance, 78, 148
defective equipment, 170
defences, 151–2
employee selection, 169
insurance, 148–53
plant and equipment, 169
supervision, 169
work systems, 168
Employment
2002 Act, 86–7
children, 101–2
Code of Practice, 100
contracts, 7, 42, 85–6
dismissal, 107–16
equality, 96
law, 94–117
disciplinary procedure, 104–7
discrimination, 96–104
dismissal, 107–16
joint consultation, 102–3
young persons, 101–2
legislation, 86–8
Regulations, 96, 101
rights, 94–6
sex discrimination, 96
young persons, 101–2
Employment Medical Advisory
Service, 50
Employment Tribunals, 25–6
Code of Practice, 99
Northern Ireland, 15
procedure, 96
test of reasonableness, 106
EMS see Environmental Management
Systems
EN standards (European Standards),
72–3
see also BS EN; BS ENs
Enclosures, 556–8, 715
End-of-pipe controls, 966–7
Energy, 544, 547, 596–7
sources, 872–3, 918, 962
and work, 641–2
1008 IndexEnforcement, 19, 54–5, 129–30, 142,
924–5, 952
Enforcement and Prohibition Notices,
931
Engineering science, 246–7, 629–48
chemical properties, 631–5
failure modes, 645
hydraulics, 646–7
material deformation, 644
mechanics, 642–3
physical properties of matter, 635–41
strength of materials, 643–5
structure of matter, 629–31
testing, 645–6
England
courts, 5, 8–12, 23–4
waste management, 892, 894
English law, 5–7, 29–30
Enterprise Act 2002, 141, 142
Environment, 861–973
1995 Act, 892
agencies, 892–3, 903, 930–1
changing, 383–4
chemical pollution, 928–55
citizen action, 875–6
concepts, 863–77
contaminant monitoring, 507–10
control strategies, 874–6
definition, 957
effects, 373–5
global issues, 963–4
hazards, 867–70, 873
issues, 863–77, 957–62, 963–4
legislation, 966
measurement techniques, 495–506
policy, 880–1, 953–4, 956
predictions, 864–5
problem identification, 957–8
risk evaluation, 870–4
risks, 236
stress, 510–11
ventilation use, 574–9
waste management, 891–927
Environmental aspects
definition, 881
see also Aspects and impacts analysis
Environmental impacts
definition, 880, 881–2
see also Impacts analysis
Environmental Management Systems
(EMS), 875, 878–90, 925, 953–5,
969–71
Environmental protection, 58–9, 200,
553, 924–5, 929–33
1991 Regulations, 946, 947
Scotland, 892, 894
Epidemiology, 204, 283–5, 454–5
Equality, 87, 96, 98, 101
Equipment
air pollution control, 936–8
electrical, 759–62, 763–4, 783–5
employer’s liability, 169
statutory examinations, 767–91
waste regulations, 923
see also Machinery; Plant
Ergonomics, 594–626
controls and indicators, 617–19
definitions, 594–5
display screen equipment, 622–3
human body physiology, 596–609
noise and vibrations, 620–1
repetitive actions, 616
signs and signals, 623–4
stress, 621–2
working environment, 609–15
written word, 624
Errors
behaviour, 351–5
correction, 372–3
generic system, 352, 353
hazard detection, 360–2
opportunities, 406, 407
Escape in case of fire, 680–3
Essential safety requirements (ESRs),
708, 731, 737, 774
Ethical investment, 964–6
EU see European Union
European Agency for Safety and
Health at Work, 34–6, 71
European Commission, 509, 573
European community courts see ECJ
European Council (Summit), 70
European Court of Human Rights,
28–9
European Court of Justice (ECJ), 9,
11–13, 15, 26–8, 71
European Standards, 66, 73–4
European Union (EU)
Commission, 70
Council, 69–70
Decisions, 71
electrical equipment, 760–1
electricity supply, 744, 746
Environmental Management
Systems, 874, 878
health and safety influence, 69–72
legislation, 32–3, 36, 38–9, 71–2
lifting equipment, 774
machinery legislation, 704–5, 709
occupational health requirements,
428
Recommendations, 71
Index 1009European Union (EU) (continued)
Regulations, 71
social partners, 74
standards, 72–3
Waste Directive, 895
‘weighted’ votes, 70
see also Directives
Eutrophication, 961
Evaluation
Environmental Management
Systems, 887
environmental risks, 870–4
health hazards, 494–513
performance, 260–3
risk, 180, 194–5
waste minimisation, 919–20
Event Tree Analysis, 233
Events and Causal Factors Analysis
(ECFA), 295
Examinations
EC-Type Certificate, 706, 708
plant and equipment, 767–91
pressure systems, 739
see also Inspections
Excavation safety, 797–802
Excretion, 435, 453
Exhaust ventilation, 828
Experience distribution, accidents, 376
Explosions, 639, 760–2, 767–8
Exposure
ionising radiation, 527–8
noise, 483, 552–3
prevention, 827–30
radiation, 481–2, 531–2
Exposure limits
airborne contaminants, 507–10,
572–4
electric and magnetic fields, 539–40
ionising radiation, 529, 533
noise, 554
sensitising agents, 511
toxins, 454
variations, 513
see also Hygiene
Extensions, HSWA, 56
External audits, 887
Extinguishers, 664, 666–72, 686
Extract ventilation, 515, 567, 574–5, 686
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis, 463
Eye
defects and disorders, 582
ergonomics, 607–9, 619
free tests, 583
lasers, 538–9
occupational diseases, 491
personal protective equipment, 521
physiology, 442–3, 448, 581–3
strain, 582, 609
ultraviolet radiation, 537
Fabric filters, 937
Face to face communication, 385
Facilities for fire brigade, 697–8
Facilities statements, 121–2
Facing danger, 355–77
choices, 366–7
control of danger action, 371–2
controllability, 367–8
environment effects, 373–5
error correction, 372–3
forseeability, 368
hazard detection, 357–65
labelling as dangerous, 365–9
memorability, 368
objective danger, 356
perception, 357–69
performance effects, 373–7
risk reactions, 365–9
risk scales, 369
severity, 368
Factories, 36–7, 58, 426–7
see also Industry
FAFRs (fatal accident frequency rates),
249
Fail-safe operations, 719, 720
Failure modes/effects, 204, 243, 645
Fair trading, 118–28, 141
False alarms, 663
False trade descriptions, 119–22
Farmer’s lung, 463
Fast track, 20
Fatalities, 158, 174, 249, 303–4
Fault Tree Analysis, 183, 204, 233, 243,
247–8, 295
Faults in contracts, 83
Feasibility exercises, 919–20
Feedback from reports, 294
Feedback loops, 348
Fertilisers, 961
Fibres see Dusts and fibres
Filters, 568–9, 937
Financial accountability, 260–1
Fines, 956
Finite resources see Non-renewable
resources
Fire
active protection measures, 685–7
Acts repealed, 690
alarm systems, 685
arson, 653
1010 Indexbasic technology, 649–52
blankets, 670–1
brigade, 697–8
building stability, 688–9
classification, 663–5
combustion, 651, 653–4
compartments, 687
dampers, 686
definitions, 691–2
detectors, 656–63, 685
dusts, 653–4
electrical, 654, 665
emergency lighting, 686
emergency planning, 686–7
employees duties, 692–3
engineering, 684–5
escape route protection, 682–3
fighting equipment, 665–72
flame surface spread, 688
fuel, 650
hazard control, 652–6
heat, 651
heating systems, 655
hot work, 655
housekeeping, 655, 687
ignition temperatures, 651
inspector powers, 693
legislation, 689–94
lighting, 655–6
loading, 685
oxygen, 650
passive protection measures, 687–9
points, 699
prevention, 199
protection measures, 685–9
repealed legislation, 690
rescue services, 689
response to alarms, 682
responsible person duties, 692
risk assessment, 681, 694–7
safety duties, 692
safety signs, 680, 683–4
smoke extractor systems, 686
smoking, 654–5
smouldering, 651
spread, 651–2
staff training, 686–7
suitable extinguishers, 664
terminology, 698–700
triangle, 650
wall linings, 688
see also Extinguishers; Fixed firefighting equipment
Fire alarms, 656–63
automatic, 656–60
carbon monoxide detectors, 661–2
control equipment, 662–3
false alarms, 663
heat detectors, 660–1
indicating equipment, 662–3
laser detectors, 662
manual, 656
radiation detectors, 661
radio type systems, 662
standards, 663
wiring, 662
Fire precautions, 58, 649–703
basic technology, 649–52
construction sites, 803
escape in case of fire, 680–3
fire engineering, 684–5
fixed fire-fighting equipment,
672–9
legal requirements, 689–94
means of escape, 680–3
protection measures, 685–9
risk assessment, 694–7
safety signs, 680, 683–4
Fired pressure vessels, 736, 770–3
Fires, electrical, 752
First aid, 431–2, 816
First instance jurisdiction, 7
Fittings, 762
Fixed fire-fighting equipment, 672–9
deluge systems, 675
drencher systems, 675
dry powder systems, 677–8
foam systems, 676–7, 678
gas systems, 678–9
sprinkler systems, 673, 674–5
water mist systems, 675–6
Fixed guards, 714, 715
Flame, 688, 940
Flameproof equipment, 762
Flammable atmospheres, 759, 760–2
Flammable gases, 639
Flammable liquids, 639, 699
Flash point, 700
Flashovers, 699, 751–2
Flat organisational structures, 212–13,
218
Flicker, lighting, 591, 613
‘Flight or fight’ responses, 359–60
Floodlights, 803
Floor surfaces, 681
Flow patterns, air, 576–7
Flue gas flow rates, 939
Fluids, 646–7, 738, 769
Fluorescent lamps, 584
Foam systems, 666–7, 676–7, 678
Index 1011Focus loss, 227
Food, 59–60, 125, 133, 433–4, 817–18
Foot, 606–7, 618, 619
Forfeiture orders, 133
Fork lift trucks, 726–7, 777
Formal organisation structures, 211–13
Forms, 274–5, 303–5, 756–8, 825, 826
Forseeability, 368
Foundations, 808
Framework Directive, 102–3
Free format text programs, 298–9
Frequency, sound waves, 543, 544–5
Frequency of incidents, 233, 269–70,
280–1, 283
FSLCM see Functional safety life cycle
management
FTSE4Good index, 965
Fuel, 650
Fume fever, 805
Fumes, 804–5, 856
Functional safety life cycle
management (FSLCM), 851
Fuses, 753–4
Gamma radiation, 525–6
Gas, 637–8, 678–9, 841, 937, 940–1
Gas chromatography, 500–1, 941
Gases and vapours, 495–501, 502–3,
571
Gassing, 473–5
Geiger-Müller tubes, 532
General damages assessment, 173–4
General Product Safety Regulations,
128–31
Generic behaviour modification
models, 405–6, 407
Generic error-modelling system, 352,
353
Generic safety management, 309–13
Genetic defects, 527
Giving information, 384–6
see also Communication
Glands, human, 444–5
Glare, 589–90, 613
Global impact, 963–4
Global warming, 864–5, 959
Gloves, 521
Goal-setting legislation, 68–9
Goals, 344–5, 921–2
Goods hoists, 813–14
Grab sampling, 495–8
Gray (Gy), 527–8
Green List waste, 913
Green Papers, 32
Green procurement, 964–6
Greenhouse gases, 959
see also Global warming
Gross Hazard Analysis, 243
Groundwaters, 942–3, 950
Growth processes, 378–9
Guardrails, 809
Guards
legislation, 704, 709–10
materials, 724
power presses, 779–81
powered trucks, 726
selection strategy, 711–14
techniques, 714–25
Guide words, 845
Gy see Gray
Habits, 379
Halides lamps, 584
Halon extinguishers, 670
Hand, 491, 602–6, 618–19
Hand signals, 623
Hand–arm vibration syndrome
(HAVS), 479
Hand-held tools see Portable tools
Handling chemicals, 827
Handling waste, 904, 915, 949
Harmonisation, 73–4
HAVS see Hand–arm vibration
syndrome
Hawthorne Effect, 217
HAZAN (hazard analysis), 249, 408–10
Hazard and Operability (HAZOP)
studies, 232, 243, 248, 250, 363,
843, 844–7, 851
Hazardous environments, 759–62
Hazardous waste, 896, 910–12, 923–4,
944
Hazards, 179–82
of behaviour modification process,
416
chemical, 805, 928–9
consequence, 181–2
construction sites, 797–808
control, 408–10, 928–9
creation, 269
definitions, 180, 192–3, 870
detection, 357–65
causal network knowledge, 364–5
error signals, 360–2
‘flight or fight’ responses, 359–60
inspection, 362
predicting danger, 362–3
risk assessment, 363
sensory defects, 358
warnings responses, 360–2
1012 Indexdiffering degrees, 202
elimination, 408–10
environmental, 867–70, 873
identification, 869–70
identification, 408–10
machinery use, 711–12
prevention, 408–10
seeking, 363
system safety, 243
workplaces, 429
HAZOP (Hazard and Operability)
study, 232, 243, 248, 250, 363,
843, 844–7, 851
Head protection, 816–17
Health hazards
biological, 495, 512
chemical, 495–501
ergonomic, 495
evaluation, 494–513
measurement techniques, 495–506
physical, 495
psychosocial, 495
vibration, 564
Health and hygiene, 200
Health Protection Agency (HPA), 536
Health and safety
assessments, 428
attitudes, 64–81
behavioural science relevance, 341–2
design and planning, 249–51
environment policy, 956
European Union, 69–72
First Aid Regulations, 431
foundations, 66
influences, 64–81
legislative frameworks, 66–7
political influences, 75–6
practices, 64–81
roles, 76
social expectations, 74–5
workplace, 429
Health and Safety at Work etc. Act
1974 (HSWA), 48–58
accident prevention, 205–6
administration, 52
air pollution control, 930–1
civil liability, 170
Codes of Practice, 53–4
construction sites, 792, 795, 798
definitions, 57–8
duties, employers, 50–2
electricity supply, 746
enforcement, 54–5
extensions, 56
inspector powers, 54–5
Ionising Radiations Regulations
1999, 533
legislation today, 37–8
notices, enforcement, 55
occupational safety advisers, 91–2
offences, 55–6
Parts II to IV, 56–7
pre-1974 legislation, 48–9
project commissioning, 251
Regulations, 53–4
risk control, 185–6
risk management, 209
Robens report, 64–5
safety management, 308
schedules, 56–7
subordinate legislation, 61
Health and Safety Commission (HSC),
49, 52
Advisory Committee on Toxic
Substances, 508
Consultative Documents, 259
Industry Advisory Committees, 67
risk management, 188–9
safety management models, 309–10
understanding human factors, 394–5
Health and Safety Executive (HSE), 52
construction site first aid, 816
electricity, 753, 760, 765
Occupational Exposure Limits, 572–3
power presses, 781
risk control, 186
Hearing see Ear
Hearing loss, 152–3
Heart, 438–40
Heat, 651, 660–1, 804
see also Temperature; Thermal
environment
Heat Stress Index (HSI), 572
Heated head air meter, 577, 579
Heated vessels, 736
Heating systems, 655
Heats of fusion, 639
Heats of vaporisation, 639
Heinrich, H.W., 202–3
HELA (HSE/Local Authority
Enforcement Liaison
Committee), 39
Hepatitis, 486–7
Herbicides, 468
Hertz (Hz), 544–5
Herzberg, F., 219–20
Hierarchical organisation, 211–12
Hierarchy
English courts, 8–12
human needs, 218–19, 261, 345
Index 1013High Court, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15
Highly flammable liquids, 700
Hire-purchase issues, 51–2
Hired lifting equipment, 776–7
History, 425–7
Hoists, 813–14
Homeostasis, 382
Hooke’s Law, 643
Hormones, 444–5
Hose reel fire extinguishers, 671
Hot wire anemometers, 939
Hot work, 655
House of Lords, 9, 10, 13, 24
Household waste, 875–6
Housekeeping, 319–21, 516, 655, 687
HSC see Health and Safety
Commission
HSE see Health and Safety Executive
HSE/Local Authority Enforcement
Liaison Committee (HELA), 39
HSG 65: 1997, 311–12, 414
HSI (Heat Stress Index), 572
HSWA see Health and Safety at Work
etc. Act 1974
Human body
cell reproduction disorders, 447–8
central nervous system, 441–2
circulatory system, 438–40, 597–8
defence mechanisms, 448
digestive system, 434–5
ergonomics, 594–626
hormones, 444–5
muscles, 440–1, 596–8
physiology, 432–49, 596–609
senses, 442–4, 446
structure and functions, 432–50
vibration effects, 564
see also Liver; Respiratory system;
Skin
Human error models, 290
Human factors, 394–5
see also Ergonomics
Human information processors,
340–55
Human Rights Courts, 28–9
Humanitarian issues, 205–6, 260–1, 263
Humans, 344–51
attitudes, 346–8
behaviour, 343, 347
goals, 344–5
personality, 346–8
roles, 334
as systems, 342–3
work systems, 852–3
Humidifier fever, 489
Humidity, 505–6, 613
Hydraulics, 646–7, 780, 781
Hydrochloric acid, 473
Hydrogen sulphide, 474
Hygiene, 513
see also Cleanliness; Occupational
health and hygiene
Hygiene and Motivation (Herzberg),
219–20
Hygrometry, 505–6
Hypermetropia, 582
Hz see Hertz
‘I’ type equipment see Intrinsically safe
systems
IACs see Industry Advisory
Committees
IB (Incapacity Benefit), 146
ICC see International Criminal Court
ICNIRP see International Commission
on Non-ionising Radiation
Protection
ICRP see International Commission on
Radiological Protection
Identification of risk, 194–5, 230–3
IEC see International Electrotechnical
Commission
IEE Regulations see Institute of
Electrical Engineers Regulations
Ignition temperatures, 651, 700
IIDB (Industrial Injuries Disablement
Benefit), 146–7
Ill-health, dismissal, 108–9
Illuminaires, 614
Illuminance, 583, 586–8
Image loss, 205
Imaginary incident, 3–4, 21
Immediate dangers, 202
Immune system, 448
Impacts analysis, 875, 880–3
Impedance, 749
Implementation, 187, 313–19
Improvement objectives, 883
Incandescent lamps, 583
Incapacity Benefit (IB), 146
Incidents
applying behaviour concepts, 411–12
behaviour models, 412
domino incident model, 412
investigation, 411–12
radioactive substances, 536–7
recall, 198–9, 231
stress using the model, 412
trend analysis, 280–1, 283
see also Accident and incident data
1014 IndexIncineration, 937, 945
Incompressible fluids, 647
Increased safety equipment (‘E’ type),
761
Independent audits, 232
Indicating equipment, 662–3
Indication lights, 719
Indicative occupational exposure limit
values (IOELVs), 508–9, 573
Individuals, 333–92
accident susceptibility, 375–7
behavioural science, 340–55
change processes, 377–89
as danger controllers, 335–9
facing danger, 355–77
human information processors,
340–55
probabilistic risk assessments, 249
susceptibility to accidents, 375–7
Inductance, 749
Induction lamps, 585
Industrial Injuries Disablement Benefit
(IIDB), 146–7
Industry, 426–7, 767, 952
see also Controlled waste; Factories;
Manufacturers
Industry Advisory Committees
(IACs), 67
Infection, blood, 135
Inferior courts, 7–8
Inflammable, word use, 361
Inflammation, 448
Influences
European Union, 69–72
health and safety, 64–81
Informal organisational structures, 213
Information
chemicals safety, 822–3
collection, 267–306
exchange, 131–2
for fire brigade, 698
giving, 384–6
processing, 344–51
risk minimisation, 830
Infrared radiation, 538
Infrared spectrometry, 503, 940
Initial status review, 310
Injuries, 198, 202, 405
see also Accidents
Inland fresh waters, 942
Inorganic compounds, 632–3
Insecticides, 468
Inspections
checking accident reporting, 273
documents, 21
hazard detection, 362
lifting equipment, 733, 778–9
maintenance systems, 255
workplaces, 231
see also Examinations
Inspectors, 3, 54–6, 693
Installations, electrical equipment,
783–5
Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE)
Regulations, 746, 752, 765, 784
Instructions, 169, 852–3
Instruments
air velocity measurement, 576–8
airborne contaminant measurement


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