كتاب Machine Vision - Automated Visual Inspection - Theory, Practice and Applications
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Machine Vision - Automated Visual Inspection - Theory, Practice and Applications

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Machine Vision - Automated Visual Inspection - Theory, Practice and Applications    كتاب Machine Vision - Automated Visual Inspection - Theory, Practice and Applications  Emptyالأربعاء 06 ديسمبر 2023, 9:10 pm

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Machine Vision - Automated Visual Inspection - Theory, Practice and Applications
Jürgen Beyerer, Fernando Puente León, Christian Frese

كتاب Machine Vision - Automated Visual Inspection - Theory, Practice and Applications  B_j_m_10
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Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Visual inspection . 3
1.2 Optical capturing of test objects . 7
1.3 Formation and definition of an image 9
1.4 Machine vision 10
1.5 Practical approach for performing machine vision projects 15
1.6 Bibliography 16
I Image Acquisition 19
2 Light 21
2.1 The phenomenon of light 23
2.1.1 The electromagnetic spectrum . 23
2.2 Light as an electromagnetic wave 24
2.2.1 Maxwell’s equations . 24
2.2.1.1 Wave equations of the electric field . 26
2.2.2 Polarization 31
2.2.2.1 The polarization ellipse 31
2.2.2.2 Stokes parameters 33
2.2.2.3 The Poincare sphere ´ . 35
2.2.2.4 Mueller matrices . 36
2.2.2.5 Measuring the polarization state . 41
2.2.2.6 The Jones calculus 42
2.2.3 Huygens’ principle 44
2.2.4 Coherence 44
2.2.5 Interference . 46
2.2.6 Diffraction 48
2.2.6.1 Resolution of imaging systems 58
2.2.7 Speckle 60
2.3 Light as a quantum phenomenon 61
2.4 The ray model of geometrical optics 65
2.5 Summary . 66
2.6 Interaction of light and matter 66
2.6.1 Absorption 67
2.6.2 The law of reflection . 67
2.6.3 The law of refraction . 68
2.6.4 Scattering 70
2.6.5 The Fresnel coefficients for reflection and transmission 71
2.6.6 Electromagnetic waves in conductive media 76
2.6.6.1 Complex index of refraction . 77XII Contents
2.7 Light sources . 80
2.7.1 Thermal radiators 80
2.7.1.1 Physical principles 80
2.7.1.2 Incandescent lamps and halogen lamps 81
2.7.2 Gas-discharge lamps 83
2.7.3 Light-emitting diodes 86
2.7.4 Laser . 89
2.7.5 Summary . 93
2.8 Bibliography 93
3 Optical Imaging 97
3.1 Introduction 99
3.2 Imaging with a pinhole camera, central projection . 100
3.3 The camera model and camera calibration . 103
3.4 Optical imaging using a single lens . 106
3.4.1 The paraxial approximation and Gaussian optics . 107
3.4.2 Thin lens equation 108
3.4.3 Bundle limitation . 114
3.4.4 Depth of field . 117
3.4.5 Telecentric imaging . 123
3.4.5.1 Defocused telecentric imaging 124
3.4.5.2 Double-sided telecentric systems 125
3.4.6 Perspective 125
3.4.7 Imaging of tilted planes . 128
3.4.8 Aberrations 133
3.4.8.1 Seidel aberrations of spherical lenses 133
3.4.8.2 Chromatic aberration . 136
3.5 Optical instruments with several lenses . 137
3.5.1 The projector . 137
3.5.2 The microscope . 138
3.6 Bibliography 140
4 Radiometry 143
4.1 Radiometric quantities 145
4.2 The light field of a test object 150
4.3 The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) . 152
4.3.1 BRDF and scattered light 155
4.4 Formation of image values 157
4.4.1 Application to a thin lens 157
4.5 Bibliography 160
5 Color 163
5.1 Photometry 165
5.2 Color perception and color spaces . 167
5.2.1 Color perception of the human eye . 167Contents XIII
5.2.2 Color mixing . 171
5.2.3 CIE color spaces . 173
5.2.4 Spectrophotometry for color measurement and color distance computation 185
5.2.5 Color order systems . 191
5.2.6 Other color spaces 192
5.2.6.1 Gamma correction 192
5.2.6.2 RGB color spaces 193
5.2.6.3 HSI and HSV . 195
5.2.6.4 YUV and YCBCR . 196
5.2.6.5 Color printing and CMYK . 197
5.3 Filters . 198
5.4 Acquisition and processing of color images 199
5.5 Bibliography 201
6 Sensors for Image Acquisition 203
6.1 Point, line and area sensors . 205
6.2 Image tube cameras . 206
6.3 Photomultipliers . 206
6.3.1 Image intensifiers 207
6.4 Photodiodes . 207
6.5 Position sensitive detectors (PSD) . 210
6.6 Charge-coupled device (CCD) 211
6.7 Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensors 213
6.8 Line-scan cameras 215
6.9 Color sensors and color cameras 215
6.10 Infrared cameras . 216
6.10.1 Bolometer cameras . 217
6.10.2 Infrared quantum detector cameras 217
6.11 Quality criteria for image sensors 219
6.12 Bibliography 220
7 Methods of Image Acquisition 223
7.1 Introduction 227
7.2 Measuring optical properties 228
7.2.1 Measurement of the complex index of refraction 230
7.2.1.1 Reflectometry . 230
7.2.1.2 Ellipsometry 234
7.2.2 Fluorescence . 240
7.2.3 Methods for measuring the reflectance . 242
7.2.3.1 Diffuse illumination 242
7.2.3.2 Bright-field illumination 243
7.2.3.3 Dark-field illumination . 244
7.2.3.4 Laser scanners 246
7.2.3.5 Flatbed scanners . 248XIV Contents
7.2.4 Spectral sensors . 248
7.2.5 Light scattering methods and the inspection of surface roughness 251
7.3 3D shape capturing . 254
7.3.1 Triangulation (point-by-point scanning) . 255
7.3.2 Light-section methods (line scanning) . 259
7.3.3 The measurement uncertainty of triangulation . 260
7.3.4 Structured illumination 263
7.3.4.1 Stripe projection 264
7.3.5 Deflectometry 268
7.3.5.1 Open research questions regarding deflectometry . 276
7.3.6 The moire method ´ 276
7.3.6.1 The moire effect ´ 276
7.3.6.2 Mathematical model of the moire effect ´ . 278
7.3.6.3 Telecentric stripe projection . 279
7.3.6.4 Shadow moire´ . 283
7.3.6.5 Projection moire´ 284
7.3.7 Final remark on structured illumination . 285
7.3.8 Stereo images 285
7.3.8.1 Derivation of the fundamental matrix 286
7.3.8.2 Stereo correspondence algorithms . 289
7.3.8.3 Stereo reconstruction . 290
7.3.8.4 Multi-camera systems 290
7.3.8.5 Monocular stereo . 291
7.3.9 Light-field cameras . 291
7.3.10 Silhouette capturing . 296
7.3.10.1 Telecentric silhouette capturing . 298
7.3.10.2 Illumination for telecentric imaging 298
7.3.10.3 Retroreflectors 300
7.3.11 Shape from shading . 301
7.3.12 Autofocus sensors 303
7.3.13 Confocal microscopy 304
7.3.14 Confocal chromatic triangulation 307
7.3.15 Time-of-flight sensors 308
7.3.16 Phase-based methods . 309
7.3.16.1 Interferometry . 309
7.3.16.2 Speckle interferometry for material inspection . 314
7.3.16.3 Shearography . 315
7.3.16.4 Holography 317
7.4 Capturing interior object structures . 320
7.4.1 Thermography 321
7.4.2 Imaging using X-rays 325
7.4.3 Optical coherence tomography . 330
7.4.4 Schlieren imaging and schlieren tomography . 331
7.4.5 Image acquisition using terahertz radiation 332
7.4.6 Photoelasticity 338Contents XV
7.5 Special image acquisition methods . 344
7.5.1 Image acquisition systems with variable illumination direction 348
7.5.2 Endoscopy 349
7.6 Universal principles . 350
7.6.1 Suppression of extraneous light 350
7.6.2 Inverse illumination . 351
7.7 Summary . 356
7.8 Bibliography 358
II Image Processing 367
8 Image Signals 369
8.1 Mathematical model of image signals 373
8.2 Systems and signals . 374
8.2.1 System characteristics . 374
8.2.2 The Dirac delta function . 378
8.2.2.1 Definition of the Dirac delta function . 378
8.2.2.2 Characteristics of the Dirac delta function 379
8.2.3 Convolution 381
8.3 The Fourier transform 383
8.3.1 The one-dimensional Fourier transform 383
8.3.1.1 Definition of the Fourier transform 383
8.3.1.2 Properties of the Fourier transform . 384
8.3.1.3 Fourier transforms of selected functions 390
8.3.2 The one-dimensional sampling theorem 393
8.3.3 The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) 396
8.3.3.1 Definition of the DFT . 396
8.3.3.2 Properties of the DFT . 397
8.3.3.3 Spectral leakage . 398
8.3.3.4 The fast Fourier transform (FFT) . 400
8.3.3.5 The convolution theorem of the DFT 401
8.3.4 The two-dimensional Fourier transform 401
8.3.4.1 Definition of the two-dimensional Fourier transform 401
8.3.4.2 Properties of the two-dimensional Fourier transform 403
8.3.5 Dirac delta functions in two-dimensional space 407
8.3.6 The two-dimensional Heaviside function 409
8.3.7 Sampling of two-dimensional signals 409
8.3.8 Sampling theorem for two-dimensional signals 413
8.3.9 The two-dimensional DFT 414
8.3.9.1 Calculation of the 2-D DFT in practice 416
8.3.9.2 The convolution theorem of the 2-D DFT 417
8.3.9.3 The meaning of magnitude and phase . 417
8.3.9.4 Examples of the two-dimensional DFT . 418
8.4 Examples of use concerning system theory and the Fourier transform 425XVI Contents
8.5 Image signals as stochastic processes . 432
8.5.1 Moments of stochastic processes . 433
8.5.2 Stationarity and ergodicity 436
8.5.3 Passing a stochastic process through an LSI system . 440
8.6 Quantization . 445
8.6.1 Optimal quantization . 446
8.6.2 The quantization theorem 448
8.6.3 Modeling of the quantization 453
8.7 The Karhunen–Loeve transform ` . 455
8.7.1 Definition of the Karhunen–Loeve transform ` 456
8.7.2 Properties of the Karhunen–Loeve transform ` . 457
8.7.3 Examples of application of the Karhunen–Loeve transform ` 460
8.8 Bibliography 464
9 Preprocessing and Image Enhancement 465
9.1 Simple image enhancement methods 467
9.1.1 Contrast adjustment by histogram stretching . 467
9.1.2 Histogram manipulation . 469
9.1.3 Pseudo-color and false-color images 472
9.1.3.1 Pseudo-color images . 472
9.1.3.2 False-color images 473
9.1.4 Image sharpening 474
9.2 Reduction of systematic errors . 476
9.2.1 Geometric rectification 476
9.2.1.1 Bilinear interpolation . 478
9.2.1.2 Interpolation in the context of system theory 479
9.2.2 Suppression of inhomogeneities 480
9.2.2.1 Signal model . 480
9.2.2.2 Homogeneity . 481
9.2.2.3 Homomorphic filtering 483
9.2.2.4 Homogenization 485
9.3 Attenuation of random disturbances 491
9.3.1 Linear filters . 491
9.3.1.1 Low-pass filters for noise reduction . 496
9.3.1.2 Moving average filter . 497
9.3.1.3 Cone low-pass filter 500
9.3.1.4 Gaussian low-pass filter . 500
9.3.1.5 Ideal low-pass filters . 505
9.3.1.6 Constructing high-pass filters, band-stop filters, and band-pass
filters from a given low-pass filter 506
9.3.1.7 Excursus: The Z-transform 506
9.3.2 Noise reduction using nonlinear filters . 509
9.3.2.1 The median filter . 509
9.3.2.2 Filters based on order statistics . 513
9.3.2.3 Bilateral filters . 514Contents XVII
9.4 Image registration 515
9.5 Bibliography 518
10 Image Restoration 521
10.1 Signal model . 523
10.2 Inverse filter 527
10.3 The Wiener filter . 533
10.4 The geometric mean filter 538
10.5 Optimal constraint filter . 540
10.6 Restoration problems in matrix notation 543
10.7 Restoration for participating media . 546
10.8 Spatially-varying image restoration . 548
10.9 Bibliography 549
11 Segmentation 553
11.1 Region-based segmentation . 556
11.1.1 Segmentation by feature-based classification . 556
11.1.2 Region growing methods 562
11.2 Edge-oriented methods . 562
11.2.1 Gradient filters 564
11.2.1.1 Construction of symmetric linear gradient filters 566
11.2.1.2 Differentiation using the DFT . 568
11.2.1.3 Gradient-of-Gaussian filter 570
11.2.1.4 Simple edge operators 572
11.2.2 Edge detection using the second derivative 572
11.2.3 The watershed transformation . 576
11.3 Diffusion filters 578
11.3.1 Linear, homogeneous, isotropic image diffusion 579
11.3.2 Linear, inhomogeneous, isotropic image diffusion . 580
11.3.3 Nonlinear, inhomogeneous, isotropic image diffusion . 581
11.3.4 Nonlinear, inhomogeneous, anisotropic image diffusion . 581
11.4 Active contours 586
11.4.1 Gradient vector flow . 591
11.4.2 Vector field convolution . 593
11.5 Segmentation according to Mumford and Shah 594
11.6 Segmentation using graph cut methods 596
11.7 Bibliography 604
12 Morphological Image Processing 607
12.1 Binary morphology 609
12.1.1 Point sets and structuring elements 609
12.1.2 Erosion and dilation . 611
12.1.2.1 Duality of erosion and dilation 618XVIII Contents
12.1.3 Opening and closing . 620
12.1.4 Border extraction . 623
12.1.5 Region filling . 624
12.1.6 Component labeling and connected component analysis . 624
12.1.7 The hit-or-miss operator . 626
12.1.7.1 Thinning 627
12.1.7.2 Thickening . 629
12.1.8 Skeletonization 630
12.1.9 Pruning 632
12.2 Gray-scale morphology . 634
12.2.1 The point set of a gray-scale image 634
12.2.2 Erosion and dilation . 636
12.2.3 Opening and closing . 641
12.2.4 Edge detection 643
12.3 Bibliography 645
13 Texture Analysis 649
13.1 Types of textures . 652
13.1.1 Structural texture type 653
13.1.2 Structural-statistical texture type 653
13.1.3 Statistical texture type 654
13.2 Visual inspection tasks regarding textures . 655
13.3 Model-based texture analysis 656
13.3.1 Analysis of structural textures 656
13.3.2 Analysis of structural-statistical textures 660
13.3.3 Autoregressive models for analyzing statistical textures . 663
13.3.4 Separation of line textures 666
13.4 Feature-based texture analysis . 671
13.4.1 Basic statistical texture features 672
13.4.2 Co-occurrence matrix 673
13.4.3 Histogram of oriented gradients . 676
13.4.4 Run-length analysis . 677
13.4.5 Laws’ texture energy measures . 678
13.4.6 Local binary patterns 680
13.5 Bibliography 681
14 Detection 685
14.1 Detection of known objects by linear filters . 688
14.1.1 Unknown background 688
14.1.2 White noise as background . 690
14.1.3 Correlated, weakly stationary noise as background 692
14.1.4 Discrete formulation of the matched filter . 693
14.2 Detection of unknown objects (defects) . 697Contents XIX
14.3 Detection of straight lines 699
14.3.1 The Radon transform 699
14.3.1.1 Definition . 699
14.3.1.2 The Fourier slice theorem 702
14.3.1.3 Efficient computation of the Radon transform 703
14.3.2 Detection of line-shaped structures . 706
14.3.2.1 Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) 706
14.3.2.2 Detection using correlation filters 707
14.3.2.3 Examples of applications . 707
14.3.3 The Hough transform for the detection of lines 710
14.3.4 The Hough transform for the detection of curves . 711
14.3.5 The generalized Hough transform . 714
14.3.6 Implicit shape models 715
14.4 Corner detection . 715
14.5 Bibliography 717
15 Image Pyramids, the Wavelet Transform and Multiresolution Analysis 721
15.1 Image pyramids . 723
15.1.1 Gaussian pyramid 725
15.1.2 Laplacian pyramid 726
15.1.3 Pyramid linking 727
15.2 Wavelets . 728
15.2.1 Continuous wavelet transform 728
15.2.2 Discretization of the wavelet transform . 731
15.3 Multiresolution analysis . 733
15.4 The fast wavelet transform 738
15.5 The two-dimensional wavelet transform . 742
15.6 Scale-invariant features . 744
15.7 Bibliography 749
III Appendix 751
A Mathematical Foundations 753
A.1 The intercept theorem 755
A.2 Inverse problems . 756
A.3 Bibliography 757
B The Fourier Transform 759
B.1 The one-dimensional Fourier transform . 761
B.1.1 Definition . 761
B.1.2 Properties and characteristics . 762
B.1.3 Correspondences 763XX Contents
B.2 The n-dimensional Fourier transform 765
B.2.1 Definition . 765
B.2.2 Correspondences of the two-dimensional Fourier transform . 765
B.3 The discrete Fourier transform . 766
List of Symbols 769
List of Abbreviations 785
Index 789
Index
Symbols
δ-function see Dirac delta function
λ4
-plate . 39
4-connected neighborhood . 599
8-connected neighborhood . 599
A
aberration . 133
chromatic . 136
Seidel . 133
spherical 133
absorption 67, 77, 172
absorption coefficient . 77
absorption filters .198
absorptivity . 321
achromat 136
active contours 586
activity
optical . 37
Airy disk . 57, 423
albedo . 154
aliasing 397
amplitude 27
analog to digital converter . 205
anamorphic 346
angle
critical . 75
of aperture 114
of incidence 68, 69
of reflection 68
of refraction 69
angular frequency 29
angular wave number .29
antenna
photoconductive 334
anti-aliasing filter . 393, 426
aperture stop 110, 114
apochromat 136
AR model . 663, 697
area sensor 205
astigmatism . 133
autocorrelation function 434, 654, 672
of a stochastic process . 434
autocovariance function
of a stochastic process . 435
autofocus sensor . 303
autoregressive model 663, 697
average 672
axis
optical 107
B
Babinet’s principle . 57, 347
band-pass . 506
band-stop . 506
bandgap . 87, 208
beam splitter 243
dichroic . 216
Beucher gradient 645
bicubic interpolation . 477
bidirectional reflectance distribution function 152
bilateral filter 514
bilinear interpolation 477, 478
binary image 609
binary morphology 609
binomial filter . 501
binomial low-pass . 501
birefringence . 38, 338
black top-hat 642
blackbody 80
bolometer . 217, 335
Boltzmann statistics 209
Boltzmann’s constant . 80
border extraction 623
BRDF 152
bremsstrahlung . 84
Brewster’s angle 74
bundle adjustment . 290
C
calculus of variations 589
camera calibration 103, 104, 135
camera coordinate system 101
camera matrix . 104
Canny . 571
Canny operator 629
cardinal sine function . see sinc function
CCD camera . 211
central moment 434
central ordinate theorem . 387
cepstrum 660
characteristic function . 451
charge density 25
chroma 185, 196
chromaticity coordinates . 179
chromaticity diagram 181
CIE 173
CIE chromaticity diagram 181
CIE primary light source . 174
CIE XYZ color space . 176
CIELAB color space 184
classification . 557
closing
binary morphology . 620
gray-scale morphology 641
clustering 556
CMOS cameras 213
CMYK color space 172, 197
co-occurrence matrix .673
coefficient of reflection 72
coefficient of transmission .72
coherence . 44
coherence length 44, 262, 313, 430
coherence tomography
optical 330
coherent 35
color .167
color balance 171
color camera . 215
color difference 188
color filter . 198
color image 10, 199
color matching functions .176
color mixing . 171
additive 171, 181
inner 171
outer . 171
subtractive 172
color order system . 191
color profile . 198
color solid . 186
color stimulus . 170
color temperature 81, 186
color value .174
colorant . 172
colored noise 442
colorimetry 173
coma 133
complement
point set 611
complementary colors . 182
component labeling 624
compressed sensing 335
Compton scattering 328
computed tomography see tomography
condenser . 138
conductance 25
conduction band . 208
conductivity 76
cone low-pass . 500
cones 167
confocal microscopy . 305
connected component analysis . 624
conservation of energy . 389
constraint filters . 523
contours
active . 586
contrast . 48
contrast adjustment 467
converging lens . 108, 112
convolution 381
two-dimensional 406
convolution theorem 386, 406
corner . 715
corner detection . 715
correlation filter 689–691, 707
correlation length 672
correlation matrix . 544, 694
correspondence problem . 286
cos4 law . 160
covariance matrix 456
cross section 86
cross-correlation function 435
of two stochastic processes 435
current density 25
cut .597
graph ~ . 597
minimum ~ . 597
D
dark current . 219
dark field illumination . 352
Daubechies filter . 741
Daubechies wavelets .739
daylight . 186
defect detection 655
deflectometry 268
demosaicing . 216
depth of field 117, 295
descriptor . 744
detection 687
photon . 206, 207
detectors
balanced 335
DFT . see discrete Fourier transform
dielectric 26
dielectric constant .25
dielectrics .25
difference
point sets . 611
Difference-of-Gaussians operator 574
differentiation theorem 386Index 791
diffraction 48
diffraction limited 60, 137
diffusion .578
anisotropic 581
homogeneous . 579
inhomogeneous . 580
isotropic 579
linear . 579
nonlinear . 581
diffusion equation .322, 579
diffusion filters 578
diffusion tensor 579
digitization 373
dilation
binary morphology . 611
gray-scale morphology 637
Dirac comb . see impulse train
Dirac delta function 378
approximation 378
characteristics .379
formulas 380
similarity transformation 380
two-dimensional 408
direct component 388
direction . 581
discrete Fourier transform . 396
two-dimensional 415
discretization of function values 373, 374, 376
disparity .285
dispersion 70, 136
displacement law
Wien’s . 81
dissipation 67
distortion 134
distribution 378
DoG . 574
doping . 87, 208
Doppler broadening 84
dye 172
E
edge . 563
edge detection . 563
edge potential . 589
eigenvalue problem 456
eight-point algorithm 289
electric field constant 26
electric field strength 25
electric flux density . 25
electrical ballast . 86
electroluminescence .83
electron-hole pair 208
elementary charge . 325
ellipsometry . 234
imaging 237
null . 235
spectroscopic . 239
emission
stimulated . 89
thermal 80
emissivity . 321
end effect . 401, 417
energy . 389
energy density . 389
energy flux . 30
energy functional . 587, 594
energy signal 389
entocentric .126
entrance pupil .115, 117
entrance window 115
entropy 459
epipolar geometry . 267
epipolar line . 286
epipolar plane . 286
epipole 287
equilibrium of forces . 590
ergodicity . 437
strict 437
weak . 437
erosion
binary morphology . 611
gray-scale morphology 637
Euler’s formula 29, 383
Euler–Lagrange differential equation .590
exit pupil 115
exit window . 115
expansion . 724
expected value 434, 451, 654
of a random variable 451
exponentiation .377
eye 167
F f
-number 61, 117
Fabry-Pérot interferometer 91
false-color image 472, 473
far-field diffraction 48
fast Fourier transform see FFT
FDM 591
FEM 338, 591
Fermat’s principle . 100
FFT 400
Fick’s law 579
fickle 188792 Index
field stop 114
fill factor 213, 219
filter
linear . 491
optical 198
filter bank . 733, 738
filter transformations 506
filters based on order statistics . 513
finite difference method 591
finite element method . 338, 591
flatbed scanner 248
flow . 597
maximum ~ 598
flow network 596
fluorescence . 240
fluorescence spectroscopy 240
fluorescent lamp 85
focal length 108
focal ratio 117
focus length . 111
focus series 304
four color process 198
Fourier slice theorem 702
Fourier spectrum 383
Fourier transform 383
central ordinate theorem 387
convolution theorem . 386, 406
differentiation theorem . 386
discrete . 396
linear coordinate transformation 404
linearity 385
modulation property 387
real-valued signals 388
reciprocity 385
reflection . 388
scaling property 385
separation theorem . 403
shift property . 387
fovea 167
fractional power filter 689
Fraunhofer diffraction 48
freespace electrooptic sampling 335
frequency . 29
instantaneous . 281
frequency bandwidth . 44
Fresnel coefficient of reflection 72
Fresnel coefficient of transmission . 72
Fresnel diffraction 48
full well capacity 219
full-frame sensors 213
fundamental law of photometry . 148
fundamental law of radiometry 148
fundamental matrix . 286, 288
G
gamma correction . 193, 194
gamut . 193
gas-discharge lamp . 83
Gaussian filter . 500
Gaussian function . 392
Gaussian low-pass . 500
Gaussian optics 108
generalized harmonic analysis . 439
geometric mean filter 523, 538
geometric rectification . 476
Gibbs phenomenon 505
gradient filters . 564
gradient vector flow . 591
gradient-of-Gaussian filter . 570
graph cut methods . 599
Grassmann’s laws . 171
gray-scale image 10
gray-scale morphology 634
groove texture .653, 661
H
Haar wavelet 736
halogen lamp . 81
Hann window . 399
Haralick features 675
harmonic analysis . 439
Harris operator 716
HDRC sensor 214
heat equation 322
heat radiation 321
heat transfer 322, 578
heat transfer thermography 322
Heaviside function .380
Helmholtz reciprocity principle 153
high dynamic range CMOS 214
high pressure discharge lamp . 83
high-pass 506
histogram . 467, 672
histogram equalization 470
histogram manipulation . 469
histogram of oriented gradients 676
histogram stretching . 467
hit-or-miss operator 626
HLS color space . 196
hologram 317
holography 317
homocentric . 107
homogeneity . 480, 481, 579
homogeneous coordinates . 102Index 793
homogenization 480, 481, 485
homomorphic filtering 480, 483
honing texture 661, 665, 672
Hotelling transform 455
Hough transform 710
circles .712
curves 711
ellipses . 712
generalized . 714
lines 710, 712
HSI color space 195
HSL color space . 196
HSV color space . 196
hue . 181, 195
hue angle 185
Huygens’ principle . 67
hypercentric . 127
hyperspectral image 10, 602
I
ideal modulator . 377
illuminance 148
illusion
optical 4
image 9
real . 112
virtual 112
image coordinates . 101
image distance 100, 108
image field curvature 134
image fusion 307, 456
image intensifier . 207
image pyramid see pyramid
image restoration 523
for participating media 546
spatially-varying 548
image sensor 205
image sharpening 474
image size . 108
image tube camera . 206
image value .10
imaging
optical . 99
telecentric 123
immersion bath 347
implicit shape models 715
impulse correlation 441
impulse response 382
impulse train 392, 393, 397, 410, 411
incandescent lamp 81
index of refraction 68, 331
complex 230
infrared 24, 216, 250
integral image . 747
intensity
electromagnetic radiation 30
HSI color space . 195
intercept theorem . 66
interference 46, 309
interference filters . 198
interferometry . 309
interline-transfer sensor 213
interpolation
bilinear . 478
pyramid 724
system theory . 479
inverse filter 523, 690
irradiance . 148
isochromate . 341
isocline 341
isolators 25
isotropy . 579
J
Jones calculus . 42
Jones matrix 43
Jones vector .43
JPEG standard 195, 197
K
Karhunen–Loève transform 455
best linear approximation . 459
invertibility . 457
linearity 457
orthogonality . 457
uncorrelation . 457, 458
zero-mean 457
keypoints 744
Kirchhoff’s law 321
Kronecker delta 467
Kubelka–Munk theory . 173
L
label . 624
Lambert–Beer law of absorption . 172, 328
Laplace filter .573
Laplace operator
morphological 645
Laplacian-of-Gaussian operator 573
laser 89, 93, 255
laser scanner .246
law of reflection .67
law of refraction
Snell’s . 69794 Index
Laws matrices . 678
Laws’ texture energy measures .678
LBP . see local binary patterns
LED 86
lens 106
concave . 112
convex 112
spherical 108
thick 111
level set method . 595
lidar sensor 308
light bundle . 114
light detection and ranging 308
light field . 152, 291
light quanta .23
light ray 28
light-emitting diode .86
light-field camera 291
line of purples . 181
line potential 589
line scan camera . 602
line textures . 666
line-scan camera 215, 248
line-scan sensor 205
linear coordinate transformation . 404
linear filter .491
linearity .374, 579
local binary patterns 680, 717
local spatial frequency . 281
lock-in thermography 325
LoG . 573
longshot . 121
low pressure discharge lamp 85
low-pass
binomial filter .501
Gaussian filter 500
ideal 505
low-pass filter . 496
LSI system . 381
luminance . 147
luminescent material 85
luminescent radiator 80
luminosity function 165
luminous energy .149
luminous exposure 149
luminous flux 145
luminous intensity . 146
luminous paint 241
M
macro shot .122
magnetic field constant . 26
magnetic field strength 25
magnetic flux density . 25
magnification 102
magnifiers . 112
magnitude spectrum . 384, 387, 388, 451
marginal ray . 116
matched filter . 690–692
material classification . 230, 557
material sorting . 230, 602
maximum norm . 572
Maxwell vector . 43
Maxwell’s equations 24
mean power . 438
measurement uncertainty 327
median 509
median filter . 509
medium
active 90
metameric 170, 187
metamerism 170, 181, 187
metamerism index . 190
micro-channel plate 207
microscope 121, 138
confocal 305
depth of field . 122
microscope image . 122
microwaves . 24
Minkowski addition . 611
Minkowski subtraction 611
mirror 107, 112, 246
semi-transparent 243
modulation property .387
moiré method . 276, 278
moment 434, 451, 672
of a random variable 451
of a stochastic process . 434
monochromatic 174
morphology . 609
moving average . 377, 497
Mueller matrix 36
multiresolution analysis . 723, 733
multispectral image . 10
Mumford–Shah functional . 594
Munsell color order system 191
N
Nd:YAG-lasers 91
near-field diffraction 48
nearest neighbor interpolation . 477
negative lenses 112
neighborhood 498, 509, 599
causal .664Index 795
neodymium-YAG-laser . 91
NETD . 217
Nipkow disk .305
noise reduction 491, 509
normal field . 273
normal vector . 67
normalization 467
normalized color values . 179
nth order statistic . 433, 654
numerical aperture 121, 138
Nyquist band 397
O
object distance . 108
objective lens 106, 138
ocular . 138
OLED 87
opaque 102
opening
binary morphology . 620
gray-scale morphology 641
operator . 374
opponent-process theory .184
optical coherence tomography . 330
optical rectification 334
optical transfer function . 406
optimum filter 690, 691
order of interference . 313
orientation .582
P
PAL television color encoding system 197
parallax . 285
parameterized Wiener filter 538
pattern generator 268
penetration depth . 78
periodogram 445
permeability 25
permittivity . 25
perspective 125
entocentric 126
hypercentric 127
telecentric 123, 127
phase spectrum . 384, 388
phase unwrapping .313
phase velocity 27
phase-only filter . 690
phosphorescence 241
phosphorescent paint 241
photoconductive antenna 334
photodiode 207
photoelasticity . 338
photoelectric effect .206
inner 208
photometric base system . 166
photometric stereo . 301
photometry . 145, 165
photomultiplier 206
photon 23, 62
photon energy . 333
photon flux 145
photopic vision 165
picket-fence effect 397
pigment . 172
pinhole camera 100
pixel . 10, 205
Plancherel theorem 389
Planck’s constant 23, 63
Planck’s law 80
plane of incidence .71
plenoptic camera 291
plenoptic function . 152
Poincaré sphere . 35
point sensor . 205, 207
point spread function 406
Poisson distribution .64
polariscope 340
polarization 31, 234
polarization ellipse 32
polarizer 36
population inversion 90
position sensitive detector . 210
positive lens . 112
power spectral density . 438
Poynting vector . 30
primary colors . 173
virtual . 176, 177
principal component analysis 455
principal plane 108, 111
principal ray 110, 116
project execution 15
projection matrix 104
projection moiré . 284
projector . 137
pruning . 632
pseudo-color image . 462, 472
pseudo-edge . 563
pulse thermography . 324
push broom . 249
pyramid . 723
Gaussian 725
Laplacian . 726
pyramid linking . 727796 Index
Q
quantization 23, 445
equidistant . 448
modeling of the . 453
optimal . 446
quantization frequency 452
quantization mean . 454
quantization noise . 455
quantization theorem . 448, 449, 453
quantizer 446
quantum efficiency 63, 208, 219
quarter-wave plate 39
R
radiance . 147
radiant energy . 149
radiant exposure . 149
radiant flux 145
radiant intensity . 146
radiation physics 145
radiative recombination . 84
radiator
blackbody . 80, 166
gray-body . 81
thermal 321, 334
radiometry 145
Radon transform .699
random process 432
range images . 10
rank filters . 509
rate of photons 206
Rayleigh criterion . 58
reconstruction problem 285
rectangular function .378, 379
rectangular pulse see rectangular function
reduction 724
reflectance
Lambertian . 153
specular 154
reflected 67
reflection 388
point set 610
reflectometry 230
refraction . 68
region filling . 624
region growing methods . 562
relaxation . 91
resolution 58, 335
resonator
optical . 91
retardation plate 38
retroreflector 298, 300
RGB color space . 193
ringing 505
Roberts operator . 572
rods . 167
Roesch color solid . 186
rotation 404
roughness 60, 155
run-length analysis 677
S
sagittal plane 133
salt-and-pepper noise 503
sample function . 432
sampling 393
optimal . 413
sampling theorem . 393
SAR . 705
saturation . 181, 195
scale-invariant feature transform . 744
scaling function 733
scaling property . 385
scattered light .70
scattering . 155, 173
scattering angle 251
Scheimpflug condition 130, 255
schlieren imaging 331
schlieren stop 332
schlieren tomography 331
scintillation 329
scotopic vision . 165
segmentation
complete 555
edge-oriented . 562
region-based 556
semiconductor 86
semiconductor element 207
sensor . 205
separation theorem 403
seven-point algorithm . 289
shadow moiré . 283
shape from shading 301
shear 404
shearography 315
shift
point set 610
shift invariance 377
shift property 387
shift registers 211
shrinking 404
shutter .213
Siemens star . 426Index 797
SIFT .715, 744
signal . 374, 377
signal energy 389
sinc function . 390
single-pixel camera 338
skeletonization 630
slice function 407
spatially discrete 419
slide projector . 138
snake 587
Sobel filters 572
Sobel operator . 572
solid angle . 145
sorting of bulk goods 352, 602
sorting of materials 352
space-charge region 211
Sparrow’s resolution limit .60
spatial discretization 373–375
spatial scaling . 385
specific electrical conductance .25
speckle . 60
spectral analysis . 439
spectral color 174, 181
spectral filters 198
spectral leakage . 397, 398
spectrometer .185
spectrophotometry 185
spectrum
electromagnetic . 23, 167
Fourier . 383
infrared . 217
speeded up robust features 744
sRGB color space 194
stationarity 436
strict 436
weak . 437
Stefan–Boltzmann law 81
step edges . 563
stereo
photometric 301
stereo imaging . 285
stochastic process 432
stress tensor . 339
stretching 404
structure from motion . 291
structure tensor . 582, 672
structured illumination 263
structuring element 610
submillimeter band 333
SURF . 715, 744, 746
surrounding . 694
synthesis of textures . 655
synthetic aperture radar . 705
system 374, 377
deterministic 374
hypercentric 127
linear . 374
memoryless .377
non-reactive 374
shift invariant .377
telecentric 124
system characteristics 374
T
tangential plane . 133
telecentric . 127
telecentric stop 123
telephoto lens 110
television signals 196
terahertz gap 333
terahertz radiation . see THz radiation
termination potential 589
texel . 653
texture .651
anisotropic . 672, 676
classification 655
isotropic 672
parameter estimation . 655
segmentation . 655
separation 655
statistical . 654
structural 653, 656
structural-statistical 653, 660
texture element 653
texture separation . 666
texture type 653
the Schwarz inequality .691
thermal imaging camera . 321
thermal radiator 80
thermographic camera . 216
thermography . 321
thickening . 629
thin lens equation 109
thinning . 627
threshold 557, 698
THz radiation 24, 217, 332
detection 334
generating 334
tilt-shift lens . 132
time of flight . 308
tomography 329, 331, 700
top operation
morphology 636
total internal reflection 75798 Index
total reflection . 326
transmission 66
transversality 28, 30
triangular function .480
triangulation .255
trifocal tensor 290
trimmed mean filter . 513
tristimulus 170, 173
tristimulus values . 176, 178
tube length 139
two-scale relation . 733, 734
Twyman–Green interferometer .311
U
ultraviolet 24, 241
umbra . 636
uncertainty principle .422
unit step function 380
V
valence band 208
value 196
variance 434, 654, 672
vector field convolution 593
vector morphology 635
velocity of light 308
Verdet convention 79
video projector . 138, 263, 348, 353
vignetting . 117
visibility 48
visual inspection . 3
W
watershed transformation 578
wave
harmonic 29
plane . 27, 28
standing . 91
wave equation .26, 76
wave number . 29
wave vector .29
wave–particle duality . 23
wavelength . 29
complementary . 181
dominant . 181
wavelet crime 739
wavelet space 735
wavelet transform . 728
continuous 728
discretization . 731
fast . 738
wavenumber . 77
weak ergodicity 437
weak stationarity 437
white balance 171
white light interferometry . 313, 330
white noise 441
white point 181
white top-hat 642
whitening filter 692, 695
wide-angle lens 110
Wiener filter . 523
parameterized 538
Wiener–Khinchin theorem .438, 439
window function 399
Wollaston prism . 335
X
X-ray 241, 325
xenon short-arc lamp . 85
Y
YCBCR color space . 197
YIQ color space 197
YUV color space . 197
Z
Z-transform . 506
zero padding 417
zoom lens . 110


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