كتاب Cambridge International AS and A Level - English Language
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Cambridge International AS and A Level - English Language

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Cambridge International AS and A Level - English Language
Mike Gould and Marilyn Rankin

كتاب Cambridge International AS and A Level - English Language  E_l_c_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Contents
Introduction v
Part 1 AS Level
Unit 1: Reading non-fiction
READING AND WRITING SKILLS 2
Types of question, language and style 2
Key reading skills for responding to passages 6
Planning and structuring a commentary 12
Using evidence and quotations 17
TYPES OF NON-FICTION TEXT 20
Descriptive writing 20
Personal writing 33
Memoirs and autobiographies 40
Persuasive writing 50
Practice and self-evaluation 63
Unit 2: Writing non-fiction
Approaching ‘directed writing’ questions 66
Approaching ‘writing for a specified audience’ questions 68
Planning written responses 71
Text types and purposes 76
Key focus: discursive writing and writing to argue 96
Practice and self-evaluation 108
Unit 3: Imaginative writing
Exploring imaginative writing tasks 110
Key reading and writing skills 112
Creating your own imaginative and descriptive writing 135
Practice and self-evaluation 147
Part 2 A Level
Unit 4: Text and discourse analysis
Features of spoken language 153
Speech strategies 162
Transcribing speech 168
Paralinguistic features 170
Summary: key points for discourse analysis 172
Part 1 Unit 1: Reading Contents
iiiUnit 5: Spoken language and social groups
The context of spoken language 174
Language used to include and exclude 178
Non-standard features of English 192
Speech sounds and accents 198
Theories and studies of social variation in language 203
Dialect, sociolect and idiolect 210
Unit 6: English as a global language
English and other languages 218
Whose English is it? Kachru’s Circles model 226
From British to Global English 229
English: standard and non-standard 234
British vs American English 241
Language death 244
Unit 7: Child language acquisition
The main stages of early development 251
Language acquisition by children and teenagers 262
The functions of young people’s language 273
Theories of language acquisition 276
Part 2: Practice and self-evaluation 286
Index 294
accent 198, 200–2, 210
Achebe, Chinua 121
action 47–8, 121
adjacency pairs 154, 156
adjectives 22–3, 24–5, 31–3, 40
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, The (Mark
Twain) 231
adverbs 53, 126
and conversation 160
advertising 185
African American Vernacular English
(AAVE) 212
age 204
alliteration 11
ambiguous ending 144–6
ambivalence 27
amelioration 194
American Civil Rights movement 180–1
American English 212, 241–4
anaphoric 11
anecdotal account 49
annotation 7–8, 35
Antarctica, A Voyage to Unknown Climes
(Nikki Gemmell) 78–9
argumentative writing 96–109
articles 62–3, 85–8
assert 6
‘At the Bay’ (Katherine Mansfield) 128–9
Attack, The (R. H. Tawney) 41–3
Atwood, Margaret 114
audience 4
Austen, Jane 119
Australian English 238–41
autobiographies 40–50, 81–3
back-channel 159, 172
‘Back to Africa’ (Louise Bennett) 214
BBC English 229
Bennett, Louise 214
Berko wug test 258
biography 83–5
‘Blackbird Pie’ (Raymond Carver) 142–3
Blazdell, Philip 81–3
body language 172
Brand, Dionne 45
British dialects 211–12, 215
Bruner, Jerome 280
Burning Lights (Bella Chagall) 31–3
Cain, James M. 149
camera techniques 128–9, 137
campaign literature 94–6
Carver, Raymond 133, 142–3
Chagall, Bella 31–3
character 43–50, 83–5, 120–5
and location 129–32
Chomsky, Noam 278
chronology 136
clashing 154
class 182–5
cliffhanger 144
closed ending 146–7
Cockney 233
code switch 187
Coetzee, J. M. 46–7
cognitive development 281–2
cohesive devices 17
comedy 203
commentary 9, 12–13
and evidence 17–20
and introduction 15–16
communication accommodation theory
(CAT) 175–7
conclusions 102–3
concrete operational stage 282
conditioning 277
conjunctions 16
connectives 97, 265
connotation 27–9
context 4, 66–7
and speech 172–3, 174–5
contrast 15
conventions 173
convergence 175
conversation 154–5, 156–62
and face 164–8
and gender 206–10
and maxims 163–4
see also interviews
Conway, Jill Kerr 28–9
cooperative principle 163
counter-argument 103–5
Cox, Tom 49–50
creole 179
creolisation 236
cyberspace 187–8
cyclical 101
debates 90–2
deduction 37–8
deixis 159
Desai, Anita 116–17
descriptive writing 20–33, 136
descriptivism 192
dialect 210–16, 234
dialogue 47–8, 123–4, 256–7
‘Diamond as Big as the Ritz, The’ (F. Scott
Fitzgerald) 148
diaries 35–40, 80
dipthongs 239
direct speech 86
direct statement 38
directed writing 66–8, 71–3
disability 204
discourse 153
and markers 159
discursive text 74, 96–109
divergence 175
‘Don’t Look Now’ (Daphne du Maurier)
146–7
Double Indemnity (James M. Cain) 149
Down the Mine (George Orwell) 30–1
Du Maurier, Daphne 146–7
effects 6, 8
elaborated code 263–4
elision 157, 240
emotive language 51
endings 141, 143–7
and conversation 155
Enduring Love (Ian McEwan) 118–19
England 179
English language 218–44
and death 247–8
Esperanto 219
Estuary English 200, 233
ethnicity 204
etymology 215
evaluation 65, 108–9, 147–50, 283–93
evidence 6, 17–20, 99–100
exclusion 178–92
exemplification 97
expert view 52–3
expression 34–5
extended image 61
external location 22–5
eye dialect 213–15, 232
face-threatening acts 164
false starts 156
fansites 188–92
‘Father, The’ (Raymond Carver) 133
features 6
feedback 172
figurative language 9
fi lm reviews 54–5
first person narrative 11, 40, 45, 114
Fitzgerald, F. Scott 129–30, 148
fi xed expression 159
Flowers, The (Alice Walker) 113
form 4
formal operational stage 282
formality 5
Fowles, John 119
Fragile Gaijin in Japan, A (Philip Blazdell)
81–3
French Lieutenant’s Woman, The (John
Fowles) 119
future tense 59
Gemmell, Nikki 78–9
gender 203, 205–10
General American (GA) 212
German language 247
Gift of Rain, The (Tan Twang Eng) 130
Golding, William 121–2
Gone With The Wind (Margaret Mitchell)
131–2, 144
Good Man is Hard to Find, A (Mary Flannery
O’Connor) 124
Gould, Mike 110
Great Gatsby, The (F. Scott Fitzgerald) 120,
129–30, 133
greetings 154
grouping words and phrases 42–3
groups:
and identity 184–5
and teenagers 186–92
Halliday, Michael 274–5
Handmaid’s Tale, The (Margaret Atwood) 114
hard sell 92
Harry Potter series 189–92
hedges 157
heuristic function 275
Acknowledgements 296
Index295
Index
holding the floor 154
holophrastic stage 253–4
homophones 258
Hove, Chenjeral 34
humour 48–50, 51
hyperbole 48–50, 51
hypernyms 257
hyponyms 257
ideas 74
idiolect 210, 217
idioms 258
imagery 5, 61
imaginative function 275
imaginative writing 110–12
imitation 277–8
imperative 48
impressionism 137
in media res 137
inclusion 178–92
indirect speech 86
inference 37–8
informality 5
inner thoughts 45
inserted phrases 99–100
instrumental function 274
interactional function 275
internal location 29–32
international phonetic alphabet 199
interruptions 157
interviews 155–6, 190–2
introduction 15–16, 98–9
irony 51
isogloss 210
issue-based text 72
James, Henry 143, 144–6
jargon 197
Journals of Denton Welch, The 39
juxtapose 9
Kachru’s Circles 227–9
key words 7–9, 19, 72
Labov, William 185
language 4–5, 66, 80, 172
and acquisition 276–85
bad 197
and change 194–5
and children 251–67
and death 244–50
and function 273–6
and gender 205–10
global 219–25
and groups 182–92
and religion 180
and teenagers 268–73
see also dialect; English language;
figurative language; slang
Language Acquisition Device (LAD) 278–80
Language Acquisition Support System (LASS)
280–1
‘Le Bout du Monde’ (Mike Gould) 110
Leonard, Tom 232
Letter To My Mother, A (Chenjeral Hove) 34
letters 33–5, 76–80, 106–7
Levy, Tobin 47–8
lingua franca 220
linguistic determinism 203
linguistic relativism 203
lists of three 23, 40, 45
location 125–32
Lord of the Flies (William Golding) 121–2
Lost in London (J. M. Coetzee) 46–7
Loud Dad (Tom Cox) 49–50
McEwan, Ian 118–19
Mandela, Nelson 181–2
Mansfield, Katherine 128–9
Map to the Door of No Return, A (Dionne
Brand) 45
Marie, Queen of Romania 40
maxims 163
memoirs 40–50, 81–3
meta language 156
metaphor 7, 11, 12, 25
micropause 168
Mitchell, Margaret 131–2, 144
Mockney 233
modal form 53
modality 157
mode of address 62
monologues 256
mood 13
motifs 132–5
My Sister’s Perfect Life (Tobin Levy) 47–8
Naravan, Kirin 44
narrative 44, 113–20, 137, 138–41
narrowing 194
nature 276
negative politeness 165
negative stereotypes 180
Nehru, Jawaharlal 60
New Guinea 247
New Zealand 179
non-fiction:
and definition 2–3
descriptive 20–33
and memoirs 40–50
and personal writing 33–40
and persuasive writing 50–63
and writing 66
non-standard English 192–4, 233, 234–5
non-standard features 159
non-verbal expression 172
North America 179, 180–1
and dialect 212–13
see also American English
noun phrases 22–3, 25, 51, 253
nurture 276
object permanence 281
O’Connor, Mary Flannery 124
omniscient narrator 119
O’Nan, Stewart 117–18
One Day I Will Write About This Place
(Binyavanga Wainaina) 127–8
open ending 144
opening greetings 154
openings 141–3
Orwell, George 6–7, 9–12, 18, 29–31, 80
over-generalisation 255
overextension 255
overlaps 157
‘paragraph for, paragraph against’ structure
100–2, 103–5
paragraphs 137
paralinguistics 170–2
parallel structure 61
particles 237
passage-based questions 6–9
patois 268
Paton, Alan 143
patterning 45, 57
pauses 172
pejoration 194
persona 96
personal function 275
personal writing 33–40, 72
personification 26, 126
perspective 13, 67–8
persuasive writing 50–63, 72
phatic communion 156
phonemes 168, 252, 254
phonetics 168
and alphabet 199
phrases 7–9, 19, 72; see also inserted phrases;
noun phrases
Piaget, Jean 281–2
pidgin 179
pitch 170
point 17
politeness 164–5
political correctness 203–5
position 22
positive politeness 164
post-vocalic 185
practice 63–4, 108–9, 147–50, 286–93
pragmatics 162, 273–4
Prayer for the Dying, A (Stewart O’Nan)
117–18
pre-operational stage 282
prescriptivism 192
present tense 33, 40
promotional text 92–4
protagonist 120
purpose 4, 15
qualification 27
Queen’s English 230–1
question tags 51
questions 3–6, 111–12
quotations 6, 12, 17–20
Rankin, Chris 190–2
reading: non-fiction 2–12, 12–13
Received Pronunciation (RP) 183, 200, 230–2,
234
reduplication 236, 252
register 4, 58, 173, 263
regulatory function 275
reinforcement 277–8
reliability 284
religion 180, 204
repairing 155
repeated syntactical structure 45, 57
repetition 156
representational function 275
Rescue at 21.00 Hours (Tom Trumble) 7–9
restaurant reviews 55–8
restricted code 263
reviews 50–8, 88–9
rhetorical device 90
rhetorical effect 51
Road from Coorain, The (Jill Kerr Conway)
28–9
‘Royalty’ (Anita Desai) 116–17
RP see Received Pronunciation
Sapir, Edward 203
sarcasm 51schwa 185
Scott, Captain Robert 36–9
Scottish Gaelic 248–50
scripted speeches 58–61
scripts 90–2
second person narrative 117–18
semantics 162
senses 30–1, 33, 127–8
sensorimotor stage 281
sentences 5, 45, 80, 122
setting 44, 125–32
‘Shaaaping in God’s Own Land’ (Samanth
Subramanian) 26–7
Shooting an Elephant (George Orwell) 6–7,
9–12, 16, 18
simile 11, 25, 31–3
Simpson, Joe 21–2
Singapore English (‘Singlish’) 235–7
Skinner, B. F. 277
slang 195–7, 234, 272–3
social class 182–5
sociolect 210, 216
soft sell 92, 94
sound 198–9
South Africa 180, 181–2
and English 237–8
South America 179
speech 198–9; see also accent
speeches 58–61, 90–2
speed 170
spoken language 153–62
Standard English 192–4, 229–32, 234–5
status 166
Stella in Bombay (Kirin Naravan) 44
stereotypes 180
story arc 140
stream of consciousness 11
structure 5, 137
style 4–5, 66
Subramanian, Samanth 26–7
Suu Kyi, Aung San 59–60
symbols 5, 132–5
and speech 168
syntax 38, 40
tag questions 159
Tan Twang Eng 130
Tannen, Deborah 207
Tawney, R. H. 41–3
teenagers 186–92, 196, 268–73
telegraphic stage 255–7
television 275–6
tense 137
text types and purposes 76
Th akor, Sue 150
theatre reviews 51–3
themes 132–5
Things Fall Apart (Chinua Achebe) 121
third person narrative 46–7, 113, 115–17
thought processes 57
tone 5
and speech 168, 170
topic sentence 97
topic shift 155, 173
Touching the Void (Joe Simpson) 21–2
Tower of Babel 219
transactional language 157
transcription 168–70
Trudgill, Peter 185
Trumble, Tom 7–9
Turn of the Screw, The (Henry James) 143,
144–6
turn-taking 154, 157, 252
Twain, Mark 231
two-word stage 254
underextension 255
understatement 48
unexpected 27
unexpected narrators 140–1
‘Unrelated Incidents – No.3’ (Tom Leonard)
232
unreliable narrative 118–19, 120
utterance 153
vague expression 160
validity 284
verbal response 172
verbs 29, 31–3
verisimilitude 213
virtuous errors 258, 266
‘Visit, The’ (Sue Thakor) 150
vocabulary 45, 51
vocal expression 172
voice 5, 13, 26–7, 40, 45, 80, 113–20, 137
voiced pauses 156
voiceover scripts 90–2
volume 170
vowels 239
Wainaina, Binyavanga 127–8
Walker, Alice 113
‘Waltzing Matilda’ (song) 239
‘Waste Land, The’ (Alan Paton) 143
Whorf, Benjamin Lee 203
widening 194
word associations 57
workplace changes 204
writing 66
and argument 96–109
imaginative 110–12, 135–47
and planning 71–5, 136, 138–9
and specified audience 68–71


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