كتاب Handbook of Plastics Joining - A Practical Guide
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
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 كتاب Handbook of Plastics Joining - A Practical Guide

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كتاب Handbook of Plastics Joining - A Practical Guide   Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Plastics Joining - A Practical Guide    كتاب Handbook of Plastics Joining - A Practical Guide   Emptyالأربعاء 29 نوفمبر 2023, 10:57 am

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Handbook of Plastics Joining - A Practical Guide  
Michael J. Troughton

كتاب Handbook of Plastics Joining - A Practical Guide   H_b_o_37
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Table of Contents
Introduction .i
How To Use This Book ii
Plastics Joining Processes
Heated Tool Welding - Chapter 1
Process .1
Processing Parameters .3
Materials 4
Weld Microstructure .4
Effects of Ageing on Weld Strength .5
Variants of Hot Tool Welding .5
Equipment 6
Advantages and Disadvantages 6
Applications .7
Hot Gas Welding - Chapter 2
Process 9
Processing Parameters .10
Materials 10
Joint Design .11
Equipment 11
Advantages and Disadvantages 13
Applications .13
Vibration Welding - Chapter 3
Process 15
Processing Parameters .16
Materials 17
Weld Microstructure .18
Cross-Thickness Welding 19
Equipment 20
Orbital Vibration Welding .22
Advantages and Disadvantages 22
Joint Design .24
Applications .25
Spin Welding - Chapter 4
Process 29
Processing Parameters .29
Materials 31
Weld Microstructure .32
Variants of Spin Welding .32
Equipment 32
Advantages and Disadvantages 33
Joint Design .33
Applications .34Ultrasonic Welding - Chapter 5
Process 35
Processing Parameters .37
Ultrasonic Weldability of Materials .40
Joint Design .45
Ultrasonic Equipment .53
Advantages and Disadvantages 55
Applications .56
Ultrasonic Welding Tips .57
Ultrasonic Inserting 59
Ultrasonic Spot Welding 61
Ultrasonic Staking 61
Ultrasonic Stud Welding 65
Ultrasonic Swaging 65
Ultrasonic Bonding .65
Ultrasonic Slitting .66
Ultrasonic Scan Welding 66
Ultrasonic Degating .66
Induction Welding - Chapter 6
Process 67
Electromagnetic Materials .68
Materials To Be Joined 69
Equipment 69
Work Coil Design .69
Joint Design .71
Advantages and Disadvantages 72
Applications .72
Radio Frequency Welding - Chapter 7
Process 75
Heat Generation 75
Equipment 76
Materials 77
Advantages and Disadvantages 78
Applications .78
Microwave Welding - Chapter 8
Process 79
Processing Parameters .80
Materials 81
Equipment 82
Advantages and Disadvantages 82
Resistance Welding - Chapter 9
Process 83
Processing Parameters .84
Materials 85
Joint Design .85
Equipment 86
Advantages and Disadvantages 86
Applications .86Extrusion Welding - Chapter 10
Process 87
Processing Parameters .87
Weld Microstructure .88
Equipment 89
Advantages and Disadvantages 89
Applications .89
Electrofusion Welding - Chapter 11
Process 91
Processing Parameters .92
Materials 93
Equipment 93
Advantages and Disadvantages 94
Applications .94
Infrared Welding - Chapter 12
Process 95
Processing Parameters .96
Materials 97
Microstructure 98
Variants of Infrared Welding 98
Equipment 99
Advantages and Disadvantages 99
Applications .100
Laser Welding - Chapter 13
Process 101
Processing Parameters .102
Materials 103
Weld Microstructure .103
Joint Design .103
Equipment 104
Advantages and Disadvantages 104
Applications .104
Mechanical Fastening - Chapter 14
Process 105
Machine Screws, Nuts, Bolts, & Washers .105
Self-Tapping Screws 107
Molded-In Threads .113
Inserts 114
Press or Interference Fits 119
Snap-Fits .121
Rivets .133
Staking .134Chemical Bonding - Adhesive and Solvent Bonding - Chapter 15
Mechanism of Bonding 137
Types of Adhesives .140
Hot Melt Adhesives 140
Acrylic Adhesives 141
Epoxy Adhesives 144
Elastomer Adhesives .145
Types of Solvents 146
Surface Preparation Methods 147
Mechanical Treatments .147
Chemical Cleaning Treatments .148
Surface Modification 148
Electrical Discharge Treatments 150
Other Surface Preparation Techniques .151
Factors Affecting Adhesive and Solvent Bonding 152
Joint Design .155
Equipment and Application Methods .159
Advantages and Disadvantages 160
Applications .162
Adhesive Bonding Tips 163
Thermoplastics
Acetal Resin
Acetal Resin - Chapter 16 165
Acetal Copolymer - Chapter 17 .171
Acrylic Resin
Acrylic Resin - Chapter 18 .175
Cellulosic Plastic
Cellulose Propionate - Chapter 19 .183
Fluoroplastic
Fluoropolymer - Chapter 20 .185
Ethylene-Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer (ETFE) - Chapter 21 .187
Fluorinated Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer (FEP) - Chapter 22 .191
Perfluoroalkoxy Resin (PFA) - Chapter 23 193
Polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) - Chapter 24 .195
Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) - Chapter 25 197
Ionomer
Ionomer - Chapter 26 .201
Polyamide
Nylon - Chapter 27 .203
Amorphous Nylon - Chapter 28 .209
Nylon 12 - Chapter 29 211
Nylon 6 - Chapter 30 213
Nylon 612 - Chapter 31 217
Nylon 66 - Chapter 32 219
Polyarylamide - Chapter 33 .223
Polyphthalamide (PPA) - Chapter 34 .225
Polycarbonate
Polycarbonate (PC) - Chapter 35 231Polyester
Thermoplastic Polyester - Chapter 36 .265
Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) - Chapter 37 267
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) - Chapter 38 287
Polycyclohexylenedimethylene Ethylene Terephthalate (PETG) - Chapter 39 .291
Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) - Chapter 40 .293
Polyimide
Polyimide - Chapter 41 297
Polyamideimide (PAI) - Chapter 42 .301
Polyetherimide (PEI) - Chapter 43 .305
Polyketone
Polyaryletherketone (PAEK) - Chapter 44 .313
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) - Chapter 45 .317
Polyetherketone (PEK) - Chapter 46 .321
Polyolefin
Polyethylene (PE) - Chapter 47 .323
Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) - Chapter 48 327
Medium Density Polyethylene (MDPE) - Chapter 49 .329
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) - Chapter 50 .331
Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) - Chapter 51 .337
Polyethylene Copolymer - Chapter 52 .341
Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer (EVA) - Chapter 53 .343
Polyethylene-Acrylic Acid Copolymer (EAA) - Chapter 54 345
Polymethylpentene (PMP) - Chapter 55 347
Polypropylene (PP) - Chapter 56 .349
Polypropylene Copolymer (PP Copolymer) - Chapter 57 363
Polyphenylene Ether
Polystyrene Modified Polyphenylene Ether (PPO and PPE) - Chapter 58 367
Polyphenylene Sulfide
Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) - Chapter 59 383
Polysulfone
Polysulfone (PSO) - Chapter 60 387
Polyethersulfone (PES) - Chapter 61 399
Styrenic Resin
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Copolymer (ABS) - Chapter 62 .407
Acrylonitrile-Styrene-Acrylate Copolymer (ASA) - Chapter 63 .417
Polystyrene (PS) - Chapter 64 .421
General Purpose Polystyrene (GPPS) - Chapter 65 .425
Impact Resistant Polystyrene (IPS) - Chapter 66 427
Styrene-Acrylonitrile Copolymer (SAN) - Chapter 67 .431
Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer (SMA) - Chapter 68 .435
Styrene-Butadiene Copolymer (Styrene Butadiene) - Chapter 69 .441
Polyurethane
Rigid Thermoplastic Urethane (RTPU) - Chapter 70 .443
Vinyl Resin
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Chapter 71 445Plastic Alloy
Acrylic Resin/Polyvinyl Chloride Alloy (Acrylic/PVC) - Chapter 72 453
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Copolymer/Polyvinyl Chloride Alloy (ABS/PVC) - Chapter 73 .455
Polycarbonate/Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Copolymer Alloy (PC/ABS) - Chapter 74 .457
Polycarbonate/Polyester Alloy - Chapter 75 461
Polycarbonate/Polbutylene Terephthalate Alloy (PC/PBT) - Chapter 76 .463
Polycarbonate/Polyethylene Terephthalate Alloy (PC/PET) - Chapter 77 .465
Polyethylene Terephthalate/Polbutylene Terephthalate Alloy (PET/PBT) - Chapter 79 469
Polystyrene Modified Polyphenylene Ether/Nylon 6 Alloy (PPE/Nylon) - Chapter 80 .471
Polyvinyl Chloride Alloy (PVC Alloy) - Chapter 81 .473
Thermoplastic Elastomers
Generic Thermoplastic Elastomer
Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE) - Chapter 82 475
Olefinic Thermoplastic Elastomer
Olefinic Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPO) - Chapter 83 477
Polyester Thermoplastic Elastomer
Polyester Thermoplastic Elastomer (Polyester TPE) - Chapter 84 479
Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomer
Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomer (Styrenic TPE) - Chapter 85 483
Urethane Thermoplastic Elastomer
Urethane Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPUR) - Chapter 86 .485
Thermoplastic Polyester-Polyurethane Elastomer (TPAU) - Chapter 87 .487
Thermoplastic Polyether-Polyurethane Elastomer (TPEU) - Chapter 88 .489
Vinyl Thermoplastic Elastomer
Polyvinyl Chloride Polyol (pPVC) - Chapter 89 491
Thermosets
Diallyl Phthalate Polymer
Diallyl Phthalate Polymer (DAP) - Chapter 90 .495
Epoxy Resin
Epoxy Resin - Chapter 91 497
Phenolic Resin
Phenol-Formaldehyde Copolymer - Chapter 92 499
Polyester
Thermoset Polyester - Chapter 93 .501
Reaction Injection Molding Systerm (RIM)
Polyurethane Reaction Injection Molding System (PU RIM) - Chapter 94 503
Vinyl Ester
Vinyl Ester Resin - Chapter 95 505
Polycarbonate/Glycol Modified Polycyclohexylenedimethylene Terephthalate Alloy - Chapter 78 467Rubbers
Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR)
Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Copolymer (EPDM) - Chapter 96 507
Fluoroelastomer
Vinylidene Fluoride-Hexafluoropropylene Copolymer (FKM) - Chapter 97 .509
Polyurethane
Urethane (PU) - Chapter 98 .511
Rubber Alloy
PE Copolymer/ Fluoroelastomer Alloy - Chapter 99 513
Appendices
Glossary of Terms .515
Indicies
Reference Index 551
Figure Index .561
Table Index 569
Supplier Directory 573
General Index 579
Glossary of Terms
ABS See acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer.
ABS nylon alloy Thermoplastic alloy of ABS and nylon suitable for
injection molding. Has properties similar to ABS but considerably
higher elongation at yield.
ABS polycarbonate alloy Thermoplastic alloy of ABS and
polycarbonate suitable for injection molding and extrusion. Has
properties similar to ABS. Used in automotive applications.
ABS polyurethane alloy Thermoplastic alloy of acrylonitrile
butadiene styrene and polyurethane.
absolute density See density.
absolute gravity See density.
accelerator A chemical substance that accelerates chemical,
photochemical, biochemical, etc. reaction or process, such as
crosslinking or degradation of polymers, that is triggered and/or
sustained by another substance, such as curing agent or catalyst,
or environmental factor, such as heat, radiation or a
microorganism. Also called promoter, cocatalyst.
acetal See acetal resin.
acetal resin Acetal resins are thermoplastics prepared either by
homopolymerization of formaldehyde or its trimer, trioxane, or by
copolymerization of trioxane with other monomers, such as
ethylene oxide. Acetals have high impact strength, stiffness, and
yield stress; low friction coefficient and gas and vapor
permeability; good dimensional stability and dielectric properties;
high fatigue strength; and good retention of properties at elevated
temperatures. The homopolymer has higher heat deflection
temperature but lower continuous use temperature than
copolymers. All acetals have poor resistance to acids and
homopolymers also show poor resistance to alkalies. Acetals are
subject to UV degradation, are flammable, and are difficult to
bond. Processed by injection and blow molding and extrusion.
Used in mechanical parts such as gears and bearings, automotive
parts such as window cranks and trim fasteners; appliances; pump
housings, shower heads, and other plumbing applications; and
electronics such as connectors. Also called POM,
polyoxymethylene, polyformaldehyde, acetal.
acetone A volatile, colorless, highly flammable liquid with
molecular formula CH3COCH3. Acetone has autoignition
temperature 537°C, mixes readily with water and some other
solvents and is moderately toxic. Acetone dissolves most
thermoplastics and some thermosets. Used as organic synthesis
intermediate, e.g., in the manufacture of bisphenol A and
antioxidants, as solvent in paints and acetate fiber spinning and
for cleaning of electronic parts. Also called dimethyl ketone.
acrylate resin See acrylic resin.
acrylate styrene acrylonitrile polymer Acrylic rubber-modified
thermoplastic having high outdoor weatherability, e.g., retention
of color, gloss, and impact and tensile properties. The material
offers high gloss, good heat and chemical resistance, great
toughness and rigidity, and very good antistatic properties. It is
compatible with other polymers such as PVC and polycarbonate
and processable by (co)extrusion, thermoforming, injection
molding, structural foam molding, and extrusion-blow molding.
Drying is necessary because the material is mildly hygroscopic.
Used in building and construction, leisure and recreation, and
automotive applications when there is a demand for good
weatherability, e.g., commercial siding, exterior auto trim, outdoor
furniture. Also called ASA, acrylonitrile styrene acrylate polymer,
acrylic styrene acrylonitrile polymer.
acrylate styrene acrylonitrile polymer polyvinyl chloride
alloy Thermoplastic alloy of an acrylate styrene acrylonitrile
polymer with polyvinyl chloride.
acrylic epoxy resin See vinyl ester resin.
acrylic ethylene rubber See ethylene acrylic rubber.
acrylic resin The class of thermoplastics comprised of
homopolymers and copolymers of alkyl (meth)acrylates. The most
common monomers used are methyl and ethyl (meth)acrylates; the
comonomers include other unsaturated monomers. The acrylic
resins offer excellent optical clarity, weatherability and resistance
to sunlight, outstanding surface hardness, good chemical
resistance, rigidity, good impact strength, excellent dimensional
stability, and low mold shrinkage. They have poor solvent
resistance, are subject to stress cracking, are combustible, and
have low flexibility and thermal stability. The acrylic resins can be
cast in sheets, rods, or tubing; extruded into sheets or profiles;
injection molded; thermoformed; and coated. The applications
include transparent items such as lenses, automotive trim,
household items, light fixtures, conformed coatings on printed
circuit boards, and medical devices. Also called polyacrylate,
acrylate resin.
acrylic resin polyvinyl chloride alloy A thermoplastic alloy of an
acrylic resin and polyvinyl chloride.
acrylic styrene acrylonitrile polymer See acrylate styrene
acrylonitrile polymer.
acrylonitrile butadiene rubber See nitrile rubber.
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer ABS resins are
thermoplastics comprised of a mixture of styrene-acrylonitrile
copolymer (SAN) and SAN-grafted butadiene rubber. They have
high impact resistance, toughness, rigidity and processability, but
low dielectric strength, continuous service temperature, and
elongation. Outdoor use requires protective coatings in some
cases. Plating grades provide excellent adhesion to metals.
Processed by extrusion, blow molding, thermoforming,
calendaring and injection molding. Used in household appliances,
tools, nonfood packaging, business machinery, interior automotive
parts, extruded sheet, pipe and pipe fittings. Also called ABS.
acrylonitrile copolymer Acrylonitrile copolymers are
thermoplastics prepared by copolymerization of acrylonitrile with
minor amounts of other unsaturated monomers. The class of
acrylonitrile copolymers include ASA, ABS, SAN, and nitrile
resins. In a narrower sense the term acrylonitrile copolymers is
often used to denote (high) nitrile (barrier) resins. These resins
have good gas barrier properties, chemical resistance, and taste
and odor retention properties. These resins have moderately high
tensile properties and good impact properties when rubber
modified or oriented. Processed by extrusion, injection molding,
and thermoforming. Used mainly in food and nonfood packaging.
FDA approved for direct contact with food with some limitations.acrylonitrile methyl acrylate copolymer A thermoplastic
polymer of acrylonitrile and methyl acrylate.
acrylonitrile rubber See nitrile rubber.
acrylonitrile styrene acrylate polymer See acrylate styrene
acrylonitrile polymer.
activation energy An excess energy that must be added to an
atomic or molecular system to allow a process, such as diffusion
or chemical reaction, to proceed.
adherend A body held to another body, usually by an adhesive or
solvent. A part or detail being prepared for bonding.
adhesion promoter A coating applied to a substrate prior to
adhesive application, in order to improve adhesion of the material,
such as a plastic. Also called primer.
adhesive A material, usually polymeric, capable of forming
permanent or temporary surface bonds with another material as is
or after processing such as curing. Used for bonding and joining.
Many classes of adhesives include hot-melt, pressure-sensitive,
contact, UV cured, emulsion, etc.
adhesive abrasion In adhesive bonding, a surface preparation
technique in which the part surface is mechanically abraded in the
presence of liquid adhesive. Abraded, adhesive-coated adherends
are then mated, and adhesive is allowed to cure. It is speculated
that abrasion in the presence of adhesive creates free radicals that
react directly with the adhesive; when abrasion is performed in the
absence of adhesive, the generated free radicals are scavenged by
oxygen in air before adhesive is applied. Adhesive abrasion is
commonly used on fluorocarbons; bond strengths of Teflon
(PTFE) were increased about 700% using this technique.
adhesive bonding A method of joining two plastics or other
materials in which an adhesive is applied to the part surfaces.
Bonding occurs through mechanical or chemical interfacial forces
between the adhesive and adherend and / or by molecular
interlocking. Surface preparation of the adherends and curing of
the adhesive may be required.
adhesive failure Failure of an adhesive bond at the adhesiveadherend interface. An example is an adhesive failure that leaves
adhesive all on one adherend, with none on the other adherend.
Adhesive failure is less desirable than cohesive failure because it
is indicative of a joint with lower adhesive strength. See also
cohesive failure.
adiabatic A process in which there is no gain or loss of heat from the
system to the environment. For plastics, although not completely
correct, it is used to describe a mode of extrusion in which no
external heat is added to the extruder. Heat may be removed from
the extruder by cooling in order to keep the output temperature of
the melt passing through the extruder constant. Heat input in this
process originates from the conversion of mechanical energy of
the screw to thermal energy.
adipic acid hexanediamine polymer See nylon 66.
adsorption Retention of a substance molecule on the surface of a
solid or liquid. Also called physical adsorption.
advanced styrenic resin See styrenic resin.
alpha cellulose See cellulose.
amideimide resin See polyimide.
amorphous nylon Amorphous nylons are transparent products that
typically involve rings in copolymer chains. One amorphous
nylon involves 2,4,4- and 2,2,4-trimethylhexamethylene diamine
and terephthalic acid.
amplitude The maximum displacement of a particle measured from
its equilibrium position.
annealing A process in which a material, such as plastic, metal, or
glass, is heated then cooled slowly. In plastics and metals, it is
used to reduce stresses formed during fabrication. The plastic is
heated to a temperature at which the molecules have enough
mobility to allow them to reorient to a configuration with less
residual stress. Semicrystalline polymers are heated to a
temperature at which retarded crystallization or recrystallization
can occur.
antimony pentoxide (SbO5) A white or yellowish powder that
melts at 450°C (842°F). Loses oxygen above 300°C (572°F).
Soluble in strong bases, forming antimonates; slightly soluble in
water; insoluble in acids except for concentrated hydrochloric
acid. Derived by reaction of concentrated nitric acid with the
metal or trioxide. Used as a flame retardant for textiles and in the
preparation of antimonates and other antimony compounds. Also
called antimonic anhydride, antimonic acid, stibic anhydride.
antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) A white, odorless, crystalline powder
that melts at 655°C (1211°F). Soluble in concentrated
hydrochloric and sulfuric acids and strong bases; insoluble in
water. Amphoteric, a suspected carcinogen. Derived by reaction
of ammonium hydroxide with antimony chloride, combustion of
antimony in air, or directly from low-grade ores. Used in
flameproofing textiles, paper, and plastics, especially polyvinyl
chloride; glass decolorizer; paint pigments; staining of copper and
iron; opacifiying ceramics; and as a catalyst or intermediate in
organic reactions. Also called antimony white, antimony oxide.
aramid See polyarylamide.
aromatic ester carbonate See aromatic polyester estercarbonate.
aromatic polyamide See polyarylamide.
aromatic polyester Aromatic polyesters are thermoplastics
prepared by polycondensation of aromatic polyol with aromatic
dicarboxylic acid or anhydride or by polycondensation of aromatic
hydroxycarboxylic acid. They are tough, durable, heat resistant,
and offer good dimensional stability, dielectric properties, UVstability, and flame retardance. Chemical resistance of aromatic
polyesters is somewhat lower than other engineering plastics.
Processing is achieved by injection and blow molding, extrusion,
and thermoforming. Thorough drying is required. Uses include
automotive housings and trim, electrical wire jacketing, printed
circuit boards, appliance enclosures. Also called polyarylate,
ARP.
aromatic polyester estercarbonate A thermoplastic comprising
block copolymer of an aromatic polyester with polycarbonate. It
has increased heat distortion temperature, compared to generalpurpose polycarbonate. Also called polyestercarbonate, aromatic
polyestercarbonate, aromatic ester carbonate.
aromatic polyestercarbonate See aromatic polyester
estercarbonate.
ARP See aromatic polyester.
ASA See acrylate styrene acrylonitrile polymer.ASA PVC alloy Alloy of acrylic styrene acrylonitrile and polyvinyl
chloride.
aseptic In food processing, a process or condition that renders a
processed food product essentially free of microorganisms capable
of growing in the food in unrefrigerated distribution and storage
conditions. In aseptic food packaging, presterilized containers are
filled with aseptic foods, then hermetically sealed in a
commercially sterile atmosphere.
ASR See styrenic resin.
ASTM D1002 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
standard practice for testing the shear strength of rigid sheet
material by tensile loading. Two sections of a rigid sheet material,
usually 4 in. in length x 1 in. in width x 0.064 in. in thickness
(101.6 x 25 x 1.62 mm) and having suitably treated surfaces, are
overlapped 0.5 in. (12.7 mm) and adhesively bonded together in a
0.5 square inch contact area (323 mm2). Both ends are then
clamped firmly into the jaws of a tensile testing machine, and the
the jaws are moved apart at a speed of 0.05 in./min. (1.3
mm/min.) until joint failure occurs. The failing load, in psi (MPa)
and mode of failure (adhesive, cohesive, or mixed) is reported.
This is the most commonly used shear test for metal-to-metal
structural adhesives. Although it is useful for quality control and
comparing different adhesives, failure strength values are not
useful for engineering design due to the complex stress
distribution pattern in the adhesive with this joint configuration.
Also called the lap shear test. Also called lap shear test.
ASTM D1761 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
standard practice for testing the strength and performance of
mechanical fasteners in wood. Withdrawal resistance of wood to
nails, staples, and screws is measured by recording the maximum
load of fasteners withdrawn at a uniform rate of speed by a testing
machine. Resistance of nails, staples, and screws to lateral
movement is tested by tensile loading. Strength and rigidity of
timber joints fastened with bolts or other metal connectors is
tested by measuring the deformation of the joint at various
intervals of loading. Vertical load capacity and torsional moment
capacity of joist hangers is tested by measuring the amount of slip
under load.
ASTM D4501 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
standard practice for determining the shear strengths of adhesives
used to bond rigid materials by the block shear method.
Adhesively bonded blocks, plates, or disks, with flash and fillets
removed on the loaded side, are mounted into the shear fixture of
a testing machine (capacity not less than 44 kN (10,000lbf)). Test
specimens can be any size within the limits of the shearing fixture
capacity. The shear fixture is mounted into the testing machine in
such a way that one adherend is engaged by the holding block and
the other by the shearing tool. A crosshead speed of 1.26
mm/min. (0.05 in./min.) is used for testing. The maximum forces
sustained by the specimen is recorded. This test is particularly
applicable for testing bonds between ceramic, glass, magnet
moldings, and plastic parts with one flat face in which machining
is difficult or impractical.
average molecular weight See molecular weight.
B
bar A metric unit of measurement of pressure equal to 1.0E+06
dynes/cm2 or 1.0E+05 pascals. It has a dimension of unit of force
per unit of area. Used to denote the pressure of gases, vapors and
liquids.
barrier material Materials such as plastic films, sheeting, wood
laminates, particle board, paper, fabrics, etc. with low
permeability to gases and vapors. Used in construction as water
vapor insulation, food packaging, protective clothing, etc.
base resin melt index See melt index.
beading In joining plastics, bending an edge of a flat thermoplastic
sheet, using roll(s) with or without heating, or flanging an end of a
thermoplastic pipe, using mandrel with or without heating, to form
a profile suitable for subsequent joining or assembly. In coating,
heavy accumulation of a coating which occurs at the lower edge of
a panel or other vertical surface as the result of excessive flowing.
bending strength See flexural strength.
benzene An aromatic hydrocarbon with six-atom carbon ring, C6H6.
Highly toxic and flammable (autoignition point 562°C). A
colorless or yellowish liquid under normal conditions (b.p.
80.1°C), soluble in many organic solvents such as ethanol,
acetone, tetrachlorocarbon, etc. Used for synthesis of organic
compounds.
bisphenol A epoxy resin See epoxy resin.
bisphenol A fumarate polyester See bisphenol A polyester.
bisphenol A polyester A thermoset unsaturated polyester based on
bisphenol A and fumaric acid. Also called bisphenol A fumarate
polyester.
black lead See graphite filler.
booster In ultrasonic welding, a mechanical transformer used to
increase or decrease the amplitude of the horn.
boss A hollow or solid projection used for attachment and support of
related components. Properly designed bosses and ribs can
provide dimensional stability to the part, while reducing material
usage and molding cycle time. In mechanical fastening, the
hollow projection into which an insert or screw is driven. Solid
bosses are also called studs.
breaking elongation See elongation.
bursting strength Bursting strength of a material, such as plastic
film, is the minimum force per unit area or pressure required to
produce rupture. The pressure is applied with a ram or a
diaphragm at a controlled rate to a specified area of the material
held rigidly and initially flat but free to bulge under the increasing
pressure.
butadiene styrene block polymer See styrene butadiene block
copolymer.
butadiene styrene methyl methacrylate polymer See methyl
methacrylate butadiene styrene terpolymer.
Butanone 2- (CH3COCH2CH3) A colorless liquid with an acetonelike odor. Soluble in benzene, alcohol, ether; partially soluble in
water; miscible with oils. Its TLV is 200 ppm in air; it is toxic byinhalation and a dangerous fire risk. Explosive limit in air is 2-
10%. Derived from sulfuric acid hydrolysis of mixed n-butylenes
followed by distillation, by controlled oxidation of butane, or by
fermentation. Used as a solvent in nitrocellulose coatings and
vinyl films and in paint removers, cements and adhesives,
manufacture of smokeless powder, cleaning fluids, and acrylic
coatings. Used in printing, and as a reagant for organic synthesis.
Also called methyl ethyl ketone, MEK, ethyl methyl ketone. Also
called methyl ethyl ketone, MEK.
butt joint A type of edge joint in which the edge faces of the two
parts are at right angles to the other faces of the part.
butt joint weld A weld in which the parts are joined using a butt
joint.
C
CA See cellulose acetate.
CAB See cellulose acetate butyrate.
caprolactam pyrrolidone polymer See nylon 46.
carbon black Carbon black is a black colloidal carbon filler made
by the partial combustion and/or thermal cracking of natural gas,
oil, or another hydrocarbon. Depending upon the starting material
and the method of manufacture, carbon black can be called
acethylene black, channel black, furnace black, etc. For example,
channel black is made by impinging gas flames against steel plates
or channel irons, from which the deposit is scraped at intervals.
The properties and the uses of each carbon black type can also
vary. Thus, furnace black comes in high abrasion, fast extrusion,
high modulus, general purpose, and semireinforcing grades among
others. Carbon black is widely used as a filler and pigment in
PVC, phenolic resins, and polyolefins. It increases the resistance
to UV light and electrical conductivity and sometimes acts as a
crosslinking agent. Also called colloidal carbon.
carbon fiber Carbon fibers are high-performance reinforcement
consisting essentially of carbon. They are made by a variety of
methods including pyrolysis of cellulosic (e.g., rayon) and acrylic
fibers, burning-off binder from a pitch precursor, and growing
single crystals (whiskers) via thermal cracking of hydrocarbon
gas. The properties of carbon fibers depend on the morphology of
carbon in them and are the highest for crystalline carbon
(graphite). These properties include high modulus and tensile
strength, high thermal stability, electrical conductivity, chemical
resistance, wear resistance, and relatively low weight. Used as
continuous or short fibers and in mats in autoclave and die
molding, filament winding, injection molding, and pultrusion.
Carbon fibers are used at a loading levels of 20-60 vol% or more
in both thermosets and thermoplastics such as epoxy resins and
ABS. Carbon fibers are often used in combination with other
fibers such as glass fibers to make hybrid composites. The end
products containing carbon fibers include wheel chairs, tennis
racquets, auto parts, machine tools, and support structures in
electronic equipment. Also called graphite fiber.
carbon filler Carbon fillers are a family of fillers based on carbon in
various forms, such as carbon black and graphite. Used as a black
pigment, to improve lubricity, and to increase electrical
conductivity of plastics. Also called powdered carbon, carbon
powder.
carbon graphite See graphite filler.
carbon powder See carbon filler.
carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) A colorless liquid with a sweet odor.
Miscible with alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene, solvent
naphtha, and most fixed and volatile oils; insoluble in water.
Noncombustible. Boils at 76.74°C (170.13°F); freezes at -23°C (-
9.4°F); vapor is 5.3 times heavier than air. Its TLV is 5 ppm in
air; it is toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption.
Decomposes to phosgene at high temperatures. Derived by
reaction of carbon disulfide and chlorine in the presence of iron or
by chlorination of methane or higher hydrocarbons at 250 - 400°C
(752°F). Purified by removal of sulfur chloride using caustic
alkali, followed by rectification. Used in metal degreasing,
chlorination of organic compounds, the production of
semiconductors and solvents (fats, oils, rubber); as a refrigerant
and agricultural fumigant. Also called tetrachloromethane,
perchloromethane.
cast film Film produced by pouring or spreading resin solution or
melt over a suitable temporary substrate, followed by curing via
solvent evaporation or melt cooling and removing the cured film
from the substrate.
CE See cellulosic plastic.
cellulose Cellulose is a natural carbohydrate polymer of high
molecular weight comprised of long chains of D-glucose units
joined together by beta-1,4-glucasidic bonds. It is derived from
plants such as cotton and trees. It is used to produce cellulose
esters and ethers, i.e., cellulosic plastics, but the largest use is in
paper manufacture. Cellulose fillers in a narrow sense are usually
made from wood pulp. In a broader sense they may include cotton
lint, wood flour, lignin, wood chips, and various cellulosic waste
such as cotton fiber rejects. Treating wood pulp with alkali results
in a colorless filler used in thermosetting resins such as phenolic.
Also called pulp, cellulose pulp, alpha cellulose.
cellulose acetate Thermoplastic ester of cellulose and acetic acid
which is characterized by toughness, gloss, clarity, good
processability, stiffness, hardness, good "feel", and dielectric
properties. The disadvantages of this ester include poor resistance
to solvents, alkaline materials, and fungi, high moisture pickup
and permeability, rather low compressive strength, and
flammability. It is processed by injection and blow molding and
extrusion. The applications include telephone and appliance cases,
automotive steering wheels, pens and penciles, tool handles,
tubular containers, eyeglass frames, brushes, tapes, sheeting, and
signs. Also called CA.
cellulose acetate butyrate Thermoplastic mixed ester of cellulose
and acetic and butyric acids. Characterized by toughness, gloss,
clarity, good processability, low temperature impact strength,
dimesional stability, weatherability, good "feel", and dielectric
properties. The disadvantages of this ester include poor resistance
to solvents, alkaline materials, and fungi, high moisture pickup
and permeability, rather low compressive strength, and
flammability. It is processed by injection and blow molding and
extrusion. The applications include telephone and appliance cases,
automotive steering wheels, pens and penciles, tool handles,
tubular containers, eyeglass frames, brushes, tapes, sheeting, and
signs. Also called cellulose butyrate, CAB.
cellulose butyrate See cellulose acetate butyrate.
cellulose propionate Thermoplastic ester of cellulose and
propionic acid which is characterized by toughness, gloss, clarity,
good processability, low temperature impact strength, dimesional
stability, weatherability, good "feel", and dielectric properties. The
disadvantages of this ester include poor resistance to solvents,
alkaline materials, and fungi, high moisture pickup and
permeability, rather low compressive strength, and flammability. It
is processed by injection and blow molding and extrusion. Theapplications include telephone and appliance cases, automotive
steering wheels, pens and penciles, tool handles, tubular
containers, eyeglass frames, brushes, tapes, sheeting, and signs.
Also called CP.
cellulose pulp See cellulose.
cellulosic See cellulosic plastic.
cellulosic plastic A class of thermoplastics consisting of cellulose
esters and ethers. The most important esters are acetates, including
mixed esters, and nitrates. The most important ethers are ethyl
and carboxymethyl. The cellulosic plastics are characterized by
toughness, gloss, clarity, and good processability. In addition, the
acetates exhibit good stiffness and hardness, the butyrates and
propionates show increased weatherability, low temperature
impact strength, and dimensional stability, and all esters have
good "feel" and dielectric properties. The disadvantages of the
esters include poor resistance to solvents, alkaline materials, and
fungi, high moisture pickup and permeability, rather low
compressive strength, and flammability. They are processed by
injection and blow molding and extrusion. The applications
include telephone and appliance cases, automotive steering
wheels, pens and pencils, tool handles, tubular containers,
eyeglass frames, brushes, tapes, sheeting, and signs. Also called
cellulosic, CE.
chain scission Breaking of the chainlike molecule of a polymer as a
result of chemical, photochemical, etc. reaction such as thermal
degradation or photolysis.
chamfer A beveled edge or corner; to bevel a sharp edge.
chemical saturation Absence of double or triple bonds in a chain
organic molecule such as that of most polymers, usually between
carbon atoms. Saturation makes the molecule less reactive and
polymers less susceptible to degradation and crosslinking.
chemical unsaturation Presence of double or triple bonds in a
chain organic molecule such as that of some polymers, usually
between carbon atoms. Unsaturation makes the molecule more
reactive, especially in free-radical addition reactions such as
addition polymerization, and polymers more susceptible to
degradation, crosslinking and chemical modification.
chlorendic polyester A thermoset unsaturated polyester based on
chlorendic anhydride.
chlorinated polyvinyl chloride Thermoplastics produced by postchlorination of PVC to increase glass temperature and heat
deflection under load. Have high chemical resistance, rigidity,
flame retardance, tensile strength, and weatherability. Processed
by extrusion, injection molding, casting, and calendering. Used in
hot and cold water piping and fittings, chemical liquid piping,
automotive parts, waste disposal devices, outdoor applications,
and glazing beads. Also called PVD, CPVC.
chloroprene rubber See neoprene rubber.
chlorosulfonated PE rubber See chlorosulfonated polyethylene
rubber.
chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber Chlorosulfonated
polyethylene rubbers are thermosetting elastomers that contain
between 20 and 40% chlorine and approximately 1 to 2% sulfur.
They provide resistance to ozone and oxygen attack under sunlight
and UV radiation conditions. They are also resistant to
deterioration due to heat, chemicals, and solvents. The most
common applications for these elastomers are hose, tubing, and
sheet goods, soles and heels, life boats and jackets, and
windbreakers. Also called CSPE rubber, CSM, chlorosulfonated
PE rubber.
chopped glass fiber Chopped glass fibers have lengths from 1/8 to
1/2 in. and are made by chopping glass strands containing 8 120
filaments. The individual fibers are bonded together within strands
so that they can remain in bundles after chopping. Used widely in
bulk molding compounds; and compression, transfer, and
injection molding. Also called short glass fiber, medium glass
fiber, chopped strand.
chopped strand See chopped glass fiber.
chromic acid etching In adhesive bonding, a surface preparation
technique in which chromic acid is used to introduce oxygenated
reactive molecular groups, such as hydroxl, carbonyl, carboxylic,
and hydrogen sulfite, to the part surface and to form root-like
cavities as sites for mechanical interlocking. Commonly used for
polyolefins, ABS, polystyrene, polyphenyleneoxide, and acetals.
cobalt napthenate A brown, amorphous powder or bluish-red solid
of indefinite composition. Soluble in alcohol, ether, oils;
insoluble in water. Combustible. Derived from reaction of
cobaltous hydroxide or cobaltous acetate with naphthenic acids.
Used as catalyst in bonding rubber to steel and other metals and as
a paint and varnish drier. Also called cobaltous napthenate.
cobalt-60 One of the unstable isotopes of Co used widely as a source
of gamma radiation.
cocatalyst See accelerator.
coextruded film A film made by coextrusion of 2 or more different
or similar plastics through a single die with two or more orifices
arranged so that the extrudates merge and weld together into a
laminar film before cooling. Each ply of coextruded film imparts a
desired property, such as impermeability or resistance to some
environment and heat-sealability, usually unattainable with a
single material.
cohesive failure Failure of an adhesive bond that occurs within the
adhesive, leaving adhesive present on both adherends. Optimum
failure is 100% cohesive failure, when both shear areas are
completely covered. See also adhesive failure.
colloidal carbon See carbon black.
conditioning Process of bringing the material or apparatus to a
certain condition, e.g., moisture content or temperature, prior to
further processing, treatment, etc. Also called conditioning cycle.
conditioning cycle See conditioning.
conduction In heat transfer, migration of energy due to a
temperature gradient. Heat energy is transferred by the movement
of molecules at hotter or colder temperatures, with different
degrees of thermal motion, into colder or hotter regions,
respectively. See also radiation convection.
contact adhesive An adhesive that will adhere to itself on contact.
When applied to both adherends, it forms a bond after drying,
without sustained pressure on the adherends. Composed of
neoprene or, less commonly, nitrile elastomers. See also pressure
sensitive adhesive.
continuous glass fiber Continuous glass fibers are strands of
filaments (roving) made by melt drawing from various grades of
glass. Can be twisted. Used in sheet molding compounds, sprayup
lamination, pultrusion, and filament winding. Continuous glass
fibers provide fast wetout, even tension, and abrasion resistance
during processing. Also called long glass fiber, continuous strand
roving, continuous roving, continuous glass roving.continuous glass roving See continuous glass fiber.
continuous roving See continuous glass fiber.
continuous strand roving See continuous glass fiber.
convection The mass movement of particles arising from the
movement of a streaming fluid due to difference in a physical
property such as density, temperature, etc. Mass movement due to
a temperature difference results in heat transfer, as in the upward
movement of a warm air current. See also radiation conduction.
copolyester See polyester.
copolyester thermoplastic rubber See polyester thermoplastic
elastomer.
copolyester TPE See polyester thermoplastic elastomer.
corona discharge treatment In adhesive bonding, a surface
preparation technique in which a high electric potential is
discharged by ionizing the surrounding gas, usually air. The gas
reacts with the plastic, roughening the surface to provide sites for
mechanical interlocking and introducing reactive sites on the
surface. Functional groups such as carbonyls, hydroxyls,
hydroperoxides, aldehydes, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, and
unsaturated bonds have been proposed as reactive sites.
Commonly used for polyolefins, corona discharge increases
wettability and surface reactivity. In processing plastics, treating
the surface of an inert plastic such as polyolefin with corona
discharge to increase its affinity to inks, adhesives or coatings.
Plastic films are passed over a grounded metal cylinder with a
pointed high-voltage electrode above it to produce the discharge.
The discharge oxidizes the surface, making it more receptive to
finishing. Also called corona treatment. See also plasma arc
treatment.
corona treatment See corona discharge treatment.
Coulombic friction The opposing force that occurs when two dry
surfaces are rubbed together, as in vibration and spin welding.
Also called external friction. See also internal friction.
coupler In ultrasonic welding, a booster that does not affect the
amplitude of the horn. Its gain ratio is 1:1.
CP See cellulose propionate.
CPVC See chlorinated polyvinyl chloride.
cracking Appearance of external and/or internal cracks in the
material as a result of stress that exceeds the strength of the
material. The stress can be external and/or internal and can be
caused by a variety of adverse conditions: structural defects,
impact, aging, corrosion, etc. or a combination thereof. Also
called resistance to cracking, grazing, cracking resistance. See
also crazing.
cracking resistance See cracking.
crazing Appearance of thin cracks on the surface or minute frost-like
internal cracks in materials such as plastic as a result of residual
stress, impact, temperature changes, degradation, etc. See also
cracking
creep Time-dependent increase in strain in material, occuring under
stress.
crosslinked PE See crosslinked polyethylene.
crosslinked polyethylene Polyethylene thermoplastic partially
crosslinked by irradiation or by the use of chemical additives such
as peroxides to improve tensile strength, dielectric properties and
impact strength over a wider range of temperatures. Also called
crosslinked PE.
crosslinking Reaction or formation of covalent bonds between
chain-like polymer molecules or between polymer molecules and
low-molecular compounds such as carbon black fillers. As a
result of crosslinking polymers, such as thermosetting resins, may
become hard and infusible. Crosslinking is induced by heat, UV
or electron-beam radiation, oxidation, etc. Crosslinking can be
achieved ether between polymer molecules alone as in unsaturated
polyesters or with the help of multifunctional crosslinking agents
such as diamines that react with functional side groups of the
polymers. Crosslinking can be catalyzed by the presence of
transition metal complexes, thiols and other compounds.
crystal polystyrene See general purpose polystyrene.
crystal PS See general purpose polystyrene.
crystalline melting point The temperature of melting of the
crystalline phase of a crystalline polymer. It is higher than the
temperature of melting of the surrounding amorphous phase.
CSM See chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber.
CSPE rubber See chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber.
CTFE See polychlorotrifluoroethylene.
curing A process of hardening or solidification involving
crosslinking, oxidizing, and / or polymerization (addition or
condensation).
cyanoacrylate In adhesive bonding, a highly reactive class of
adhesives that cures rapidly at room temperature with trace
amounts of moisture as catalysts to form high strength bonds with
plastics and metals.
cyclohexane (C6H12) A colorless liquid with a pungent odor.
Molecular structure is an alicyclic hydrocarbon that can exist in
two conformations, the "boat" and "chair", depending on bond
angles between carbon atoms. Soluble in alcohol, acetone,
benzene; insoluble in water. Boils at 807°C (1485°F); freezes at
6.3°C (43°F). Its autoignition temperature is 473°F (145°C). It is
a dangerous fire risk; flammable limit in air is 1.3 - 8.4%. Its TLV
is 300 ppm in air; it is moderately toxic by inhalation and skin
contact. Derived from crude petroleum or by catalytic
hydrogenation of benzene. Used in the production of nylon, in the
extraction of essential oils; as a solvent for cellulose ethers, fats,
oils, crude rubber, bitumens, resins, waxes; in organic synthesis;
as a paint and varnish remover and in glass substitutes. Also
called hexamethylene, hexanaphthene, hexalhydrobenzene.
cyclohexanone (C6H10O) Cyclohexanone is an oily, water-white to
pale yellow liquid with a slight odor of peppermint and acetone.
Soluble in organic solvents such as alcohols and ethers, slightly
soluble in water. It has an autoignition temperature of 420°C
(788°F). Its TLV is 25 ppm in air; it is toxic by inhalation and
skin contact. Derived by passing cyclohexanol over copper with
air at 138°C (280°F) or by oxidation of cyclohexanol with
chromic acid or oxide. Used in the preparation of adipic acid,
caprolactam, polyvinyl chloride and its copolymers, and
methacrylate ester polymers, and for metal degreasing. Used in
wood stains, paint and varnish removers, spot removers, polishes,
natural and synthetic resins, lube oil, and other products. Also
called pimelic ketone, ketohexamethylene.
DDAIP See diallyl phthalate resin.
damping In part assembly, to mechanically limit the amplitude of
vibration in the parts being assembled.
DAP See diallyl phthalate resin.
dart impact energy The mean energy of a free-falling dart that will
cause 50% failures after 50 tests to a specimen directly stricken by
the dart. The energy is calculated by multiplying dart mass,
gravitational acceleration and drop height. Also called falling dart
impact strength, dart impact strength.
dart impact strength See dart impact energy.
deflection temperature under load See heat deflection
temperature.
degradation Loss or undesirable change in properties as a result of
aging, chemical reactions, wear, use, exposure, etc. The properties
include color, size, strength, etc. See also degradation.
density The mass of any substance (gas, liquid or solid) per unit
volume at specified temperature and pressure. The density is
called absalute when measured under standard conditions, e.g.,
760 mmHg pressure and 0°C temperature. Note: For plastics- the
weight in air per volume of impermeable portion of the material
measured at 23°C according to ASTM D792. Also called mass
density, absolute gravity, absolute density.
diallyl isophthalate See diallyl phthalate resin.
diallyl isophthalate resin See diallyl phthalate resin.
diallyl meta phthalate See diallyl meta phthalate resin.
diallyl meta phthalate resin Diallyl phthalates are thermoset
resins comprising diallyl phthalate prepolymer. Sometimes
supplied as a monomer. These resins show excellent moisture
resistance, high service temperatures, good retention of electric
properties under high temperature and humidity, dimensional
stability, chemical resistance (except for phenols and oxidizing
acids), and good mechanical strength. The disadvantages include
high cost and shrinkage during curing. Cured by peroxide
catalysts. Processed by injection, compression, and transfer
molding. Used in glass fiber-reinforced plastic articles such as
tubing and in the manufacture of automotive distribution caps,
electronic connectors, and transformer cases. Also called diallyl
meta phthalate.
diallyl ortho phthalate See diallyl ortho phthalate resin.
diallyl ortho phthalate resin Diallyl phthalates are thermoset
resins comprising diallyl phthalate prepolymer. Sometimes
supplied as a monomer. These resins show excellent moisture
resistance, high service temperatures, good retention of electric
properties under high temperature and humidity, dimensional
stability, chemical resistance (except for phenols and oxidizing
acids), and good mechanical strength. The disadvantages include
high cost and shrinkage during curing. Cured by peroxide
catalysts. Processed by injection, compression, and transfer
molding. Used in glass fiber-reinforced plastic articles such as
tubing and in the manufacture of automotive distribution caps,
electronic connectors, and transformer cases. Also called diallyl
ortho phthalate.
diallyl phthalate See diallyl phthalate resin.
diallyl phthalate resin Thermoset resins comprised of diallyl
(iso)phthalate prepolymer. Sometimes supplied as a monomer.
These resins show excellent moisture resistance, high service
temperatures, good retention of electric properties under high
temperature and humidity, dimensional stability, chemical
resistance (except for phenols and oxidizing acids), and good
mechanical strength. The disadvantages include high cost and
shrinkage during curing. Cured by peroxide catalysts. Processed
by injection, compression, and transfer molding. Used in glass
fiber-reinforced plastic articles such as tubing and in the
manufacture of automotive distribution caps, electronic
connectors, and transformer cases. Also called PDAP, diallyl
phthalate, diallyl isophthalate resin, diallyl isophthalate, DAP,
DAIP.
diaphragmming Part flexing that can cause stress, fracturing, or
undesirable melting of thin-sectioned, flat parts. Also called "oilcanning", which describes the way the plastic part bends up and
down when subjected to ultrasonic energy.
dichloroethylene 1,2 (ClCH:CHCl) A colorless liquid with a
pleasant odor. Exists as cis and trans stereoisomers. Soluble in
most organic solvents; slightly soluble in water. Trans isomer
boils at 47 - 49°C (116 - 120°F); cis isomer boils at 58 - 60°C
(136 - 140°F) and freezes at -80°C (-112°F). Its TLV is 200 ppm
in air; it is toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact and is
an irritant and narcotic at high concentrations. Flammable; a
dangerous fire hazard. Used as a solvent for organic compounds
and in organic synthesis; in dye extraction, perfumes, lacquers,
and thermoplastics. Also called sym-dichloroethylene, acetylene
dichloride, dichloroacetylene.
dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) A colorless, volatile liquid with an
odor of ether. Boils at 40.1°C (104.2°F); freezes at -97°C (-
143°F). Soluble in alcohol, ether; slightly soluble in water.
Nonflammable and nonexplosive in air. It is a carcinogen and
narcotic; its TLV is 100 ppm in air. Derived from the chlorination
of methyl chloride, followed by distillation. Used as a refrigerant;
in nonflammable paint removers; in plastics processing and
solvent extraction; as a blowing agent in foams and an aerosol
propellant; in solvent degreasing; and as a solvent in organic
synthesis. Also called methylene dichloride, methylene chloride.
Also called methylene chloride.
dicyandiamide (NH2C(NH)(NHCN)) White crystals that are stable
when dry. Soluble in liquid ammonia; partly soluble in hot water.
Melts at 207 - 209°C ( 405 - 408°F). Not flammable. Derived
from polymerization of cyanamide in the presence of bases. Used
as a catalyst for epoxy resins, a stabilizer in detergents, a modifier
in starch products, a thinner in oil-well drilling muds; in organic
reactions, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, dyestuffs, case-hardening
preparations, soldering compounds; and many other uses. Also
called cyanoguanidine.
dielectric dissipation factor The ratio of the power dissipated in a
dielectric to the product of the effective voltage and the current; or
the cotangent of the dielectric phase angle; or the tangent of
dielectric loss angle. Note: For plastics measured according to
ASTM D150. Also called tan delta, permittivity loss factor,
dissipation factor, dielectric loss tangent.
dielectric loss tangent See dielectric dissipation factor.
differential scanning calorimetry DSC is a technique in which
the energy absorbed or produced is measured by monitoring the
difference in energy input into the substance and a reference
material as a function of temperature. Absorption of energy
produces an endotherm; production of energy results in an
exotherm. May be applied to processes involving an energy
change, such as melting, crystallization, resin curing, and loss of
solvents, or to processes involving a change in heat capacity, such
as the glass transition.dimethyl ketone See acetone.
direct contact hot tool welding A form of heated tool welding in
which the thermoplastic parts are pressed directly against the hot
tool or plate. Part surfaces are heated until the melting or glass
transition is reached. The hot tool is then removed, and the parts
are pressed together until cooled. The hot tool can be coated with
polytetrafluoroethylene to reduce melt sticking. See also heated
tool welding, hot tool welding.
dissipation factor See dielectric dissipation factor.
dissolving capacity See solubility.
DMF See N,N-dimethylformamide.
dodecanedioic acid hexamethylenediamine polymer See
nylon 612.
driving torque In mechanical fastening, the force necessary to drive
a self-tapping screw into a pilot hole. Lower values are optimal.
drop dart impact strength See falling weight impact energy.
drop weight impact strength See falling weight impact energy.
durability See stability.
durometer hardness Indentation hardness of a material as
determined by either the depth of an indentation made with an
indentor under specified load or the indentor load required to
produce a specified indentation depth. The tool used to measure
indentation hardness of polymeric materials is called a durometer,
e.g., Shore-type durometer.
E
EA rubber See ethylene acrylic rubber.
EAR See ethylene acrylic rubber.
ECTFE See ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer.
elasticity constant See modulus of elasticity.
electrofusion welding A technique used for joining thermoplastic
pipes or liners, in which electricity is applied to a heating element
surrounded by a thermoplastic material. The heat produced causes
the thermoplastic material and the thermoplastic on the surface of
the pipes to melt and flow together, forming a weld. Commonly
used for joining polyethylene pipes.
electromagnetic radiation Waves of electric charges propagated
through space by oscillating electromagnetic fields and associated
energy.
electromagnetic welding See induction welding.
electron beam See electron beam radiation.
electron beam radiation Ionizing radiation propagated by
electrons that move forward in a narrow stream with
approximately equal velocity. Also called electron beam.
Elmendorf tear strength The resistance of flexible plastic film or
sheeting to tear propagation. It is measured, according to ASTM
D1922, as the average force, in grams, required to propagate
tearing from a precut slit through a specified length, using an
Elmendorf-type pendulum tester and 2 specimens, a rectangular
type and one with a constant radius testing length.
elongation The increase in gauge length of a specimen in tension,
measured at or after the fracture, depending on the viscoelastic
properties of the material. Note: Elongation is usually expressed
as a percentage of the original gage length. Also called ultimate
elongation, tensile elongation, breaking elongation.
EMAC See ethylene methyl acrylate copolymer.
embrittlement A condition of low ductility in metals resulting from
chemical or physical damage. Also called metal embrittlement.
energy director A triangular shaped bead of plastic that is molded
into one of the parts to be joined. Used in ultrasonic welding, it
concentrates ultrasonic energy at the point, resulting in rapid heat
buildup and melting.
environmental stress cracking Cracking or crazing that occurs
in a thermoplastic material subjected to stress or strain in the
presence of particular chemicals or weather conditions or as a
result of aging. Also called ESC.
EP See epoxy resin.


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