كتاب Introduction to Health and Safety at Work - Sixth Edition
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Introduction to Health and Safety at Work - Sixth Edition

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Introduction to Health and Safety at Work - Sixth Edition
For the NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety
Phil Hughes MBE, MSc, CFIOSH
Chairman NEBOSH 1995–2001. President of IOSH 1990–1991
Ed Ferrett PhD, BSc (Hons Eng), CEng, MIMechE,
MIET, CMIOSH
Vice Chairman NEBOSH 1999–2008

كتاب Introduction to Health and Safety at Work - Sixth Edition  I_t_h_14
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Contents
3. Health and safety management systems –
Organising – DO 1 61
3.1 Organisational health and safety roles and
responsibilities of employers, directors,
managers and supervisors .62
3.2 Concept of health and safety culture and its
significance in the management of health and
safety in an organisation 67
3.3 Human factors which influence behaviour
at work .69
3.4 How health and safety behaviour at work can
be improved .76
3.5 Further information 88
3.6 Practice revision questions 88
Appendix 3.1 Leadership actions for directors and
board members 90
Appendix 3.2 Detailed health and safety
responsibilities .92
Appendix 3.3 Safety culture questionnaire 94
Appendix 3.4 List of typical legislation requiring
health and safety training .95
4. Health and safety management systems –
Risk assessment and controls – DO 2 97
4.1 Principles and practice of risk assessment 98
4.2 General principles of prevention in relation to
risk reduction measures .113
4.3 Sources of health and safety information 114
4.4 Factors that should be considered when
developing and implementing a safe system
of work for general work activities .115
4.5 Role and function of a permit-to-work
system .119
4.6 Emergency procedures and arrangements for
contacting the emergency services .123
4.7 Requirements for, and effective provision of,
first-aid in the workplace 125
4.8 Further information 128
4.9 Practice revision questions 128
Appendix 4.1 Hazard checklist .130
Appendix 4.2 Risk assessment example 1:
Hairdressing salon 131
Appendix 4.3 Risk assessment example 2: Office
cleaning 133
Appendix 4.4 Asbestos examples of safe systems
of work .135
List of illustrations viii
Preface xvi
Acknowledgements xviii
About the authors xix
How to use this book and what it covers xx
List of principal abbreviations xxiv
Safety signs xxvii
1. Foundations in health and safety .1
1.1 The scope and nature of occupational health
and safety 2
1.2 Moral, legal and financial reasons for
promoting good standards of health and safety 4
1.3 The legal framework for the regulation of health
and safety including sources and types of law 7
1.4 The scope, duties and offences of employers,
managers, employees and others under the
Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 15
1.5 The scope, duties and offences of
employers, managers, employees and others
under the Management of Health and Safety
at Work Regulations .28
1.6 The legal and organisational health and safety
roles and responsibilities of clients and their
contractors .29
1.7 The principles of assessing and managing
contractors .33
1.8 Further information 36
1.9 Practice revision questions 37
Appendix 1.1 Checklist for supply chain health and
safety management .39
Appendix 1.2 Pre-construction information .40
Appendix 1.3 Construction phase plan 41
Appendix 1.4 The health and safety file .42
2. Health and safety management systems –
PLAN .43
2.1 Key elements of a health and safety
management system .44
2.2 Purpose and importance of setting a policy
for health and safety 51
2.3 Key features and appropriate content of an
effective health and safety policy 51
2.4 Further information 57
2.5 Practice revision questions 58
Appendix 2.1 Health and Safety Policy checklist .59Contents
vi
10.2 Hazards and controls for hand-held tools .269
10.3 Mechanical and non-mechanical hazards of
machinery 274
10.4 Control measures for reducing risks from
machinery hazards .279
10.5 Further information 291
10.6 Practice revision questions 292
11. Electrical safety 295
11.1 Principles, hazards and risks associated
with the use of electricity at work .296
11.2 Control measures when working with
electrical systems or using electrical
equipment in all workplace conditions .304
11.3 Further information 314
11.4 Practice revision questions 314
12. Fire safety .317
12.1 Fire initiation, classification, spread and
legal requirements .318
12.2 Fire risk assessment 327
12.3 Fire prevention and prevention of fire
spread 331
12.4 Fire alarm system and fire-fighting
arrangements .340
12.5 Evacuation of a workplace .347
12.6 Further information 353
12.7 Practice revision questions 353
Appendix 12.1 Fire risk assessment checklist .355
Appendix 12.2 Typical fire notice .356
13. Chemical and biological health hazards and
risk control 357
13.1 Forms of, classification of, and health risks
from hazardous substances .358
13.2 Assessment of health risks 362
13.3 Occupational exposure limits .371
13.4 Control measures .373
13.5 Specific agents .382
13.6 Safe handling and storage of waste .392
13.7 Further information 395
13.8 Practice revision questions 396
Appendix 13.1 GHS Hazard (H) Statements
(Health only) .398
Appendix 13.2 Hazardous properties of waste 399
Appendix 13.3 Different types of protective gloves . 400
14. Physical and psychological health hazards
and risk control 401
14.1 Noise 402
14.2 Vibration .408
14.3 Radiation 413
14.4 Stress .419
14.5 Further information 421
14.6 Practice revision questions 422
15. Summary of the main legal requirements 425
15.1 Introduction 426
5. Health and safety management systems –
Monitoring, investigation and
recording – CHECK .139
5.1 Active and reactive monitoring 140
5.2 Investigating incidents .149
5.3 Recording and reporting incidents .157
5.4 Further information 163
5.5 Practice revision questions 163
Appendix 5.1 Workplace inspection exercises 165
Appendix 5.2 Information for insurance/
compensation claims .167
6. Health and safety management systems –
Audit and review – ACT .169
6.1 Health and safety auditing .170
6.2 Review of health and safety performance .173
6.3 Further information 176
6.4 Practice revision questions 176
7. Workplace hazards and risk control 177
7.1 Health, welfare and work environment
requirements 178
7.2 Violence at work 181
7.3 Substance misuse at work .185
7.4 Safe movement of people in the workplace 186
7.5 Working at height .192
7.6 Hazards and control measures for works of
a temporary nature .205
7.7 Construction activities 207
7.8 Further information 215
7.9 Practice revision questions 216
Appendix 7.1 Checklist of typical scaffolding faults . 218
Appendix 7.2 Inspection recording form with
timing and frequency chart 219
8. Transport hazards and risk control 221
8.1 Safe movement of vehicles in the workplace 222
8.2 Driving at work .227
8.3 Further information 231
8.4 Practice revision questions 231
9. Musculoskeletal hazards and risk control .233
9.1 Work-related upper limb disorders .234
9.2 Manual handling hazards, risks and control
measures .238
9.3 Manually operated load handling equipment .243
9.4 Powered load handling equipment 245
9.5 Further information 254
9.6 Practice revision questions 254
Appendix 9.1 A typical risk assessment for
the use of lifting equipment .256
Appendix 9.2 Examples of manually operated load
handling equipment .257
Appendix 9.3 Safe use of fork-lift trucks (based on
an HSE document) .258
10. Work equipment hazards and risk control 259
10.1 General requirements for work equipment 260Contents
vii
15.30 The Supply of Machinery (Safety)
Regulations 2008 as amended .515
15.31 Control of Vibration at Work Regulations
2005 516
15.32 Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare)
Regulations 1992 as amended in 2002 and
2013 .518
15.33 Work at Height Regulations 2005 as
amended in 2007 .520
15.34 The Waste (England and Wales) Regulations
2011 .524
15.35 Other relevant legislation in brief .525
16. Environmental, international and other
aspects of health and safety .537
16.1 Introduction 538
16.2 Environmental considerations 538
16.3 International issues 544
16.4 Health and safety in the home .551
16.5 Safe cycling 553
16.6 Further information 554
Appendix 16.1 Scaffolds and ladders .555
Appendix 16.2 International travel tips 555
17. Study skills .557
17.1 Introduction 558
17.2 Find a place to study 558
17.3 Make a study plan 558
17.4 Time management .558
17.5 Blocked thinking .559
17.6 Taking notes .559
17.7 Reading for study .559
17.8 Free learning resources from the Open
University .559
17.9 Organising for revision .560
17.10 Organising information .560
17.11 Being aware of your learning style .562
17.12 How does memory work? .562
17.13 How to deal with exams 563
17.14 The examiners’ reports 564
17.15 Conclusion .565
17.16 Further information 565
18. Specimen answers to practice questions .567
18.1 Introduction 568
18.2 The written examinations 568
18.3 GC3 – the practical application .573
Appendix 18.1 Practical application report .577
Appendix 18.2 Practical application observation
sheets 581
19. International sources of information and
guidance .587
19.1 Introduction 588
19.2 How to search the internet effectively 588
19.3 Some useful websites .590
19.4 Health and safety forms .592
INDEX 629
15.2 The legal framework 427
15.3 List of Acts, orders and regulations
summarised .430
15.4 HSW Act 1974 as amended in 2015 432
15.5 Environmental Protection Act 1990 .436
15.6 Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at
Work Regulations 2010 446
15.7 Classification, Labelling and Packaging
of Substances and Mixtures Regulation
(European) adopting into EU UN Globally
Harmonised System of Classification and
Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) .447
15.8 Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 .451
15.9 Construction (Design and Management)
(CDM) Regulations 2015 452
15.10 Health and Safety (Consultation with
Employees) Regulations 1996 .462
15.11 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
Regulations (COSHH) 2002 and 2004
Amendment .463
15.12 Dangerous Substances and Explosive
Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR) 2002 467
15.13 Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment)
Regulations 1992 as amended in 2002 .470
15.14 Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 .473
15.15 Employers’ Liability (Compulsory Insurance)
Act 1969 and Regulations 1998 amended in
2002, 2004 and 2008 .474
15.16 Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 .475
15.17 Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations
1981 as amended 484
15.18 Health and Safety (Information for
Employees) Regulations 1989 .485
15.19 Hazardous Waste (England and Wales)
Regulations 2005 .485
15.20 Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 487
15.21 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
Regulations (LOLER) 1998 as amended in
2002 .488
15.22 Management of Health and Safety at Work
Regulations 1999 as amended in 2003 and
2006 .491
15.23 Manual Handling Operations Regulations
(MHO) 1992 as amended in 2002 494
15.24 Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 .497
15.25 Personal Protective Equipment at Work
Regulations 1992 as amended in 2002 and
2013 500
15.26 Provision and Use of Work Equipment
Regulations 1998 (except Part IV) as
amended in 2002 and 2013 .502
15.27 The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and
Dangerous Occurrences Regulations
2013 .506
15.28 Safety Representatives and Safety
Committees Regulations 1977 511
15.29 Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals)
Regulations 1996 .512viii
List of illustrations
Figures
1.1 People at work (© Beci Phipps) 3
1.2 Insured and uninsured costs
(© Beci Phipps) .6
1.3 The court system in England and
Wales for health and safety showing
the principal courts
(© Beci Phipps) .9
1.4 Sub-divisions and sources of law
(© Beci Phipps) .12
1.5 Diagrammatic view of ‘reasonably
practicable’ (© Beci Phipps) 14
1.6 HSW Act .16
1.7 Employees at work (© Alexander Raths
Shutterstock) 18
1.8 The inspector inspects (© Lisa F. Young
Shutterstock) 19
1.9 NEBOSH is in control here (former
premises) (© NEBOSH) 24
1.10 Typical supply chain (© Beci Phipps) 25
1.11 Inadequate chair – it should have five feet
and an adjustable backrest – take care
when buying second-hand 26
1.12 Diagram showing the main external
agencies that impact on the workplace 27
1.13 Good standards prevent harm and save
money (© Beci Phipps) .28
1.14 Domestic client: CDM applies but not
notifiable because a short duration project
(© Phil Hughes) .33
1.15 Large-scale contract: CDM applies and it is
notifiable (© Phil Hughes) .33
1.16 Contractors at work using a lorry-mounted
loading grab (© Phil Hughes) 34
2.1 The Plan, Do, Check, Act management
cycle (© Beci Phipps) 45
2.2 PLAN part of the cycle involves Policy and
Planning (© Beci Phipps) 47
2.3 Well-presented policy documents
(© Beci Phipps) .51
2.4 (a) Part of a policy commitment
(© Beci Phipps) .52
2.4 (b) Responsibilities (© Beci Phipps) 52
2.5 SMART performance standards or
objectives (© Beci Phipps) 53
2.6 Working with employees and
providing information is a good policy
(© Beci Phipps) .56
2.7 Providing guidance and training is essential
(© Beci Phipps) .56
2.8 The policy might be good but is it put
into practice – unsafe use of a ladder
(© mikeledray / Shutterstock.com) .57
2.9 Emergency procedures
(© Henry Ho Shutterstock) .60
2.10 Reach truck in warehouse
(© Corepics VOF Shutterstock) 60
3.1 DO part of the management cycle involves
Risk Profiling (Chapter 4), Organising and
Implementing plans (© Beci Phipps) 62
3.2 Everyone from senior management down
has health and safety responsibilities
(© Beci Phipps) .63
3.3 Safety practitioner at the front line
(© ndoeljindoel Shutterstock) .66
3.4 Safety investment .67
3.5 Heinrich’s accidents/incidents ratios
(© Beci Phipps) .69
3.6 Well-designed workstation for sitting or
standing 71
3.7 Poor working conditions .72
3.8 Motivation and activity 73
3.9 Visual perception: (a) Are the lines of the
same length? (b) Faces or vase? (c) Face or
saxophone player? 73
3.10 Types of human failure (© Beci Phipps) .74
3.11 Health and Safety Law poster – must be
displayed or brochure given to employees 79
3.12 The law on consulting employees about
health and safety in your workplace.
References to the Regulations are colourcoded to help find the parts that are
most relevant to a particular organisation:
for workplaces where the Safety
Representatives and Safety Committees
Regulations 1977 apply; for workplaces
where the Health and Safety (Consultation
with Employees) Regulations 1996 apply
(Source: HSE INDG232(rev1)) .80List of illustrations
ix
3.13 Health and safety training needs and
opportunities (© Beci Phipps) .83
3.14 Internal influences on safety culture
(© Beci Phipps) .85
3.15 External influences on safety culture
(© Beci Phipps) .87
4.1 Risk assessment or profiling is covered
by the DO part of the management cycle
(© Beci Phipps) .98
4.2 Reducing the risk – finding an alternative
safer method when fitting a wall-mounted
boiler .99
4.3 Accident at work .100
4.4 Bird’s well-known accident triangle
(© Beci Phipps) .100
4.5 Five steps to risk assessment
(© Beci Phipps) .102
4.6 Proper control of gases and vapours in
a laboratory (© emin kuliyev Shutterstock) .105
4.7 Colour categories and shapes of signs .105
4.8 Examples of warning, mandatory and
prohibition signs 105
4.9 Falling object and construction site
entrance signs 106
4.10 Wet floor signs .106
4.11 Examples of chemical warning signs 106
4.12 Examples of fire safety signs 106
4.13 Examples of fire action signs 106
4.14 Examples of first-aid signs 106
4.15 LPG sign .107
4.16 Smoke-free – no smoking sign .107
4.17 Fragile roof signs 107
4.18 Emergency shower and eye wash station
where there is a serious risk of chemical
contamination (© Shutterstock) 109
4.19 Good dust control for a chasing operation.
A dust mask is still required for complete
protection 110
4.20 Respiratory protection and disposable
overalls are needed when working in high
levels of asbestos dust .110
4.21 A lone worker – special arrangements
required (© istockphoto) .112
4.22 When controls break down (© Pictureguy
Shutterstock) 113
4.23 Checking the label for health risks 114
4.24 Multipadlocked hasp for locking off an
isolation valve – each worker puts on their
own padlock 115
4.25 A hot work permit is usually essential for
welding, cutting and burning except in
designated areas like a welding shop .121
4.26 Entering a confined space with breathing
apparatus, rescue tripod and rescue
watcher .122
4.27 Emergency services at work 123
4.28 (left) First-aid and stretcher sign (right)
First-aid sign 126
4.29 Flow chart showing courses to be
completed over a 3-year certification
period for EFAW and FAW. The dotted
line indicates the route to be taken in
subsequent years after completion of the
relevant course at year 3 127
5.1 CHECK involves measuring performance
and investigating incidents (© Beci Phipps) 141
5.2 Effective Risk control (Source: HSE)
(© Beci Phipps) .142
5.3 Poor conditions: (a) inspection needed;
(b) inspection in progress (c) Poor
conditions in offices can cause accidents
(© trek and shoot shutterstock) 144
5.4 A dangerous occurrence – fire (Source:
Alamy) (© Jason Salmon Shutterstock) 149
5.5 Accident at work – reconstruction of
a ladder accident showing where the
deceased person was found under the
ladder which had toppled over while he
was attempting to adjust the height of the
extending ladder (© Phil Hughes) .150
5.6 (a) Accident; (b) near miss (includes
dangerous occurrence) damage only;
(c) undesired circumstances (© HSE) .151
5.7 F. E. Bird’s well-known accident triangle
(© Beci Phipps) .152
5.8 Appropriate levels of investigation (Source:
© HSE) 153
5.9 Questions to be asked in an investigation
(© Beci Phipps) .154
5.10 (a) The Accident Book BI 510 (Second
Edition) ISBN 97807176640580 HSE;
(b) Record form from BI 510 HSE .157–8
5.11 Office 165
5.12 Road repair 165
5.13 Workshop .166
5.14 Roof repair/unloading 166
6.1 ACT part of the health and safety
management system (© Beci Phipps) 170
6.2 The Audit Process (© Beci Phipps) .171
6.3 Using the audit questions for interviews
and collecting information (© Beci Phipps) .172
6.4 The audit report should be reviewed by
senior managers with an action plan and
follow-up (© Beci Phipps) .173
6.5 Review of performance (© Beci Phipps) 174
6.6 Continual improvement part of the health
and safety management process
(© Beci Phipps) .175
7.1 Welfare washing facilities: Washbasin large
enough for people to wash their forearms
(© bikeriderlondon Shutterstock) 178
7.2 Natural ventilation in a building
(Source: © HSE) 179
7.3 A well-lit workplace (© HSE) .180
7.4 The heat equation (© Occupational Safety
and Health Administration, USA) 181List of illustrations
x
8.5 Vehicle recovery driver – professional driver
at work (© RH Kerham) 228
8.6 Road accidents are a significant risk when
driving for work. Poor weather conditions
increase the risks (© Phil Hughes) 228
8.7 Must have a valid licence to drive each
type of vehicle used 229
9.1 Handling roofing slates onto a roof using a
teleporter lift truck (© Alamy) .234
9.2 A tilted worktable. The distance between
the operator and the work can be reduced
by putting the table at a more vertical
angle. The table is adjustable in height and
angle to suit the particular job (Source:
© HSE) 235
9.3 Pump juice from a bulk container to a
dispenser to save awkward handling 236
9.4 Workstation design .237
9.5 Manual handling: there are many potential
hazards 239
9.6 Main injury sites caused by manual
handling accidents 239
9.7 HSE guidance for manual lifting –
recommended weights (Source: © HSE) .240
9.8 The main elements of a good lifting
technique 243
9.9 A pallet truck (Source: © HSE) 244
9.10 Mechanical aids to lift patients in hospital
(© HSE) .244
9.11 Conveyor systems: (a) roller conveyor
(these may have powered and free running
rollers); (b) an overhead conveyor moving
wheels. Other designs of overhead
conveyor are useful for transferring
components and garments between
workstations, in, for example, manufacture
of machines or clothing; (c) a slat conveyor
in use in a food factory (© HSE) .247
9.12 A brick elevator (Source: © HSE) 248
9.13 Reach truck, designed so that the load
retracts within the wheel base to save
space (© Shuttlestock) .248
9.14 Manoeuvring a yacht using a large
overhead travelling gantry and slings in a
marina (© Phil Hughes) .250
9.15 Hoist for lifting a car (© Phil Hughes) .252
9.16 Specially designed safety hooks (Source:
© HSE) 252
9.17 Truck-mounted lifting equipment (© Phil
Hughes) 253
10.1 (a) CE marking .261
10.1 (b) Division of responsibility for the safety
of machinery (© Beci Phipps) .261
10.2 Typical Certificate of Conformity (© Dewalt) 262
10.3 Typical bench-mounted abrasive wheel
(© Draper) .264
10.4 Typical electrically powered compressor
with air receiver tank attached (© Draper) 266
7.5 Security access and surveillance CCTV
camera 183
7.6 Alcohol consumption: it takes a healthy
liver about one hour to break down and
remove one unit of alcohol (Source: HSE) .186
7.7 Tripping hazards (Source: © HSE) .187
7.8 Cleaning must be done carefully to prevent
slipping 187
7.9 Falling from a height – tower scaffold has
inadequate handrails (no centre rail) and
should never be moved while in use 189
7.10 Typical pedestrian/vehicle crossing area
with separation between 191
7.11 Well laid out and lit steel fabrication
workshop with marked walkways
which are kept clear of obstructions
(© Shutterstock) .191
7.12 Proper precautions must always be taken
when working on or near fragile roofs or
surfaces (HSG33 © HSE) 195
7.13 Fall arrest harness and device 195
7.14 Ladder showing correct 1 in 4 angle
(means of securing omitted for clarity of
illustration) (© HSE) 198
7.15 (a) Ladder tied at top style (correct for
working on, not for access); (b) tying partway down; (c) tying near base; (d) securing
at base (© HSE) 199
7.16 Working with stepladders .200
7.17 (a) Components of a typical independent
tied scaffold (Redrawn from HSE); (b) Fixed
scaffold left in place to fit gutters (© HSE) .201
7.18 Components of a typical pre-fabricated
tower scaffold with outriggers
(© www.brattsladders) .202
7.19 Mobile elevating work platforms (MEWPs):
(a) scissor lift; (b) cherry-picker (© Phil
Hughes) 203–4
7.20 Groundwork clearance and foundations
(© Phil Hughes) .208
7.21 Secure site access gates (© Phil Hughes) 209
7.22 Working near or over water – large scaffold
with protection screens and a small boat
moored under the bridge in case rescue is
needed (© Phil Hughes) 210
7.23 Mobile site toilets and welfare facilities .212
7.24 Timbered excavation with ladder access
and supported services (guard removed on
one side for clarity) (© HSE) .213
7.25 Barriers around excavation by footpath 214
8.1 Industrial counterbalanced lift truck 223
8.2 Telescopic materials handler (© Phil
Hughes) 223
8.3 Various construction plant with driver
protection (© Phil Hughes) .225
8.4 Operating a piece of mobile work
equipment, an excavator, to excavate a
swimming pool (© Phil Hughes) .226List of illustrations
xi
10.27 Typical retail compactor (© Packawaste
Ltd) .289
10.28 Typical retail checkout conveyor .289
10.29 (a) Small concrete/cement mixer
(© Wingate); (b) Diesel concrete mixer with
hopper .289
10.30 Typical bench-mounted circular saw .290
11.1 Beware of electricity – typical sign .296
11.2 Typical electric shock poster (Courtesy of
© Stocksigns) .299
11.3 Keep 18 m clear of high voltage lines .300
11.4 Over 25% of fires are caused by electrical
malfunction .300
11.5 Ten-way surge-protected extension with
telecoms .301
11.6 Safe dispensing of flammable liquids
(© Phil Hughes) .302
11.7 Portable hand-held electric power tools
(Courtesy of © Draper) .303
11.8 (a) Typical 240 volt fuses; (b) typical 240
volt mini circuit breaker .306
11.9 A variety of electrical equipment:
(a) electrical cabinet with multi-hasp
and lock-off padlocks on the isolator;
(b) 240 volt socket with RCD devices built
in (© Phil Hughes); (c) Lockable electrical
control cabinet 307–8
11.10 Double insulation symbol 308
11.11 Multi-plug extension lead and special plugs
and sockets: (a) reduced voltage normally
110V; (b) 240 volt lead with cut out (© Phil
Hughes) 309
11.12 Precautions for overhead lines: (a) ‘goalpost’
crossing points beneath lines to avoid
contact by plant; (b) Diagram showing
normal dimensions for ‘goalpost’ crossing
points and barriers (Reproduced from
HSG185 Health and Safety Excavations) . 309–10
11.13 Using a cable detector (© Phil Hughes) 311
11.14 UK standard 3-pin plug wiring .312
12.1 Fire is still a significant risk in many
workplaces: (a) massive Deepwater
Horizon oil platform fire; (b) large retail
premises destroyed by fire (© Jack Dagley;
Photography Shutterstock) .318
12.2 Fire triangle .322
12.3 (a) Transport flammable solid sign; (b) GHS
– packaging sign .323
12.4 (a) Transport flammable liquid sign; (b) GHS
– packaging sign .323
12.5 (a) Transport flammable gas sign; (b) GHS –
packaging sign 323
12.6 (a) Transport oxidising agent sign; (b) GHS
– packaging sign .324
12.7 Principles of heat transmission .325
12.8 Smoke spread in buildings 325
12.9 Causes of fire in recent years (© CTIF
Centre of Fire Statistics) .326
10.5 Equipment controls – design features 267
10.6 Emergency stop button
(© Praphan Jampala Shutterstock) .268
10.7 (a) Damaged wood chisel with dangerous
handle (© Shutterstock); (b) Range of nonpowered hand tools (© Draper) 269
10.8 Range of hand-held power tools
(© Draper) .271
10.9 Electric drill with percussion hammer
action to drill holes in masonry (© Draper) .273
10.10 Disc sander with dual hand holds .273
10.11 (a) Rotary drum floor sander; (b) orbital
finishing sander .274
10.12 Range of mechanical hazards .275
10.13 Range of fixed guards .280
10.14 Adjustable guard for a rotating drill bit on a
pedestal drill 281
10.15 Self-adjusting guard on a circular saw 281
10.16 Typical interlocking guards: (a) sliding and
(b) hinged 281
10.17 Schematic diagram of a telescopic trip
device fitted to a radial drill .282
10.18 Two-handed control device .283
10.19 Typical multifunction printer/photocopier
(© Fellowes) .284
10.20 Typical office shredder (© Fellowes) 285
10.21 Typical bench-mounted grinder (© Draper) .285
10.22 Typical pedestal drill – note the guard
is adjustable and adjusted to cover the
rotating drill (© Draper) .286
10.23 Typical large cylinder mower (© Autoguide
equipment Ltd) .286
10.24 Typical brush cutter (© Draper) .287
10.25 Typical chainsaw with rear handle. The
rear handle projects from the back of the
saw. It is designed to always be gripped
with both hands, with the right hand on
the rear handle. It may be necessary to
have a range of saws with different guide
bar lengths available. As a general rule,
choose a chainsaw with the shortest guide
bar suitable for the work. 1 – hand guard
with integral chain brake; 2 – exhaust outlet
directed to the right-hand side away from
the operator; 3 – chain breakage guard at
bottom of rear handle; 4 – chain designed
to have low-kickback tendency; 5 – rubber
anti-vibration mountings; 6 – lockout for the
throttle trigger; 7 – guide bar (should be
protected when transporting chainsaw);
8 – bottom chain catcher; 9 – PPE hand/
eye/ear defender signs; 10 – on/off switch
(© HSE) .287
10.26 Kevlar gloves, overtrousers and overshoes
providing protection against chainsaw
cuts. Helmet, ear and face shield protect
the head. Apprentice under training – first
felling (© Phil Hughes) 288List of illustrations
xii
13.9 The skin – main structures of the
dermis .367
13.10 (a) Typical symbols and (b) product label on
containers .370
13.11 Hand pump and stain detector (Courtesy of
© Draegar) 371
13.12 (a) A LEV system (© HSE); (b) Welding
with an adjustable LEV system to
remove dust and fumes (© Auto Extract
Systems Ltd) .375
13.13 (a) Paint-spray booth (© Shutterstock);
(b) Old ventilation system can quickly
corrode if not properly maintained
(© Shutterstock); (c) Large ventilation
system at roof level with access
platform to maintain the filters and fans
(© Shutterstock) .376
13.14 Personal protective equipment (© Corepics
VOF Shutterstock) 377
13.15 Types of respiratory protective equipment:
(a) filtering half-mask; (b) half-mask –
reusable with filters; (c) compressed air-line
breathing apparatus with full face fitted
with demand value (Source: © HSE) 379
13.16 Variety of eye protection goggles (Courtesy
of © Draper) 380
13.17 Damaged asbestos lagging on pipework
(© PA Group (UK) Ltd) 385
13.18 High hazard vacuum cleaner to clear up
asbestos material 386
13.19 Wet concrete or cement can cause serious
dermatitis (© HSE) 390
13.20 Commercial waste collection 393
13.21 A designated waste collection area with
two types of skip commonly used for
waste collection. Heavy materials would
be transported in the smaller skip. Sizes of
skip range from about 4 cu metres (small
skip shown) to about 35 cu metres (large
skip shown) .394
13.22 Electronic waste under WEEE 395
14.1 Better to control noise at source than wear
ear protection (© Phil Hughes) .402
14.2 Passage of sound waves: (a) the ear
with cochlea uncoiled; (b) summary of
transmission .403
14.3 Hearing protection zone notice .406
14.4 Noise paths found in a workplace: (a) the
quiet area is subjected to reflected noise
from a machine elsewhere in the building;
(b) the correct use of roof absorption will
reduce the reflected noise; (c) segregation
of the noisy operation will benefit the
whole workplace (© HSE) .407
14.5 Injuries which can be caused by hand–arm
vibration (Source: © HSE) .409
14.6 Breaker mounted on an excavator’s jib to
reduce vibrations (© Phil Hughes) 410
12.10 Accidental fires – sources of ignition
in recent years (© CTIF Centre of Fire
Statistics) 327
12.11 Smoke-free sign 328
12.12 (a) Before fire risk assessment; (b) after fire
risk assessment (© HM Government) 329
12.13 Partly blocked fire exit door 332
12.14 Various storage arrangements for highly
flammable liquids 336
12.15 Steel structures can collapse in the heat of
a fire (© Phil Hughes) 338
12.16 Insulated core panels 339
12.17 Firebreak wall between dwellings 339
12.18 Safe dispensing of flammable liquids
(© Phil Hughes) .340
12.19 Simple electrical fire alarm system
components (© Beci Phipps) 341
12.20 Typical fire point in offices with
extinguisher, fire notices and alarm breakglass call point (© KRoock74) .343
12.21 Various fire-fighting equipment: (a) fire
blanket (© Mark Williamson Richardson –
Shutterstock); (b) hose reel (© fomo-istock);
(c) fire extinguisher (© JonasSanLuis-istock) .343
12.22 Types of fire extinguishers and labels
(Note: main colour of all extinguishers is
red with 5% for label) .345
12.23 Various sprinkler heads designed to fit into
a high-level water pipe system and spray
water at different angles onto a fire below .346
12.24 External fire escape from a multi-storey
building. Extreme caution needed in winter
and enclosure of staircase would be
preferred for the UK climate .347
12.25 Fire escape route outside building 348
12.26 International Fire Escape pictorial .348
12.27 Fire evacuation diagram 350
12.28 Special addition to the fire notice for people
with a disability .352
12.29 Stair evacuation chair for people with a
disability 352
13.1 (a) GHS symbols in use and (b) How the
existing European packaging symbols
relate to the new GHS labels adopted
under the CLP EU Regulation .361
13.2 Paint spraying – risk of sensitising,
particularly if isocyanate based paint used
and inadequate local exhaust ventilation
(© Shutterstock) 363
13.3 Route map for adequate control for SMEs
non-experts (Source: © HSE) 363
13.4 Hazardous substances – principal routes of
entry into the human body 364
13.5 The upper and lower respiratory
system 365
13.6 The nervous system .365
13.7 The cardiovascular system .366
13.8 Parts of the urinary system .366List of illustrations
xiii
15.13 (a) General danger; (b) Explosive 514
15.14 (a) Ear protection must be worn; (b) Eye
protection must be worn 514
15.15 (a) Means of escape; (b) First-aid 514
15.16 Work at Height – flowchart (© HSE) .522
16.1 Example of industrial air pollution
(© Phil Hughes) .539
16.2 (a) Water pollution from an oil spillage;
(b) Water pollution from plastic and other
solid waste 541
16.3 Electronic waste under WEE 543
16.4 Environmental protection commitment 543
16.5 (a) Dangerous means of access with
platform tied to bucket of excavator. A local
expediency accepted as normal, Morocco;
(b) Good quality scaffold with protection
near water, Belgium (© Phil Hughes) .545
16.6 World Cup stadium, under construction,
Cape Town, 2009 (© Phil Hughes) .547
16.7 Good quality access on a MEWP for
pointing brickwork in Belgium (© Phil
Hughes) 548
16.8 Different solutions are needed in different
countries: delivering furniture in Centaldo,
Italy. (© Phil Hughes) 549
16.9 Driving outside the UK (© Phil Hughes) 550
16.10 Gas explosion during the night but man and
his daughter escaped unharmed – house
destroyed, Southampton, 2014
(© Phil Hughes) .552
16.11 Tour de France for professionals, French
Alps, 2014 (© Phil Hughes) .554
16.12 Tour de France for softies, France, 2014
(© Phil Hughes) .554
17.1 Revision notes (© Liz Hughes) .561
17.2 Mind map report writing (© Liz Hughes) 561
18.1 Select a competent and experienced
person to carry out a risk assessment
(© Shutterstock) .568
18.2 Glass-blowing factory
(© dedek shutterstock) .571
18.3 Flat roof protection: (a) using handrails,
and toe boards; (b) using a harness and
proprietary anchor .572
18.4 Asbestos pipe lagging .573
M1 General health & safety risk assessment
example 1 (© Beci Phipps) .593
M2 Risk assessment report form example 2
(© Beci Phipps) .594
M3 Contractors’ risk assessment example for
confined spaces (© Beci Phipps) 595
M4 Contractors’ risk assessment example for
work on fragile roofs (© Beci Phipps) .596
M5 Workplace inspection report form
(© Beci Phipps) .597
M6 Workplace inspection checklist
(© Beci Phipps) .598–599
M7 Job safety analysis (© Beci Phipps) 600
14.7 (a) Vibrating roller with risk of whole-body
vibration 413
14.7 (b) Remote control vibrating plate weighing
1.2 tons with compaction in excess of
a 7 ton roller which eliminates the risk
of whole-body vibration. The operator is
protected from vibrations, noise and dust.
The machine can only be operated if line of
sight is intact. In case of a loss of control
the proximity recognition sensor keeps the
operator safe (© Waker Neuson) 413
14.8 Typical ionisation warning sign .413
14.9 X-ray generator cabinet (© Balteau NDT) 415
14.10 Radon monitoring equipment .415
14.11 A proper Class 4 laser area setup for
defeatable access control. Curtain design
and layout varies with environment. Class
4 laser areas in a research or university
environment usually run long-term
experiments that require unattended
operation. In such cases, defeatable
entryway controls are appropriate. By
design, persons who have been properly
trained and given the keypad access code
may momentarily ‘defeat’ the interlock
to enter and exit the laser controlled area
protected by a magnetically locked
door 416
14.12 Metal furnace – source of infrared heat 417
14.13 Breakdown of mental health cases by type
of event which precipitated stress between
2010 and 2012 (Source HSE Stress and
Psychological Disorders Great Britain 2013,
© HSE) 420
15.1 New GHS pictograms with examples of
Hazard statements and Precautionary
statements 449
15.2 (a) CDM 2015 – Schedule 1 (© HSE) 455
15.2 (b) CDM 2015 – Schedule 3 (© HSE) 456
15.3 Content of inspection reports (© HSE) .459
15.4 Principles of good practice (© HSE) 466
15.5 Warning sign for places where explosive
atmospheres may occur. 469
15.6 Fire safety order: (a) matters to be
considered in dangerous substances;
(b) in respect of young persons 477
15.7 Measures to be taken in respect of
dangerous substances (© HSE) 478
15.8 A completed Hazardous Waste
Consignment Note (© Environment
Agency) .486
15.9 Manual Handling Operations Regulations –
flow chart (© HSE) 495
15.10 What needs to be done under the Control
of Noise at Work Regulations 2005
(© HSE) .498
15.11 (a) No fork-lift trucks; (b) No smoking .513
15.12 (a) Hose reel; (b) Fire extinguisher 513List of illustrations
xiv
M8 Essential elements – permit to work
(© Beci Phipps)
M9 Witness statement form (© Beci Phipps)
M10 Accident/incident report (© Beci
Phipps) 603–604
M11 First aid treatment and accident record
(© Beci Phipps) 606
S1 Machinery risk assessment (© Beci Phipps) ��607
S2a Permit time extension/transfer (front)
(© Beci Phipps)
S2b Permit time extension/transfer (back)
(© Beci Phipps)
H1a COSHH assessment (© Beci Phipps)
H1 COSHH assessment 1 (© Beci Phipps)
H2 COSHH assessment 2: details of
substances used or stored (© Beci
Phipps) 613
H3 Example of a workstation self assessment
checklist (© Beci Phipps) 615
H4 Example of a noise assessment record
form (© Beci Phipps)
H5 Manual handling of loads: assessment
checklist (© Beci Phipps)
H6 Manual handling risk assessment:
employee checklist (© Beci Phipps)
F1 Fire safety maintenance checklist
(© Beci Phipps) 620
F2 Fire risk assessment record – significant
findings (© Beci Phipps)
C1 Construction inspection report (© Beci
Phipps)
C2 Example risk assessment for contract
bricklayers (© Beci Phipps) 625
C3 Example risk assessment for woodwork
(© Beci Phipps)
Tables
1�1 Annual accidents for different groups of
people
1�2 Approximate proportions (%) of cases of
work-related ill-health reported by General
Practitioners in any year
1�3 Typical recent annual health and safety
enforcement activity in Great Britain
1�4 Causes of working days lost in the UK
1�5 Premises inspected by the HSE and Local
Authorities
2�1 Location and contents of the key elements
of a health and safety management system
in chapters 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
3�1 A comparison of the functions of health and
safety representatives
4�1 Contents of first-aid box – low risk
4�2 Number of first-aid personnel
7�1 Typical workplace lighting levels
7�2 Trend in physical assaults and threats at
work, 1999–2009 (based on working adults
of working age)
9�1 Safe driving of lift trucks
11�1 Standard wiring colours
11�2 Suggested intervals for portable appliance
inspection and testing
12�1 Enforcement in respect of fire on
construction sites
12�2 Maintenance and testing of fire equipment
12�3 Maximum travel distances
13�1 Examples of the new hazard warning (H)
and precautionary statements (P)
13�2 Examples of workplace exposure limits
(WELs)
13�3 The hazards and types of PPE for various
parts of the body
14�1 Some typical sound pressure levels (SPL)
(dB(A) values)
14�2 Typical noise levels at woodworking machines 404
14�3 Simple observations to determine the need
for a noise risk assessment
14�4 Examples of vibration exposure values
measured by the HSE on work equipment
14�5 Machines which could produce significant
whole-body vibration
14�6 The change in exposure times as vibration
increases
14�7 Typical radiation dose limits
15�1 Summary of maximum penalties under
Health and Safety (Offences) Act 2008 for
offences committed on or after 16 January
15�2 Waste hierarchy
15�3 The employers’ duties
15�4 Classification zones
15�5 Provision of information under DSE
regulation
15�6 Schedule 1 to the Manual Handling
Operations Regulations
16�1 Numbers of global work-related adverse
events
17�1 Terminology used in NEBOSH exams 563List of illustrations
Boxes
2.1 Example of objectives 54
5.1 Key data for medium level of investigation 156
5.2 The following categories of immediate
causes of accident are used in F2508: .161
15.1 Pollution prevention and control regimes .436
15.2 Best available techniques (BAT) .437
15.3 ‘Operator’ .439
15.4 Definition of controlled waste 443
15.5 Who has authority to take waste? 444
15.6 Filling in paperwork .444xvi
629
Index
Page numbers in italics denote an illustration, bold indicates a table
alarms
fire 341, 341
security 184
voice 341
alcohol abuse 185
allergies
allergic contact dermatitis 366, 390
irritants 360
alternating current (ac) 296
ammonia 388
anthropometry 235
Approved Code of Practice (ACoP) 17
cement dust and wet cement 390
COSHH Regulations 367, 464
DSEAR regulations 468
Ionising Radiations Regulations 419, 487
Legionnaires’ disease 391
passenger lifts 252
welfare and work environment 178, 179
arcing, electric 302
Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Alliance 246
artificial optical radiation
hazardous light sources 447
regulatory requirements 418, 446
safe light sources 446–7
asbestos
health risks and controls 382–3
managing in buildings
accidental exposure 387
asbestos risk register 385
assessment 386
awareness training 387
identification 385, 385
management survey 384–5
medical surveillance 386–7
refurbishment or demolition survey 205, 385
regulatory responsibilities 383–4
removal with control measures 386, 386
waste disposal 387
safe systems of work 135–7
assembly and roll call
emergencies 124
fire evacuation 349–50
ATEX Directive 301, 340
attitude 72–3
audits
active assessment 46, 48, 50
audit process 171, 171–3, 173
definition 170
scope and purpose 170–1
A
abrasion hazards 277–8
abrasive wheel, bench-mounted 263–4, 264, 264–5
absolute duty 14, 113
access control 184
access equipment, safe practices
fixed scaffolds 200–1, 201, 204, 218
ladders 197–8, 198
mobile elevating work platforms (MEWPs) 203, 203, 203–4
mobile scaffold towers 202, 202–3
stepladders, trestles and staging 198–9, 198–9
accident book 157, 157–8
accident frequency rate 68
accidents
accident triangle 100–1, 101, 151–2
categories 101
definition 3, 100
direct and indirect costs 7, 101
domestic and leisure related 551–2
electrical 296
financial cost 6, 6
fire 318
Heinrich’s accidents/incidents ratios 69, 69, 151
investigations 81, 149–50
older people 553
portable electric equipment 303
rate calculation 68
statistics 4, 4–5
accident triangle 100–1, 101, 151–2
accommodation for clothing and changing 179, 211
ACoP see Approved Code of Practice
acoustic trauma 403
ACT (PDCA model) 45, 46, 46
active monitoring
definition 140
performance assessment 46, 48
performance measurement methods 142–3
active/reactive monitoring 140–9
Act of God 13
acute toxicity 360
adjustable guards 280–1, 281
agency workers, duties of 23
air pollution
acid rain 540–1
greenhouse effect 540
IPPC regulatory controls 540
photochemical smog 541
stratospheric ozone depletion 540
air receivers, examination of 266, 266–7
air sampling techniques 370–1, 371Index
630
circular saw, bench-mounted
hazards 279
safeguards 290, 290
civil law
County Court 9
High Court 10
legal framework 8
Supreme Court 10
Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and
Mixtures Regulation (EC) see CLP Regulation
cleaning arrangements 189
clients
duties under CDM Regulations 2015 30–1, 32, 33,
454–5
legal considerations 29–30
closed circuit television (CCTV) 184
CLP Regulation
classification labelling 360, 361
hazard warnings and precautionary statements 362, 362
outline 448
regulatory requirements 448
collisions, pedestrian
control measures 190, 191
fixed or stationary objects 188
moving, falling or flying objects 188
moving vehicles 188
Combined Code of Corporate Governance 2003 49
commercial stakeholders 87–8
common law torts and duties
breach of statutory duty 13–14
duty of care 13
negligence 11–13
Common Sense, Common Safety (Young) 427
communication
contractors and clients 29, 35
managers and supervisors 23
organisational 46, 86, 117
report writing 146–8
types of 78–9
compactor, retail
hazards 278–9
safeguards 288–9, 289
Compensation Act 2006 13–14, 527–8
compensation and insurance issues
employers’ liability insurance 548
fault and no-fault injury compensation 548–9
competence
definition 77
influence on standards 86
competent person
permit system responsibilities 122–3
role of 65–6, 77
safe systems of work guidance 116
conduction of heat 324–5, 325
confined spaces
risk assessment 451
safe systems of work 118–19, 452
work permit 121, 122
Confined Spaces Regulations 1997
definition 118, 451
emergency arrangements 452
employers’ duties 451
risk assessment 451
safe systems of work 118–19, 452
training 452
Construction (Head Protection) Regulations 1989 194–5
authorised persons, permit system responsibilities
122
B
back injuries 238
balance trucks 243
banksman 203, 223, 250
battery (cordless) operated hand tools 307
benchmarking 54–5
bench-top grinder
hazards 277–8
safeguards 285, 285
Best Available Techniques (BAT) 437, 540
Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) 540
boilers, examination of 266, 266–7
breathing apparatus 378–80, 379
brush cutter/strimmer
hazards 278
safeguards 286–7, 287
Building Regulations 2010
Access to and use of buildings – Approved Document M
526–7
Fire Safety – Approved Document B 525–6
buildings, fire protection in 337–9, 338–9
bullying 184
buried power lines 309–10, 311, 459
burns, electric 298–9, 300
buying problems 26, 26–7
C
cancer 387–8
carbon dioxide 388
carbon monoxide 388–9
carcinogenic substances 360, 372, 389
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 124
carpal tunnel syndrome 235
case law see civil law; common law; criminal law
CDM Regulations 2015 see Construction, Design and
Management Regulations 2015
CE markings 26, 261–2, 261–3
cement/concrete mixer
hazards 279
safeguards 289, 289–90
cement dust and wet cement 390
Certificate of Conformity 262, 262
chainsaws
competence assessment 287–8
hazards 278
personal protective equipment (PPE) 284, 288
safeguards 287–8, 287–8
CHECK (PDCA model) 45, 46, 46, 141, 141
checklist
fire risk assessment 355–6
hazards 130
health and safety policy 59–60
scaffolding faults 218
supply chain health and safety management 39
checkout conveyor system
hazards 279
safeguards 289, 289
Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply)
Regulations 2009 (CHIP4) 359–60
chemical warning signs 106, 106
CHIP4 classifications 360
chlorine 388
circuit breaker 306, 306Index
631
hazards and controls
demolition 209–10
electricity 211
fire and other emergencies 210
health hazards 212
noise 212
prevention of drowning 210, 210
safe place of work 207
site security 212–13
vehicles and traffic routes 210
particular issues 207
scope of activities 207–8
security measures 207, 208, 212–13
welfare facilities 210–11, 212
contaminated land 395
continual improvement 46, 50, 175, 175–6
contractors
assessing and managing principles 33–4
CDM Regulations 2015 30, 32, 457
definition 29
legal considerations 29–30
management and authorisation 34–5
permit system responsibilities 123
principal 32
rules and requirements 35–6
safety rules 35
selection 34
contributory negligence 8, 13
Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations
2010
duties 446
hazardous light sources 447
regulatory requirements 418, 445
safe light sources 446–7
Control of Asbestos Regulations 2012 383–4, 528–9
Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002 389, 531–2
Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005
assessment and action plan 498
elimination or control of exposure 499
employers’ duties 402, 497
exposure limit values and action values 497
health surveillance 500
hearing protection 499
information, instruction and training 500
maintenance and use of equipment 500
music events 497
risk assessment 497–9
Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986 as amended 532, 539
control of risk see risk control
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations
(COSHH) 2002 and 2004 amendment
accidents and emergencies 467
ACoP, key changes 2013 464
amendments to 2002 Regulation 463–4
control measures
engineering controls 374–6, 375–6
health surveillance 381
illustrative example 382
maintenance and emergency procedures 381–2
personal protective equipment (PPE) 377, 377–81, 378,
379–80, 465–6
prevention 373–4, 465
principles of good practice 373, 466
regulatory requirements 465–6
supervisory or people controls 376–7
supply of cement 390
Construction, Design and Management (CDM) Regulations
2015
access equipment, safe practices 197–203, 198–204
access equipment inspection 204
amendments to 2007 Regulation 453
client duties 30–1, 32, 33, 454–5
cofferdams and caissons 458
compulsory requirements 30
construction phase health and safety plan 32–3, 456
construction work defined 454
contractors’ duties 457
demolition 209–10, 458
designer duties 31–2
domestic client 33, 33
electrical hazards 211
emergency procedures 196, 210, 321, 322, 460
emergency routes and exits 321, 460
energy distribution installations 459
excavations 213–14, 213–15, 458
explosives 458
fall arrest equipment 195, 195–6
fire detection and firefighting 321–2, 460
fire safety 319, 461–2
fixed scaffolds 200–1, 201
fragile roofs and surfaces 193–4, 195
fresh air provision 460
general requirements 457
hazards and controls 208–10, 208–13, 212
health and safety duties, general 455
health and safety file 33, 456
health hazards 212, 460
inspection recording form 219
inspections, reports of 458–9
ladders 197–8, 198
lighting 460
method statement 33
mobile elevating work platforms (MEWPs) 203, 203, 203–4
mobile scaffold towers 202, 202–3
noise hazards 212
notifiable work 33, 33, 455, 455
outline 453–4
policy objectives 452–3
pre-construction health and safety information 32, 456
prevention of drowning 210, 210, 459
principal appointments 455
principal contractor
appointment 455
communication with workers 457
construction phase health and safety 456–7
principal designer duties 31–2, 455–6
protection against falls from height 193–4
protection from falling objects 194–5
safe place of work 457
site security 212–13, 458
stability of structures 458
stepladders, trestles and staging 198–9, 199–200
temperature and weather protection 460
vehicles and traffic routes 210, 459
welfare facilities 210–11, 212, 460–1
work at height deaths 192
Work at Height Regulations 192–3
working above ground level 196–7
construction phase health and safety plan 32–3, 41–2, 456
construction projects
client/occupier safety arrangements 213
environmental considerations 213Index
632
Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmosphere Regulations
(DSEAR) 2002
accidents, incidents and emergencies 469
ACoP, key changes 2013 468
applications 468
classification of workplace 469, 469, 469
contents of containers and pipes 470
definitions 334, 468
electrical equipment, use of 301
elimination or reduction of risk 468–9
employer responsibilities 334
information, instruction and training 469
regulatory requirements 467–8
risk assessment 468
death, work-related
asbestos 382–3
falls from height 188
investigation 20
RIDDOR 2013 159
demolition 205–6, 209–10, 458
departmental managers
health and safety responsibilities 65, 92–3
dermatitis 366–7, 390
designers, principal
CDM Regulations 2015 31–2, 455–6
diesel engine exhaust emissions 389
dilution (or general) ventilation 376, 376
direct burning 325
direct current (dc) 296
directors
health and safety management
auditing 170–3, 171, 173
Board members and director responsibilities 63–4, 90–1
organisational responsibilities 70–1
performance review and reporting 49, 174–5
personal liability offence 18
disabled workers
fire emergencies and procedures 351–2, 352
legislation 351, 530–1
risk assessment 112
welfare and work environment 178, 181
display screen equipment (DSE) 236–8
eye strain 238
musculoskeletal problems 237
psychological problems 238
regulatory requirements 470–2, 472
visual problems 237–8
workstation design 237
DO (PDCA model) 45, 46, 46, 62, 62, 98
documentation, safe systems of work 117
document shredder
hazards 277
safeguards 285, 285
domestic client 33, 33
doors, fire evacuation 347
double-barrelled action 13
double insulation
portable power tools 308
symbol 308
drinking water 178, 211
drivers
cars on company business, rule compliance 231
competency 229
employer responsibilities 227
ergonomic considerations 230
fitness and health 229
control of exposure 362, 363, 465
COSHH assessment
air sampling techniques 370–1
control of exposure 369
health surveillance 369–70
information sources 370
regulatory requirements 465
substances covered 368–9
workplace exposure limit (WELs) 371–3, 372, 464
defence (legal case) 467
employers’ duties 464, 464
health surveillance 466–7
information, instruction and training 467
monitoring exposure 466
requirements 368, 465
role of 367–8
substances defined 464
use, maintenance, examination and test 466
Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005
application 516
assessment of risk to health 411–12, 516–17
elimination or control of exposure 411, 412, 413, 517
exposure limit values and action values 410–11, 411, 516
health surveillance 413, 517–18
information, instruction and training 518
Interpretation 516
convection of heat 324, 325
conveyors 246, 247, 257
cooking processes, fire prevention 333
Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007
20–1, 529
corporate responsibility 2
corrosive substances 360, 361
COSHH see Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
Regulations (COSHH)
cost-benefit analysis 111
cranes 250–2
lifting tackle 252, 252
mobile jib 250
safe working load (SWL) 250
tower 251–2
criminal law
Crown Court 8–9
Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) 9
legal framework 7–8
Magistrates Court 8
Crown Court
health and safety offence penalties 20
powers 8–9
Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) 9
customer information 25–6
cylinder mower
hazards 278
safeguards 286, 286
D
dangerous occurrence, definition 3–4, 100
dangerous substances, storage and use
aerosols 337
control measures 335
DSEAR regulations 334
flammable gas cylinders 336
flammable liquids 335–6, 336
mitigation measures 335
risk assessment 334–5
substitution 335Index
633
definitions 297–8
earthing 297
hazards see electrical hazards
legislation requirements 296
short circuit 297
static 302, 302–3
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
adverse or hazardous environments 473
competence (inspection and testing) 304–5
competence (in use) 474
connections 473
cutting supply and isolation 473
definitions 472
duties 472
earthing, integrity and other suitable precautions 473
excess current protection 473
insulation, protection and placing of conductors 473
principal topics 304
strength and capability of equipment 473
systems, work activities and protective equipment
472–3
working space access and lighting 474
work on equipment made dead 473
work on or near live conductors 473
electric shock
cause and effects 298
treatment 299, 299–300
elevators 246, 248
emergencies
assembly and roll call 124
electrical incident 310–11
emergency services call-out 124–5
procedures 123–4
procedure testing and training 125
supervisory duties 124
Emergency First-Aid at Work (EFAW) 127, 127
emergency lighting 125, 180
EMF Directive 418
employees
consultation legislation 462
consultation with 79–80
duties under
HSW Act 1974 18, 23, 433
MHSWR 1999 29
equipment 26–7
safe systems of work 116
worker representatives 46, 80, 80–1
employers
civil liability 13, 162, 435
confined spaces regulation 451
contractor health and safety 29–30
duties under COSHH Regulations 464, 464
duties under HSW Act 1974 17–18
general 21–2, 432–3
liability case study 22
night working 22–3
temporary workers 23
violence at work 183
visitor and general public safety 22
duties under MHSWR 1999 28–9
duty of care 13
duty to consult 462
health and safety policy 51, 63
joint occupation of premises 29
management regulations (HSW) 16–17
plant and equipment purchases 26–7
fork-lift trucks 249, 249, 258
mobile work equipment 226
risk assessment 228–9
road transport drivers, abroad 551
route planning 230
training 226–7, 229
transporting hazardous substances 382
weather conditions 230
work schedules 230
drug and solvent abuse 185–6
dusts, health risk
chemical agents 358
dust observation lamps 371–3
inhalable dust 358
respirable dust 364
wood dust 390–1
duty of care 13
E
ear protection 407–8
earthing 297
Eco Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) 442
economics and standards 87
electrical equipment
fire prevention 333–4
inspection and maintenance strategies 311–12
inspection and testing frequency 313, 313
portable electrical appliance testing (PAT) 312, 312–14,
313
records of inspection and testing 313–14
protective systems
double insulation 308
fuses 306, 306
insulation 306
isolation 306–7, 307–8
reduced low-voltage 307, 309
residual current devices (RCDs) 307, 307–8
safe systems of work 304–5
selection and suitability 305–6
standard wiring colours 304
waste disposal 395
Electrical Equipment (Safety) Regulations 1994 529–30
electrical fires and explosions 300–1, 300–2
electrical hazards
arcing 302
control measures 304–5
electrical fires and explosions 300–1, 300–2
electric shock and burns
causes and effects 298–9
treatment 299, 299–300
flammable atmospheres 339–40, 340
high risks 304
portable electric equipment 303
secondary hazards 303
static electricity 302, 302–3, 340, 340
warning sign 296
electrical incident, emergency procedures 310–11
electric arcing 302
electric burns
cause and effects 298–9
treatment 300
electric current, forms of 296
electric drills 272–3, 273
electricity
basic principles 296–7
conductors and insulators 297Index
634
European Courts 11
European Six Pack 15
European Union (EU)
directives 15
Eco Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) 442
influence on health and safety 15
excavations
CDM Regulations 2015 458
hazards associated with 213
inspecting and reporting requirements 214–15
precautions and controls 213–14, 214
exceptional violations 76
expectant and new mothers
legislation 493
risk assessment 13, 111–12
explosions, electrical 300–1, 300–2
external agencies
Environment Agency 27
Fire and Rescue Authority 27
role and functions 27, 27–8
Scottish Environment Protection Agency


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