كتاب Fluoroplastics Volume 1 - Non-Melt Processible Fluoropolymers - The Definitive User's Guide and Data Book
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 كتاب Fluoroplastics Volume 1 - Non-Melt Processible Fluoropolymers - The Definitive User's Guide and Data Book

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كتاب Fluoroplastics Volume 1 - Non-Melt Processible Fluoropolymers - The Definitive User's Guide and Data Book  Empty
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Fluoroplastics Volume 1 - Non-Melt Processible Fluoropolymers - The Definitive User's Guide and Data Book
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Table of contents
Table of contents
Dedication
Series
Copyrigrht
2nd edition Acknowledgments
1st edition Acknowledgments
2nd edition Preface
1st edition Preface
Part I
1. Discovery and History of Fluoropolymers
1.1. Coming of Age of Polymer Science
1.2. Roy Plunkett's Story
1.3. Commercialization of PTFE
1.4. Developmental History of Fluoropolymers
2. Production and Market Statistics
2.1. Growth of Fluoropolymers
2.2. Regional Consumption of Fluoropolymers
2.3. Consumption of Fluoropolymers and PTFE
2.4. Trends
3. From Fundamentals to Applications
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Uniqueness of Fluorine
3.3. Fluorine Characteristics
3.4. What are Fluoropolymers?
3.5. Fundamental Properties of Fluoropolymers
3.6. Developmental History of Fluoropolymers
3.7. Examples of Uses of Fluoropolymers
4. Fluoropolymers: Properties and Structure
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Impact of F and C–F Bond on the Properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene
4.3. Distruping the Linear PTFE Chain: Perfluorinated Ethylene–Propylene Copolymer and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
4.4. Reaction Mechanism
4.5. Effect of Solvents on Fluoropolymers
4.6. Molecular Interaction of Fluoropolymers: Low Friction and Low Surface Energy
4.7. Conformations and Transitions of PTFE
4.8. Conformations and Transitions of PCTFE
5. Operational Classification of Fluoropolymers
5.1. Introduction
5.2. TFE Homopolymers
5.3. TFE Copolymers
5.4. CTFE Polymers
5.5. VDF Polymers
5.6. VF Polymers
5.7. Process Classification
6. Preparation of Tetrafluoroethylene and Other Monomers
6.1. Introduction
6.2. TFE Preparation
6.3. Purification of TFE
6.4. Properties of TFE
6.5. Synthesis of HFP
6.6. Properties of HFP
6.7. Synthesis of PAVE
6.8. Properties of PAVE
6.9. Synthesis of CTFE
6.10. Properties of CTFE
7. Polymerization Surfactants
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate
7.3. Issues with PFOS
7.4. Problems with PFOA
7.5. EPA Action
7.6. Alternative Surfactants for Fluoropolymer Polymerization
7.7. Summary
8. Polymerization and Finishing of Tetrafluoroethylene
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Polymerization Mechanism
8.3. TFE Polymers
8.4. Evolution of Suspension Polymerization of TFE
8.5. Preparation of PTFE by Emulsion Polymerization
8.6. Preparation of Dispersion Grade PTFE
8.7. Preparation of Fine Powder PTFE
8.8. CTFE Polymers and Polymerization
8.9. Characterization of PTFE
8.10. Characterization of PCTFE
9. Commercial Grades of Fluoropolymers
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Granular PTFE
9.3. PTFE Dispersions
9.4. Fine Powder PTFE
9.5. Polychlorotrifluoroethylene Polymers
Part II
10. Fabrication and Processing of Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Resin Selection
10.3. Compression Molding
10.4. Automatic Molding
10.5. Isostatic Molding
10.6. Ram Extrusion
11. Fabrication and Processing of Fine Powder Polytetrafluoroethylene
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Resin Handling and Storage
11.3. Paste Extrusion Fundamentals
11.4. Extrusion Aid or Lubricant
11.5. Wire Coating
11.6. Extrusion of Tubing
11.7. Unsintered Tape
11.8. Expanded PTFE Manufacturing
11.9. Fine Powder Resin Selection
12. Fabrication and Processing of Polytetrafluoroethylene Dispersions
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Applications
12.3. Storage and Handling
12.4. Surfactants
12.5. Principles of Coating Technology
12.6. Dispersion Formulation and Characteristics
12.7. Glass Cloth Coating
12.8. Impregnation of Flax and Polyaramide
12.9. Coating Metal and Hard Surfaces
12.10. PTFE Yarn Manufacturing
12.11. Film Casting
12.12. Anti-drip Applications
12.13. Filled Bearings
12.14. Dedusting Powders
12.15. Other Applications
13. Processing of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Processing Considerations
13.3. Compression Molding
13.4. Injection Molding
13.5. Extrusion
13.6. Machining and Joining
14. Fluorinated Additives
14.1. Introduction
14.2. PTFE Additives
14.3. Applications of PTFE Additives
14.4. Feedstock for PTFE Additives
14.5. Manufacturing PTFE Additives
14.6. PTFE-Modified Waxes
15. Surface Treatment of Polytetrafluoroethylene for Adhesion
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Sodium Etching of Fluoroplastics
15.3. Plasma Treatment of Fluoropolymers and PTFE
15.4. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment
16. Filled Fluoropolymer Compounds
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Granular-Based Compounds
16.3. Fine Powder-Based Compounds
16.4. Co-coagulated Compounds
16.5. Processing Compounds
16.6. Typical Properties of Filled Fluoropolymers
16.7. Nanocomposites of PTFE
16.8. Commercial Products
Part III
17. Chemical Properties of Fluoropolymers—Polytetrafluoroethylene and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Chemical Compatibility of PTFE
17.3. Chemical Compatibility of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
17.4. Permeation Fundamentals
17.5. Environmental Stress Cracking
17.6. Solubility Parameters
18. Properties of Tetrafluoroethylene Homopolymers
18.1. Introduction
18.2. Crystallinity
18.3. Molecular Weight
18.4. Influence of Processing
18.5. Microstructure and Fracture of PTFE
18.6. Mechanical Properties
18.7. Fatigue Properties
18.8. Electrical Properties
18.9. Thermal Behavior
18.10. Flammability Characteristics
18.11. Irradiation Behavior
18.12. Surface Properties
18.13. Refractive Index
18.14. Standard Measurement Methods
19. Properties of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
19.1. Introduction
19.2. Crystallinity
19.3. Mechanical Properties
19.4. Electrical Properties
19.5. Thermal Properties
19.6. Irradiation Behavior
19.7. Properties of PCTFE Films
19.8. Barrier Properties
19.9. Spectroscopic Properties
19.10. Chemical and Weathering Properties
20. Fabrication Techniques for Polytetrafluoroethylene
20.1. Introduction
20.2. Machining
20.3. Adhesive Bonding Methods
20.4. Welding and Joining
20.5. Thermoforming
20.6. Other Processes
21. Applications of Polytetrafluoroethylene and Fluoropolymers
21.1. Chemical Processing
21.2. Piping
21.3. Vessels
21.4. CPI Components
21.5. Self-Supporting Components
21.6. Trends in Using Fluoropolymers in Chemical Service
21.7. Semiconductor Processing
21.8. Electrical Applications
21.9. Mechanical Applications
21.10. Automotive and Aerospace
21.11. Medical Devices
21.12. Summary
22. Safety, Health, Environmental, Disposal, Recycling, and Economics
22.1. Introduction
22.2. Toxicology of Fluoropolymers
22.3. Thermal Properties of PTFE
22.4. Emission during Processing
22.5. Safety Measures
22.6. Food Contact
22.7. Fluoropolymer Scrap and Recycling
22.8. Environmental Protection and Disposal Methods
Appendix 1. Chemical Resistance of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Appendix 2. Chemical Resistance of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
Appendix 3. Permeability of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Appendix 4. Permeability of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
Appendix 5. Melt Creep Viscosity of Polytetrafluoroethylene
Glossary
Index
361
Index
A
Abrasion resistance 224
Abused particles 151
Acceleration tube 209
Aclar® 61, 74
Aclon® 203
Acrysol® 188
Acyl fluoride 206
Adhesive bond strength 293
Adhesiveless joining 295
Adhesives 291
Agglomerates 205, 228
Agglomeration of PTFE 51
Agglomeration processes 51
Aircraft wiring 307
Algoflon® 74
Aluminum surface coatings 193
Ammonia 292
Amorphous locking 176
temperature range 177
Amorphous phase 168
Amorphously locked PTFE 178
Annealing 109
PTFE 290
Applications
of dispersions 182
fine powder PTFE 152
fluoroadditives 213
fluoropolymers 316
PTFE 20, 149
Asbestos 192
ASTM Method D4895 170
Atomic oxygen 250
Attractive intermolecular forces 28
Attrition bar 222
Autopolymerization inhibitors
TFE 39
B
Backpressure 135, 138, 139
Bag
design 126
flexible 129
sealing 128
thickness 125
Ball mill 210
Bead extrusion 172
Beaker production 119
Beam current 209
Beam power 209
Bearing pads 308
Bearings 307
filled 196
Biaxially oriented sheets 227
Billets 92
cracking 102
molding 93
Bisulfite initiators 47
Bleaching
thermal 194
Blenders 155
Blending room 154
Bond strength 292, 293, 295
Bonding
PCTFE 203
problem 291
techniques 295
Bonds
C-F and C-H 23, 25
failure 294
polarity 24
Bottle blending 154
Braiding 167
Brake 133, 138
Break elongation 257, 258
Bronze 221
Buckling
of bags 130
Building code requirements 307
Bulk properties 214
Burst strength 170
C
C8 183
Calendar guides 174
Calendared tape
properties 175
Calendaring 171, 226
beads 172
starting up 174
Capture velocity 311
Carbon
electronegativity 24
Carbon disulfide 194
Carbon filled compounds 221
Carbonyl fluoride 310
Carboxylic acid 206
Cast films 195
Casting 194
Charge-to-charge welds 137
Charging
automatic 111
Chemical contamination 303
Chemical priming 194362
Chemical process industry 299
Chemical resistance 237
Chlorine 26
Chlorotrifluoroethylene 36, 37
properties 44
synthesis 44
Cleanrooms
molding 93, 97
Clothing
protective 315
Co-coagulation 196, 228
Coagulated dispersion 47
powder 149
Coagulation 228
of PTFE particles 183
Coalescence 90
of polytetrafluoroethylene 161
Coatings
on aluminum surfaces 193
filled 193
on glass cloth 189
industrial 215
processes 184
unfilled 193
Codes
building 307
Coefficient of friction 269
Cold flow 111, 220, 224
Cold plasma 295
Coloring PTFE 155
Commercial fluoroplastic homopolymers 73
Compaction 135, 156
pressure 132
process 123
Compounding techniques 222
Compression
PTFE particles 98
Compression molding 90, 111, 199, 201, 228
PTFE 92
Compressive loading 268
Conductivity of dispersions 188
Connectors
high frequency 307
Contact adhesives 291
Contact angle 187
Contamination 303
of process streams 299
Continuous use temperature
ETFE 19
Coolants 290
Cooling 109, 141
quenching 169
Copolymerization
PTFE 48
Copolymers
of CTFE 37
definition 33
of TFE 37
of VDF 37
Core pin 165, 166
Corrosion products 142
Corrosion resistance 299
Cracking 102, 169, 207
critical thickness 188, 195
Creep 111, 220, 224, 263
variables 263
viscosity 106
Crosslinking 253
Crystalline phases 253
Crystalline PTFE 149
Crystallinity 109, 141, 168, 200, 257, 268, 281
measurement 259
PTFE 25, 161, 168
Crystallization temperature 109
CTFE
copolymers 37
D
Dancer roll 174
De-dusting powders 196
De-molding 111
Deagglomeration 205
Decomposition
of fluoropolymers 310
products 314, 317
Decomposition rate 273
Defluorination depth 294
Deformability
of tape 171
Deformation
under load 227
Degassing 102
Degradation 273
of polytetrafluoroethylene 205
products 310, 311
Degradation temperatures 25, 205
CTFE 199
Degreasing 194
Delrin® 166, 174
Density
expanded part 177
Detection methods 258
Die cone angle 172
Die land 160
Dielectric breakdown resistance
of PTFE 161
Dielectric breakdown strength 99, 281
Dielectric constant value 272
Dielectric strength 257
Dies
extrusion 145363
Dip-coating 184
Dip tank 189
Dispersing agent 50
Dispersion polymerization 47, 49
PTFE 223
Dispersions
applications 182
coagulated 228
copolymers of TFE 74
PCTFE 74, 203
process 36
properties of 187
PTFE 37, 73, 182
storage 183
Disposal
fluoropolymer 317
Drilling
PTFE 291
Dripping 196
Dry bag 121
mold 127
Dry lubricants 217
Drying 194
ovens 161
process 161
DU Bearing Process 196
Dual laminate 300
Duplicate measurements
averages 259
Durability of insulation 272
Dust particulates 314
Dwell time 102, 132
Dynodes 209
E
Echonol® 223
Einstein’s equation 186
Elastomers 214
Electrical cables
tape 171
Electrical properties
PCTFE 281
Electron beam irradiation 207
Electronegativity 24
Electrophilic attack 26
Electrostatic charge dissipation 224
Elongation 257
Emulsion polymerization 47
Encapsulation 298
End groups 206
Energy utilization coefficient 209
Engineering polymers 224
Environmental stress cracking 255
Etching
aluminum surfaces 193
ETFE
molecular structure 19
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
molecular structure 18
Excessive microporosity 258
Exhaust air 311
Expansion
and strength 179
Expansion process 176
Exposure hazards 314
Exposure limits 311
Extruders 133, 142, 158
drive system 144
large 168
Extrusion 203
aids 149, 152
of bead 172
conditions 165, 172
dies 145
parameters 139
pressure 152, 158, 165, 172, 180
ram 144
rate 137
F
FDA compliance 217
FEP
degradation curves 25
FEP and PTFE
properties of 25
Fibrillation 149, 158, 223
of fine powder particles 151
pressure 180
Fibrils 150
Fick’s First Law
mass transfer 251
Filled bearings 196
Filled coatings 193
Filled compounds 220
Fillers 224, 302
material 220
separation 222
variables 240
Film casting 194
Fine cut PTFE 50, 73
Fine cut resins 90
Fine powder
applications 152
processing 151
PTFE 36, 49, 73, 149, 223
resins 47
Finishes
PTFE 182
Fire hazards 315
Fire retardants 307
Fishtail guide 174364
Flammability 161
solvents 152
tetrafluoroethylene 39
Flax 192
Flex life 168, 268
Flexibility characteristics 268
Flexible bag 129
Fluid energy mill 210, 211
Fluid handling components 304
Fluon® 74
Fluorinated ethylene propylene polymer (FEP) 18
molecular structure 18
Fluorine 250
abstraction from PTFE 26
electronegativity 24
in fluoropolymers 310
sheath 19
Fluoroadditives 205, 211, 213, 215, 316
irradiated 217
Fluoroalkenes 310
Fluoroplast® 74
Fluoroplastic homopolymers
commercial 73
Fluoropolymers 18, 250, 253, 256
applications 247
classification 33
discovery of 17
dispersions 315
disposal of 317
environmental stress cracking 255
extreme properties 23
fundamental property 247
handling and processing 310
history 19
manufacturers 74
processing 15, 256
thermoplastic 300
Fluorotech® 294
Food contact 316
Free flow compounds 222
Free flow powder 220
Free flow PTFE 73
Free flow resins 90, 135
Free radical reaction 47
Friction 28, 138, 221, 237, 240
Fume fever 311
G
Gamma ray irradiation
PCTFE 282
Gas chromatography 253
Gaskets 224, 302
Gel state 169
Glass cloth 189
Glass cloth coating 189
Glass fabric backing 300
Glass fibers 220, 223
Glow discharge 294
Gore-Tex GR® 303
Gore-Tex® 176
Granular powders 220
Granular PTFE 49, 50, 73, 90, 205
properties 230
Granular resins 47
Graphite impregnation 192
Gravure coating 184
Greases 215
Grinding 210
compounds 290
Guides
calendar 174
Gylon® 303
H
Halogenated solvents 247
Hammer mills 210, 222
Harshaw Process for Dustless Powders 196
Health hazards 311
Heat of fusion 169, 257
Heat of polymerization 50
Heated console ovens 161
Heating rate 106, 107
Helical conformation
PTFE 29
Hexafluoropropylene
as comonomer 41
properties of 41
HFP
yields 41
Hiflon® 74
High frequency
connectors 307
Hold temperature 108
Hoods
ventilation 311
Horizontal extrusion 168, 169
Hostaflon® 74, 222
Hot stamping 298
Hot-tool welding 296
Hourglassing 102, 139
Hydrocarbon lubricant 149
Hydrocarbon olefins 49
Hydrofluoric acid 315
Hydrogen
electronegativity 24
Hydrostatic molding 111
Hysteresis loop 185365
I
Impact strength 268
Impregnation
asbestos 192
of graphite 192
porous metals 192
Impurities 257
Infrared ovens 169
Infrared spectroscopy 259
Initiator concentration 50
Injection molding 201
Ink printing 298
Inks 214
Inorganic compounds 316
Insulated wire 152
Insulation 225, 315
wire and cable 304
Interfacial forces 187
Intermolecular forces 28
Ionic strength
of dispersions 188
Irradiation 206, 217
distribution 209
electron beam 207
PCTFE 282
Isopar® 83, 152, 161, 171, 172
Isoparaffin lubricant 36
Isoparaffinic hydrocarbons 152
Isostatic mold design 130
Isostatic molding 111, 117, 118, 123, 302
Isostatic process 119, 130
J
Jar blending 154
Jet mills 210, 211
Joining
adhesiveless 295
K
Kapton® 194
Kel F® 61
Kevlar® 167
Kneader 207
L
Lapping and grinding compounds 290
Lewis bases 247
Linings 299, 300
complex parts 303
Liquid oxygen contact
surface condition 251
Liquid pigments 155
Load removal 268
Low flow PTFE 73, 222
Low flow resin 220
Lubricants 149, 152, 225, 314
extraction 174
insulation 161
isoparaffin 36
Lubricating oils 215
Lubrication 168
M
Machining 290
high speed 314
PCTFE 203
PTFE 290
Macroscopic flaws 258
Mandrels 119, 139
Marine paints 215
Mason and Pierce equation 186
Mass spectroscopy 253
Matched-die forming 296
Material Safety Data Sheets 315
Media mills 210
Medical applications 316
Melt creep viscosity 106
PTFE 48
Melt processes 314
definition 33
Melt-processible
PTFE 19
Melt viscosity
FEP vs PTFE 25
Melting point 316
PTFE 161
Melting temperature
PTFE 135
Metals
porous 192
Mica particles 221
Microporosity 257, 258
measuring 259
Micropowders 205, 211, 214, 215
Microvoids 258
Milling 222
Mills 210, 211
Modified PTFE 15, 267
Modifier molecules 295
Moisture vapor permeation 253
Molded parts 290
Molding 111, 201, 228
areas 93
complex shapes 123
isostatic 117, 302
pressure 96, 132
techniques 90
temperature 96
wet- and dry-bag 121366
Molds
configuration 125
design 93, 125
filling 123
sealing 128
Molecular structure 253
Molecular weight 203, 257
micropowders 205
PCTFE 199
PTFE 207
Monomers 36
polytetrafluoroethylene 39
Motor oils 215
Multilayer coating techniques 184
Mush 196
N
Naphthalenide 292
Natrosol® 188
Necking 179
Neoflon® 61, 85, 86
Non-stick surfaces 193
Nucleophile 26
Nucleophilic attack 26
O
Oils 215
Organic contaminants 316
Orientation 257
polymer molecules 225
after sintering 170
Orientation Index 169, 170, 171
Oriented tape 171
OSHA 311
Ovens 161
lubricant removal 175
Oxidation products 310
Oxygen sensors 309
Oxygen uptake 250
Ozone 317
reactive substance 250
resistance of polymers 250
P
Paints 215
Paraffins 50, 111
Particle sizes
PTFE 50
Particulate contamination 303
Particulates 311
Paste extrusion 149, 158, 314
PCTFE 26, 251, 281. See also
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
amorphous 281
bonding 203
consumption 74
crystal structure 30
degradation of 201
dispersions 203
films 282
glass transition temperature 30
machining 203
stress 200
thermal properties 281
Peel strength 295
Pendent group 295
Perfluorinated fluoropolymers 273
Perfluorinated paraffin 111
Perfluoroalkoxy
molecular structure 18
Perfluoroalkylvinylethers
properties of 43
Perfluoroammoniumoctanoate 183
Perfluoropolymers 18
Perfluoropropylvinylether 43
Permeated species 251
Permeation 251
inhibiter 252
process 247
simplest form 251
Permeation rate
affecting factors 252
measurement 253
Personal protective equipment 314
Persulfate initiation 47
Petroleum solvents 152
PFF 311
Pigment dispersions 155
Pigment filled coatings 193
Pigmenting 168
Pipes
sealing tape 171
Piping 299, 300
Plane slippage 98
Plasma treatment 294
Plastics
properties 33
Plenum cables 307
Plunkett, Roy 17
Poisson’s ratio 179
Poker chipping 132, 135, 139
Polarity
C-F bonds 24
Pollution abatement 175
Polyaramide 192
Polyarylene plastics 224
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene 15, 199, 251, 281
crystal structure 30
density 30
molecular structure 18
Polyethylene 255
Polyflon® 74, 222367
Polymer
chain movements 252
chemical characteristics 252
cracking 255
fume fever 311
physical characteristics 252
weakness 255
Polymerization
particles 205
polytetrafluoroethylene 49
pressure conditions 49
regimes 47
tetrafluoroethylene 29
Polymerization reaction
inhibiters 50
tetrafluoroethylene 50
Polymerization technologies 49
Polytetrafluoroethylene 17, 247, 250
coefficient of expansion 277
coefficient of friction 270
degradation 205
design of parts 263
dispersions 183
electrical stability 272
fillers 269
good wear properties 270
heat deflection temperature 277
key properties 257
manufacturers 74
modified 295
monomers 39, 47
phase diagram 30
polymerization 49
transition temperature 273
unsintered 171
vacuum 273
viscosity 185
Polytetrafluoroethylene compounds
fillers 277
Polytetrafluoroethylene parts
standard test methods for inspection 279
Polytetrafluoroethylene resins
processing conditions 257
Polyvinyl fluoride 15
molecular structure 18
Polyvinylidene fluoride
molecular structure 18
Pores
micro 176
Porosity 259
Porous metals
impregnation 192
Powders 220
coating 300
de-dusting 196
low density 50
metal processing 111
modified 73
selection criteria 130
shrinkage 127
Pre-sintered resins 135
Preform
pressure 102
PTFE 106
release 102
shape 121, 123
Preforming 96, 156, 168
and sintering 95
Prepressing 158
Presses
molding 94
Pressure
compaction 132, 135, 156
decay 117
for fibrillation 180
for welding 296
forming 296
hoses 167, 169
molding 111
Pressure sensitive adhesives 291
Primers 194
Printing inks 214
Protective clothing 315
PTFE 17, 24. See also Polytetrafluoroethylene
additives 215
amorphously locked 178
applications 20
auto-ignition 250
chain stability 250
color of 27
coloring 155
crystalline form 149
decomposition rates 273
degradation 142, 273
density 177
dielectric strength 272
enthalpy 277
fabrication 149, 257
fiber strength 194
fine powder 36
finishes 182
granular 49, 73, 90
hardness 269
helical conformation 29
limiting oxygen index 250
machining 290
melting point 33, 161, 184, 290
melting temperature 135
molecular weight 47, 48, 207
organic and inorganic compounds 247
parts 258
Poisson’s ration 263368
preform 106
process conditions 257
properties 20, 23
radiation stability 278
reagent effects 247
resins 268
scrap 316
seals 302
self ignition temperature 315
sintering temperatures 220
solvents 27
specific heat 277
stress-strain behavior 260
structure of 27
surface tension 152
suspension polymerized 220
thermal decomposition 205
triclinic 30
van der Waals forces 47
viscosity 33, 186
yarn 194
PTFE and FEP
properties of 25
PTFE dispersions 37, 220, 228
pH 187
Pulmonary edema 311
Pulverization 210
Pumps 302
PV convention 270
PV limits 240, 270
Pyrolysis 207
Q
Quenching 109, 141
R
Radiation
exposure 206
of PCTFE 282
Radicals 206
Radiography 258
Ram 144
pressure 158
speeds 98
Ram extruder 132, 158
design 142
Ram extrusion 135
powders 73
vertical 139
Reactive elements 26
Reactor deflagaration 50
Recycling 316
Reduction ratio 73, 149, 158, 162, 163, 172, 180
Reinforced fine powder PTFE 224
Reinforced material 225
Repeat distance
PTFE 24
triclinic 29
Repro 316
Repulsive intermolecular forces 28
Residence time 137
Resins
compression 156
extrudates 142
fine powder 47
flow 90
for isostatic molding 130
for ram extrusion 135
Reverse roll gravure coating 184
Rheology 185
Rietz mill 222
Rod-like cylinders 29
Rods
PCTFE 201
Roller mills 210
Rolls
diameter 174
Rotational lining 300
Rotolining 300, 303
S
Safety requirements 307
Sandblasting 194
Sawing
PTFE 291
Scotch-Weld® 295
Scrap material 316
Scrubbers 300
Sealing
mold and bag 128
Seals 224, 302
Semiconductor industry 304
Semicrystalline polymer 281
Shear damage 149
Shear stress 141, 151
Shearing
PTFE 291
Sheeting 225
Shrinkage 94, 127, 141
preform 102
Silicones
stress cracking 251
Single layer coating methods 184
Sintering 135, 161, 193, 230, 314
cycle profiles 106
cycles 111
ovens 95
sheet 227
time 137
Sintering temperatures 135
PTFE 220369
Sizing agents 189
Skin formation 141, 142
Skiving 291
Slide bearings 308
Slide coating techniques 184
Slitting 176
Sodium etching 292
Sodium naphthalenide 292
Solubility
PTFE 25
PTFE and FEP 27
Solvents
flammability data 152
lubricants 152
sorption of 27
Spaghetti tubing 165
Spark tester 158, 161
Specific gravity 200, 257
Specific wear rate 240
Spillage 315
Spinning
yarn 194
Springback 135, 144
Stack gas treatment 208
Static charge 167, 224
Steel powder 221
Steel vessels 300
Stick-slip 307
Storage
of dispersions 188
granular PTFE 92
Strength
by expansion 179
Stresses 109, 200
cracking 169
reduction 200
relaxation 268
Stretch rates 175, 177
Stretch Void Index 169, 170
Styrene
heat of polymerization 40
Surface energy 28
Surface finish 124
Surface modification
for adesion 291
Surface properties 214
Surface science 187
Surface tension 28, 187
PTFE 152
Surfactants 183, 188
perfluorinated carboxylic ammonium 49
Suspension polymerization 47, 49, 50
Suspension polymerized PTFE 220
Suspension process 36
Swelling 27
T
Tanks 300
Tape
oriented 171
properties 175
slitting 176
unsintered 171
Tapping
PTFE 291
Tear strength 214
Tedlar® 36
Teflon® 17, 74, 222
Teflon® AF 19
Tefzel® 250
Tensile properties 258
degree of orientation 258
Tensile strength 179, 257, 258, 260
Tetra-etch® 294
Tetrafluoroethylene 15, 39, 206
copolymers 267
homopolymers 257
molecular structure 18
monomer 47
polymerization 29, 47, 50
properties 40
yields 39
Tetrafluoromethane 310
TFE
autopolymerization inhibitors 39
copolymers 37
heat of polymerization 40
preparation of 39
Thermal conductivity 277, 290
Thermal cracking 207
Thermal degradation 278, 314
PCTFE 281
Thermal exposure 273
Thermal stability 310
Thermoforming 296
Thermogravimeric analysis techniques 273
Thermoplastics 300, 316
Thickeners 186
Thixotropic liquids 185
Threading
PTFE 291
Threads
sealing tape 171
Tie layer 195
Tool speeds 290
Torlon® 224
Tornado® mill 222
Torsional damping 259
Toxic gases 315
Toxicity
of fluoropolymers 310370
Transition point
PTFE 149
Transition temperature
PTFE 29, 151
Tribological characteristics
of polymers 214
of PTFE compounds 240
Triton® 59, 188, 192, 193, 194, 228
Tubes
compression molding 201
Tubing
categories 164
extrusion 165
jacketed 309
pressure hoses 166
Tubular oven 161
Tumbler 222
Turbula® 155
Two-roll coating 184
Tyvek® 315
U
U.S. Food and Drug Administration 316
Ultrapure fluids 304
Ultrasonics 259
V
V-cone blenders 154
V-shape blenders 222
Vacuum forming 296
Valve diaphragms 268
Valves 302
van der Waals attraction 150
van der Waals forces 28
Ventilation 311
Vertical extrusion 168, 169
Vespel® 240
Vessels 300
Vinyl chloride
heat of polymerization 40
Vinyl fluoride 36, 37
Vinylidene fluoride 36
copolymers 37
in PCTFE 74
Virgin 316
Viscosity
equation 186
PCTFE 199
Viton® 216
Voids 138, 170, 268
closure 48
in PTFE 96
W
Wafer carriers 303
Waste fluoropolymer 316
Water
purified 50
removal 194
Wear 221, 240
rate 237
Weep Test 169, 170
Weld factor 296
Weld strength
between charges 135
Welding 295, 296, 315
Wet bag 121
Wet processing equipment 303
Wetting behavior 187
Wire
coating 158
insulation 152, 225
quality 163
Wood pulp process 194
X
X-ray diffraction 259
Y
Yarns
bleaching 194
Yield deformation 260
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 179
Z
Zero strength time 74, 199, 202
Zonyl® 216


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» كتاب Fluoroelastomers Handbook - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook

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