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 كتاب Introduction to Health And Safety Work - Fifth Edition

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Introduction to Health And Safety Work - Fifth Edition
The Handbook for the NEBOSH National General Certificate
Phil Hughes MBE, MSc, CFIOSH
Chairman NEBOSH 1995–2001. President of IOSH 1990–1991
Ed Ferrett PhD, BSc (Hons Eng), CEng, MIMechE, MIET, CMIOSH
Vice Chairman NEBOSH 1999–2008

كتاب Introduction to Health And Safety Work - Fifth Edition  I_t_h_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
PREFACE xi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiii
ABOUTTHEAUTHORS xv
HOWTOUSETHISBOOKANDWHATITCOVERS xvii
LISTOFPRINCIPALABBREVIATIONS xix
1 HEALTHANDSAFETYFOUNDATIONS 1
1.1 The scope and nature of occupational health and safety 2
1.2 Moral, legal and financial reasons for promoting good standards of health and safety 4
1.3 The legal framework for the regulation of health and safety including sources and types of law 8
1.4 The scope, duties and offences of employers, managers, employees and others under the Health
and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 21
1.5 The scope, duties and offences of employers, managers, employees and others under the
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 26
1.6 The legal and organizational health and safety roles and responsibilities of clients and their
contractors 27
1.7 Further information 33
1.8 Practice NEBOSH questions 33
Appendix 1.1 Checklist for supply chain health and safety management 36
Appendix 1.2 Summary of application and notification under CDM 2007 37
Appendix 1.3 Pre-construction information 38
Appendix 1.4 Construction phase plan 39
2 HEALTHANDSAFETYMANAGEMENTSYSTEMS–POLICY 41
2.1 Key elements of a health and safety management system 42
2.2 Purpose and importance of setting a policy for health and safety 48
2.3 Key features and appropriate content of an effective health and safety policy 49
2.4 Further information 52
2.5 Practice NEBOSH questions 53
Appendix 2.1 Health and safety policy checklist 55
3 HEALTHANDSAFETYMANAGEMENTSYSTEMS2–ORGANIZING 57
3.1 Organizational health and safety roles and responsibilities of employers, directors and managers 58
3.2 Concept of health and safety culture and its significance in the management of health and safety
in an organization 63
3.3 Human factors which influence behaviour at work 65
3.4 How health and safety behaviour at work can be improved 71
3.5 Emergency procedures and arrangement for contacting the emergency services 81
3.6 Requirements for, and effective provision of, first aid in the workplace 83
3.7 Further information 86
3.8 Practice NEBOSH questions 86
Appendix 3.1 Detailed health and safety responsibilities 90
Appendix 3.2 List of typical legislation requiring health and safety training 92
4 HEALTHANDSAFETYMANAGEMENTSYSTEMS3–PLANNING 93
4.1 Importance of planning 94
4.2 Principles and practice of risk assessment 100
4.3 General principles of control and hierarchy of risk reduction measures 108
4.4 Sources of health and safety information 115
4.5 Safe systems of work 116
4.6 Permits to work 119vi Contents
4.7 Further information 123
4.8 Practice NEBOSH questions 123
Appendix 4.1 Hazard checklist 126
Appendix 4.2 Example of a risk assessment record 127
Appendix 4.3 Risk assessment example 2: Hairdressing salon 128
Appendix 4.4 Risk assessment example 3: Office cleaning 130
Appendix 4.5 Job safety analysis form 133
Appendix 4.6 Essential elements of a permit-to-work form 134
Appendix 4.7 Asbestos examples of safe systems of work 135
5 HEALTHANDSAFETYMANAGEMENTSYSTEMS4–MEASURING,AUDITANDREVIEW 139
5.1 Active and reactive monitoring 140
5.2 Health and safety auditing 149
5.3 Investigating incidents 150
5.4 Recording and reporting incidents 157
5.5 Review of health and safety performance 162
5.6 Further information 164
5.7 Practice NEBOSH questions 165
Appendix 5.1 Workplace inspection exercises 168
Appendix 5.2 Specimen workplace inspection report form 170
Appendix 5.3 Workplace inspection checklist 171
Appendix 5.4 Page 1 of Accident/incident report form – see full form at:
www.elsevierdirect.com/companions/9780080970707 174
Appendix 5.5 Information for insurance/compensation claims 175
6 WORKPLACEHAZARDSANDRISKCONTROL 177
6.1 Health, welfare and work environment requirements 178
6.2 Violence at work 182
6.3 Substance misuse at work 185
6.4 Safe movement of people in the workplace 187
6.5 Working at height 192
6.6 Excavations 203
6.7 Further information 205
6.8 Practice NEBOSH questions 205
Appendix 6.1 Checklist of typical scaffolding faults 208
Appendix 6.2 Inspection recording form with timing and frequency chart 209
7 TRANSPORTHAZARDSANDRISKCONTROL 213
7.1 Safe movement of vehicles in the workplace 214
7.2 Driving at work 219
7.3 Further information 223
7.4 Practice NEBOSH questions 223
8 MUSCULOSKELETALHAZARDSANDRISKCONTROL 225
8.1 Work-related upper limb disorders 226
8.2 Manual handling hazards, risks and control measures 230
8.3 Manually operated load handling equipment 234
8.4 Mechanically operated load handling equipment 236
8.5 Further information 243
8.6 Practice NEBOSH questions 244
Appendix 8.1 Workstation self-assessment checklist 247
Appendix 8.2 Manual handling of loads: assessment checklist 250
Appendix 8.3 A typical risk assessment for the use of lifting equipment 253
Appendix 8.4 Examples of manually operated load handling equipment 254
9 WORKEQUIPMENTHAZARDSANDRISKCONTROL 255
9.1 General requirements for work equipment 256
9.2 Hand-held tools 263
9.3 Machinery hazards 269Contents vii
9.4 Control measures – practical safeguards 272
9.5 Further Information 284
9.6 Practice NEBOSH questions 285
10 ELECTRICALSAFETY 287
10.1 Hazards and risks associated with the use of electricity at work 288
10.2 Control measures 295
10.3 Further information 304
10.4 Practice NEBOSH questions 305
11 FIRESAFETY 307
11.1 Principles of fire initiation, classification, spread and legal requirements 308
11.2 Fire risk assessment 317
11.3 Principles of fire prevention and prevention of fire spread 321
11.4 Fire alarm and fire fighting equipment 329
11.5 Evacuation of a workplace 333
11.6 Further information 339
11.7 Practice NEBOSH questions 340
Appendix 11.1 Fire risk assessment checklist (as recommended in Fire Safety Guides published by the
Department for Communities and Local Government in 2006) 342
Appendix 11.2 Example form for recording significant findings (as published in 2006 by the Department
for Communities and Local Government in their Fire Safety Guides) 344
Appendix 11.3 Typical fire notice 345
Appendix 11.4 Example fire safety maintenance checklist 346
12 CHEMICALANDBIOLOGICALHEALTHHAZARDSANDRISKCONTROL 349
12.1 Forms of, classification of, and health risks from hazardous substances 350
12.2 Assessment of health risks 354
12.3 Workplace exposure limits 361
12.4 Control measures 363
12.5 Specific agents 371
12.6 Safe handling and storage of waste 379
12.7 Further information 381
12.8 Practice NEBOSH questions 382
Appendix 12.1 EU Existing Risk Phrases 386
Appendix 12.2 EU Existing Safety Phrases 387
Appendix 12.3 GHS Hazard (H) Statements (Health only) 389
Appendix 12.4 Hazardous properties of waste (as listed in the Hazardous Waste (England and Wales)
Regulations 2005) 390
Appendix 12.5 A typical COSHH assessment form 392
13 PHYSICALANDPSYCHOLOGICALHEALTHHAZARDSANDRISKCONTROL 393
13.1 Noise 394
13.2 Vibration 400
13.3 Radiation 404
13.4 Stress 409
13.5 Further information 410
13.6 Practice NEBOSH questions 411
Appendix 13.1 Example of a noise assessment record form 413
14 CONSTRUCTION,ENVIRONMENTALANDINTERNATIONALASPECTSOFHEALTHANDSAFETY 415
14.1 Introduction 416
14.2 Construction activities 416
14.3 Environmental considerations 430
14.4 International issues 436
14.5 Further information 443
Appendix 14.1 Summary of application and notification under CDM 2007 444
Appendix 14.2 Scaffolds and ladders 445
Appendix 14.3 International travel tips 445
Appendix 14.4 Emergency numbers in some countries world-wide 447viii Contents
15 SUMMARYOFTHEMAINLEGALREQUIREMENTS 451
15.1 Introduction 453
15.2 The legal framework 453
15.3 List of Acts, orders and regulations summarized 456
15.4 HSW Act 1974 458
15.5 Environmental protection Act 1990 462
15.6 Control of artificial radiation at work regulations 2010 472
15.7 Chemicals (Hazard information and packaging for supply) regulations 2009 (CHIP 4) 473
15.8 Confined spaces regulations 1997 480
15.9 Construction (Design and management) (CDM) regulations 2007 482
15.10 Construction (Head protection) regulations 1989 494
15.11 Health and safety (Consultation with employees) regulations 1996 494
15.12 Control of substances hazardous to health regulations (COSHH) 2002 and 2004 amendment 496
15.13 Dangerous substances and explosive atmospheres regulations (DSEAR) 2002 499
15.14 Health and safety (Display screen equipment) regulations 1992 501
15.15 Electricity at work regulations 1989 503
15.16 Employers’ liability (Compulsory insurance) Act 1969 and regulations 1998 amended in 2002,
2004 and 2008 506
15.17 Regulatory reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 507
15.18 Health and safety (First Aid) regulations 1981 as amended in 2002 515
15.19 Health and safety (Information for Employees) regulations 1989 516
15.20 Hazardous waste (England and Wales) regulations 2005 516
15.21 Ionising radiation regulations 1999 517
15.22 Lifting operations and lifting equipment regulations (LOLER) 1998 as amended in 2002 518
15.23 Management of health and safety at work regulations 1999 as amended in 2003 and 2006 521
15.24 Manual handling operations regulations (MHO) 1992 as amended in 2002 524
15.25 Notification of conventional tower cranes regulations 2010 527
15.26 Control of noise at work regulations 2005 528
15.27 Personal protective equipment at work regulations 1992 as amended in 2002 532
15.28 Provision and use of work equipment regulations 1998 (except Part IV) as amended in 2002 533
15.29 The reporting of injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences regulations 1995 538
15.30 Safety representatives and safety committees regulations 1977 540
15.31 Health and safety (Safety Signs and Signals) regulations 1996 541
15.32 The supply of machinery (Safety) regulations 2008 543
15.33 Control of vibration at work regulations 2005 545
15.34 Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) regulations 1992 as amended in 2002 547
15.35 Work at height regulations 2005 as amended in 2007 549
15.36 Other relevant legislation in brief 553
15.37 Common Sense, Common Safety: Lord Young’s Report October 2010 560
16  STUDYSKILLS 565
16.1 Introduction 566
16.2 Find a place to study 566
16.3 Planning for study 566
16.4 Blocked thinking 567
16.5 Taking notes 567
16.6 Reading for study 567
16.7 Free learning resources from the Open University 567
16.8 Organizing for revision 568
16.9 Organizing information 568
16.10 How does memory work? 569
16.11 How to deal with exams 570
16.12 The examiners’ reports 571
16.13 The written examinations 572
16.14 NGC3 – the practical application 572
16.15 Conclusion 573
16.16 Further information 573Contents ix
17 SPECIMENANSWERSTONEBOSHEXAMINATIONS 575
17.1 Introduction 576
17.2 The written examinations 576
17.3 NGC3 – the practical application 581
Appendix 17.1 Specimen candidate report 585
Appendix 17.2 The practical assessment 587
18 SOURCESOFINFORMATIONANDGUIDANCE 593
18.1 Introduction 594
18.2 How to search the Internet effectively 594
18.3 For-a-fee searches 596
18.4 Don’t forget the phone book 596
18.5 Privacy issues 596
18.6 Some useful web sites 596
INDEX 599
Index
A
Abrasion hazards, 269, 270
Absolute duty, 13
Access control, 184
Access equipment, 196–202
Accident book, 157
Accident triangle, 102
Accidents:
see also Incidents
categories of, 103
causes of, 214
costs of
direct, 7
indirect, 8
definitions, 4, 102
electrical, 302
incident rate, 64
investigations, 66
rates, 4–5
at work, 4–5, 102
Accommodation for clothing, 178–179
ACOP see Approved Code of Practice
Active/reactive monitoring, 140–149
Active/proactive monitoring,
143–147
Adjustable guards, 273–274
Advisers, health and safety, 62–63
Agency workers’ responsibilities under
HSW Act, 23
Air receivers, examination, 260–261
Alarms, 184
voice, 339
Alcohol abuse damages, 185–186
Annual injury incidence rate, 161
Appointed persons, first-aid, 84
Approved Code of Practice (ACOP), 16,
178, 453, 461, 482
Arcing, electric, 293
Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Alliance,
237
Asbestos, work involving, 135–137
Assembly and roll call:
in emergencies, 82
in event of evacuation, 336
Assessments:
safe systems of work, 117
Attitude, 68
Audits:
purpose of, 149
system, 149–150
Authorized persons, responsibilities in
permit system, 122
B
Back injuries, 230
Balance trucks, 235
BATNEEC see Best Available
Techniques not Entailing
Excessive Cost
Bench-top grinder:
hazards, 272
safeguards, 277
Boiler examination, 260–261
BPEO see Best Practicable
Environmental Option
Brush cutter/strimmer:
hazards, 271
safeguards, 278
Building, fire protection of, 326–328
Buried power lines, 300
Burns, 290
Buying problems, 25–26
C
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 227
Case law see Civil law; Common law;
Criminal law
CDM Co-ordinator, 29
CDM Regulations 2007, 482
CDM see Construction Design and
Management
CE markings, 26, 256–258
Cement/concrete mixer:
hazards, 272
safeguards, 281–282
Centre of the Regulations
(Regulation 6), 193
Certificate of conformity, 257
Chainsaw:
boots, 281
hazards, 271
with rear handle, 279
safeguards, 278–281
Checklist:
hazard, 126
health and safety policy, 51
sign, 114
for supply chain health and safety
management, 36
Checkout conveyor system:
hazards, 272
safeguards, 281
Chemical warning signs, 113
Chemicals (Hazard Information
and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002 and
Amendment Regulations:
child-resistant fastenings, tactile
warnings and other consumer
protection measures, 476
classification–regulation, 474
collection authority, 470
data retention, 476
labelling of dangerous chemicals,
475–476
REACH strategy, 476–478
safety data sheet, 474
supplier of dangerous chemicals,
474
transfer note, 471
Circular saw, bench-mounted:
hazards, 272
safeguards, 282
schematic representation of, 283
Civil law, 8–10
County Court, 9
High Court, 9
Supreme Court, 10
Client, 28–29
Collisions:
pedestrians and flying objects, 188
pedestrians and moving vehicles,
188
pedestrians and stationary objects,
188
Combined Code of Corporate
Governance 2003, 46
Commercial stakeholders:
and health and safety standards, 81
Common law, 11
based on judgements, 11
Common law torts and duties:
duty of care, 12–13
negligence, 11–12
Communication:
with employees and contractors, 56
influence on health and safety
issues, 73
report writing, 147
safe systems of work, 118–119
types of, 72–73
Compactor:
hazards, 271–272
safeguards, 281
Company car driver rules, 222–223
Compensation Act 2006, 12–13,
553–554
Competence:
assessment, 279
definition, 72
Competent persons, 72
responsibilities in permit system, 122
Confined space permit, 121–122
Confined Spaces Regulations (1997):
definitions, 481
emergency arrangements, 482
employer duties, 481
overview, 481600 Index
Confined Spaces Regulations (1997)—
(Continued)
risk assessment, 481
safe system of work, 481–482
training, 482
work in confined space, 481
Construction Design and Management
(CDM) Regulations 2007, 28,
311–312
access equipment, 196–202
additional duties when project is
notifiable, 487
application and notification under, 37
background and introduction, 482
civil liability, 493
construction phase health and safety
plan, 39
contractors, 484–487
emergency procedures, 195–196
enforcement, 493
excavations, 203–204, 368
fall arrest equipment, 195
fixed scaffholds, 199–201
hazards and control, 192–203
hazards associated with fragile
surfaces, 194
hazards associated with stepladders,
trestles and staging, 197–199
health and safety at construction
sites, 489–492
health and safety file, 489
inspection and maintenance,
202–203, 204
inspection recording form, 209–211
mobile elevated work platforms,
201–202
pre-construction health and safety
information, 38
pre-fabricated mobile scaffhold
towers, 201
protection against falling objects,
194–195
protection against falls from work at
height, 193–194
regulations, application and
notification, 483
roles of duty holders, 487–489
structures, 208
terms used and duties in CDM 2007,
28–31
welfare facilities, 492–493
work at height deaths, 192
work at height regulations, 192–193
working above ground level, 196
Construction (Head Protection)
Regulations (1989):
application, 494
head protection, 494
provision and maintenance, 494
rules and directions, 494
Construction industry:
accidents involving ladders, 196–197
Construction Phase Health and Safety
Plan, 29–30
Construction site entrance signs, 113
Continual improvement, 47
Contractors, 29
authorization, 31
CDM2007 regulations and, 28
definition, 27
permit system, 123
rules for, 32
safety rules for, 32
selection, 31
at work, 31
Control:
electrical hazards, 295
fire hazards, 317–318
Control measures for electrical hazards,
295
Control of Artificial Radiation at Work
Regulations 2010, 472–473
duties, 472
hazardous light sources, 473
safe light sources, 472–473
Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006,
554–555
Control of Lead at Work Regulations
2002, 557
Control of Noise at Work Regulations
2005:
decision chart, 530
elimination or control of exposure,
529–531
employer requirements, 529
exposure limit values and action
levels, 529
health surveillance, 531
hearing protection, 531
instruction and training, 532
maintenance and use of equipment,
531
risk assessment, 529
Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986,
558
Control of risks see Risk control
Control of Substances Hazardous to
Health Regulations
(COSHH) 2002 and 2005
Amendment
accidents and emergencies, 498
assessment of health risk, 497
COSHH requirements, 496–497
defence, 498
definition of substance hazardous to
health, 496
duties under COSHH, 496
health surveillance, 498
information, instruction and training,
498
monitoring exposure, 498
overview, 496
prevention or control of exposure, 497
use, maintenance, examination
and test of control measures,
497–498
Control of Vibration at Work
Regulations 2005:
application, 545
assessment of risk to health created
by vibration at the workplace,
545–546
elimination or control of exposure to
vibration at workplace, 546
exposure limit values and action
values, 545
health surveillance, 547
information, instruction and training,
547
interpretation, 545
introduction, 545
Convection of heat, 314–315
Conveyors, 237
Corporate homicide, 19
Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate
Homicide Act 2007, 19, 556
Corporate responsibility:
definitions, 2
Health and Safety Executive (HSE),
2–3
COSHH Essentials HSG193, 371
COSHH see Control of Substances
Hazardous to Health Regulations
Courts, 9–11
Cranes, 240
Criminal law:
government agencies enforcing, 8
Magistrates Court and Crown Court, 9
prosecution in criminal case, 8
Crown Court:
penalties, health and safety offences,
18
powers, 9
Crushing hazards, 269, 270
Customer information, 25
Cutting hazards, 264, 270
Cylinder mower:
hazards, 271
safeguards, 278
D
Dangerous occurrence:
definition, 4, 102–103
Dangerous substances:
aerosols, 326
control measures, 324
DSEAR regulations and, 323
fire hazards, 323–326
flammable gas cylinders, 325–326
mitigation measures, 324–325
risk assessment, 324
storage, 325
substitution, 324
Dangerous Substances and
Explosive Atmospheres
Regulations (DSEAR) 2002:
accidents, incidents and
emergencies, 500–501
applications, 499
classification of workplaces, 500
contents of containers and pipes, 501
elimination or reduction of risks, 500
information instruction and training,
501
overview, 499
risk assessments, 500
scope, 499Index 601
Death or major injury, 157–158
Departmental managers, health and
safety responsibilities of, 61,
90–91
Designers, 29
Direct burning, fire spread, 315
Directors:
duties and responsibilities of, 22–23
health and safety responsibilities
board members and, 59–60
health and safety policy
development, 59
management system, 60–61
performance, 61
safety information, 60
Disability Discrimination Act (DDA), 337
Disability Discrimination Act 2005 (DDA
2005), 556
Display screen equipment (DSE),
228–230
eye strain, 229
musculoskeletal problems, 229
psychological problems, 230
visual problems, 229–230
Document shredders:
machinery hazards, 270
safeguards, 276
Documentation, safe systems of work,
118
Doors, means of escape from fire,
333–335
Double-barrelled action, 12
Double insulation:
on portable power tools, 298
sign, 299
Drawing-in hazards, 269
Drinking water, 178
Drivers:
of cars on company business, health
and safety rules for, 222–223
ergonomic considerations, 222
fitness and health, 221
risk evaluation, 220–221
route planning, 222
safety equipment, 221–222
scheduling, 222
time, 222
training, 220–221
vehicle condition, 221–222
weather conditions, 222
Drug abuse damages, 185–186
Duty of care, 12–13
E
Earthing, 289
Economics:
and health and safety standards, 81
Effective audit, 47
Ejection hazards, 269, 270
Electric arcing, 293
Electric burns, 290
Electric current, forms of, 288
Electric drills, 267
Electric shock:
effect of, 290–291
treatment, 290–291
Electrical equipment:
fuse, 297
inspection strategies, 301
insulation and isolation, 297–298
maintenance strategies, 300–302
reduced voltage systems, 298
Electrical Equipment (Safety)
Regulations 1994, 556–557
Electrical fires and explosions, 292–293
Electrical hazards:
arcing, 293
control measures for, 295
electric shock and burns, 290–291
electrical fires and explosions,
292–293
portable electrical equipment,
294–295
secondary hazards, 295
static electricity, 293
Electrically powered glass, 192
Electricity:
definitions, 289
hazards associated with see
Electrical hazards
legislation to control and regulate
use of, 288–289
principles and measurement of,
288–289
static, 293
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989:
adverse or hazardous environments,
504
competence, 505
connections, 505
cutting of supply and isolation, 505
definitions, 504
duties, 504
earthing, integrity and other suitable
precautions, 504–505
excess current protection, 505
insulation, protection and placing of
conductors, 504
strength and capability of equipment,
504
systems, work activities and
protective equipment, 504
work on dead electrical equipments,
505
work on near live conductors, 505
working space access and lighting,
505
Elevators, 237
Emergencies:
assembly and roll call, 82
procedures, 55, 56, 81–83
supervisors, 82
Emergency first aid at work (EFAW),
85
Emergency lighting, 180
Employees:
duties under
HSW Act 1974, 16, 17, 23
Management of Health and Safety
at Work Regulations 1999, 27
equipment, 25–26
representation, 80
Employers:
duties under HSW Act 1974, 16–17
case study, 21
health and safety of workers,
21–22
night workers, 22
temporary workers, 22
visitors and general public, 21
duties under MHSW 1999, 26–27
Employers’ Liability (Compulsory
Insurance) Act 1969 and
Regulations 1998 amended in
2002, 8
application, 506
coverage, 506–507
display of certificate, 507
overview, 506
penalties, 507
retention of certificates, 507
Employers’ liability insurance, 20
Employment tribunals, 10
Enforcement notices, HSW Act:
improvement notice, 18
prohibition notice, 18
Engineering controls, COSHH
regulations, 110
Engineers, responsibilities in permit
system, 123
England and Wales:
court system in, 9–10
legal system, 9–10
sources of law, 11
Environment Agency, 19–20
role and function of, 19–20
Environmental protection, definitions, 4
Environmental Protection Act (EPA)
1990:
application procedures, 467
best available techniques, 463
duty of care, 469–470
EC Directive 96/61/EC on IPPC, 462
enforcement, 469
environmental impacts, 469
environmental permit applications,
466–467
environmental permitting, 464
exempt and excluded waste
operations, 465
facilities for environmental
permitting, 464–465
framework, 463
hazardous waste, 470–471
integrated pollution prevention and
control (IPPC), 462
management systems, 468–469
overview, 462
permit conditions, 467–468
regulatory process, overview of,
463–464
role of regulator, 465–466
Site Waste Management Plans
Regulations 2008, 471–472
standard permits, 468
standard rules, 468
transitional arrangements, 467
waste management licence, 471602 Index
Equipment:
controls, 261
operating and working environment,
261–263
Ergonomics, 66
principles and scope of, 226–227
welfare and work environment
issues, 178–181
poor, ill-health effects of, 227
Errors, human see Human errors
Escape routes, fire, 334
Escape times, fire, 335
EU see European Union
European Courts, 10–11
European Six Pack, 14
European Union (EU):
directives, 14
influence on health and safety, 14
Examination, air receivers and boilers,
260–261
Excavations:
hazards associated with, 203
inspection and reporting
requirements, 204
precautions and controls,
203–204
Expectant mothers, risk assessment,
107–108
Explosions, electrical, 293
External agencies:
Environment Agency, 19–20
Fire and Rescue Authority, 19–21
insurance companies, 20
External influences, 80–81
External sources, information on health
and safety, 115–116
F
Falling from height, 189
Falling object signs, 113
Fines see Penalties
Fire:
action signs, 113
basic principles, 312–314
causes of, 315–316
classification, 314
compartmentation, 328
consequences of, 316–317
detection, 329–330
drills, 336
electrical, 314
emergency plans, 335–336
extinguishers, 330
hazards and control, 317–318
loading, 326
means of escape in case of, 320,
333–335
methods of extinguishing, 330
notices, 336, 345
persons at risk, 318
plans, 320–321
prevention, 321–329
in buildings, 326–328
control measures, 321–323
dangerous substances,
323–326
electrical and other equipment
in potentially flammable
atmospheres, 328–329
protection in buildings, 326–328
and rescue authority, role and
function of, 19
resistance of structural elements,
327
risk assessment
findings, 320, 344
fire hazards identification, 317–318
maintenance and refurbishment,
temporary workplaces, 320
monitoring and reviewing, 320
recommended in Fire Safety
Guides, 342–343
structural features, 320
routines, 336
RRFSO
enforcement, 311
offences, 311
safety duties, 310–311
safety signs, 113
spread, 314–315
surface spread of, 326–327
Fire alarm, and fire fighting equipment,
329–333
Fire fighting equipment (FFE):
extinguishing media, 330–331
maintenance and testing of, 331–333
sprinklers, 331–333
Fire hazards:
dangerous substances, 323–326
identification, 317–318
Fire Precautions (Workplace)
Regulations 1999, 308
Fire Safety (Employee’ s Capabilities)
(England) Regulations 2010, 513
Fire Scotland Act 2005, 513–515
Fire Services Act of 1947, 308
First-aid:
appointed persons, 84
box, 84
personnel numbers, 85
provision on work site, minimum, 83
signs, 113
training and approval arrangements,
changes to, 84–85
First aiders, 83, 84
Fixed guards, 272–273
Fixed scaffholds, 199–201
Food Safety Act 1990, 558
FOPS see Falling object protective
structures
Fork-lift trucks, 237–239
Forms:
job safety analysis, 133
Fragile roof sign, 114
Frozen shoulder, 227
Fuses, 297
G
Gas Appliances (Safety) Regulations
1995, 557
Gas Safety (Installation and Use)
Regulations 1998, 557
Guards:
adjustable, 273–274
construction, 282
fixed, 272–273
interlocking, 274
Guidance:
best practice, 16
legal, 16
H
Hand-held power tools:
physical hazards and safeguards
relating to, 264, 264–269
electric drills, 267
sanders, 267–269
safety controls and instructions, 266
Hand-held tools:
hazards from misuse of, 263–264
safety considerations, 264
Hazard definition, 4
Hazard identification, 99
Hazardous light sources, 473
Hazardous Waste (England and Wales)
Regulations 2005, 516
Hazards:
checklist, 126
definition, 102
fire, 323–326
heat and radiation, 181–182
identification, 104–105
manual handling, 230–234
mechanical machinery, 269–272
of mobile work equipment, 215
non-mechanical, 269
to pedestrians
being struck by moving objects,
188
collisions with moving vehicles,
188
falls from work at height, 188
slips, trips and falls on same level,
187–188
striking against fixed objects, 188
and risk assessments, 36
from workplace transport operations,
214–215
Health, definition, 3
Health and safety:
human failures in
human errors, 69–70
violations, 70
legal framework for, 8
civil law, 8–9
criminal law, 8
responsibilities, detailed
departmental managers, 90–91
employees and agency workers, 92
managing directors/chief
executives, 90
supervisors, 91–92
sources of information on, 115–116
standards, societal expectations of
good, 7
training
benefits of, 77
job-specific, 78–79Index 603
needs and opportunities, 78
new employees and contractors,
78
supervisory and management, 79
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
(HSW Act), 12
approved code of practice, 16
background to, 14–15
CEO responsibility under, 49, 61
duties of persons in control of
premises under, 23–24
duties of self-employed under, 23
enforcement notices, 18
general duties and key sections of,
16–17
general duties in management
regulations, 15
guidance, 16
penalties, 18
powers of inspectors, 17, 18
section 2(3) of, 48
work-related deaths, 18
Health and safety auditing, 149
gathering information, 149–150
judgements, making, 150
purpose of audits, 149
Health and Safety Commission (HSC):
guidance on safety duties of
company directors, 66
objectives of, 75
Health and Safety (Consultation with
Employees) Regulations 1996,
76–77
application, 494
civil liability and complaints, 495
employer duties, 494–495
functions of RES, 495
ideas for elections, 495
information to be provided, 495
persons to be consulted, 495
role of Representative(s) of Employee
Safety (RES), 495
training, timeoff and facilities,
495
Health and safety culture:
components of, 64
consultation with workforce in
Health and Safety (Consultation
with Employees) Regulations
1996 and, 76–77
on health and safety issues, 74
importance of, 74
Safety Representatives and Safety
Committees Regulations 1977
and, 75
definition of, 63–64
development of positive
commitment by management, 71
health and safety standards
promotion, 72–73
factor affecting, 65
human factors and
jobs, 66–67
organization, 65–66
personal factors, 67–69
indicators of, 64–65
Health and Safety (Display Screen
Equipment) Regulations 1992,
228
daily work routine of users, 502
definitions, 501–502
exemptions, 502
eyes and eyesight, 502
information on all aspects of health
and safety, 503
overview, 501
risk assessment, 502
training, 503
workstation regulations, 502
Health and Safety Executive (HSE), 15
corporate responsibility, 2–3
first-aid training courses, 84–85
merger with Health and Safety
Commission, 15
notification requirements, 30
Health and Safety Executive of
Northern Ireland (HSENI), 15
Health and Safety File, 29
Health and Safety (First aid)
Regulations 1981 as amended
in 2002, 83
duties of employer, 515
employees information, 515
self employed regulations, 515
Health and Safety (Information for
Employees) Regulations 1989,
516
Health and safety management:
auditing
aims of, 149
process of, 149
checklist for supply chain, 36
control arrangements, 58–59
financial reasons for, 6–7
legal reasons for, 6
levels of control of, 142
moral reasons for, 4–6
performance measurement
checklist, advantages of, 146–147
failures in risk control, 148
good observer, becoming, 145
observation techniques, 145–146
reports from inspections, 146
safety inspections, 144–145
responsibilities of
competent persons, 62
departmental managers, 61, 90
directors, 59–61
health and safety practitioner,
62–63
managing directors/chief
executives, 61, 90
supervisors, 61–62, 91–92
Health and safety management
systems, planning and
implementing, 95–97
defined, 94
elements of, 95
importance of, 94
management arrangements, 95
objectives, setting, 97–100
precautions of, 96, 99
up to date with legal requirements
identifying and keeping, 100
Health and Safety Offences Act 2008,
557–558
penalties under, 9
Health and safety performance
measurement:
active and reactive monitoring,
140–149
auditing, 149–150
directors’ and senior managers’ role,
163–164
effective report writing, 147
effective risk control, 142–143
failure, measuring, 148–149
frequency of monitoring and
inspections, 143
incidents
investigating, 150–157
recording and reporting, 157–162
items to be considered in reviews, 163
measurement at each management
level, 143
people involved and planned
intervals, 163
performance reviewal, purpose of,
162–163
purpose of measuring, 141–142
reason for measuring, 141–142
report, structure of, 147–148
traditional approach to measuring,
140–141
Health and safety policy:
checklist, 55–56
effective, 42
legal requirements of, 48–49
key elements/sections of
arrangements section, 51
health and safety adviser, 50
responsibilities, management, 50
statement of intent, 49–50
review of, 51–52
Health and safety poster, 73–74
Health and safety practitioner, 62–63
Health and safety representatives,
functions of, 76
Health and safety rules, company car
drivers, 222–223
Health and Safety (Safety Signs and
Signals) Regulations 1996:
definitions, 541
functions of colours, shapes and
symbols in safety signs, 542–543
information, instruction and training,
542
introduction, 541
penalties, 500
provision and maintenance of safety
signs, 542
Health and safety standards:
influences on
external, 80–81
internal, 79–80
promotion, 72–73
Health hazards:
Health risks, categories of, 103604 Index
Heat hazards, 181–182
Heat stroke, 181
Heat transmission principles, 314–315
Heinrich’s accidents/incidents ratio, 65
Hernia, 230
High Court, powers, 9
High voltage apparatus, work permit,
122
Highway Code, 16, 222
Hold-to-run controls, 275–276
Hot work permit, 122
Housekeeping, risk control, 114, 144
HSC see Health and Safety
Commission
HSE, 64
HSE Guidance document L108, 340
HSG, 43
HSW Act 1974:
duties of employees, 459
duties of employers, 458–459
duties of manufacturers/suppliers,
459
duties of owners/occupiers, 459
modernization of health and safety
law in Great Britain, 462
offences, 460–461
powers of inspectors, 459–460
Schedule 3A, 460–461
HSW Act see Health and Safety at
Work Act
Human errors:
mistakes, 69–70
slips and lapses, 69–70
steps to reduce likelihood of, 70
Human factors:
definition of, 65
jobs, 66–67
organization, 65–66
personal factors, 67–69
I
ICC see Incident Contact Centre
Ignition sources, 313
Ill-health statistics in isolation,
problems with use of, 141
Improvement notice, 18
Incident investigation, 152–153
comparison with relevant standards,
156
immediate causes, 155
procedures, 153–155
basic elements, 154
initial action, 154
interview techniques, 155
remedial actions, 156–157
role and function of, 150–151
simple root cause analysis, 156
types of, 151–152
underlying and root causes, 155–156
Incidents:
lessons learnt from, 162
recording and reporting, 157
compensation and insurance
issues, 161–162
internal systems, 160
statutory requirements, 157–160
Induction training, 78
Injuries:
see also Accidents
manual handling, 230–231,
233–234
risk to employees, 214–215
Injury/ill-health statistics in isolation,
problems with use of, 141
Inspections:
frequency, 143
reports from, 146
Inspections, safety:
proactive monitoring and measuring
performance, 143–147
Inspectors, powers of:
decision to prosecute, 18
under HSW Act, 17
Insulating materials, 327–328
Insurance:
companies influence on health and
safety standards, 20, 81
premiums, 20
Interlocking guard, 274
Internal influences, 79–80
Internal sources, information on health
and safety, 115
International aspects, of health and
safety:
benefits and problems associated
with occupational health and
safety systems, 48
characteristics of a successful
occupational health and safety
management system, 45–47
occupational health and safety
management systems, 43
International Labour Organization (ILO),
role and function:
continual improvement, 47
effective audit, 47
stakeholders, 46
Ionising radiation see Radiation hazards
Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999
(IRR99):
duties of self-employed people, 517
general requirements, 517
radiation employers, 517
risk assessment, 518
working with ionizing radiation, 517
Isolators, 298
J
Job:
considerations in design of, 66–67
health and safety, causes for failures
in, 67
safety analysis form, 133
training, 78–79
L
Legal framework, 8–9
Legal guidance, 16
Legal reasons, 6
Legal requirements, health and safety:
acts and regulations, summarized,
456–457
Executive and the Health and Safety
Executive, 454–456
general framework, 453–454
Health and Safety Executive (HSE),
454
relationship between the regulator
and industry, 454
in Scotland, 454
Legal system:
in England and Wales, 9–10
in Scotland, 10
Legislation and enforcement, 81
Leptospirosis see Weil’s disease
Levels of statutory duty, 13–14
Lifting equipment:
cranes, 240
organization of, 236–237
positioning and installation of, 236
requirements for statutory
examination of, 242–243
Lifting hooks, 234
Lifting Operations and Lifting
Equipment Regulations (LOLER)
1998 as amended in 2002, 226
applications, 519
definitions, 519
lifting equipment for lifting persons,
519
marking of lifting equipment, 520
organization of lifting operations, 520
overview, 471
positioning and installation, 519–520
reports and defects, 521
strength and stability, 519
thorough examination and
inspection, 520–521
Lighting:
means of escape from fire, 335
Load, 237
manual handling assessment, 232
Log tongs, 234
Lone workers, 108, 119
M
Machinery:
hazards, 269–272
safeguards, 276–283
Magistrates Court:
penalties, health and safety offences,
18
powers, 9
Maintenance:
fire fighting equipment, 333
work equipment hazards and control,
259–260
Management, 454
commitment, 71, 79–80
training, 79
vehicle movements, 218–219
occupational road safety see
Occupational road safety
management
organizing for HSW see Health and
safety management
arrangements, in health and safety
management systems, 95Index 605
Management of Health and Safety
at Work Regulations 1999 as
amended in 2003 and 2006:
aim, 521
capabilities and training, 523
co-operation and co-ordination,
523
competent assistance, 522
duties on employees, 523
effective arrangements, 522
health surveillance, 522
information for employees, 523
new or expectant mothers, 523
principles of prevention, 522
procedures for serious and imminent
danger and contact with
external services, 522
protection of young persons,
523–524
provisions as to liability, 524
restriction of civil liability for breach
of statutory duty, 524
risk assessment, 521
Management of Health and Safety
at Work Regulations (MHSW)
1999, 26–27, 49
emergency planning procedures
under, 81
joint occupation of premises under,
24
principles of prevention in, 109–110
regulation 7 of, 72
Managing directors, health and safety
responsibilities of, 61, 90
Manual handling:
assessments, 231–233
hazards, 230–234
injuries caused by
musculoskeletal, 230–231
reducing risk of, 233–234
operations, hierarchy of measures
for, 231
risk assessment
hierarchy of measures for, 231
load, 232
task, 231
working environment, 232
training, 234
Manual Handling Operations
Regulations (MHO) 1992 as
amended in 2002:
avoidance of manual handling, 525
duties for reducing injury, 526
duty of employees, 527
general, 524
individual capability regulations,
527
provision on additional information
on load, 526
review of assessment, 527
risk assessment, 526
Manually operated load handling
equipment:
hazards associated with, 236
precautions with the use of, 236
types of, 234–236
Mechanical handling and lifting
equipment, 236, 237
conveyors and elevators, 237
fork-lift trucks, 237–239
Mechanical handling equipment, 237
Mechanical machinery hazards, 269
Medicines Act 1968, 558
MEL see Maximum exposure limit
Method statement, 29
MHSW see Management of Health and
Safety at Work
Mistakes, human errors, 69–70
Mobile elevated work platforms
(MEWPs), 201–202
Mobile work equipment, hazards of, 215
Mobile work equipment PUWER 1998
Part III, 216–218
Monitoring, types of, 140
Monitoring performance see Health
and safety performance
measurement
Moral reasons:
accidents at work, 4–6
work -related ill-health and
occupational disease, 5–6
Motivation, 68
Multi-plugs, 300
Muscular sprains and strains, 230
Musculoskeletal hazards and risk
control, 225
manual handling hazards, risks and
control measures, 230–234
manually operated load handling
equipment, 234–236
mechanically operated load handling
equipment, 236–243
work-related upper limb disorders,
226–230
Musculoskeletal problems, 5, 230
N
Near miss, definition, 4, 50, 102
Negligence, 11–12
Night workers, employer’s responsibilities of, 22
Non-ionizing radiation see Radiation
hazards
Non-mechanical machinery hazards, 269
Notifiable work, 29
Notification of Conventional Tower
Cranes Regulations 2010:
general, 527
notification regulations, 527–528
persons to be notified, 528
persons who are responsible, 528
Notification of Conventional Tower
Cranes Regulations 2010,
527–528
Nursing mothers, risk assessment,
107–108
O
Observation techniques:
proactive monitoring and measuring
performance, 145–146
Occupational road safety management:
benefits, 219
occupational road risk, 219–220
risk assessment
drivers, 220–221
route planning, 222
vehicles, 221–222
Occupational/work-related ill health,
3, 102
Occupiers Liability Acts 1957 and 1984
– Civil Law, 557
OEL see Occupational exposure limits
OES see Occupational Exposure
Standard
Office of Rail Regulation (ORR), 17
OHSAS 18001, 45
Operating environment, equipment, 184
Operatives:
responsibilities in permit system, 122
Overhead power lines, 299–300
Oxygen, fire hazards, 313–314
P
Pallet trucks, 235
Pedestal drill:
hazards, 271
safeguards, 277
Pedestrian hazards:
control strategies, 188–192
preventative measures, 190–192
Pedestrians:
collisions with flying objects, 190
collisions with moving vehicles,
189–190
collisions with stationary objects, 190
Penalties, Health and Safety (Offences)
Act, 18
People with special needs:
fire emergencies and precautions, 338
voice alarms, 339
Performance assessment phase, of
occupational health and safety
management systems, 43
Performance improvement phase, of
occupational health and safety
management systems, 43
Performance phase, of occupational
health and safety management
systems, 43
Permits to work:
form, essential elements of, 134
principles, 120–121
procedure, 119–120
responsibilities in, 122–123
Personal factors, 67–69
Personal Protective Equipment at Work
Regulations 1992 as amended
in 2002:
accommodation, 533
assessment, 532
compatibility, 532
defects, use and reporting of, 533
information, instruction and training,
533
maintenance, 533
principles, 532
provisions, 532606 Index
Personal Protective Equipment at Work
Regulations 1992 as amended
in 2002, 558
Personal protective equipment (PPE):
risk control, 115
Persons at risk, 105
Persons in control of premises, duties
of, 23–24
Photocopiers:
machinery hazards, 239
safeguards, 276
Plan-Do-Check-Act, for occupational
health and safety management,
43
Planning phase, of occupational
health and safety management
systems, 42–43
Plant checklist, 55
Platform trucks, 235
Policy see Health and safety policy
Portable conveyors, 235
Portable electrical appliance testing,
inspection and testing:
inspection and testing
advantages and limitations of,
303–304
faulty equipment, 302
frequency, 303
records of, 303
suggested intervals for, 304
user checks, 302
Portable electrical equipment,
294–295
Portable hand-held electric power
tools, 295
Power tools, hand-held, 264–269
PPE see Personal protective
equipment
Practicable, definition, 13
Pre-construction health and safety
information, 38
Pre-fabricated mobile scaffold towers,
201
Precautions, excavations, 26
Premises:
joint occupation of, 24
signs used in, 112–114
Pressure Systems Safety Regulations
2000 (PSSR), 260, 558
Preventative control measures:
pedestrian hazards, 190–192
Principal Contractor, 29
Proactive monitoring, 140
Procurator Fiscal, 10
Prohibition notice, 18
Promotion, health and safety
standards, 72–73
Protective systems, 297–298
Provision and Use of Work Equipment
Regulations 1998 (except Part
IV), as amended in 2002:
conformity and community
requirements, 535
controls, 536
dangerous parts of machinery, 535
definitions, 534
duty holders, 534
information, instruction and training,
535
inspection, 534
isolation from sources of energy,
536
lighting, 536
maintenance operations, 534, 536
markings and warnings, 536–537
mobile equipments, 537
power presses, 537
protection against specified hazards,
535
protection from high temperature,
535–536
requirements, 534
specific risks, 534
stability, 536
suitability of work equipment, 534
Provision and Use of Work Equipment
Regulations 1998 (PUWER), 256
PUWER see Provision and Use of Work
Equipment Regulations 1998
R
Radiation:
hazards see Heat hazards
protection advisers, 62
transmission of heat, 315
Radiation protection:
adviser, 62
Reactive/active monitoring, 140–149
Reasonable, defined, 180
Reasonably practicable, level of duty:
definition of, 13
level of duty diagrammatic view of,
13
Records:
portable electrical appliance testing,
303
risk assessment, 127
Reduced voltage systems, 298
Regulations:
globally harmonized system of
classification and labelling of
chemicals, 478–479
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order
2005, 513, 513–515
additional emergency measures
in respect of dangerous
substances, 511
capabilities and training, 512
co-operation and co-ordination, 512
elimination or reduction of risks from
dangerous substances, 509
emergency routes and exits, 510
enforcement, 512–513
firefighting and fire detection,
509–510
general duties of employees at work,
512
general fire precautions, 508
interpretation–Articles, 507–508
maintenance, 511
offences and appeals, 513
overview, 507
principles of prevention to be applied
and fire safety arrangements,
509
procedures for serious and imminent
danger and for danger areas, 510
provision of information to
employees and others, 511
risk assessment and fire safety
arrangements, 508
safety assistance, 511
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order
2005 (RRFSO):
employee’s capabilities, 311
enforcement, 311
fire safety duties, 310–311
general fire precautions meaning,
309–310
offences, 324
outline of, 309
premises covered under, 310
Report writing:
effective report writing, 147
structure of report, 147–148
Reporting of Injuries, Diseases
and Dangerous Occurrences
Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR), 157
dangerous occurrences, 539
definitions, 538
enforcing authority, 538
general, 538
notification and reporting of
major injuries and dangerous
occurrences, 538
record of incidents, 539
reportable diseases, 540
reporting of cases of disease, 538
reporting of three-day plus
accidents, 538
Representatives of employee safety
(RES):
elected, 74
employer consultation with, 77
functions of, 75
Residual current devices (RCD), 298
Retail checkout conveyor see Checkout
conveyor system
Retail compactor see Compactor
Reviewing:
risk control, 106
Rheumatism, 230
RIDDOR see Reporting of Injuries
Diseases and Dangerous
Occurrences Regulations 1995
Risk:
avoiding, 110
control see Risk control
definition, 4, 102
evaluation, 105–106
Risk assessment, 99, 499, 501–503,
507, 521–524, 545–547; Control
of Noise at Work Regulations
2005, Control of Vibration
at Work Regulations 2005,
Dangerous Substances and
Explosive Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR)2002, HealthIndex 607
and Safety (Display Screen
Equipment) Regulations1992,
Management of Health and
Safety at Work Regulations
1999 as amended in 2003 and
2006, Regulatory Reform
(Fire Safety) Order 2005.
Confined Spaces Regulations (1997),
480–482
cost–benefit analysis and, 107
examples
hairdressing salon, 128–129
office cleaning, 130–132
findings, records of, 106
fire, 317–321
forms of, 102
health risks, 103
HSE approach to, 104–107
Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999
(IRR99), 517–518
legal aspects of, HSW Act 1974,
100
MHSW and COSHH regulations,
83, 101
management of, 103–104
monitoring and review, 106–107
objectives of, 103
post-accident, 107
records, 127
special cases, 107–108
violence at workplace, prevention
strategies, 183
Risk control, 99
effective, 142–143
legal requirements, 108–109
measures
deduced WELs, 111
engineering controls, 111
hazards, 102
health and safety information, 112
hierarchy of control, 110–115
isolation/segregation, 111
monitoring and supervision,
114–115
personal protective equipment,
115
personnel training, 111–112
reduced time exposure, 111
risk elimination or substitution,
110
safety signs, 112–114
substitution, 110–111
welfare facilities, 114
principles of prevention, 109–110
prioritization, 106
Risk Control systems (RCSs), 94–95,
97
Road safety management see Occupational road safety management
Roller tracks and chutes, 235
ROPS see Rollover protective
structures
Routine violation, 70
RRFSO see Regulatory Reform (Fire
Safety) Order 2005
RSI, 227
S
Sack trucks, 234
Safe driving:
mobile equipment, 218
Safe light sources, 472–473
Safe systems of work:
assessment, 117
checklist for use in preparation of, 118
communication and training,
118–119
definition, 116
development, 117–118
documentation, 118
legal requirements
HSW Act, 117
monitoring, 119
work involving asbestos, 135–137
Safe working load (SWL), 240
Safeguards, machinery, 272
Safety:
culture see Health and safety culture
definition, 3
devices, 275–276
inspections
proactive monitoring and
measuring performance,
143–147
performance see Health and safety
performance measurement
representative
accident and ill-health
investigations, 75–76
functions of, 75
rules for contractor, 32
Safety Committees Regulations 1977, 75
Safety data sheet (SDS), 474
Safety Management System (SMS)
Audit, 143
Safety Representatives and Safety
Committees Regulations 1977,
75
appointment, 540
complaints, 541
employer’s duties, 541
functions, 540
information, 541
inspections, 541
safety committees, 541
Safety sampling, 143
Safety signs:
checklist, 114
colour categories and shapes of, 112
fire, 113
warning, mandatory and prohibition,
112
in workplace, 112–114
Safety Survey, 143
Safety Tour, 143
Sanders, 267–269
Sanitary conveniences, 178
Scotland, legal system, 10
Scottish Environment Protection
Agency see Environment
Agency
Secondary hazards, 295
Self-adjusting guard, 274
Self-employed, duties of, 23
Senior authorized persons:
responsibilities in permit system,
122
Shear hazards, 269, 270
Shock, electric, 290–291
Signs, means of escape from fire, 335
Single European Act 1986, 14
Site manager, responsibilities in permit
system, 122
Site Waste Management Plans
Regulations 2008, 471–472
Situational violations, 70
Slips and lapses, human errors, 69
Smoke-free (Premises and
Enforcement) Regulations,
558–559
Smoke spread in buildings, 315
Societal expectations, 80–81
of good standards of health and
safety, 7
Sources of law (England and Wales), 11
Specialist health and safety training, 79
Specialists:
responsibilities in permit system,
123
Sprinkler installations, 331–333
Standards, promotion, 72–73
Standards, promotion see Health and
safety standards
Statement of intent, health and safety
policy:
performance targets, 50
points considered for drafting,
49–50
Static discharge prevention, 293–294
Static electricity, 293
Statute-barred, 12
Statute law, 11
Statutory duty, levels of see Levels of
statutory duty
Supervisors:
health and safety responsibilities of,
61–62, 91–92
health and safety training, 77
responsibilities in emergency
procedures, 82
Supply chain:
buying problems, 25–26
customer information and, 25
health and safety management,
checklist for, 36
HSW Act and, 25
management, advantages of good,
24–25
in manufacturing and retail
businesses, 24
Supply of Machinery (Safety)
Regulations 1992, 256
Supply of Machinery (Safety)
Regulations 2008:
introduction, 543–544
main requirements, 544
objectives, 544
principle changes, 544–545
Supreme Court, powers of, 10608 Index
T
Task, manual handling assessment, 230
Task and workstation design see
Ergonomics
Temporary workers, employer’s
responsibilities of, 22
Tenosynovitis, 227, 229
Toolbox talks, 73
Torts and duties, 11–14
Tower cranes, 241
Trade unions, and health and safety
standards, 81
Training:
courses, 76
fire emergency plans, 335–336
induction, 78
job-specific, 78–79
management, 79
risk control, 111–112
safe systems of work, 118–119
safety, 111–112
supervisors, 77
work equipment hazards and control,
259, 264
Trapped nerve, 230
Trip devices, 275
Tripping hazards, 187
Trolleys, 235
Trucks and trolleys, 234
Two-handed control devices, 275
U
User checks, portable electrical
appliances testing, 302
V
Vehicle movement management,
218–219
hazards in, 214–215
Ventilation, of the workplace, 179
Vicarious liability, 12
Violations, health and safety rules, 70
Violence at workplace, prevention
strategies:
appropriate actions, 185
effective actions, 185
equipment availability and expert
advice, 184
Home Office and the HSE report, 182
job design as preventive measure,
185
risk assessment, 183
Visual inspection, portable electrical
appliances testing, 302–303
Visual perception, 68
W
Washing facilities, 179
Welfare:
definition, 3
facilities, 36, 114
risk control, 114
Welfare and work environment issues:
condition of floors, stairways and
traffic routes, 181
general lighting requirements, 180
heating and temperature, 180
workstations and seating, 180–181
Wet floor signs, 113
Work at Height Regulations 2005 as
amended in 2007:
definitions, 550
duties of persons at work, 553
falling objects and danger areas, 552
fragile surfaces, 552
general principles for selection of
work equipment, 550
inspection of places of work at
height, 553
inspection of work equipment,
552–553
introduction, 549–550
organization, planning and
competence, 550
requirements for particular work
equipment, 550–552
risk avoidance, 550
Work equipment:
controls
emergency stop, 262
start, 261
stop, 262
hand-held power tools, 267–269
hand-held tools, 263–264
information and instructions for
using, 259
inspection under PUWER, 260
isolation of, 262
maintenance, 259–261
markings on, 263
mobile see Mobile work equipment
with specific risks, uses of
stability, 262
suitability, 256–258
training for using, 259
user responsibilities, 263
Work on high-voltage apparatus, 122
Work permits see Permits to work
Work-related deaths, 18
Work-related ill health, definition, 3
Work-related upper limb disorders
(WRULDs), 26, 103,
226–230
display screen equipment,
228–230
ergonomics, principles and scope of,
226–227
poor ergonomics, ill-health effects
of, 227
Work systems, risk control, 106,
142–143
Workers with disability, risk assessment
of, 108
Workforce, consultation with, 74–77
Working environment:
equipment, 261–263
poor, 67
Working environment, manual handling
assessment, 232
Working Time Regulations 1998 as
amended by 2003 and 2007
Regulations, 559–560
Workplace, 237
inspection checklist, 144
inspection report form, specimen, 146
risks in, 83
Workplace evacuation, during fire,
333–339
Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare)
Regulations 1992 as amended
in 2002:
accident prevention measures,
548–549
general, 547
welfare provisions, 549
working environment, 548
Workplace transport operations, control
strategies of, 215–219
WRULDs see Work related upper limb
disorders
Y
Young persons, risk assessment, 107


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