كتاب Organizational Behavior 19th Edition
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 كتاب Organizational Behavior 19th Edition

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كتاب Organizational Behavior 19th Edition  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Organizational Behavior 19th Edition    كتاب Organizational Behavior 19th Edition  Emptyالسبت 25 نوفمبر 2023, 11:23 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Organizational Behavior 19th Edition
Global Edition
Stephen P. Robbins
San Diego State University
Timothy A. Judge
The Ohio State University  

كتاب Organizational Behavior 19th Edition  O_b_g_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Brief ContentsThis page is intentionally left blank5
1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 36
Management and Organizational Behavior 38
Who’s Who in the World of Work 39 • Management Activities 40 •
Management Roles 40 • Management Skills 42 • Effective Versus
Successful Managerial Activities 42 • Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined 43
Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 44
Building on Big Data with Artificial Intelligence 45
Myth or Science? Management by Walking Around Is the Most Effective
Management 46
Disciplines That Contribute to OB 49
Psychology 49 • Social Psychology 50 • Sociology 50 • Anthropology 51
There Are Few Absolutes in OB 51
Challenges and Opportunities 51
Workforce Diversity and Inclusion 52 • Continuing Globalization 52 •
Technology and Social Media 54 • (Un)ethical Behavior 55 •
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 56
Toward a Better World Ben & Jerry’s: The Scoop on What It Takes to Be a
CSR-Oriented Company 57
Positive Work Environments 58 • The Gig Economy 58 • OB During Crises 60
Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 60
An Overview 60 • Inputs 60 • Processes 61 • Outcomes 61
An Ethical Choice What Should You Do If Your Values Do Not Align with
Your Company’s? 65
Employability Skills 66
Employability Skills That Apply Across Majors 67
Summary 69
Implications for Managers 69
Point/Counterpoint Business Books: Facts? Or Just Fads? 70
Questions for Review 71
Experiential Exercise Managing Remote Teams 71
Ethical Dilemma Credit Where Credit Is Due 72
Case Incident Work–Life Balance at R.G. & Company 72
Contents
Preface 21
1 Introduction6 Contents
2 The Individual
2 Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Organizations 74
Understanding Diversity 76
Levels of Diversity 77 • Biographical Characteristics 77
Myth or Science? Bald Is Better 79
Prejudice and Discrimination in Organizations 82
Prejudice and Implicit Bias 82 • Discrimination, Disparate Impact,
and Treatment 83 • Subtle Discrimination in the Workplace 85
Theoretical Perspectives on Prejudice, Discrimination, and Diversity 85
Social Categorization 85 • Stereotyping, Stereotype Threat, and Stigma 86
Toward a Better World Hot Chicken Takeover: Putting Restorative Justice
into Practice 88
System Justification and Social Dominance 89 • Intersectionality and the Cultural
Mosaic 90
Diversity Dynamics 92
Group Composition 92 • Fault Lines 93
Cross-Cultural Organizational Behavior (OB) 94
Hofstede’s Framework 94 • The GLOBE Framework 95 • Cultural Tightness
and Looseness 97 • Religion 98 • Expatriate Adjustment 99 • Cultural
Intelligence (CQ) 99
Implementing Diversity Management 100
An Ethical Choice Affirmative Action for Unemployed Veterans 101
Theoretical Basis Underlying Diversity Management 102 • Diversity Management
Practices 103 • Cultures and Climates for Diversity 106 • The Challenge
of Diversity Management 106
Summary 107
Implications for Managers 108
Point/Counterpoint Using Artificial Intelligence for Hiring Leads
to Greater Diversity 109
Questions for Review 108
Experiential Exercise Differences 110
Ethical Dilemma Should You Question an Employer About Its DEI Policy? 110
Case Incident Encouraging Female Engineers 111
3 Job Attitudes 112
Attitudes 114
Attitudes and Behavior 116
Job Attitudes 117
Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement 118
An Ethical Choice Office Talk 118Contents 7
Organizational Commitment 119 • Perceived Organizational
Support 120 • Employee Engagement 120 • Job Attitudes in the Gig
Economy 121 • Are These Job Attitudes All That Distinct? 121
Job Satisfaction 122
How Do I Measure Job Satisfaction? 122 • How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? 123
What Causes Job Satisfaction? 125
Job Conditions 125 • Personality and Individual Differences 126 • Pay 127
Outcomes of Job Satisfaction 127
Job Performance 127
Toward a Better World Nvidians: Together Transforming Communities Around
the World 128
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) 128 • Customer Satisfaction 129 •
Life Satisfaction 129
The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction 129
Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) 130
Myth or Science? Happy Workers Means Happy Profits 132
Managers Often “Don’t Get It” 132
Summary 133
Implications for Managers 133
Point/Counterpoint Earning That Promotion May Be Key to Higher Job Satisfaction 134
Questions for Review 134
Experiential Exercise Managing Political Views in the Office 135
Ethical Dilemma Tell-All Websites 136
Case Incident Jobs, Money, and Satisfaction 136
4 Emotions and Moods 138
What Are Emotions and Moods? 140
Positive and Negative Affect 141 • The Basic Emotions 142 •
Moral Emotions 143 • Experiencing Moods and Emotions 144 •
The Function of Emotions 145
Sources of Emotions and Moods 146
Personality 146 • Time of Day 146 • Day of the Week 148 • Weather 148 •
Stress 148 • Social Interactions 148 • Sleep 150 • Exercise 150 • Gender
Identity 150
Emotional Labor 151
Controlling Emotional Displays 151
Myth or Science? All Employees Experience Emotional Labor in the Same Way 152
Affective Events Theory 153
Emotional Intelligence 153
An Ethical Choice Should Managers Use Emotional Intelligence (EI) Tests? 155
Emotion Regulation 156
Emotion Regulation Influences and Outcomes 156 • Emotion Regulation
Techniques 157 • Ethics of Emotion Regulation 158
OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 158
The Selection Process 158 • Decision Making 159 • Creativity 159 •
Motivation 160 • Leadership 160 • Negotiation 161 • Customer
Service 161 • Work–Life Conflict 1618 Contents
Toward a Better World Scream Agency: Harnessing Customer Emotions to
Bolster CSR 162
Unethical Workplace Behaviors 163 • Safety and Injury at Work 163
Summary 164
Implications for Managers 164
Point/Counterpoint Sometimes Yelling Is for Everyone’s Good 165
Questions for Review 165
Experiential Exercise Mindfulness at Work 166
Ethical Dilemma Data Mining Emotions 166
Case Incident Performance Review Shock: Being Told How to Feel and Act 167
5 Personality and Individual Differences 168
Linking Individuals to the Workplace 170
Person–Job Fit 171 • Person–Organization Fit 172 • Other Dimensions of Fit 172
Toward a Better World Uber: In the Median or Back on the Road Again? 173
Personality 174
What Is Personality? 174
Personality Frameworks 176
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 176 • The Big Five Personality Model 177 •
The Dark Triad 181 • Other Frameworks 182
An Ethical Choice Do Certain Personality Traits Make You More Unethical? 183
Other Personality Attributes Relevant to OB 184
Core Self-Evaluations (CSEs) 184 • Self-Monitoring 185 • Proactive Personality 185
Myth or Science? We Can Accurately Judge Individuals’ Personalities a Few
Seconds After Meeting Them 186
Personality and Situations 187
Situation Strength Theory 187 • Trait Activation Theory 188
Ability 189
Intellectual Abilities 189 • Physical Abilities 191
Values 192
Terminal Versus Instrumental Values 193 • Generational Values 193
Summary 195
Implications for Managers 195
Point/Counterpoint Millennials Are More Narcissistic Than Other Generations 196
Questions for Review 196
Experiential Exercise Acing the Interview 197
Ethical Dilemma How Long Should You Wait Before Deciding If a Job Is
Not a Good Fit? 198
Case Incident Sky Energy 198
6 Perception and Individual Decision Making 200
What Is Perception? 202
Factors That Influence Perception 203
Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others 204
Attribution Theory 204Contents 9
Toward a Better World Volkswagen: Going Green or Just Greenwashing? 207
Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 208 • Specific Applications of Shortcuts
in Organizations 209
Myth or Science? All Stereotypes Are Negative 211
The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making 211
Decision Making in Organizations 212
The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 212 • Common Biases and
Errors in Decision Making 214
Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational
Constraints 219
Individual Differences 219 • Organizational Constraints 220
Ethics in Decision Making 222
Three Ethical Decision Criteria 222 • Choosing Between Criteria 223 •
Behavioral Ethics 223 • Lying 224
An Ethical Choice Are We as Ethical as We Think We Are? 225
Creativity, Creative Decision Making, and Innovation in Organizations 225
Creative Behavior 226 • Causes of Creative Behavior 227 • Creative
Outcomes (Innovation) 229
Summary 229
Implications for Managers 230
Point/Counterpoint Implicit Assessment 231
Questions for Review 231
Experiential Exercise Bringing Life to a Food Desert 232
Ethical Dilemma Max’s Burgers: The Dollar Value of Ethics 232
Case Incident Warning: Collaboration Overload 233
7 Motivation Concepts 234
Motivation Defined 237
Classic Theories of Motivation 238
Hierarchy of Needs Theory 238 • Two-Factor Theory 238 • McClelland’s
Theory of Needs 240 • Contemporary Theories: A Primer 241
Contemporary Theories of Motivation: Content-Based 242
Self-Determination Theory 242
Myth or Science? Work Has to Be Purposeful to Be Motivating 243
Regulatory Focus Theory 244 • Job Engagement Theory 244
Contemporary Theories of Motivation: Context-Based 245
Reinforcement Theory 245 • Social Learning Theory 246
An Ethical Choice Motivated by Big Brother 247
Contemporary Theories of Motivation: Process-Based 247
Expectancy Theory 247 • Goal-Setting Theory 249 • Self-Efficacy
Theory 253
Organizational Justice 255
Equity Theory 255 • Distributive Justice 257 • Procedural Justice 258 •
Interactional Justice 258 • Justice Outcomes 259 • Culture and Justice 26010 Contents
Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 260
Toward a Better World Kroger: Zero Hunger, Zero Waste 262
Summary 263
Implications for Managers 263
Point/Counterpoint Feel-Good Messaging Is More Motivating Than Instrumental
Messaging 264
Questions for Review 265
Experiential Exercise How Do You Motivate an Employee? 265
Ethical Dilemma Follies of Reward 266
Case Incident Why Lead by Example? 266
8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 268
Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model (JCM) 271
Elements of the JCM 272 • Efficacy of the JCM 272 • Motivating Potential Score
(MPS) 273
Job Redesign 273
Job Rotation and Job Enrichment 273 • Relational Job Design 274
Alternative Work Arrangements 275
Flextime 276
Myth or Science? Job Crafting Is a Practical Way to Reduce Boredom
and Burnout 277
Job Sharing 278 • Telecommuting 278
Employee Involvement 281
Examples of Employee Involvement Programs (EIP) 281 • Cultural Considerations
in Implementing EIP Programs 282
Using Extrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 283
What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 284 • How to Pay: Rewarding Individual
Employees Through Variable-Pay Programs 285
An Ethical Choice Workers’ Cooperatives 290
Using Benefits to Motivate Employees 291
Flexible Benefits: Developing a Benefits Package 291
Toward a Better World Sociabble Trees: Rewarding Through Reforestation 292
Using Intrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 293
Employee Recognition Programs 293
Summary 294
Implications for Managers 295
Point/Counterpoint Gainsharing: Fair Shares? 296
Questions for Review 296
Experiential Exercise Developing an Organizational Development and Compensation
Plan for Automotive Sales Consultants 297
Ethical Dilemma Playing Favorites? 297
Case Incident JP Transport 298Contents 11
9 Foundations of Group Behavior 300
Defining and Classifying Groups 302
Social Identity 303
Stages of Group Development 305
Group Property 1: Roles 306
Role Perception 306 • Role Expectations 306 • Role Conflict 308
Myth or Science? Gossip and Exclusion Are Toxic for Groups 308
Group Property 2: Norms 309
Norms and Emotions 309 • Norms and Conformity 309 • Norms and
Behavior 310 • Positive Norms and Group Outcomes 311 • Negative Norms
and Group Outcomes 312 • Norms and Culture 313
Group Property 3: Status and Group Property 4: Size and Dynamics 314
Group Property 3: Status 314
An Ethical Choice Managing a Narcissist in the Group 316
Group Property 4: Size and Dynamics 316
Group Property 5: Cohesion 318
Toward a Better World Whirlpool: Building Cohesion Through Volunteering 319
Group Decision Making 319
Groups Versus the Individual 320 • Groupthink and Groupshift 321 •
Group Decision-Making Techniques 322
Summary 323
Implications for Managers 323
Point/Counterpoint Conformity Is Counterproductive and Should Be Avoided 325
Questions for Review 326
Experiential Exercise Surviving the Wild: Join a Group or Go It Alone? 326
Ethical Dilemma Follow the Leader? 328
Case Incident Cultural Context and Group Dynamics 328
10 Understanding Work Teams 330
Differences Between Groups and Teams 332
Types of Teams 333
Problem-Solving Teams 334 • Self-Managed Work Teams 334 • Cross-Functional
Teams 335 • Virtual Teams 336 • Multiteam Systems 336
An Ethical Choice The Size of Your Meeting’s Carbon Footprint 337
Creating Effective Teams 338
Team Context 338 • Team Composition 340
Toward a Better World Hershey: Advancing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Through
Groups and Teams 343
Team Processes and States 344
3 The Group12 Contents
Myth or Science? Teams Should Practice Collective Mindfulness 345
Turning Groups of Employees into Teams 349
Selecting: Hiring for Team Effectiveness 349 • Training: Creating Effective
Teams 349 • Rewarding: Providing Incentives for Exceptional Teams 350
Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer 351
Summary 352
Implications for Managers 352
Point/Counterpoint Team Building Exercises Are a Waste of Time 353
Questions for Review 354
Experiential Exercise Should You Use Self-Managed Teams? 354
Ethical Dilemma When Your Cycling Skills Matter! 354
Case Incident Psychological Safety and Team Effectiveness 355
11 Communication 356
Interpersonal Communication 359
Oral Communication 359
Myth or Science? Better Listening Is the Key to Better Working Relationships 362
Written Communication 364 • Nonverbal Communication 367
Choosing Communication Methods 370
Choosing Communication Methods 370 • Handling Barriers to Effective Communication 372
Toward a Better World Mobile Citizen and Mobile Beacon: Two Companies Enhancing Access to Smartphones and the Internet 374
Advancements in Virtual Communication 375
Videoconferencing 375 • Blogging, Vlogging, and Podcasting 377 •
E-collaboration and E-learning 378 • The Currency of Virtual Communication:
Emojis, Usernames, Selfies, and More 378
Smartphones, Social Media, and Cybersecurity 379
Smartphones (and Other Smart Devices) 380 • Social Media 381
An Ethical Choice What Should You Do If an Employee Is Being Cyberbullied or
Harassed Online? 383
Cybersecurity 384
Cross-Cultural Communication 385
Cultural Context 385 • The Interface Between Cultures 387 • Aspects of
Cultural Communication 388 • A Guide to Cross-Cultural Communication 389
Summary 391
Implications for Managers 391
Point/Counterpoint Work Friendships Are Not a Good Idea 392
Questions for Review 393
Experiential Exercise Choosing the Right Modes of Communication 393
Ethical Dilemma BYOD 394
Case Incident How Do You Communicate That You Are Passionate During
an Interview? 395Contents 13
12 Leadership 396
Trait Theories 399
Personality Traits and Leadership 399 • Emotional Intelligence and
Leadership 401
Behavioral Theories 402
Initiating Structure 402 • Consideration 402
An Ethical Choice The Ethics of Nudging 403
Summary of Trait Theories and Behavioral Theories 404
Contingency Theories 404
The Fiedler Model 404 • Situational Leadership Theory 405 • Follower Contingency Theories 407 • Leading in Times of Crisis 409
Positive Leadership Styles and Relationships 410
Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 410 • Charismatic Leadership 411 •
The Full Range Leadership Model 414 • Integrating and Evaluating Positive
Leadership Styles 416
The (Un)ethical Aspects of Leadership 418
Authentic Leadership 418
Toward a Better World The Institute for Corporate Social Responsibility (iCSR):
Training Leaders to Work Toward a Better Tomorrow 420
(Un)ethical Leadership 421 • Servant Leadership 422 • Abusive Supervision 422
Leadership and Trust 424
Trust 424
Challenges and Opportunities to Our Understanding of Leadership 426
Leadership Challenges 427 • Leadership Opportunities 429
Myth or Science? Leaders Can Be Trained 430
Summary 432
Implications for Managers 432
Point/Counterpoint CEOs Start Early 434
Questions for Review 435
Experiential Exercise What’s in a Leader? 435
Ethical Dilemma Innocent, but What About Trust? 436
Case Incident Andrea Illy: Leading a Family Company Responsibly 436
13 Power and Politics 438
Power and Leadership 441
Bases of Power 442
Formal Power 442 • Personal Power 443 • Which Bases of Power Are Most
Effective? 444
Dependence: The Key to Power 444
The General Dependence Postulate 444 • What Creates Dependence? 445 •
Formal Small-Group Networks 446 • Social Network Analysis: A Tool for
Assessing Resource Dependence 447
Influence Tactics 449
Using Influence Tactics 449 • Automatic and Controlled Processing of
Influence 451 • Applying Influence Tactics 45214 Contents
Toward a Better World Old Mutual: Realizing a Sustainability Vision Through
Influence 453
How Power Affects People 454
Power Dynamics 454 • Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace 455
Politics: Power in Action 456
Political Behavior 457 • The Reality of Politics 457 • Gossip and the Grapevine 458
The Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior 458
Factors Contributing to Political Behavior 458 • Factors Contributing to Political
Behavior Acquiescence 460 • How Do People Respond to
Organizational Politics? 460
Myth or Science? Office Politics Should Be Avoided Altogether 462
Voice and Silence 462 • Impression Management 465
An Ethical Choice How Much Should You Manage Interviewer Impressions? 467
The Ethics of Behaving Politically 468 • Mapping Your Political Career 468
Summary 470
Implications for Managers 471
Point/Counterpoint Emphasize the Strategies Women Can Use to Get Ahead 472
Questions for Review 473
Experiential Exercise The Turnaround Task Force 473
Ethical Dilemma Sexual Harassment and Office Romances 474
Case Incident Imperium Omni 474
14 Conflict and Negotiation 476
A Definition of Conflict 478
(Dys)functional Conflict 479 • Types of Conflict 479 • Loci of Conflict 481
The Conflict Process 482
Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility 483 • Stage II: Cognition and
Personalization 485 • Stage III: Intentions 485 • Stage IV:
Behavior 487 • Stage V: Outcomes 488 • Managing Conflict 489
Negotiation 491
Bargaining Strategies 491
The Negotiation Process 495
Preparation and Planning 495 • Definition of Ground Rules 496 •
Clarification and Justification 497 • Bargaining and Problem
Solving 497 • Closure and Implementation 497
Myth or Science? Good Negotiators Rely on Intuition 497
Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness 498
Personality Traits in Negotiations 498 • Moods and Emotions in
Negotiations 499 • Culture and Race in Negotiations 500 • Gender
in Negotiations 501
Negotiating in a Social Context 502
Reputation 502
Toward a Better World ALDI: Downstream Environmental and Social Implications of
Supplier Negotiations 503
Relationships 504
An Ethical Choice Ethical Challenges in Negotiation 504Contents 15
Third-Parties in Negotiations 505
Summary 505
Implications for Managers 506
Point/Counterpoint Nonunion Positions and the Gig Economy Are Bad for
Workers 508
Questions for Review 509
Experiential Exercise A Negotiation Role Play 509
Ethical Dilemma To Intervene or Not to Intervene? 510
Case Incident Disorderly Conduct 511
15 Foundations of Organization Structure 512
What Is Organizational Structure? 514
Work Specialization 515 • Departmentalization 517 • Chain of
Command 519 • Span of Control 520 • Centralization and
Decentralization 521 • Formalization 522 • Boundary Spanning 522
Common Organizational Frameworks and Structures 524
The Simple Structure 524 • The Bureaucracy 525
Myth or Science? Bureaucracy Is the Enemy of Innovation and Productivity 526
The Matrix Structure 526
Newer Trends in Organizational Design 528
The Virtual Structure 528 • The Team Structure 530
An Ethical Choice Flexible Structures, Deskless Workplaces 531
The Circular Structure 532
The Leaner Organization: Downsizing 532
Why Do Structures Differ? 534
Organizational Strategies 535
Toward a Better World Grove Collaborative: Innovating in the CSR and Sustainability
Market Space 536
Organization Size 538 • Technology 538 • Environment 538 •
Institutions 539
Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior 540
Span of Control 540 • Centralization 540 • Predictability Versus Autonomy 541 •
National Culture 541
Summary 542
Implications for Managers 542
Point/Counterpoint Open-Air Offices Inspire Creativity and Enhance
Productivity 543
Questions for Review 543
Experiential Exercise Remote Work 544
Ethical Dilemma The Ethics of Layoffs 544
Case Incident Kuuki: Reading the Atmosphere 54516 Contents
4 The Organization System
16 Organizational Culture and Change 546
What Is Organizational Culture? 549
A Definition of Organizational Culture 549 • Do Organizations Have
Uniform Cultures? 551
Strong Versus Weak Cultures 552
Myth or Science? An Organization’s Culture Is Forever 552
How Employees Learn Culture 553
Stories 553 • Rituals 553 • Symbols 554
Language 554
An Ethical Choice A Culture of Compassion 555
Creating and Sustaining Culture 556
How a Culture Begins 556 • Keeping a Culture Alive 557
What Do Cultures Do? 561
The Functions of Culture 561 • Culture Creates Climate 562 • Culture as an
Asset 564
Toward a Better World Morgan Stanley: Sustainable and Ethical Organizational
Cultures Influence Investment Decisions 566
Culture as a Liability 567
Influencing Organizational Cultures 569
Developing a Positive Culture 570 • Developing an Ethical Culture 571 •
Developing an Innovative Culture 572
Change 574
The Nature of Change 575 • Resistance to Change 575 • The Politics of
Change 578
Approaches to Managing Organizational Change 579
Lewin’s Three-Step Model 579 • Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan 580 • Action
Research 580 • Organizational Developme nt 581 • The Change Paradox 583
Summary 583
Implications for Managers 584
Point/Counterpoint Organizational Change Management Is Not Worth the Effort 585
Questions for Review 585
Experiential Exercise Culture Architects 586
Ethical Dilemma Toxic Culture 586
Case In cident Culture of Fear 587
17 Human Resource Systems and Practices 588
Recruitment 590
Applicant Attraction 591 • The Ubiquity of Referral Hiring 591 •
The Role of Recruiters 592 • Realistic Job Previews 593Contents 17
Selection 594
How the Selection Process Works 594 • Initial Selection 594
Substantive and Contingent Selection 598
Written Tests 599 • Performance-Simulation Tests 600 • Interviews 601 •
Contingent Selection Tests 602
Training and Development 603
Training Content 605 • Training Methods 605 • Evaluating
Effectiveness 607
Performance Management 607
What Do We Evaluate? 608 • Who Should Do the Evaluating? 610 •
Methods of Performance Evaluation 611 • Improving Performance
Evaluations 612
An Ethical Choice Eliminating Bias from Performance Reviews 614
Providing Performance Feedback 614
Myth or Science? The 24-Hour Workplace Is Harmful 615
Accessible Workplaces 615
Accommodations for Physical Disabilities 616 • Accommodations for
Hidden Disabilities 616
Human Resources (HR) Leadership 617
Toward a Better World Kawasaki: Learning from Each Other at Takumi Juku
and Manabiya 618
Communicating HR Practices 618 • Drafting and Enforcing Employment
Policies 619
Summary 620
Implications for Managers 621
Point/Counterpoint Employers Should Check Applicants’ Criminal
Backgrounds 622
Questions for Review 622
Experiential Exercise Designing a Virtual Assessment Center Exercise 623
Ethical Dilemma Should I Pay the Staff More and Reduce the Company’s Profit? 624
Case Incident Fired via Video Message 624
18 Stress and Health in Organizations 626
The Nature of Stress in Organizations 629
Stressors 630 • Strain 632 • Eustress 632
Physical Health at Work 633
Sleep 634 • Illness and Injury 634
Myth or Science? When You Are Working Hard, Sleep Is Optional 635
Mental Health at Work 636
Job Insecurity 636
Toward a Better World Freelancers Union: Advocating for Gig Workers Faced with
Consistent Job Insecurity 637
Workaholism 638 • Psychological Distress at Work 63818 Contents
Mechanisms of Health and Stress 639
Conservation of Resources 639 • Effort-Reward Imbalance Model 640 •
Job Demand-Control-Support Model 640 • Job Demands-Resources Model 641
Work–Life Balance 643
The State of Work–Life Balance: A New Normal? 643 • Work–Life
Boundaries 643 • Work–Life Spillover 645 • Flexible and Supportive
Policies 647
Managing Stress and Health 648
Individual Approaches 649
An Ethical Choice Talking About Mental Health Without Overstepping
Boundaries 652
Organizational Approaches 653
Summary 656
Implications for Managers 657
Point/Counterpoint Companies Should Encourage Stress Reduction 658
Questions for Review 659
Experiential Exercise Micro-Stressors 659
Ethical Dilemma The Fear of Redundancy and Ceasing Operations 659
Case Incident Burnout Despite Flexibility: Working Parents and COVID-19 661
Appendix Research in Organizational Behavior 662
Comprehensive Cases 668
Glossary 681
Endnotes 691
Organization Index 780
Subject Index 783
Organization Index
100,000 Jobs Mission, 101
A
Abercrombie, 99
Accurate Biometrics, 247
Ace hardware, 553
Admiral, 571
Adobe, 362, 564, 655
ADP, 604
Adrian, 292
Aer Rianta International (ARI), 350
Airbus, 111
Air Berlin, 659
Air Canada, 129
Air India, 635
Akashi Works, 618
ALDI, 503
Alibaba, 547
Alibaba’s Tmall, 317
Amazon, 47, 48, 140, 243, 344, 363, 526, 531, 535,
538, 575, 612, 646
Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), 508, 516
Amazon Prime, 528
AMD, 530
American Automobile Association (AAA), 162
American Express, 420, 533, 582
American Water, 434
Analysis Group, 573
Animoto, 434
Apple, 75, 82, 444, 513, 573, 574
Arcature, 549
Armed Forces Journal, 386
ArtLeadHER, 575
Asana, 363
Ascendle, 529
Aspera, 434
AT&T, 593
AU Optronics, 530
Autodesk, 554, 655
Aveda, 191
AvtoVAZ, 534
Away, 555–556
B
BAE Systems, 47
Baidu, 554
Bain and Company, 104, 569
Banana Link, 503
Bank of America, 247, 601
Bank of China, 54
Bank of the West, 47
Baptist Health of South Florida, 126
BASF, 527
Beats by Dre, 444
Ben & Jerry’s, 57, 515–516, 589
BeyGOOD, 575
Biogen, 655
BlackRock, 566
Blockbuster, 535
Bloomberg Media, 472
BMW, 523
The Body Shop, 590
Boeing, 136, 536, 549
Bon Appétit magazine, 377
Boston Consulting Group, 104
Box, 654
Bread Winners Café, 48
British Council, 358
British Home Stores, 659
Buchanan Ingersoll & Rooney, 655
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 165
Burger King, 52, 360
C
Calendar, 350
Cambridge University, 436
Capital One, 420
Care.com, 174
Careerbuilder.com, 154
Caterpillar, 121
Catron, 544–545
Center for Open Hiring, 590
Charles Schwab, 655
Charli, 643
Chicago Public Schools, 269–270
Chief, 348–349
Chrysler, 604
Cisco, 39, 336, 444
Coca-Cola, 136, 167, 202, 292, 518, 531, 540
Collins, 543
Costco, 284
D
Dallas Mavericks, 227
Dallas Museum of Art, 47
Deepwater Horizon, 505
Deliveroo, 354–355
Dell, 530
Deloitte Consulting, 569, 655
Deluxe, 593
Disney, 562, 601
Disney+, 528
DLA Pipper, 56
DoorDash, 508, 575
Dreamworks, 623
Droga5, 565
Dunkin’ Donuts, 529
Duracell, 191
DVD.com, 530
Dynegy Inc., 552
E
easyJet, 659–660
eBay, 47, 549
Economist Intelligence Unit, 358
Eco Safety Products, 226
Edward Jones, 39, 132
Emotient Inc., 167
Enron, 365
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), 207, 226
Epic, 655
Essar Oil & Gas, 558
Etsy, 104
ExtraHop, 335
F
Facebook, 47, 49, 54, 56, 75, 84, 114, 210,
233, 358, 378, 379, 381, 389, 443, 535,
597, 654
Fagor, 290
Fast Company, 536
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 207
FedEx, 399, 557
Feeding America, 262
Female Quotient (FQ), 358
Fiat-Chrysler, 289
Five Guys Burgers and Fries, 221
Focus Consulting Group, 276
Forbes, 419, 558, 565
Ford Motor Company, 553
Forrester, 222
Fortune, 120, 553, 555
Fox, 620
Freelancers Union, 637
Fuji Heavy Industries, 500
G
Gartner, 276
Genentech, 554, 655
General Electric (GE), 45, 252
General Motors (GM), 178, 207, 494, 568
Gilead Sciences, 445
Girlboss, 377
GitHub, 276, 428
Givelocity, 57
Glassdoor, 136, 140, 450, 458, 555, 647
GlaxoSmithKline, 531
Goldman Sachs, 104, 555, 643
Google, 47, 75, 114, 132, 136, 264, 292, 355, 375,
378, 394, 514, 526, 531, 554, 661
GoPro, 412
Gorky Automobile Factory (GAZ), 533–534
Graze.com, 47
Greyston Bakery, 589–590
Grove Collaborative, 536
GTE, 582
The Guardian, 587
Guava, 71
Gucci, 575
H
Habitat for Humanity, 319
Harima Works, 618
Harlem Educational Activities Fund, 434
Harvard Business School, 355
Harvard University, 81, 231, 289, 430, 558
Hawthorne Western Electric, 48
Hay Group, 569
Hershey Company, 343
Hewlett-Packard, 46, 136, 472
Hilton, 39, 132
Hitachi, 285, 654
HKScani Rakvere, 505
Hoa’s Tool Shop, 226
Hochtief, 464
Home Depot, 429
Honda, 167
Honeywell International, 531Organization Index 781
Hospital Policlinica Gipuzkoa, 525
Hot Chicken Takeover, 88–89
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 434
HSBC, 659
Huawei, 547–548, 574
Hulu, 528
Hyatt Hotels, 162
Hyundai, 556
I
IAC, 530
IBH Solutions, 628
IBM, 94, 420, 488, 530
iCSR, 420
IDEO, 554
IKEA, 243, 285, 557
Illycaffè, 436
Imperfect Foods, 262
Indusgeeks, 558
Innocent Drinks, 436
Instagram, 84, 379, 381
Intel, 655
International Civil Aviation Organization, 508
International Raiffeisen Union (IRU), 290
Intuit, 293, 377, 419
Ixia, 335
J
Jack in the Box, 132
JCPenney, 429
Jeep, 273
Jimmy John’s, 529
John Deere, 377
Johns Hopkins University, 420
Johnson & Johnson, 656
JP Morgan Chase, 526, 555
JP Transport, 298–299
K
Kaplan University, 54
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, 618
Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), 133
Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants, 553
Koch Industries, 622
Kodak, 535
KPMG, 56
Kroger, 47, 262
L
L’Oréal, 292, 385, 527
Lean In, 472
LinkedIn, 38, 293, 304, 381
Lockheed Martin, 530
Lowes, 175
Lyft, 173, 508
M
Magellan Health, 376
Manifesto, 357
MAPPA studio, 528
Marriott International, 420, 552
Marsh & McLennan, 618
Mary Kay Cosmetics, 248
Massachusetts General hospital (MGH), 627
Max’s Burgers, 232–233
McDonald’s, 52–53, 175, 301–302, 444, 529, 531
McKinsey & Co., 104, 280
Medtronic, 275
Mellow Mushroom, 162
Men’s Wearhouse (MW), 482
Merrill Lynch, 559, 636
Metro Bank, 250
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), 528
Microsoft, 75, 104, 114, 243, 292, 375, 378, 518–519,
554, 556, 601
Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 47
Mitsubishi, 618
Mobius, 262
Molson Coors, 121
Monarch, 659
Mondragón, 290
Morgan Stanley, 566
MovieLens, 382
Myspace, 535
N
Nassar Group, 232
NASA, 226, 336, 567
National Association of Background Screeners
(NABS), 597
National Basketball Association (NBA),
284, 288
National Bureau of Economic
Research, 402
National Football League (NFL), 190, 478
National Guard of the United States, 101
National Hockey League (NHL), 284, 347
Nationwide, 654
NBC Universal, 567, 620
Netflix, 47, 101, 136, 528, 530, 535,
558, 565
New York Daily News, 384
The New York Times, 231
The New Yorker, 45
Nick’s Pizza and Pub, 419
Nielson Holdings, 47
Nike, 553, 559
Nikola, 414
Nissan, 303
Nordstrom, 54, 384
Northwestern University, 566
Nvidia, 128
O
O’Brien Veterinary Group, 334
O.C. Tanner, 570
Ohio State University, 482
Old Mutual, 453
Old Navy, 567–568
OPPO, 574
Optum Healthcare, 378, 580
Orchard Hardware Supply, 602
Oticon A/S, 530
OutMatch, 109
Outokumpu, 659–660
P
Panduit, 293
Paramore, 434
PayPal, 655
PayScale, 284, 450
PEN America, 383
Pepsi, 202
PepsiCo, 384, 540
Pfizer, 526
Pingboard, 350
Pixar, 623
P&O Ferries, 624–625
Polen Capital Management, 276
Practice Fusion Inc., 440
Princeton University, 211
Proctor & Gamble, 167, 292, 444, 601
Project Implicit, 231
Public Utilities Board (Singapore), 79
Purdue Pharma, 439–440
PwC, 420
Q
Qualcomm, 420
Quora, 558
R
R.G. & Company, 72–73
Raiffeisenbanken, 290
Rainforest Alliance, 503
realme, 574
Recreational Equipment, Inc. (REI), 132,
307, 554
Reverb.com, 549–550
Right Management, 415
RMT, 625
Roadway Express, 582
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, 290
Rodgers, Aaron, 315
Ryanair, 624
S
Safelite AutoGlass, 571
Sahara, 54
Salary.com, 450
Salesforce.com, 39, 120, 235–236
Sam’s Club, 284, 398
Samsung Electronics, 52, 513–514, 527, 564, 567,
574, 575
Sarku Japan, 600
SAS Institute, 132, 554
Scream Agency, 162
SearchUnify, 350
Sephora, 377
7-Eleven, 529
Seventh Generation, 564
SHIFT, 56
SHL, 593
Shopify, 363, 654
Sider Road, 358
Siemens, 565
Singapore Airlines, 274
Slack, 366
Slalom, 647
Slice, 403
Smartsheet.com, 434
SmartTrade, 292
Snapchat, 537
SoaPen, 332
Sociabble, 292
Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM),
276, 283, 595, 599
SoftBank, 37
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 47
Southwest Airlines, 139–140, 557, 601
SpaceX, 569
Spark Hire, 596
Sports Direct, 587
Spotify, 527–528, 661
Stanford University, 165, 169, 440
Staples, 150782 Organization Index
Starbucks, 83, 158, 397
State Street, 566
Steinway, 445–446
Sterling-Rice Group, 276
Stouffers, 81
Street Soccer USA, 319
Stryker, 275
Subaru, 500
Subway, 191
Sue Weaver Cause, 622
Symantec Corporation, 293
T
Taco Bell, 221
Target, 78, 429, 536
Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), 350
Tesla, 478, 535
Theranos, 169–170, 414
Threadless, 554
TikTok, 84
Tofutti, 80
Tom’s Marine Sales, 303
TOMS Shoes, 178
TopCoder, 516
Tortuga, 173
Towers Watson, 132
Toyota, 332, 517, 568
Trader Joe’s, 377
TRANSCO, 103
Translation, 444
Tree-Nation, 292
Trex, 434
TripAdvisor, 65
Tripwire, 385
Tronc, 384
20th Century Fox, 528
Twitter, 47, 56, 59, 146–147, 210, 303–304, 381, 384,
558, 654
TWT Group, 458
U
U-Haul, 191
U.S. Department of Labor and Department of
Health and Human Services, 619–620, 656
U.S. Department of Transportation, 603
U.S. Department of Veterans, 629
U.S. Small Business Administration, 336
Uber, 47, 173, 354–355, 508, 637
UBS, 341
UKG, 39
Ulta Beauty, 106
UNICEF, 332
Unilever, 57, 167, 292
United Auto Workers (AUW), 494
United States Air Force, 158–159, 521
United States Navy, 582
University of Birmingham, 659–660
University of Chicago, 585
University of Denver, 469
University of Exeter, 266
University of Kentucky, 210
University of Manchester, 659–660
University of Michigan, 482
University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 55
University of Queensland, 266
V
Valve Corporation, 428
Vanguard, 566
Verizon, 604
Viacom, 420, 620
Vimeo, 530
Vincero, 334
Virgin Group, 202, 557
Visa, 136
Vistra Energy, 552
Vitals, 434
vivo, 574
Volkswagen, 207, 280, 283
W
W. L. Gore & Associates, 428,
557–558, 648
W&P Design, 543
Walgreens, 397
Walmart, 101, 284, 398, 526
Walt Disney World, 293
Warby Parker, 569
Warner Bros., 528
Wegmans Food markets, 39, 558, 590
Wells Fargo, 109, 192, 221, 222, 421
Wellspring, 552
Wendy’s, 303–304
Western Electric Company, Hawthorne Works,
310–311
Westin Hotels, 117
WeWork, 37–38
Whirlpool, 319
Whole Foods Market, 589
Women’s Bean Project, 401
Workday, 39
Workhuman, 293
Working Mother Research
Institute, 472
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), 262
Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, 585, 590
X
Xerox, 160, 175, 530
Xiaomi, 547, 574
Y
Yamaha, 446
Z
Zappos, 44, 129, 531
Zoom, 152, 363, 375, 376–377, 575, 624–625, 654,
661783
Subject Index
A
Abbreviations, 379
Abilene Paradox, 321
Ability
cognitive ability tests and employment, 599
defined, 189
intellectual, 189–191
mental, influence on decision making, 220
of team members, 340–341
physical, 191–192
trust development, 425
Absenteeism
age and, 79
counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and,
130–131
emotional labor and, 152
job dissatisfaction and, 131
outcomes of OB model and, 62–64
reduced by flextime, 277
Abusive supervision, 422–423
Accessible workplaces, 615–617
Accommodating, conflict and, 485, 486, 487
Accommodations
for hidden disabilities, 616–617
for physical disabilities, 616
Achievement, intrinsic factor of motivation, 239,
240, 261
ACT test, 190
Action research, organizational change and,
580–581
Active learning, 606
Active listening, 361
ADDIE model of training, 605–606
Adhocracy, 550
Administrators, 39. See also Managers
Advancement motivation, 239
Affect, 141–142
Affect intensity, 139, 146
Affective commitment, 119
Affective component of attitude, 115
Affective events theory (AET), 153
Affective mechanism of transformation leadership,
417
Affectively charged decision making, 214
Affiliative aspects of leaders, 400
Affirmative action
diversity management and, 100
ethics and, 101
Age
emotion regulation and, 156
in workforce, 79–80
job redesign and, 273
mood, emotions and, 150
values and, 193–194
Age Discrimination in Employment Act
(ADEA), 84
Ageism, 75, 82
Agentic aspects of leaders, 400
Aggression
as deviant workplace behavior, 313
cross-cultural communication and, 389
unethical workplace behaviors and, 163
Aggressive-defensive cultures, 551
Aggressiveness, characteristic of organization’s
culture, 551
Agreeableness, 178, 180–181, 341, 382, 400
All-channel network, formal small-group networks
and, 446–447
Allostasis, 642
Allostatic load, 641–642
Alternative work arrangements, 275–281
“Always on” technology, 48
Ambiguity, tolerance for, 227
Ambiguous responsibility, 320
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 98, 603, 615
Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act
(ADAAA), 616
Analysis, action research, 580–581
Anchoring bias, 215–216
Anger
effects of, 165
in negotiations, 499
Anger management, workplace and, 165
Anthropology, OB and, 51
Antisocial behavior, 182, 313
Anxiety, communication apprehension and, 373
Apologies, impression management technique, 466
Applicant tracking systems (ATSs), 595–596
Application attraction, 591
Application forms, 595–597
Appreciative inquiry, OD and, 582–583
Arbitrator, 206, 505
Arousal, 254
Artifacts, 554
Artificial intelligence (AI)
big data and, 45–49
communication and, 367
digital assistants and smart-homes, 380–381
for hiring, diversity and, 109
in corporate board decision making, 478
information flow modeling, 449
leadership effectiveness and, 399
recognizing emotion in speech, 143
substitutability of skills and, 446
to combat bias, 210
Aspiration range, 492
Assertiveness, 400, 485
Assessment centers, 601, 623
Assist, downsizing strategy, 534
Asynchronous communication, 359–360
Atmosphere, reading the, 545
Attitudes
behaviors and, 116–117
components of, 115
defined, 114
job (See Job attitudes)
outcomes of OB model and, 61–62
work-life satisfaction, 161–163
Attitudinal mechanism of transformational
leadership, 417
Attribution theory, 204–206, 427
Audience tuning, 360
Authentic leadership, 106, 418–420
Authority
chain of command and, 519
political behavior and, 460
Automatic processing of influence, 451
Autonomy
e-learning and, 378
employee preferences and, 541
Gig Economy and, 637
job characteristics model and, 271, 272
psychological need for, motivation and, 243
smartphones and stress, 380
Availability bias, 216
Avoidance demands crafting, 277
Avoiding
conflict and, 485, 486, 487, 511
cross-cultural communication approach, 387
B
Background checks for employment,
596–597, 622
Baldness, masculinity and, 79
Bargaining strategies, 491–495
BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement), 496
Behavior
attitudes and, 116–117
conflict management and, 487–488
creative, 226–227
defensive, 462
internally/externally caused, 205
motivated by employee tracking, 247
norms and, 310–311
organization’s focus on, 244
organizational citizenship and, 244
organizational designs and, 540–541
performance evaluations and, 609
stress and, 632
Behavioral component of attitude, 115
Behavioral ethics, 223–224
Behavioral science, big data and, 44–49
Behavioral strain, 632
Behavioral theories of leadership, 402–404
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS), 611
Behaviorism, 246
Benefit programs
flexible, 291–292
HR and, 619
Benevolence, trust development, 425
Benevolent prejudice, 82
Bias
anchoring, 215–216, 492
availability, 216
common in decision making, 206
confirmation, 216
gender, 80
hindsight, 218
ideator’s, 227
in artificial intelligence, 109
in performance evaluations, 614
in-group, 490
intuition in negotiation and, 497
job applications and, 596
outcome, 218–219
overconfidence, 214–215
recruiters and, 592
reducing, errors and, 215
self-serving, 206
social loafing and, 317
values and, 193
Big data, use of in business
background of, 45–49
current usage, 47
e-mail communications and, 448–449
limitations, 48
new trends, 47–48784 Subject Index
Big Five Personality Model
agreeableness, 178, 180–181
benefits of, 176
body language and, 368
conscientiousness, 177, 178–179
creativity and, 227
decision making and, 219
emotional stability, 177, 179
extroversion, 177, 179
HEXACO model and, 183–184
model of how traits influence OB criteria, 180
openness, 178, 179–180
overview, 177–178
personality of team members, 341
predicting behavior at work, 178
social media and, 382
trait activation theory and, 189
trait theories of leadership, 399–400
traits in negotiation, 498
Biographical characteristics, of employees, 77–82
Black Lives Matter movement, 52
Black Swan (film), 620
Blink (Gladwell), 218
Blogging, 377
Bluetooth-enabled devices, 381
Bluffing, defensive behavior, 463
Board representatives, type of representative participation, 282
Body language, 368–369
Bonus pay, 285, 288–289
Boredom, 274, 277
Boundaries at work, 392, 643–645, 652
Boundary spanning
organizational structure and, 522–523
teams, 337
Bounded rationality, 202, 213–214, 540
Brainstorming, groups and, 322
Breaking Bad (television), 70
Bribery, 224
Buck passing, defensive behavior, 463
Bureaucracy, as organizational structure, 525–526
Burnout, 277, 627–628, 638–639
BYOD (bring your own device), ethics and, 394–395
C
Capacity, environment and, 538
Capitalism, 436
Carbon footprint, 337
Career management, 68, 493
Career, in organizational behavior, 51–60
Caring climate, 564
Centralization, organizational structure and, 521,
540
CEOs
early leadership roles, 434
ethical dilemma, 436
Certified B Corporations, 57
Chain network, formal small-group networks and,
446–447
Chain of command, organizational structure,
519–520
authority, 519
unity of command, 519
Challenge stressors, 630
Change
forces for, 574–575
Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing, 580
Lewin’s Three-Step Model, 579
paradox theory, 583
planned, 575
politics of, 578–579
resistance to, 575–578
unfreezing the status quo, 580
Change agents, 575
Change crafting, 577
Channel richness, 375
Charismatic leadership
attribution theory of leadership and, 427
crises leadership and, 409
dark side of, 413–414
defined, 411–412
influence followers, 413
key characteristics of, 412
situational, 413
theory of, 411–414
transformational vs., 416–417
Circular structure, organizational, 532
Civil Rights Act, 84, 100
Clan type, organizational culture, 550
Clarification, negotiation process and, 497
Clarity, situation strength, 187
Climate, organizational, 562–563, 607
Cliques at work, 392
Closure, negotiation process and, 497
Cluster hiring, 349
Coalitions, influence tactic, 449
Coercion
coercive power, 442
resistance to change and, 578
Cognitive ability tests and employment, 599
Cognitive component of attitude, 114
Cognitive dissonance, 116–117
Cognitive evaluation theory (CET), 242, 260–261
Cognitive flexibility, 220
Cognitive reappraisal, 157
Cohesiveness, of group, 318–319
Collaboration
conflict and, 485, 486, 487
Corporate Social Responsibility and, 453
employability skill, 67, 68
gossip vs., 458
overload, 233
social media for, 358
Collaborative cultures, 568–569
Collective bargaining, 508
Collective identification, 304
Collective turnover, 130
Collectivism and collective cultures
agreeableness and, 180
attribution bias and, 206
conflict resolution and, 389
cultural context and, 386
employee embeddedness and, 132
in GLOBE framework, 95–97
in Hofstede’s framework, 94–95, 97–98
norms and culture, 313–314
organizational culture and, 548
person–job fit and job satisfaction, 171
team vs. individual negotiations, 490
work–life conflict and, 646
Common ingroup identity model, 102
Communicate, downsizing strategy, 534
Communication
apprehension, 372–373
barriers to, 372–375
choosing methods for, 370–375
cross-cultural, 385–390
cybersecurity and, 384–385
defined, 358
employability skill, 67, 68
friendships at work and, 392
HR practices and, 618–619
managers and, 42
modes of, 393–394
nonverbal, 367–370
of ethical expectations, 571
oral, 359–364
processes, model of, 375
resistance to change and, 576–577
smartphones and devices, 380–381
social media and, 381–384
teams and, 360
telecommuting success and, 281
virtual, 375–379
workplace, 357–358
written, 364–367
Communication channel, 375
Communication process, 375
Commuting, 645
Company policies, 240
Compassion, organizational culture and, 555
Compensation
benefits as employee motivators, 291–292
hygiene factor of motivation, 240
pay structure, establishing, 284
variable-pay program, 285–290
Competence, psychological need for, 243
Competition
between teams, 351
change and, 574
conflict and, 485, 487
Complementary in content, culture/leadership
style, 558
Complexity, environment and, 539
Compromising
conflict and, 485, 486–487
cross-cultural communication approach, 387
Computer-based job training, 607
Conceptual skills, of managers, 42
Conciliator, 505
Confirmation bias, 216
Conflict
avoiding, 485, 486, 487, 511
cross-cultural communication and, 389
defined, 478
ethical, 346
interrole conflict, 308
levels, in teams, 346–347
loci of, 481–482
management, 487
relationship, 346, 347
task, 346–347
unit performance and, 480
Conflict cultures, 568–569
Conflict management techniques, 487
Conflict process
behavior, 487–488
cognition and personalization, 485
intentions and, 485
model of, 483
outcomes, 488–489
potential opposition or incompatibility, 483–484
Conflict-handling intentions, 485
Conflict-intensity continuum, 487
Conformity
as impression management technique, 466
avoiding, 325
norms and, 309–310, 314
pressures, 320, 322
Conscientiousness
at work, 178–179
dimension, of personality, 177
influence on decision making, 219
leadership and, 400
team composition and, 341
voice, organizational politics and power, 462
Consensus, 205–206
Consequences, situation strength, 187
Conservation of resources (COR) theory, 639–640Subject Index 785
Consideration, leadership and, 402–403
Consistency
in action, 205–206
situation strength, 187
Consistency/commitment, political behavior and,
460
Constraints, situation strength, 187
Constructive cultures, 551
Consultation, influence tactic, 449
Contact hypothesis, 102–103
Context
cross-cultural communication and, 386, 388
perception and, 204
team context, 338–340
Contingency theories of leadership, 404–409
Fiedler model, 404–405
follower contingency theories, 407–409
followership theory, 408–409
leader–participation model, 407
shared leadership theory, 407–408
Situational Leadership Theory (SLT), 405–407
Contingency variables, 51
Contingent reward leadership, 416
Contingent selection methods for employment, 598
Contingent selection tests, 602–603
Continuance commitment, 119
Contract workers, 39. See also Gig Economy
Contrast effects, 208
Controlled processing of influence, 451
Controlling, as managerial role, 40
Conversations, discussions, and listening, 360–362
Cooptation, resistance to change and, 578
Core self-evaluations (CSE), 126, 184
Core values, 551
Corporate Equality Index, 81, 82, 173
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
carbon footprint and, 337
circular structure and, 532
CSR-related rewards, 292
customer emotions and, 162
defined, 56
employee volunteering, 275
food waste and hunger, 262
greenwashing and, 207
leadership and, 420
motivation to, 263
norms and, 311
OB as career and, 56–57
organizational strategies, 536
supplier negotiations and, 503
sustainability vision through influence, 453
Cost optimization, 537
Cost-minimizing organizations, 536–537
Counterproductive conflicts, 489
Counterproductive work behavior (CWB)
abusive supervision and, 423
agreeableness and, 180
cognitive reappraisal and, 157
conscientiousness and, 178
deviance and, 312
emotional intelligence testing and, 154
job dissatisfaction and, 130–132
Machiavellianism and, 181
moods/emotions and, 163
narcissism and, 182
organizational culture and, 560
sleep and, 634
unethical behavior and, 55
Cover letters, 596
COVID-19 pandemic
alternative work arrangements and, 275–276,
279–281
burnout and, 627–628
cultural looseness and, 98
decentralized organization and, 521
emotion regulation and, 156
emotional labor and, 152
financial outcomes of, 441
gender and decision making, 220
home schooling in, 661
in-house delivery service, 354
Internet access and, 374
IT outsourcing and, 529–530
job engagement and, 120
layoffs and, 140
leadership during, 409
OB during crises and, 60
organizational culture and, 562–563
organizational decision making and, 222
pay strategies and, 285–286
psychological safety, 355
reward during, 285
stigmatizing labels for virus, 556
stress for working parents, 661
team training and, 350
telecommuting and remote work, 55, 643, 654
touch in workplace and, 369
turnover rates and, 63
unemployment and, 624, 637
videoconferencing and, 375–376
virtual teams and, 336, 348–349
work–life balance and, 643
working while sick and, 634
Zoom fatigue and, 363
Coworking, 37–38, 370
Creative outcomes, 229
Creativity
causes of, 227–229
creative environment, 228
defined, 225
employability skill, 67, 68
environment and, 228–229
ethics and, 228
expertise and, 227
idea evaluation, 227
idea generation, 226
information gathering and, 226
innovation and, 229–230
intelligence and, 227
OB, moods/emotions and, 159
personality and, 227
problem formulation and, 226
teams vs. individuals, 228
three-stage model for, 226
Credit checks and employment, 598
Criminal records
employment check and, 598, 622
restorative justice, 88–89
Crises. See also COVID-19 pandemic
communication barriers and, 373–375
decision making in times of, 222
leadership during, 409
OB during, 60
power and financial dependence, 441
teams and, 340
Critical incidents, performance evaluations and, 611
Critical thinking, employability skill, 67
Cross-cultural communication
aspects of, 388–389
cultural context, 385–386
guide to, 389–390
interaction approaches, 387
interface between cultures, 387–388
Cross-cultural conflict management, 490–491
Cross-cultural negotiations, 500–501
Cross-cultural organizational behavior
cultural intelligence (CQ), 99–100
cultural tightness and looseness, 97–98
expatriate adjustment, 99
GLOBE framework, 95–97
Hofstede’s framework, 94–97
religion, 98–99
Cross-functional teams
chain of command and, 520
self-managed work, 335–336
Cross-hierarchical teams, 530
Cross-training (job rotation), 273–274
Cultural context, 328–329
Cultural context, communication and, 385–390
Cultural differences, 329
decision making and, 220
employee behavior and, 541
stress at work and, 646
in teams, 329
Cultural identity, 94
Cultural intelligence (CQ), 99–100
Cultural mosaic beliefs (CMBs), 91
Cultural tightness and looseness, 97–98
Culture clashes, 569
Culture of fear, 587
Culture, organizational.
See Organizational culture
Culturizing, 390
Customer satisfaction
harassment and, 302
job satisfaction and, 129
relational job design and, 274–275
Customer service, 161
Cyberbullying, 383
Cyberloafing, 612
Cybersecurity, 335, 384–385
D
Dark Triad personality traits, 181–182, 382, 400–401
Data breaches, 384–385
Data mining
communication and, 367
emotions, 166–167
Data, behavioral science and, 44–49
Day of week, emotions, moods and, 148, 149
Decentralization, organizational structure and, 521
Decision making
affectively charged, 214
biases and errors in, 214–219
bounded rationality, 213–214
effects of collaboration overload, 233
ethics and, 222–225
group, 319–323
importance of creativity, 225–229
in organizations, 212–219
individual differences in, 211–212, 219–220,
320–321
intuition and, 497
intuitive decision making, 201–202, 219–220
management by objectives (MBO)
programs, 252
OB, moods/emotions and, 159
organizational constraints, 220–221
perception and individual, 211–212
rational, 212–213
satisficing, 213
Decision role, of managers, 41–42
Decisional role, of managers, 41–42
Decisions, 211–212
Decisiveness, characteristic of organization’s culture,
551
Deductive reasoning, intellectual ability, 190
Deep acting, 152, 157786 Subject Index
Deep-level diversity
defined, 77
group composition and, 92–93
Defensive behaviors, 462–463
Demands, stress and work and, 640
Demographics
biographical characteristics, 77–82
diversity and, 77, 342
leadership and, 427
workforce, 52
workforce diversity and inclusion, 52
Deonance, 223
Departmental objectives, 252–253
Departmentalization, 517–519
Dependence, power and
creation, 445–446
defined, 441
formal small-group networks, 446–447
general dependence postulate, 444–445
importance, 445
nonsubstitutability, 445–446
scarcity, 445
social network analysis, 447–449
Depersonalization, 639
Depression, 639
Design, step of appreciative inquiry, 582–583
Destiny of organization, step of appreciative inquiry,
583
Detail orientation, characteristic of organization’s
culture, 551
Deviant workplace behaviors
criminal background checks and, 622
in work groups, 312–313
moods/ emotions and, 163
negative norms and group outcomes, 312–313
types of (OB Poll), 312
typology of, 313
Diagnosis, action research, 580–581
Digital assistants, 380–381
Digital natives, 379
Direct messages (DMs), 366
Direction, individual effort for goal achievement,
237
Disaster environments, teams and, 340
DiSC framework, 182–183
Discovery, step of appreciative inquiry, 582
Discrimination and prejudice
cultural mosaic, 91–92
cyberbullying and, 383
defined, 83–84
disparate impact and treatment, 84
forms of, 83
gender, 80
implicit bias, 82–83
in workplace, forms of, 83–84
intersectionality, 90
job applications and, 596
organizational culture and, 556
physical disabilities and, 616
prejudice, 82
race/ethnicity, 78
religious, 98–99
sexual orientation/gender identity and, 81
social categorization, 85–86
social dominance theory, 89–90
stereotype threat, 86–87
stereotyping, 86
stigma, 87–88
subtle, 85
system justification theory, 89
workforce diversity and inclusion, 52
Discussions, 360–362
Diseconomies of work specialization, 516
Disparate impact and treatment, 84
Displayed emotions, 151–152
Dissatisfaction, motivation and, 239–240
Disseminator role, of managers, 41
Dissonance, job attitudes and behavior, 116–117
Distinctiveness, 205–206
Distractions, 380
Distributive bargaining, 491–494
Distributive justice, 257–258
Disturbance handler role, of managers, 41–42
Diversity
biographical characteristics, 77–82
emotion regulation and, 156
leadership and, 397–398
levels of, 77
of team members, 228, 342–343
in the tech industry, 75–76
workplace, 52
Diversity climate, 106
Diversity culture, 106
Diversity dynamics
fault lines, 93–94
group composition, 92–93
Diversity management
challenges of, 106–107
cultures and climates for diversity, 106
defined, 100
practices, 103–105
theoretical basis underlying, 102–103
Diversity training and development, 105
Diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) policies, 88,
100–102, 110–111, 343, 397–398
Division of labor, 516
Divisional objectives, 252–253
Dominant culture, 551, 587
Double jeopardy, 90
Downsizing, organizational structure, 532–534
Dreaming, step of appreciative inquiry, 582
Driving forces, 579
Drug testing and employment, 602–603
Dual relationships, 392
Due process, performance evaluations and, 613
Dyadic conflict, 481
Dynamic environments, 538
Dysfunctional conflict, 479
Dysfunctional outcomes, conflict and, 489
Dysfunctions of organizational culture, 568–569
E
e-collaboration, 378
e-learning, 378, 607
e-mail
AI and tracking flow of, 448–449
collaboration overload, 233
communication method choices and, 371
cross-cultural communication and, 388
masking emotional leakage through, 152
time spent checking at work, 365
written communication, 364–366
Economic factors, resistance to change and, 576
Economic shocks, change and, 574
Economic uncertainties and stress, 631
Economies of work specialization, 516
Effective managers, 42–43
Effectiveness
defined, 64
evaluating group, model of, 322–323
of group decision making, 320–321
team effectiveness model, 338, 355
Efficiency, 64, 320–321
Effort–performance relationship, 248
Effort–reward imbalance (ERI) model, 639
Electronic performance monitoring (EMP),
611–612
Embracing, cross-cultural communication approach,
387
Emojis, 378–379
Emotion regulation
ethics of, 158
influences/outcomes, 156–158
techniques, 157–158
Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI-36), 155
Emotional contagion, 161
Emotional dissonance, 152–153
Emotional exhaustion, 638
Emotional intelligence (EI), 153–156, 167, 401–402
Emotional intelligence assessment, 155
Emotional labor, 151–153
Emotional stability, dimension of personality, 177,
179, 382, 400, 639
Emotional states (OB Poll), 145
Emotional suppression, 157
Emotions
Affective Events Theory (AET), 153
anger, at work, 165
conflict and, 487–488
creativity, 159
crises leadership and, 409
customer service, 161
data mining emotions, 166–167
decision making and, 159
defined, 141
deviant workplace behavior, 163
emotional labor, 152
emotional states (OB Poll), 145
ethics and, 143–144
experiencing, 144–145
functions of, 145–146
irrationality and, 145–146
leadership, 160–161
moods and, 140–146
moral emotions, 143–144
motivation, 160
negotiations and, 161, 499–500
nonverbal communication and, 369
norms and, 309
OB applications, 158–164
positive/negative affect moods, 141–142
safety/injury and work, 163–164
selection, 158–159
smart devices and support, 379
smell and, 369
sources of, 146–151
types of emotions, 140–141
work-life satisfaction, 161–163
Empathy
leadership and, 401
negotiations and, 497, 500
Employability Skills Matrix (ESM)
communication, 357
conflict and negotiation, 477
diversity, equity, and inclusion, 75
emotions and moods, 139
foundations of group behavior, 301
human resource systems and practices, 589
job attitudes, 113
leadership, 397
motivation applications, 269
motivation concepts, 235
organization structure, foundations of, 513
organizational behavior, 68
organizational culture and change, 547
overview, 67–68
perception and individual decision making, 201
personality and individual differences, 169Subject Index 787
power and politics, 439
stress and health in organizations, 627
work teams, understanding, 331
Employee Assistance Programs (EAP), 652, 655
Employee engagement, job attitudes and, 120–121
Employee involvement and participation (EIP),
281–283
Employee recognition program, 293–294
Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP), 285,
289–290
Employee tell-all websites, 136
Employee turnover, 62–64
Employee(s)
behavior, organizational structure and, 540–541
benefits, use to motivate, 291–292
burnout, 54
culture, learning, 553–556
firing, 624–625
intrinsic rewards, motivation and, 293–294
learning organizational culture, 553–556
motivation, 266–267
organizational politics, response to, 460–462
performance incentive to, 296
rewards to motivate, 283–290
sabbaticals, stress and, 655
silence, organizational politics and power,
464–465
socialization and expectations of (OB Poll), 559
socialization, organizational culture and, 558–561
strengths, organizational culture and, 570
stress at work (OB Poll), 629
telecommuting, 278–281
tracking/monitoring at work, 247
variable-pay program, 285–290
voice, organizational politics and power, 462–463
volunteering and, 275
well-being, at work, 54–55
withdrawal behavior, 62–64
Employment interview. See Interview
Employment options, in organizational behavior, 51
Employment policies, HR and, 619–620
Empowerment, 119
Enacted cultural values, 563
Enactive mastery, 254
Encounter stage, of socialization, 559–560
Engagement, social media and, 382
Engineering, female rate in, 111
Enhancement, impression management technique,
466
Enterprise social software, 381
Entrenchment of organizational culture, 567–568
Entrepreneur role, of managers, 41
Entrepreneurship and Gig Economy, 58
Entry socialization options, 560
Environment, organizational structure/strategy


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