كتاب Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - 3rd Edition
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
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 كتاب Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - 3rd Edition

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كتاب Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - 3rd Edition Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - 3rd Edition   كتاب Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - 3rd Edition Emptyالجمعة 24 نوفمبر 2023, 6:55 am

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Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - 3rd Edition
Laurence W. McKeen

كتاب Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - 3rd Edition F_p_o_14
و المحتوى كما يلي :

 
Table of contents
Chapter 1. Introduction to Plastics and Polymers
1.1 Polymerization
1.2 Copolymers
1.3 Linear, Branched and Crosslinked Polymers
1.4 Polarity
1.5 Unsaturation
1.6 Steric Hindrance
1.7 Isomers
1.8 Inter and Intra Molecular Attractions in Polymers
1.9 General Classifications
1.10 Plastic Compositions
1.11 Summary
REFERENCES
Chapter 2. Introduction to the Properties of Plastic and Elastomer Films
2.1 Physical Property Testing of Plastic Films
2.2 Mechanical Testing of Plastic Films
2.3 Thermal Property Testing of Plastic Films
2.4 Electrical Properties of Films
2.5 Permeation of Films
REFERENCES
Chapter 3. Production of Films
3.1 Extrusion
3.2 Blown Film
3.3 Calendering
3.4 Casting Film Lines
3.5 Post Film Formation Processing
3.6 Web Coating
3.7 Lamination
3.8 Orientation
3.9 Skiving8
3.10 Coatings
3.11 Summary
REFERENCES
Chapter 4. Uses of Barrier Films
4.1 Barrier Films in Packaging
Chapter 5. Styrenic Plastics
5.1 Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene Copolymer
5.2 Acrylonitrile–Styrene–Acrylate
5.3 Polystyrene
5.4 Styrene–Acrylonitrile Copolymer
REFERENCES
6. Polyesters
6.1 Liquid Crystalline Polymers
6.2 Polybutylene Terephthalate
6.3 Polycarbonate
6.4 Polycyclohexylene-dimethylene Terephthalate
6.5 Polyethylene Naphthalate
6.6 Polyethylene Terephthalate
REFERENCES
7. Polyimides
7.1 Polyamide–Imide
7.2 Polyetherimide
7.3 Polyimide
REFERENCES
8. Polyamides (Nylons)
8.1 Polyamide 6 (Nylon 6)
8.2 Polyamide 12 (Nylon 12)
8.3 Polyamide 66 (Nylon 66)
8.4 Polyamide 66/610 (Nylon 66/610)
8.5 Polyamide 6/12 (Nylon 6/12)
8.6 Polyamide 666 (Nylon 666 or 6/66)
8.7 Polyamide 6/69 (Nylon 6/69)
8.8 Nylon 1010
8.9 Specialty Polyamides
REFERENCES
9. Polyolefins
9.1 Polyethylene
9.2 Polypropylene
9.3 Polybutene-1
9.4 Polymethyl Pentene
9.5 Cyclic Olefin Copolymer
9.6 Plastomer
REFERENCES
10. Polyvinyls and Acrylics
10.1 Ethylene–Vinyl Acetate Copolymer
10.2 Ethylene–Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer
10.3 Polyvinyl Alcohol
10.4 Polyvinyl Chloride
10.5 Polyvinylidene Chloride
10.6 Polyacrylics
10.7 Acrylonitrile–Methyl Acrylate Copolymer
10.8 Ionomers
REFERENCES
11. Fluoropolymers
11.1 Polytetrafluoroethylene
11.2 Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene
11.3 Perfluoroalkoxy
11.4 Amorphous Fluoropolymer—Teflon AF®
11.5 Polyvinyl Fluoride
11.6 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
11.7 Polyvinylidene Fluoride
11.8 Ethylene–Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer
11.9 Ethylene–Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copolymer
REFERENCES
12. High Temperature/High Performance Polymers
12.1 Polyetheretherketone
12.2 Polysiloxane
12.3 Polyphenylene Sulfide
12.4 Polysulfone
12.5 Polyethersulfone
12.6 Polybenzimidazole
12.7 Parylene (poly(p-xylylene))
12.8 Polyphenylene Sulfone
REFERENCES
13. Elastomers and Rubbers
13.1 Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers
13.2 Olefinic Thermoplastic Elastomers
13.3 Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomers
13.4 Thermoplastic Polyether Block Polyamide Elastomers (PEBA)
13.5 Styrenic Block Copolymer Thermoplastic Elastomers
13.6 Syndiotactic 1,2-Polybutadiene
REFERENCES
14. Renewable Resource and Biodegradable Polymers
14.1 Cellophane™
14.2 Nitrocellulose
14.3 Cellulose Acetate
14.4 Cellulose Acetate Butyrate
14.5 Ethyl Cellulose
14.6 Polycaprolactone
14.7 Poly (Lactic Acid)
14.8 Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB or PH3B)
REFERENCES
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by f indicate figures and t indicate tables.
3-layer blown film die, 60f
9-layer blown film die, 60f
10-layer stacked die, 58f
A
ABS see Acrylonitrileebutadieneestyrene
Aclar PCTFE film (Honeywell), 291t
Acrylics, 189f
Acrylonitrileebutadieneestyrene (ABS), 81
gas permeation, 82t, 83t, 84t
INEOS ABS Lustran 246 ABS, 84f
SABIC Innovative Plastics Cycolac ABS, 82t
water vapor permeation, 82t, 83t
Acrylonitrileemethyl acrylate (AMA), 245e250
applications, 245
carbon dioxide permeation, 249f
chemical structure, 248f
gas permeation, 249t
INEOS Barex Acrylonitrile-Methyl Acrylate
Copolymers, 249t
oxygen permeation, 249f, 250f
water vapor permeation, 249t
Acrylonitrileestyreneeacrylate (ASA), 81e83
gas permeation, 84t, 85t
water vapor permeation, 85t
Addition polymerization, 1e2, 2f
Additives, 12e18
antiblock additives, 15e16
antistatic additives, 17e18
slip additives, 15
Adflex PP (LlyondellBasell)
carbon dioxide permeation, 204t
oxygen permeation, 205t
Advanced Elastomer Systems Santoprene TPO
gas permeation, 344t
water vapor transmission, 344t
Aegis Nylon 6 films (Honeywell), 159, 161t
Aegis Nylon 6/66 films (Honeywell), 176t
AF see Amorphous fluoropolymer
AFFINITY PF Plastomer Resins, 211, 214t
Agricultural chemicals/films, 74
Ajedium films PEEK film, 317t, 318t
Ajedium films PES film, properties of, 328t
Ajedium Halar ECTFE film, properties of, 308t
Alkenes, 189
Alternating copolymers, 2
AMA see Acrylonitrileemethyl acrylate
American Society for Testing and Materials
see ASTM International
Amideeimide polymers, 126t, 127t
Amino acids, 158f
Amorphous fluoropolymer (AF), 271e278
applications, 278
chemical structure, 278f
pure gas permeation, 280t
Amorphous PET, 122f
Amorphous plastics, 10e11
see also individual plastics
Amorphous polyamide (nylon), 171e180
applications, 177e180
carbon dioxide permeation, 181t
chemical structure, 180f, 181f
nitrogen permeation, 181t
oxygen permeation, 181t, 182f
water vapor permeation, 181t
Amorphous regions, 255
Anisotropic films, 21
Antiblock additives, 15e16
Antioxidants, 18
Antistatic additives, 17e18
APTIV 1000 series films, 315
APTIV 1100 series films, 315
APTIV 1300 black cosmetic grade film, 316
APTIV 2000 series films, 315
APTIV 2100 series films, 316
Arkema Evatane, 220, 222t
Arkema Kynar PVDF film, properties of, 294t
Arkema PEBAX Breathable PEBA films, 349f
Arkema PEBAX films
carbon dioxide permeation, 349t
nitrogen permeation, 349t
oxygen permeation, 349t
water vapor permeation, 348t
Arkema Voltalef PCTFE film, 292t
379Arrhenius equation, 47e48
ASA see Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate
Ashland Aqualon Ethyl Cellulose, 370t
Asperities, 25
ASTM D2457-08e1 Standard Test Method, 24
ASTM D790-03 Standard Test Methods, 30
ASTM D882-10 Standard Test Method, 27
ASTM International, 27
Atactic polypropene, 7
structure of, 7f
Atmospheric gases, 73e74
B
Bags, 74e75
Ball-and-stick model, molecules, 5e6
Barex 210 resins, 248t
Barrier coatings see Coatings
Barrier films, 73e80
see also Films
BASF AG Polystyrol 168 N GPPS film, 87t
BASF AG Terluran ABS films
gas permeation, 83t
water vapor permeation, 83t
BASF AG Ultradur PBT, 96t
BASF Luran S ASA films
gas permeation, 84t, 85t
water vapor permeation, 85t
BASF Luran SAN
oxygen permeation, 89
water vapor permeation, 89
BASF Styrolux films
carbon dioxide permeation, 349t
nitrogen permeation, 349t
oxygen permeation, 349t
BASF Udel PSU
gas permeation, 326t
water vapor permeation, 326t
BASF Ultradur B4500 PBT film, 96t
BASF Ultramid A5 Nylon 66 film
oxygen and carbon dioxide permeation, 169t
water vapor permeation, 169t
BASF Ultramid C35 Nylon 6/66 film, 177t
Bayer MaterialScience Makrolon PC
carbon dioxide permeation, 101t
nitrogen permeation, 100t
oxygen permeation, 100t
Belt film casting machines, 62f
BET theory, 46
Biaxial orientation, 68e69
Biodegradable plastics, 353
see also Renewable resource and biodegradable
polymers
Bisphenol diamine PMDA polyetherimide, 131f
Blends, 11e12
Blister packs, 77, 78f
Block copolymers, 3
Blocking, 15
Blown film
orientation, 70
process, 58
Blown film technology, 92e93
Blueridge Films BFI 345, 190, 195t
Bottles, 75
BPADA monomer structure, 132f
BPADAeDDS polyetherimide sulfone, 131f
BPADAePPD polyetherimide, 131f
Brampton Engineering 10-layer stacked die, 58f
Branched polymer, 3, 3f
C
Calendering, 58e59, 61f
Capron Nylon 6 films (Honeywell)
gas permeation, 161t
water vapor permeation, 162t
Carbon Filled DuPont Teflon PTFE, 260t
Casting film lines, 60e61, 62f
Catalysts, 16
Celazole PBI membrane (PBI Performance Products Inc.)
carbon dioxide permeation, 332f
hydrogen permeation, 331f
Cellophane, 356e357
applications, 357
gas permeation, 359t
oxygen/water vapor transmission, 359t
Cellulose acetate, 360e361
applications, 360e361
chemical structure, 361f
common gas permeation, 364f
dense and high-flux, 363t
gas permeation, 363t, 363f
hydrogen sulfide permeation vs. temperature, 365f
noble gas permeation, 363f, 364f
Chain entanglement, 8
Chemical product packaging, 74e75
Chevron Philips Marlex HDPE, 201t
Chevron Philips Ryton PPS films
gas permeation, 323t
liquid vapor transmission, 323t
Choice Singapore Polymer, 238t
CIE (international commission on illumination), 21e22
Cis-isomer, 6, 6f
Coatings
gravure coating, 63
immersion coating, 66, 66f
knife on roller coating, 63e64
metering rod coating, 64, 65t
reverse roller coating, 63
slot die coating, 64e66
vacuum deposition coating, 66e67, 66f
web coating, 61e63
380 INDEXCOC see Cyclic olefin copolymer
Coefficient of friction (COF), 15, 24e26
Coefficient of thermal expansion, 21
Color perception and measurement of plastic films, 21e23
Combustion modifiers, 14
Composites, 12e13
Compression film polypropylene, 75
Condensation polymerization, 2, 2f
Condiment bottles, 75
Containers, 74e75
COPE (thermoplastic copolyester elastomers), 342
Copolymers, 2e3
Coupling agents, 17
Crosslinked polymer, 3, 3f
Crosslinking
polymers, 3
Crystalline and amorphous plastics, 10e11
Crystalline plastics/polymers, 10e11
Crystallinity, 30
Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), 205e209
applications, 205
chemical structure, 209f
Topas Advanced Polymers TOPAS COC, 205e209
water vapor permeation, 211t
Cycolac ABS (SABIC Innovative Plastics), 82t
CYCOLAC GKX4500, typical properties of, 82t
D
Daikin Industries Neoflon PCTFE film, 292t
Daikin Neoflon FEP film, 272f
gas permeation through, 272t
Darcy, Henry Gaspard Philibert, 41
Darcy’s law, 41e42
parameter descriptions for, 41f
Dartek Nylon 66 films (Exopack Performance
Films Inc.), 169t
Degree of polymerization, 9
Degree of unsaturation (DoU), 5
Density, 19e20
Deposition coating, vacuum, 66e67, 66f
Deutsches Institut fu¨r Normung see DIN
Device packaging, 77
Diacids, 158f
Diamines, 158f
Dielectric constant, 38e39
Dielectric strength, 40
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 36
Dimensional stability on heating, 20e21
Dimethylsilicone rubber, 319t
DIN 67530 Reflectometer, 24
Dip coating, 66, 66f
Dissipation factor, 40
Dope, 60
DoU see Degree of unsaturation
Dow ATTANE, 193t
Dow Calibre PC
carbon dioxide permeation, 101t
nitrogen permeation, 101t
oxygen permeation, 101t
Dow Chemical Attane Blown film
carbon dioxide permeation, 193t
oxygen permeation, 193t
water vapor permeation, 194t
Dow Chemical Low Acrylonitrile ABS film, 82t
Dow Chemical Low-Density Polyethylene
gas permeation, 195t
solvent vapor permeation, 195t
Dow Chemical Medium Acrylonitrile Content
ABS film, 82t
Dow Chemical Styron PS film, 83t
Dow Chemical Trycite Oriented PS film, 87t
Dow Chemical Tyril Low Acrylonitrile
Content SAN, 89t
Dow Ethocel ethyl cellulose film, 370f
Dow Saran PVDC films
gas permeation, 242t
hydrogen sulfide permeation, 243f
oxygen permeation, 241t
water vapor permeation, 242t
Dow Saranex PVDC, 240t, 243f
Dow Saranex PVDC Multilayer films
gas permeation, 241t
oxygen permeation, 241t
water permeation, 242t
Drop dart impact test, 33
DuPont Elvax EVA, 220
optical properties, 220t
oxygen permeation, 220t
physical property ranges, 220t
water vapor permeation, 221t
DuPont FEP Film
electrical properties of, 265t
mechanical properties of, 265t
thermal properties of, 265t
DuPont Fluorocarbon FEP film
gas permeation, 266t
vapor permeation, 266t
DuPont Hytrel Thermoplastic Copolyester
Elastomer, 345t
DuPont Kapton film, 133, 136t, 137t
AC dielectric strength vs. RH, 144f
AC dielectric strength vs. temperature, 145f
dielectric constant vs. frequency, 146f, 147f
dielectric constant vs. RH, 144f
dielectric constant vs. temperature, 145f
dissipation factor vs. frequency, 146f, 147f
dissipation factor vs. RH, 144f
dissipation factor vs. temperature, 145f
elongation, 142f
elongation vs. temperature, 147
INDEX 381DuPont Kapton film (Continued)
gas permeation, 139t
isothermal weight loss vs. time, 143f, 144f
modulus vs. temperature, 148f
oxygen permeation vs. temperature, 148f
physical properties, 138t, 139t
retained dielectric strength, 143f
tensile creep properties, 141f
tensile strength, 141f
tensile strength vs. aging, 142f
tensile stressestrain curves, 141
thermal properties, 138t
voltage endurance, 147f
volume resistivity vs. temperature, 146f
water vapor permeation, 139t, 140t
weight loss vs. temperature, 143f
DuPont Mylar PET, 118f
DuPont nylon 6, 164f
DuPont PFA film
properties of, 274te275t
DuPont Selar amorphous polyamide
carbon dioxide permeation, 182t
oxygen permeation, 182t
vs. relative humidity, 183f
vs. temperature, 182f
DuPont Selar PA Amorphous Nylon, 182t
DuPont Selar with nylon, 184f
DuPont SP TTR10AH9 Transparent High Gloss
PVF film, 285t
DuPont Surlyn ionomer resins, 251
DuPont Surlyn Sodium Ion Type Ionomer film
film properties, 252t
oxygen permeation, 252t
water vapor permeation, 253t
DuPont Surlyn Zinc Ion Type Ionomer film
film properties, 252t
oxygen permeation, 252t
water vapor permeation, 253t
DuPont Tedlar product codes, 282t
DuPont Tedlar PVF, 285t
DuPont Tedlar PVF film products, 283t
DuPont Teflon AF, 271e278, 280t
chemical structure, 278, 278f
property data for, 279t
pure gas permeation coefficients, 280t
DuPont Teflon FEP copolymer
ammonia permeation, 267t
gas permeation, 272f
hydrogen permeation, 267t
nitrogen permeation, 267t
oxygen permeation, 267t
type A, C, and C-20 FEP films, 264t
type L FEP films, 264t
DuPont Teflon NXT, 261t
DuPont Teflon PFA film, 275t
DuPont Teflon PTFE
ammonia permeation, 259t
carbon-filled, 260t
hydrogen permeation, 259t
nitrogen permeation, 259t
oxygen permeation, 259t
DuPont Tefzel, 297
DuPont Teijin films Mylar PET films, 108
carbon dioxide permeation, 111t
dielectric constant vs. frequency, 117f
dielectric constant vs. temperature, 117f
dielectric strength vs. temperature, 116f
dielectric strength vs. thickness, 117f
dimension stability vs. relative humidity, 115f
dimension stability vs. temperature, 114f
dissipation factor vs. frequency, 118f
dissipation factor vs. temperature, 117f
nitrogen permeation, 112t
oxygen permeation, 112t
shrinkage vs. temperature, 114f
stressestrain curves, 113f
temperature effect on water removal, 116f
tensile elongation, 115f, 116f
tensile modulus, 115f
tensile properties vs. temperature, 114f
tensile strength, 115f, 116f
vapor permeation, 113t
volume resistivity vs. temperature, 118f
water vapor permeation, 112te113t
DuPont Zytel 42 Nylon 66 film, 169t
Dyes, 17
Dynamic coefficient of friction, 24e25
Dyneon 6235 G ETFE
carbon dioxide permeation, 302t
hydrogen chloride permeation, 303t
nitrogen permeation, 302t
oxygen permeation, 302t
vapor permeation, 303t
water vapor permeation, 303t
Dyneon FEP, 272t
Dyneon PTFE
fuel vapor permeation through, 262t
Dyneon TF 1750 PTFE, 260t
Dyneon TFM 1700 PTFE, 261t
gas permeation, 261t
hydrogen permeation, 260t
water vapor permeation, 261t
Dyneon TFM 1750 PTFE, 262t
Dyneon TFM PTFE, 262t
E
Eastman Eastar 5445 PCTG Copolyester film, 105t
Eastman Ecdel 9966 Thermoplastic Copolyester
Elastomer, 346t
Easy-peel film, 75
382 INDEXEcdel 9966 Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer
(Eastman), 346t
ECTFE see Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer
Effusion, 42e43
Elastollan TPUs (BASF)
carbon dioxide permeatin, 349t
nitrogen permeation, 349t
oxygen permeation, 349t
Elastomers, 12, 339e352
definition, 339
olefinic TPEs, 340e342
styrenic block copolymer TPEs, 346e347
thermoplastic copolyester elastomers, 342e346
thermoplastic polyether block polyamide elastomers,
346
thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers, 339e340
see also individual makes
Elcometer Payne permeability cups, 54f
Electrical properties of films, 38e40
dielectric constant, 38e39
dielectric strength, 40
dissipation factor, 40
surface resistivity, 40
volume resistivity, 40
Electrometers, 40
Electronegativity, 3e4
Elmendorf tear strength, 33e34, 35f
Elongation to puncture, 31
Elvax EVA (DuPont)
oxygen permeation, 220t
water vapor permeation, 221t
EMS Chemie Grivory G16 Amorphous Nylon
carbon dioxide and nitrogen permeation, 181t
oxygen permeation, 181t
water vapor permeation, 181t
EMS-Grivory Grilamid L 25 Nylon 12 Resin, 165t
EMS-Grivory Grilon BM 13 SBG, 178t, 179f
EMS-Grivory Grilon BM 13 SBGX, 179f
EMS-Grivory Grilon BM 17 SBG, 179t, 180f
EMS-Grivory Grilon BM 20 SBG, 170t
EMS-Grivory Grilon F 34 Type 6 Nylon, 161t
EMS-Grivory Grilon F 50 Type 6 Nylon, 161t
EMS-Grivory Grilon Nylon 6/12 films, 173t
water vapor permeation, 174t
EMS-Grivory Grilon Nylon 669 films, 178t
EMS-Grivory Nylon 6 films, 159e161
stress vs. strain, 175f, 176f
EPS (expanded polystyrene), 83e85
Equistar Chemicals, 220e221
Equistar Chemicals Alathon, 198t
ETFE see Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer
Ethocel ethyl cellulose film (Dow), 370f
Ethyl cellulose, 361
applications, 361
chemical structure, 368f
Dow Ethocel film, 370f
gas permeation, 370t, 371f
Ethylene acrylic acid (EAA) copolymer, 250e252
applications, 251
structure of, 250f
Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (ECTFE),
305e312
ammonia permeation, 308t
applications, 308
carbon dioxide permeation, 310f
chemical structure, 306f
chlorine permeation, 311f
helium permeation, 310f
hydrogen chloride/sulfide permeation, 312f
nitrogen permeation, 310f
oxygen permeation, 310f
resins specifications, 306t
solvent permeation, 309t
water vapor permeation, 309f
see also Solvay Solexis Halar ECTFE
Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE),
293e305
applications, 297
carbon dioxide permeation, 302t
chemical structure, 299f
chlorine gas permeation, 305f
gas permeation, 306f
oxygen permeation, 302t
water vapor permeation, 303t
Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), 219e221
applications, 219
oxygen permeation, 220t, 224f
polymer structures, 219f
water vapor permeation, 221t, 224f
Ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH), 221e225
applications, 224e225
chemical structure, 224f
see also EVAL; Nippon Gohsei Soarnol EVOH
Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH),
91e92
EVA see Ethylene-vinyl acetate
EVAL E Series EthyleneeVinyl Alcohol Copolymer
(EVOH) Resins
carbon dioxide permeation, 232f
organic solvents, 230t
oxygen permeation, 229t
oxygen transmission, 227t
EVAL EF-XL Biaxially Oriented EVOH film
organic solvents, 230t
oxygen permeation, 228t, 229t
EVAL EthyleneeVinyl Alcohol Copolymer
d-limonene permeation, 231t
fluorocarbon permeation, 227t
polymer grade series, 225t
resin grades, 226t, 227t
INDEX 383EVAL EVOH films
oxygen permeation vs.
ethylene content, 232f
temperature, 231f
vs. relative humidity, 232f
EVAL EVOH Grades, 228t
EVAL F Series Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer
(EVOH) Resins
organic solvents, 230t
oxygen permeation, 229t
oxygen transmission rate, 227t
EVAL H Series Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer
(EVOH) Resins
gas permeation, 228t
EVOH see Ethyleneevinyl alcohol
Evonik Degussa AG Vestamid Terra DS PA1010, 180t
Evonik Industries, 244t, 245t
Evonik Industries Trogamid TCR Film, 185t
Exopack Performance films Inc. Dartek Nylon
66 films, 169t
Exopack Scairfilm LLDPE films, 194t
Exopack Scairfilm LWS-1/LWS-2 Laminating MDPE
films, 196t
Exopack Sclairfilm LX-1 LLDPE film, 194t
Expanded polystyrene (EPS), 82e83
Extem XH 1015 PEI membranes, 135t
Extenders, 17
Extruded polystyrene (XPS), 83e85
Extrusion, 57e58, 64e66
blown film process, 58
consumer packaging polystyrene, 75
Extrusion cast film, 24
ExxonMobil Chemical, 252, 253t
ExxonMobil Exact Plastomer Resins, 211, 217t
ExxonMobil HDPE, 198, 199t
F
Fabric film laminates, 75e76
FEP see Fluorinated ethylene propylene
FEP resin specifications according to ASTM D2116, 263t
Fillers, 12e13
Film dies, 58f, 60f
Films
lamination, 67
post-production, 61e63
production, 57e72
purpose, 73
solvent-casting process, 60e61, 62f
see also Barrier films Individual makes of film;
membranes; polymers
Fire retardants, 14
Flame lamination, 67
Flame retardants, 14
Flavor permeation, packaging, 74
Flexural properties, 30
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), 263e268
ammonia permeation, 267t
applications, 263
chemical structure, 263f
fuel vapor permeation, 272t
gas permeation, 266t, 272f
helium permeation, 273f
hydrogen permeation, 267t
nitrogen permeation, 273f
oxygen permeation, 267t
vapor permeation, 266t
Fluorocarbon FEP film (DuPont)
gas permeation, 266t
vapor permeation, 266t
Fluoropolymers, 255e313
amorphous fluoropolymer, 271e278
ethyleneechlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer, 305e308
ethyleneetetrafluoroethylene copolymer, 293e305
fluorinated ethylene propylene, 263e268
Daikin Neoflon, 263
DuPont Teflon, 263
melting point ranges, 257t
monomer structures, 256f
perfluoroalkoxy, 268e271
polychlorotrifluoroethylene, 280e282
polytetrafluoroethylene, 255e257
polyvinyl fluoride, 278e280
DuPont Tedlar, 279e280
polyvinylidene fluoride, 282e289
Teflon AF, 276
Foam extrusion thermoforming, 76
Food wrap film, 76
Form fill and seal packaging, 75
Frictional force, 24
G
Gas permeation test cells, 53
General purpose polystyrene see Polystyrene
Geomembranes, 76
Geometric isomers, 6
German Institute for Standardization see DIN
Glass transition temperature, 36
Gloss measurement, 23
of plastic films, 23e24
GPPS (general purpose polystyrene) see Polystyrene
Graft copolymers, 3
Graham, Thomas, 41e42
Graham’s law of effusion, 42
Graphite, 15
Gravure coating, 63
Grivory see EMS
H
Halar ECTFE see Solvay Solexis Halar ECTFE
Haze measurement, 24
384 INDEXHDPE see High-density polyethylene
Head-to-tail isomers, 2, 6f
Heat resistant film, 76
Heat seal resins, 76
Heat-shrinkable polypropylene film, 76
High clarity LLDPE film, 76
High molecular-weight, high-density polyethylenes
(HMW-HDPE), 190e195, 198t
High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 190e198
ammonia permeation, 202t
ExxonMobil, 198
gas permeation, 201t, 203f
hydrogen permeation, 202t
LyondellBasell, 195e197
nitrogen permeation, 202t
NOVA Chemicals Sclair HDPE films,
198, 201t
oxygen permeation, 201t, 202t
High-impact polystyrene (HIPS), 3, 85, 85f
High-performance/temperature polymers,
315e337
High-speed puncture test, 31e33
HIPS see High-impact polystyrene
Homopolymer PTFE, 255e256
Homopolymers, 2, 198, 255e256
Honeywell Aclar PCTFE film, 290t, 291t
Honeywell Aegis Nylon 6 films, 159, 159t, 161t
Honeywell Aegis Nylon 6/66 films, 176t
Honeywell Capran Nylon 6/66 films, 177t
Honeywell Plastics Aegis Nylon 6 films, 160t
Honeywell Plastics Capron Nylon 6 films
gas permeation, 160t
water vapor permeation, 160t
Honeywell Series R PMP films, 207t
Hostaphan RN 25 Biaxially Oriented PET Release film
(Mitsubishi)
aroma permeation, 120t
barrier properties, 119t
gas permeation, 120t
typical properties, 119t
vapor permeation, 120t
Hot roll/belt lamination, 67, 67f
Hydrogen bonding, 7e8
Hyflon MFA (Solvay Solexis)
oxygen and water permeation, 278f
vapor permeation, 277t
Hyflon PFA (Solvay Solexis), 277f
Hygroscopic expansion of plastic films, 21
Hytrel Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer
(DuPont), 345t
I
Immersion coating, 66, 66f
Immiscible blends, 11
Impact copolymers, 199
Impact modifiers, 16
Imperm 105 nanoclay-filled nylon-MXD6 PAA films
(Nanocor), 187f
Industrial films, 77
INEOS ABS Lustran 246 ABS
gas permeability coefficients, 84f
INEOS Barex Acrylonitrile-Methyl Acrylate Copolymers
gas permeation, 249t
water vapor permeation, 249t
INEOX Barex film grades, 246
Innovative Plastics see SABIC
Innovia Cellophane films, 358t
Instron Universal Materials Testing Machine, 27
Insulating materials, plastic films as, 40
Inter/intramolecular attractions, 7e8
Ionomers, 250e252
DuPont Surlyn, 251
ExxonMobil Chemical, 252
Iotek ionomer films, 252, 253t
ISO 178:2001 Plastics, 30
ISO 527-3 Plastics, 27
ISO 2813:1994 Paints and varnishes, 24
Isomers, 6e7
geometric isomers, 6
stereoisomers, 6e7
structural isomers, 6, 6f
Isotactic polypropene, 7
structure of, 7f
Isotropic film, 21
J
JIS K 7127:1999 Plastics, 27
K
Kapton film (DuPont), 133, 136t, 137t
AC dielectric strength vs. RH, 144f
AC dielectric strength vs. temperature, 145f
dielectric constant vs. frequency, 146f, 147f
dielectric constant vs. RH, 144f
dielectric constant vs. temperature, 145f
dissipation factor vs. frequency, 146f, 147f
dissipation factor vs. RH, 144f
dissipation factor vs. temperature, 145f
elongation, 142f
vs. temperature, 147
gas permeation, 139t
isothermal weight loss vs. time, 143f, 144f
modulus vs. temperature, 148f
oxygen permeation vs. temperature, 148f
physical properties, 138t, 139t
retained dielectric strength, 143f
tensile creep properties, 141f
tensile strength, 141f
tensile strength vs. aging, 142f
tensile stressestrain curves, 140
INDEX 385Kapton film (DuPont) (Continued)
thermal properties, 138t
voltage endurance, 147f
volume resistivity vs. temperature, 146f
water vapor permeation, 139t, 140t
weight loss vs. temperature, 143f
Kinetic coefficient of friction, 24e25
Kinetic diameter, 43
Knife on roller coating, 63e64
Kuraray EVAL, 225, 226t, 231f, 231t, 232f
L
Lactic acid to polylactic acid conversion, 373f
Lamination, 67
flame lamination, 67
hot roll/belt lamination, 67, 67f
Langmuir model, 46
LCP see Liquid crystalline polymers
LDPE see Low-density polyethylene
Lexan PC films, 97, 98t
Light source, 21
Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) test, 36e38
Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), 190, 194t
Linear polymers, 3, 3f
Liquid crystalline polymers (LCP), 91e93
applications, 93
carbon dioxide permeation, 94t
chemical structure, 92f
hydrogen permeation, 93t
oxygen permeation, 93t
Ticona Vectra A950 LCP, 92f, 93t
Ticona Vectra LCP films, 94t
water vapor transmission, 94t
LISIM Technology, 70f
LLDPE (linear low-density polyethylene), 190, 194t
LlyondellBasell Adflex PP
carbon dioxide permeation, 204t
oxygen permeation, 205t
LlyondellBasell polyolefins polyethylene, 204t
gas permeation, 191f
solvent vapor transmission, 191f
water vapor transmission, 192f
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 190
gas permeation, 195t
properties, 195t
solvent vapor permeation, 195t
Lubricants, 15
Lubrizol Estane TPU
gas/vapor permeation, 342t
Lucite Diakon Polymethyl Methacrylate
gas permeation, 246t
Lumirror PET film, 121t
Luran S ASA films
gas permeation, 84t, 85t
water vapor permeation, 85t
Luran SAN
oxygen permeation, 89
water vapor permeation, 89
LyondellBasell, 195e197
LyondellBasell Alathon HDPE, 197t
LyondellBasell Lupolen EVA
oxygen permeation, 224f
water vapor permeation, 224f
LyondellBasell Polybutene-1 Resins, 206t
LyondellBasell Ultrathene EVA copolymers, 220e221,
223t
M
Machine direction orientation (MDO), 69
Makrolon PC (Bayer MaterialScience), 100t, 101t
Marlex HDPE (Chevron Philips), 201t
MDO (machine direction orientation), 69
MDPE (medium-density polyethylene), 190
Mechanical testing of plastic films, 27e34
flexural properties, 30
folding endurance, 31
puncture properties, 31e33
drop dart impact test, 33
high-speed puncture test, 31e33
tear properties, 33e34
Elmendorf tear strength, 33e34
trouser tear resistance, 34
tensile properties, 27e30
Medical molds/packaging, 77
Medium-density polyethylene (MDPE), 190
Melinex PET films, 108
Melt Flow Index, 35e36
test apparatus, 36f
Melting point
of plastic films, 36
fluoropolymers, 257t
Membranes
purpose, 73
see also Films
Metering rod coating, 64, 65t
Meyer rod coating, 64, 65t
MFA copolymer, 268
Mica, 17
Migrating slip additives, 15
Mirrex PVC (VPI)
oxygen permeation, 239t
water vapor permeation, 238t
MIT Flex Test, 31, 32f
Mitchell, John Kearsley, 41
Mitsubishi gas chemical nylon-MXD6 PAA
films, 187f
Mitsubishi Polyester film Hostaphan RN 25 Biaxially
Oriented PET Release film
aroma permeation, 120t
barrier properties, 119t
386 INDEXgas permeation, 120t
typical properties, 119t
vapor permeation, 120t
Mitsui Chemicals TPX, 205, 208f, 208t
Modified atmosphere packaging, 77
Moisture protection, packaging, 73
Molar-mass dispersity index, 9
Molecular polarity, prediction of, 4
Molecules
dipole moments, 4t
molecular weight, 9e10
steric hindrance, 5e6
see also Polymers
Molybdenum disulfide, 15
Monomers, 1
molecular arrangement, 2
Mulch films, 74
Multilayered films, 58, 79
Multiphase polymer blends, 11e12
Multiple-layer films, 48e49
Mylar 92A Polyester film, 109t
Mylar film, 108
Mylar PET (DuPont), 118f
N
Nanocor Imperm 105 nanoclay-filled nylon-MXD6 PAA
films, 187f
Neoflon DF-0050C1 CTFE film, 292t
Neoflon FEP film (Daikin), 272f
Neoflon PCTFE film (Daikin Industries),
292t
Network polymers, 3
see also Crosslinked polymer
Nine-layer blown film die, 60f
Nippon Gohsei Bovlon PVOH Film, 236t
Nippon Gohsei Soarnol EVOH, 225
chloroform permeation, 234t
gas permeation, 233t
kerosene permeation, 234t
liquid permeation, 234t
oxygen permeation vs.
ethylene content, 235f
film thickness, 234f
relative humidity, 235f
temperature, 235f
standard grades, 233t
water vapor permeation, 234t
Nitrocellulose, 357
chemical structure, 359f
gas permeation, 360t
Nollet, Abbe´ Jean-Antoine, 41
Norton ECTFE fluoropolymer film, 307t
NOVA Chemicals Sclair HDPE films,
201t
Nylon 1010, 169e171
Nylon PACM-12, 180e184
applications, 184
chemical structure, 184f
Nylons see Polyamide
O
Odor permeation, packaging, 74
Olefinic TPEs (TPO), 340e342
applications, 342
gas permeation, 342t
water vapor transmission, 342t
OPS films, 85e86
Optical brighteners, 16
Opulent PMP Films, 208f, 208t
Orientation of polymers, 11, 67e70
Oriented/un-oriented nylon 6, 163t
P
Packaging
atmospheric gas transmission, 73e74
barrier films, 73e79
categories, 73
flavor permeation, 74
odor permeation, 74
oxygen transmission, 73e74
water vapor protection, 73
Parylene (poly(p-xylylene)), 326e328
applications, 328
gas permeation, 334t
polymer molecule structures, 332f
properties, 332te334t
water vapor permeation, 334t
PBI Performance Products Inc. Celazole PBI
membrane
carbon dioxide permeation, 332f
hydrogen permeation, 331f
PBI see Polybenzimidazole
PBT see Polybutylene terephthalate
PC see Polycarbonate
PCT see Polycyclohexylene-dimethylene terephthalate
PCTFE see Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
PDMS see Polydimethyl siloxane
PE see Polyethylene
PE shrink film, 77e78
PEBA see Thermoplastic polyether block polyamide
elastomers
PEBAX films see Arkema
PEEK see Polyetheretherketone
PEI see Polyetherimide
PEN see Polyethylene naphthalate
Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA), 268e271
applications, 270
chemical structure, 273f
comonomers, 268
gas permeation, 275t
INDEX 387Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) (Continued)
Solvay Solexis Hyflon PFA, 276f
water vapor permeation, 276t
Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) synthetic oil, 15
Permeant, 40e41
Permeation of films, 40e55
effusion, 42e43
history, 41e42
multiple-layer films, 48e49
permeation and vapor transmission testing,
49e55
gas permeation test cells, 53
standard tests for permeation and vapor transmission,
0230
units of measurement, 49e50
vapor permeation cup testing, 53e55
solution-diffusion and pore-flow models, 43e48
Arrhenius equation, 47e48
dependence of permeability, diffusion, and solubility
pressure, 45e47
transport of gases and vapors through solid
materials, 42
PFA comonomers, 273t
PFA resin specifications, 274t
PH3B, 369e372, 377t
PHA see Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate
Pharmaceutical blister packs, 77, 78f
PHBV, chemical structure, 353, 369
PHV, 369
Physical property testing of plastic films,
19e26
coefficient of friction, 24e26
coefficient of thermal expansion, 21
color, 21e23
dimensional stability on heating, 20e21
gloss measurement, 23e24
haze measurement, 24
hygroscopic expansion, 21
residual shrinkage/strain relief, 21
specific gravity and density, 19e20
PI see Polyimide
Pigments, 17
PLA see Polylactic acid
Plastic beads, 57, 57f
Plastic compositions, 11e18
Plasticizers, 16e17
Plastics, 1
Plastomers (POPs), 209e211
PLEXIGLAS PMMA Lamination Films, 245t
Plexiglas Product Range, 244t
PMMA see Polymethyl methacrylate
Polar bond, 3e4
Polarity, 3e5
Polyacrylics, 237e244
Polyamic acid, 128f
Polyamide 1010 (PA1010), 169e171
applications, 171
structure, 180f
Polyamide 12 (nylon 12), 162e164
applications, 164
chemical structure, 164f
gas permeation, 165t, 166f
natural gas permeation vs. temperature, 166f
water vapor permeation, 165t
Polyamide 6 (nylon 6), 157e161
applications, 158
carbon dioxide permeation, 163f, 183f
chemical structure, 159f
EMS-Grivory, 159e161
gas permeation, 160t, 161t
Honeywell, 159
hydrogen sulfide permeation, 164f
oxygen permeation, 161t, 163f, 183f, 184f
UBE, 162t
water vapor permeation, 160t
Polyamide 6/12 (nylon 6/12), 167
applications, 167
chemical structure, 171f
nitrogen permeation, 174t
oxygen and carbon dioxide permeation, 173t, 174t
water vapor permeation, 174t
Polyamide 6/69 (nylon 6/69), 167e169
Polyamide 66 (nylon 66), 164e167
applications, 167
carbon dioxide permeation, 169t
chemical structure, 166f
gas permeation, 169t
oxygen permeation, 169t
water vapor permeation, 169t
Polyamide 66/610 (nylon 66/610), 167
applications, 167
chemical structure, 170f
gas/water vapor permeation, 170t
Polyamide 666 (nylon 666 or 6/66), 167
Polyamideeimide (PAI), 125e128
applications, 128
carbon dioxide permeation, 130f
chemical structures, 125f
gas permeation, 128t, 129f
methane permeation, 130f
nitrogen permeation, 129f
oxygen permeation, 129f
permeability coefficients of gases, 128t
Polyamides (nylons), 157e188
amino acids, 158f
amorphous polyamide, 171e180
diacids, 158f
diamines, 158f
generalized reaction, 157f
monomers, 157t
388 INDEXPACM-12, 180e184
polyamide 1010, 169e171
polyamide 6, 157e161
polyamide 6/12, 167
polyamide 6/69, 167e169
polyamide 12, 162e164
polyamide 66, 164e167
polyamide 666, 167
polyamide 66/610, 167
polyarylamide, 184e187
Polyanhydrides, 353, 353f
Polyarylamide, 184e187
applications, 187
chemical structure, 186f
Polybenzimidazole (PBI), 325e327
applications, 326
carbon dioxide permeation, 332f
chemical structure, 331f
hydrogen permeation, 331f
PBI Performance Products Inc. Celazole PBI
membrane, 331f, 332f
Polybutene-1 (PB-1), 201e205, 205f, 206t
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 94
applications, 94
chemical structure, 94f
elastic modulus vs. temperature of, 96f
gas/water vapor permeation, 96t
Polycaprolactone, 361
applications, 361
chemical structure, 371f
oxygen permeation, 372t, 373t
starch and glycerol blends, 372t, 373t
water vapor permeation, 372t
Polycarbonate (PC), 97e101
applications, 97
carbon dioxide permeation, 101t, 103f
chemical structure, 91f, 94f, 97f
helium permeation, 102f
methane permeation, 102f
nitrogen permeation, 100t, 101t
oxygen permeation, 100t, 101t
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 280e282
applications, 281
chemical structure, 290f
gas permeation, 291t, 292t
water vapor permeation, 291t
Polycyclohexylene-dimethylene terephthalate (PCT),
101e103
applications, 103
chemical structure, 103f
Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS)
gas permeation, 320f, 321f
helium and nitrogen permeation, 321f
Polydispersity (PDI) see Molar-mass dispersity
index
Polyesters, 2, 91e124
liquid crystalline polymers, 91e93
polybutylene terephthalate, 94
polycarbonate, 97e101
polycyclohexylene-dimethylene terephthalate,
101e103
polyethylene naphthalate, 103
polyethylene terephthalate, 108e122
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 315e316
amorphous/crystalline permeation, 316t
chemical structure, 315f
VICTREX Morphology PEEK-Based APTIV film,
315, 316t
water vapor transmission, 317t
Polyetherimide (PEI), 130e133
applications, 133
chemical structures, 131f, 132f
gas/water vapor permeation, 135t
SABIC Innovative Plastics Ultem 1000 PEI,
135t
Westlake Plastics Tempalux PEI film, 135t
Polyethersulfone (PES), 323e325
applications, 324
carbon dioxide permeation, 331f
chemical structure, 331f
gas permeation, 329t
helium permeation, 330f
methane permeation, 330f
SABIC Innovative Plastics Ultem 1000 PES, 329t
Polyethylene (PE), 189e198
applications, 190
crystal structure, 190f
fuel vapor transmission, 191f
gas permeation, 191f, 192f
high-density polyethylene, 190e198
linear low-density polyethylene, 190
low-density polyethylene, 190
medium-density polyethylene, 190
solvent vapor transmission, 192f
sulfur dioxide permeation, 192f
types, 190f
ultra-low density polyethylene, 190
unclassified polyethylene, 190
water vapor transmission, 191f
Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), 103
applications, 103
chemical structure, 105f
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 108e122
applications, 108
aroma permeation, 120t
carbon dioxide permeation, 111t
chemical structure, 108f
elastic modulus, 122f
gas permeation, 120t, 122f
hydrogen sulfide permeation, 118f
INDEX 389Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (Continued)
Mitsubishi Polyester Film Hostaphan RN Biaxially
Oriented PET Release film, 120t
nitrogen permeation, 112t
oxygen permeation, 112t
vapor permeation, 120t
water vapor permeation, 112te113t
Polyglycolic acid (PGA), 354
Polyhydroxyalkanoates, 353, 369
Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHA), 369e372
permeability coefficients, 370t
Polyimide (PI), 125e156
applications, 133
chemical structures, 140f
monomer structures, 132f
polyamideeimide, 125e128
polyetherimide, 130e133
polyimide, 133e148
Polyketones see Polyetheretherketone
Polylactic acid (PLA), 353
applications, 365
carbon dioxide permeation coefficient vs. temperature,
376f
carbon dioxide permeation coefficient vs. temperature,
376f
conversion from lactic acid, 373f
methane permeation coefficient vs. temperature, 375f
nitrogen permeation coefficient vs. temperature, 376f
oxygen permeation coefficient vs. temperature, 376f
Polymerization, 1e2
Polymers
additives, 12e18
blends, 11e12
chain entanglement, 8
classification, 8e11
definition, 1
degradation, 18
film-casting processes, 62t
hydrogen bonding, 7e8
inter/intra molecular attractions, 7e8
molecular weight, 9e10
orientation, 11
orientation, 67e70
polarity, 3e5
unsaturation, 5
Van der Waals forces, 8
see also Molecules
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), 237e244
argon permeation, 247f
carbon dioxide permeation, 247f
chemical structure, 244f
gas permeation, 246t
hydrogen permeation, 247f
Lamination Films, 245t
Lucite Diakon Polymethyl Methacrylate, 246t
oxygen permeation, 247f
Polymethyl pentene (PMP), 205
applications, 205
chemical structure, 207f
water transmission, 207t
Polyolefins, 189e218
LlyondellBasell polyolefins polyethylene, 191f, 192f
LlyondellBasell polyolefins polypropylene, 204t
monomer structures, 189f
Polyone Geon 101-EP-100 PVC film, 239f
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 318e321
applications, 321
chemical structure, 321f
gas permeation, 323t
liquid vapor transmission, 323t
Polyphenylene sulfone (PPSU), 328e330, 335t
applications, 330
Evonik Industries Europlex HPF 99211 PPSU film,
335te336t
Polypropene
atactic, 7, 7f
isotactic, 7, 7f
structure of, 7f
syndiotactic, 7, 8f
Polypropylene (PP), 7, 198e201
applications, 201
carbon dioxide permeation, 204t
gas permeation, 204t
oxygen permeation, 205t
Polysiloxane, 317e318
chemical structure, 319f
helium permeation, 320f
Polystyrene (PS), 83e86
chemical structure, 85f
gas/water vapor permeation, 87t, 88f
and polybutadiene, 11
Polystyrol 168 N GPPS film (BASF AG), 87t
Polysulfone (PSU), 321e323
applications, 323
carbon dioxide permeation, 327f
chemical structure, 324f
gas permeation, 326t
helium permeation, 326f
methane permeation, 327f
water vapor permeation, 326t
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 15, 255e257
ammonia permeation, 259t
CHEMFILM DF1100 and DF1200 multilayer cast,
258t
chemical structure, 257f
gas permeation, 261t
hydrogen chloride permeation, 262t
hydrogen permeation, 259t
nitrogen permeation, 260t
NORTON 124 sintered extruded, 257t
390 INDEXNORTON 125 unsintered extruded, 257t
NORTON premium grade skived, 258t
NORTON R128 and R129 premium extruded, 258t
oxygen permeation, 259t
permeation comparisons, 261t
sulfur dioxide permeation, 262f
water vapor permeation, 261t, 262t
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), 225
applications, 225
Nippon Gohsei Bovlon PVOH Film, 236t
oxygen permeation, 236f
water vapor transmission, 236f
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 237
applications, 237
carbon dioxide permeation, 239f
hydrogen permeation, 240f
oxygen permeation, 239t
plasticizer level, 240f
temperature, 239f
Polyone Geon 101-EP-100 PVC film, 239f
property range, 237t
VPI Mirrex PVC, 238t, 239t
water vapor permeation, 238t
Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), 278e280
applications, 278
chemical structure, 281f
gas permeation, 285t
hydrogen permeation, 290f
vapor permeation, 285t
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), 237
applications, 237
coated cellophane film, 358t
chemical structure, 240f
Dow Saranex PVDC, 243f
Dow Saranex PVDC Multilayer films, 241t
Dow Saran PVDC, 241t, 243f
gas permeation, 242t, 243f
hydrogen sulfide permeation, 243f
oxygen permeation, 241t
oxygen transmission, 243f
water permeation, 242t, 243f
water vapor permeation, 242t
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 282e289
applications, 289
chemical structure, 293f
gas permeation, 295t, 297f
resins specifications, 293t
Solvay Solexis Solef 1008 PVDF, 296t
Solvay Solexis Solef PVDF film, 297f, 298f
water permeation, 298f
water vapor permeation, 297f
Polyvinyls, 219e254
monomer structures, 189f
Post film formation processing, 61e63
PP see Polypropylene
PP liners, 74
PPS see Polyphenylene sulfide
PS see Polystyrene
PSU see Polysulfone
PTFE see Polytetrafluoroethylene
PVC see Polyvinyl chloride
PVDC see Polyvinylidene chloride
PVDF see Polyvinylidene fluoride
PVF see Polyvinyl fluoride
Q
Qualitative ranking of polymer polarities, 4, 4f
R
Random copolymers, 3, 198e199
Reinforced plastics, 12e13
Release agents, 14e15
Renewable plastics, 353
Renewable resource and biodegradable polymers,
353e378
cellophane, 356e357
cellulose acetate, 357e360
cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), 360e361
ethyl cellulose, 361
nitrocellulose, 357
polycaprolactone, 361
poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, 369e372
polylactic acid, 363e365
trademarks, 354te356t
Residual shrinkage see Strain relief
Reverse roller coating, 63
Riteflex Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer (Ticona),
344f
Rowland Technologies, Inc., 246t
Rubbers, 339e352
see also individual rubbers
Ryton PPS films (Chevron Philips)
gas permeation, 323t
liquid vapor transmission, 323t
S
SABIC Advanced Plastics Ultem, 134t
SABIC Innovative Plastics
Lexan PC film, 98t
Valox FR1 PBT film, 95t
SABIC Innovative Plastics Cycolac ABS, 82t
SABIC Innovative Plastics Ultem 1000 PEI, 135t
SABIC Innovative Plastics Ultem 1000 PES, 329t
SAN see Styrene-acrylonitrile
SBC see Styrenic block copolymer
Scairfilm LWS-1/LWS-2 Laminating MDPE films
(Exopack), 196t
Scairfilm LX-1 LLDPE film (Exopack), 194t
Sclair HDPE films (NOVA Chemicals), 201t
Selar amorphous polyamide (DuPont), 182f, 183f
INDEX 391Selar PA Amorphous Nylon (DuPont), 182t
Selar with nylon 6 (DuPont), 184f
Shipping sacks, 76
Shrink bundling film, 78
Silage films, 74
Silicone rubber, 317e318
Simultaneous stretching line (LISIM Technology), 70f
Skiving, 70
Slip additives, 15
Slot die coating, 64e66
Smoke suppressants, 14
Soarnol EVOH see Nippon Gohsei Soarnol EVOH
SolaTuf Impact Modified Acrylic Film, 246t
Solef 1008 PVDF (Solvay Solexis), 296t
Solef PVDF film (Solvay Solexis)
gas permeation, 298f
water permeation, 298f
Solexis see Solvay Solexis
Solvay Advanced Polymers Amodel PPA, 187t
Solvay Ajedium HYLAR 9009 PVDF, 295t
Solvay Ajedium SOLEF PVDF, 296t
Solvay Solexis Halar ECTFE
ammonia permeation, 308t
carbon dioxide permeation, 310f
chlorine permeation, 311f
helium permeation, 310f
hydrogen chloride/sulfide permeation, 311f
hydrogen permeation, 308t
nitrogen permeation, 308t, 310f
oxygen permeation, 309t, 310f
solvent permeation, 309t
water vapor permeation, 309f
Solvay Solexis Hyflon MFA
oxygen and water permeation, 278f
vapor permeation, 277t
Solvay Solexis Hyflon PFA, 278f
Solvay Solexis Solef 1008 PVDF, 296t
Solvay Solexis Solef PVDF film
gas permeation, 298f
water permeation, 298f
Solvent-casting process, 60e61, 62f
Specific gravity, 19e20
Squeeze bottles, 75
Stacked dies, 58f
Static coefficient of friction, 24e25
Stationery films, 78
Step-growth polymerization see Condensation
polymerization
Stereoisomers, 6e7
Steric hindrance, 5e6
Sterile packaging, 77
Strain relief, 21
Stretch film, 78
Structural isomers, 6, 6f
Styrene, chemical structure, 81f
Styreneeacrylonitrile (SAN), 81, 86e89
chemical structure, 89
gas permeation, 89
water vapor permeation, 85t
Styrenic block copolymer (SBC) TPEs, 346e347
applications, 347
carbon dioxide permeation, 349t
nitrogen permeation, 349t
oxygen permeation, 349t
Styrenic plastics, 81e90
Styrolux films (BASF)
carbon dioxide permeation, 349t
nitrogen permeation, 349t
oxygen permeation, 349t
Styron PS film (Dow Chemical), 83t
Styron Styron PS, 87t
Surface resistivity, 40
measurement of, 40f
Surlyn Sodium Ion Type Ionomer film (DuPont)
oxygen permeation, 252t
water vapor permeation, 253t
Surlyn Zinc Ion Type Ionomer film (DuPont), 251
oxygen permeation, 252t
water vapor permeation, 253t
Syndiotactic 1,2-polybutadiene, 348
reaction producing, 350f
Syndiotactic polypropene, 7
structure of, 8f
Syndiotactic polypropylene, 6e7
T
Tedlar PVF (DuPont), 285t
typical properties of, 284t
Teflon see DuPont Teflon
Tefzel (DuPont), 302t
Tefzel Type LZ, CLZ, and CLZ-20 ETFE Films,
301t
Teijin DuPont films
Q51 PEN films, 107t
Teonix PEN films, 106t
Tetoron G2 PET films, 111t
Teijin films Mylar PET films (DuPont)
carbon dioxide permeation, 111t
dielectric constant vs. frequency, 117f
dielectric constant vs. temperature, 117f
dielectric strength vs. temperature, 116f
dielectric strength vs. thickness, 117f
dimension stability vs. relative humidity, 115f
dimension stability vs. temperature, 114f
dissipation factor vs. frequency, 118f
dissipation factor vs. temperature, 117f
nitrogen permeation, 112t
oxygen permeation, 112t
shrinkage vs. temperature, 114f
stressestrain curves, 113f
392 INDEXtemperature effect on water removal, 116f
tensile elongation, 115f, 116f
tensile properties vs. temperature, 114f
tensile strength, 115f, 116f
vapor permeation, 113t
volume resistivity vs. temperature, 118f
water vapor permeation, 112te113t
Tempalux PEI film (Westlake Plastics), 135t
Tenter frames, 69, 69f
TEONEX Q51 PEN biaxially oriented film, 108t
Teonix PEN films, 103, 106t
Terluran ABS films (BASF AG)
gas permeation, 83t
water vapor permeation, 83t
Terpolymers, 2
Tetoron PET films, 108, 110t, 111t
Thermal property testing of plastic films, 34e38
glass transition temperature, 36
Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) test, 36e38
Melt Flow Index, 35e36
melting point, 36
Thermal shrinkage see Strain relief
Thermal stabilizers, 17
Thermoplastic copolyester elastomers (TPE-E or COPE),
342e345
Thermoplastic polyether block polyamide elastomers
(PEBA), 346
applications, 346
oxygen permeation, 346t
water vapor permeation, 348t
Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (TPU),
339e340
gas permeation, 342t, 344t
Lubrizol Estane TPU, 341t
molecular structure, 340f
water vapor permeation, 342t
water vapor transmission, 344t
Thermoplastics, 10
Thermosets, 10
Thermx PCT film, 104t
Three-layer blown film die, 60f
Ticona Fortron PPS Films
carbon dioxide permeability, 323t
Ticona Riteflex Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer,
344f
Ticona Vectra A950 LCP
chemical structure, 92f
oxygen permeation, 93t
Ticona Vectra LCP films
carbon dioxide permeation, 94t
hydrogen permeation, 93t
oxygen permeation, 94t
properties, 93t
water vapor transmission, 94t
Time lag, 44e45
Topas Advanced Polymers TOPAS COC,
205e209, 211f
properties of, 209te210t
water vapor permeation, 211t
Toray Industries Lumirror PET film, 121t
Tortuous path effect, 13, 14f
Tougheners, 16
TPE-E (thermoplastic copolyester elastomers), 344
TPO see Olefinic TPEs
TPU see Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers
Trans-isomer, 6, 6f
Transverse direction orientation, 69
Trash bags, 78
Trogamid, 184, 185t, 186t
Trouser tear resistance, 34
Trycite Oriented PS film (Dow Chemical), 87t
Tyril Low Acrylonitrile Content SAN (Dow Chemical),
89
U
UBE 303 XA Nylon 12 Resin, 164t
UBE Industries Nylon 6
oxygen permeation, 162t
properties, 162t
water vapor permeation, 162t
UBE Industries Upilex films
electrical properties, 151t
elongation vs. aging, 153f
equilibrium water absorption vs. RH, 154f
gas permeation, 151t
grades, 140t, 149t
hydroscopic expansion vs. RH, 154
mechanical properties, 149t
tensile strength vs. aging, 153f
tensile stress vs. strain, 152f
thermal properties, 150t
time of again vs. temperature, 154f
water vapor permeation, 151t
weight loss vs. temperature, 155
Udel PSU (BASF)
gas permeation, 326t
water vapor permeation, 326t
Ultem 1000 PEI (SABIC Innovative Plastics),
135t
Ultem 1000 PES (SABIC Innovative Plastics), 329t
Ultradur PBT (BASF AG), 96t
Ultra-low density polyethylene, 190
Ultramid C Blown Nylon 666 film, 176t
Ultramid C35 Nylon 6/66 film, 177t
Ultrathene EVA Copolymers, 220e221, 223t
Unclassified polyethylene, 190
Unsaturation, 5
Upilex films (UBE Industries), 148
Upilex PI films, 148, 151t
UV stabilizers, 16
INDEX 393V
Vacuum deposition coating, 66e67, 66f
Van der Waals forces, 8
Vapor permeation cup testing, 53e55
Vectra LCP films (Ticona)
carbon dioxide permeation, 94t
hydrogen permeation, 93t
oxygen permeation, 94t
properties, 93t
water vapor transmission, 94t
VenFILM, Blown Transparent Grade, 238t
VERSIFY Plastomer Resins, 211
VICTREX Morphology PEEK-based
APTIV film
amorphous/crystalline permeation, 316t
water vapor transmission, 317t
Vinyl benzene see Styrene
Viscose, conversion from cellulose, 357f
Voltalef PCTFE film (Arkema), 292t
Volume resistivity, 40
measurement of, 41f
VPI Mirrex PVC
oxygen permeation, 239t
water vapor permeation, 238t
W
Water vapor protection, packaging, 73
Web coating, 61e63
Westlake Plastics Tempalux PEI film, 135t
X
XPS (extruded polystyrene), 83e85
Y
Yield, 19
Z
Zytel 42 Nylon 66 film (DuPont), 169t


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رابط من موقع عالم الكتب لتنزيل كتاب Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - 3rd Edition
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