كتاب Make - Mechanical Engineering for Makers
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Make - Mechanical Engineering for Makers

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عدد المساهمات : 18858
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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كتاب Make - Mechanical Engineering for Makers  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Make - Mechanical Engineering for Makers    كتاب Make - Mechanical Engineering for Makers  Emptyالخميس 23 نوفمبر 2023, 8:30 pm

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Make - Mechanical Engineering for Makers
A Hands-On Guide to Designing and Making Physical Things
Brian Bunnell and Samer Najia

كتاب Make - Mechanical Engineering for Makers  M_m_e_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Mechanical Engineering – A Maker’s Perspective 1
Basic Topics of Mechanical Engineering 1
Simple Machines 3
Materials 4
Stress (in the mechanical sense) 6
Static Structures and Dynamic Systems 7
Thermal/Fluid Systems 8
Electrical Engineering and Electromechanical Systems 9
Design and Design Tools 10
Manufacturing 11
Two Tales of Maker Inspiration 13
So You Have and Idea for a Project – Let’s Make It Real! 16
Project-Realization Process 17
Define the Project Idea 18
Define the Specifications 18
Conceptualize (Sketch) the Concept 20
Perform the Research 22
Fabricate the Project Idea 23
Test and Refine the Project Idea 28
Air Horn Project 29
Modularization of Design 42
Object-Oriented Programming 44
Materials Selection – Plastics, Woods, and Metals 46
Material Properties to Consider 47
Types of Materials 48
Examples of Material Shapes (Focus on Metals) 60
Protection from the Environment 62
Bonding Components Together 62
Tool Availability 63
Material Availability 63
Materials Breakdown for Brian’s Tot-Size Tank 64
Materials Breakdown for Samer’s Adult-Size Tank 73
Fasten-ating World of Fasteners & Adhesives 78
Types of Fasteners 79
Threaded Fastener Units of Measure 84
Assembly Basics 86
Corrosion 88
Fixing Fastener-related Mistakes 89
Adhesives 91
Fasteners Used in the Tot-Size Tank 93Mechanical Engineering for Makers v
5 6 7 8 9
Shaping the Ship - Giving Your Project Structure 98
Design Considerations for Structures 100
A Static Structure Example – Tot-Size Tank Body 106
A Dynamic Structure Example – Tot-Size Tank Tracks 108
Levers – Handling the Suspense 112
Classes of Levers 114
Classy Lever Contraption Project 117
The Accordion Project 127
Pulleys – Get into the Groove 132
Claw and Pulley Experiments 135
The Door Frame Clampy Claw (DFCC) Detour Project 136
Pulley Experiments Project 144
PVC Articulated Crane (PAC) Project 152
Gears and Gear Trains – Grinding, Isn't It 166
Types of Gears 168
General Gear Nomenclature – The Simplest Example (the Spur Gear) 171
Gear Ratios 172
The Humble Can Opener – A Gear Ratio Discussion and Intro to Compound Gears 175
Gear -Based Device Discussion: Differetial 176
The Cog Gear Differential (CGD) Project 179
Why Stop Now? 188
The Reality of Making vs. Engineering 189
Pneumatic Paper "Rockets" 190
Making a Pneumatic (Paper) Rocket Project 191
Pneumatic Rocket Launcher Project 194
Removable/Replaceable Model Rocket Booster Section 199
Pneumatic Cannon – Harnessing the Power of Air 202
Pneumatic Cannon – How it Works 204
Altitude Payload Dropper – Using Hobby Servos, Sensors & Microcontrollers 206
9A
acrylic (plexiglass), 54
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), 55, 64
adhesives, 91–93
Adult-Size Tank (Najia)
construction and article on, 14–15
frame, 45, 64
levers, 114
materials, 73–74
prototypes, 24–27
specifications, 19, 26, 73
steering system, 45
suspension, 74, 130–31
wheels, 44–45, 74
air horn project, 29–42
conceptualizing/sketching, 29
defining the idea, 29
defining the specifications, 29
fabricating, 32–39
feedback, 29
how air horns work, 30
research, 29–32
testing/refining, 39–42
walkabout to look at materials, 29–32
air manifold, 37–38
air pressure, 204
Altitude Payload Dropper, 206–9
aluminum
6061 T-6, 70–71
about, 50
anodized, 71
foil, 75
ingots made from cans, 64
T-slot extrusion, 61, 66, 69–70, 90
annealed glass, 52
Antikythera Mechanism, 1, 167
Apogee Rockets, 199–200
appliances, repurposed, 75
aramid fibers (Kevlar), 55–56
Archimedes, 116, 133
atmospheric pressure, 204
AutoCAD, 10
auto parts stores and wrecking yards, 76
210
Index
INDEXB
band saw, 34–35
barometric (atmospheric) pressure sensors, 207
bar stock, 60–61
batteries, 9-volt, 198
Baum, Alan, 13, 178
bevel gears, 168–69
bits for countersinks and counterbores, 85
blue foam, 57
bolted joints, 84
bolts, 81–82, 85, 96–97, 126
borosilicate glass (Pyrex), 52
bracing (triangulation), 101–2
brass, 50
Bunnell, Brian. See also Tot-Size Tank
Drift Trike Industrial, 12, 178
Jacob’s ladder project, 18–19
pneumatic cannon project, 40, 42, 93
butt joints, 101
button-head screws, 95–96
C
CAD (Computer-Aided Design), 10
CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing), 11
cannons, pneumatic, 8–9, 20–21, 40, 202–5
cantilever support, 70
car-battery corrosion, 89
carbon fibers, 56, 59
carriage bolts, 81
cast iron, 51
castle nuts, 83
catapults, 116
C-channel shape, 62
ceramic glue, 91–92
chamfering a hole, 41
chop saw, 34–35
chromoly, 51
claw hammers, 116
clearance holes, 85–86
clothes, repurposed, 75
coat hanger wire hook, 163
cogs, from plywood and dowels, 180–81
compressed gases, 202
Computer-Aided Design (CAD), 10
Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM), 11
computer components, repurposed, 60, 63–64, 75
Computer Numeric Controlled (CNC) machining centers,
11
conductive heat transfer, 8
conservation of energy and work, 5
construction adhesive, 91
contact adhesive, 91
containers, repurposed, 75
convective heat transfer, 8
copper, 50–51
corner (angle) joints, 101
counterbores, 85
countersinks, 85, 126
craft supply stores, 76
D
deburring tools, 87
degrees of freedom (DOF) and constraints, 109–11
Delrin, 54–55
design
Computer-Aided Design (CAD), 10
Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM), 11
cost factor, 12
defined, 10
Finite Element Analysis (FEA), 11
modularization of, 42–45
structural considerations (see under structure)
differentials, 176–87
displacement, 134–35
DIY stores, 75
DOF (degrees of freedom) and constraints, 109–11
door hinges, repurposed, 63
dowels, 80
drawings, 22
drones, 206
dumpster diving, 65–66, 76
E
electrical conduit (EMT tubing), 71–72
electrical engineering/electromechanical systems, 09
electronics, repurposed, 60, 63–64, 75
EMT tubing (electrical conduit), 71–72
energy and work, conservation of, 5
epicyclic gear trains (planetary gear sets), 170
Mechanical Engineering for Makers 211epoxy, 92
epoxy resin, 53
equilibrium, 115–17
Excel, 11
ExpertCAD, 10
eye bolts and eye lags, 82, 126, 158
F
fabricating a project idea, 23–27
fabric glue, 91
“failure breeds success” maxim, 28
farm supply stores, 76
fasteners, 79–97
adhesives, 91–93
aluminum T-slot extrusion, 90
assembly basics, 86–87
bolts, 81–82, 85, 96–97, 126
corrosion, 88–89
dowels, 80
fixing mistakes related to, 89–90
hole types, 85–86, 89
length, choosing, 86
nails, 80
nuts, 82–83, 97
overview, 5, 79–80
patching holes, 90
pins, 80
rivets, 80, 87
screws, 80–81, 84–86, 95–96
spacing, 87–88
threaded, measurement units for, 84–86
in Tot-Size Tank, 93–97
washers, 83–85, 88
FEA (Finite Element Analysis), 11
fiberglass (glass fibers), 56, 59
fiber-reinforced composites, 56
“50 Digital Wood Joints Poster,” 101
filament extruders, 64
Finite Element Analysis (FEA), 11
foam, 56–59
foam board, 58
force balance equations, 141–43
free-body diagrams (FBDs), 140–43, 150
FreeCAD, 10
fulcrum, 4
G
galvanic corrosion, 89
garage sales, 76
gauge pressure, 204
gears, 167–87
can opener example, 175–76
Cog Gear Differential (CGD) project, 179–87
compound gear trains, 175–76
differentials, 176–87
gristmill example, 187
nomenclature, 171
overview, 167
ratios, 172–73
selecting, 187
types, 168
glass, 52–53
glass fibers (fiberglass), 56, 59
glue, 91
Google Sheets, 11
grip length (fasteners), 87
gusseting, 101
H
hand saw, 34–35
hanger bolts, 82, 96–97
hardware cloth, 72–73
harmonics, 7
heatsinks, 208
heat transfer, 8–9
helical gears, 168
hex nuts, 82
hobby servos, 207–8
hobby shops, 76
holes
chamfering, 41
deburring, 87
patching, 90
placement, 127
tapping, 40–42
types, 85–86, 89
home improvement stores, 75
hot glue, 91
hot wire cutters, 57
hypoid gears, 169
212 INDEXI
I-beams, 62
idea for a project, 17–45. See also air horn project
conceptualizing/sketching, 20–22
defining the idea, 18
defining the specifications, 18–20
drawings, 22
fabricating, 23–27
feedback, 23
ingenuity, 40–42
intuition, 31
modularization of design, 42–45
object-oriented programming, 44–45
outsourcing manufacturing, 25
prototyping, 24–27, 74
realization process, overview, 17
research, 22–23
scale modeling, 23–25, 27
staying on track, 24
testing/refining, 28
walkabout to look at materials, 23
ideal system, 2
idler gears, 174
inclined planes, 3, 5
inserts, 83
Instructables, 60
internet sites for materials, 76
intuition, 31
Inventor, 10
J
Jacob’s ladder project (Bunnell), 18–19
jam nuts, 97
joints/joinery, 100–1, 104–5
K
kernmantle rope, 144
Kevlar (aramid fibers), 55–56
L
lag screws, 96
laminated glass, 52
landfill waste, reducing, 63
lap joints, 101
laptops, repurposed, 60
LCDs, repurposed, 60
LEDs (light emitting diodes), 206–7
levers, 113–31
accordion project, 127–29
Adult-Size Tank suspension, 130–31
classes, 114–17
Classy Lever Contraption, 117–25
defined, 4
equilibrium, 115–17
the law of the lever, 116
mechanical advantage, 115–17
overview, 113–14
Lexan (polycarbonate), 54, 68–69
limited-slip differentials, 178
lock nuts (nyloc nuts), 82, 88
lock washers, 83–84
L-shaped angle, 62
lubricity, 5
M
machine screws, 81, 86
Make: magazine, 11, 13–14
manufacturing, 11–12, 25
materials, 47–76
acquisition, 65–66
for the Adult-Size Tank, 73–74
aesthetics, 47
aluminum foil, 75
appliances, repurposed, 75
availability, 62–63
clothes, repurposed, 75
component, 60
containers, repurposed, 75
cost, 5, 47
dumpster diving for, 65–66, 76
fastenability, 5 (see also fasteners)
function, 47
glass, 52–53
lubricity, 5
Mechanical Engineering for Makers 213manufacturability, 4–5
metals, 50–51
overview, 4–6, 47
paper clips, 75
plastic milk jugs, 75
plastics, 53–55
plastic wrap/sandwich bags, 75
protection from the environment, 62
repurposed, 60, 63–64, 75–76
rubber bands, 75
safety, 47, 59
shapes, 61–63
from stores and wrecking yards, 75–76
strength/durability, 47, 89
tool availability, 62
toothpicks, 75
for the Tot-Size Tank, 64–73
toys, repurposed, 75
wax paper, 75
woods, 48–49
workability, 47
MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard), 49, 59
“measure twice and cut once” adage, 24
mechanical advantage (MA)
amplification vs. reduction of force, 2
calculating, 2
defined, 1
of levers, 115–17
of pulleys, 134–35, 150–51
of a wheel-and-axle, 3
mechanical engineering, overview of, 1–15
basic topics, 1–2
definition of mechanical engineering, 1
design, 10–11 (see also design)
electrical engineering/electromechanical systems, 9
maker inspirations (case studies), 13–14 (see also
Adult-Size Tank; Tot-Size Tank)
making vs. engineering, 189
manufacturing, 11–12
materials, 4–6 (see also materials)
simple machines, 1, 3–5 (see also levers; pulleys;
screws)
static vs. dynamic structures, 7, 99–100
stress, 6
thermal/fluid systems, 8–9
training of engineers, 1
Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), 49, 59
metal
alloys, 50
aluminum, 50
aluminum T-slot extrusion, 61, 66, 69–70, 90
bar stock, 60–61
brass, 50
cast iron, 51
chromoly, 51
copper, 50–51
corrosion, 88–89
deburring drilled holes, 87
ferrous vs. non-ferrous, 50
patching holes, 90
plate, 60
protection from the environment, 62
shapes, 60–62
sheet, 60
steel, 50–51
tube stock/pipe, 61
metric screws, 84, 86
microcontrollers, 206–9
mild carbon steel, 50–51, 62
miter gears, 172–73
modularization of design, 42–45
motors, repurposed, 60
N
nails, 80
Najia, Samer, 60, 87, 130–31. See also Adult-Size Tank
flight simulator project, 104–5
go-karts, 14, 45, 73
patches used by, 90
National Association of Rocketry (NAR), 198
national pipe thread taper (NPT), 40–41
Newton, Sir Isaac, 6
newtons (Ns), 6
nuts, 82–83, 97
nyloc nuts (lock nuts), 82, 88
nylon, 54–55
O
object-oriented programming (OOP), 44–45
OpenSCAD, 10
outsourcing, 25
214 INDEXP
paint, lead in, 59
paper clips, 75
paracord, 144
patching holes, 90
pilot holes, 89
pink foam, 57
pins, 80
pipe cutting, 33–35
PLA (polylactic acid), 55
planetary gear sets (epicyclic gear trains), 170
plastic
acrylic (plexiglass), 54
bending, 67
Delrin, 54–55
epoxy resin, 53
fiber-reinforced composites, 56
foam, 56–59
nylon, 54–55
polycarbonate (Lexan), 54, 68–69
polyester resin, 53
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 53–54
safety, 59, 67
thermoplastics, 53–55
thermosets, 53
3D printing filament, 55, 64
Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW),
54–55, 67
plastic milk jugs, 75
plastic wrap/sandwich bags, 75
plate metal, 60
plexiglass (acrylic), 54
Plutarch, 133
plywood, 48–49, 70
pneumatic cannons, 8–9, 20–21, 40, 202–5
pneumatic paper rockets, 190–93
pneumatic rocket launchers, 194–199
polycarbonate (Lexan), 54, 68–69
polyester resin, 53
polylactic acid (PLA), 55
polyvinyl chloride pipe. See PVC pipe
potato guns. See pneumatic cannons
ProE, 10
prototyping, 24–27, 74
pulleys, 133–65
compound, 134
defined, 4, 133
and displacement, 134–35
Door Frame Clampy Claw (DFCC) construction, 135–43
Door Frame Clampy Claw (DFCC) force experiments,
144–49
force balance equations, 141–43
free-body diagrams (FBDs), 140–43, 150
mechanical advantage, 134–35, 150–51
overview, 133–34
PVC Articulated Crane (PAC) project, 152–65
in Tot-Size Tank, 135
PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipe
cementing, 93
cutting, 33–35
fitting alignment/repositioning tricks, 123
friction fitting, 38
gauge, 61
overview, 53–54
removing pipes from fittings, 123
self-tapping with metal pipe fitting, 40–42
Pyrex (borosilicate glass), 52
R
rack and pinion gears, 170
radiant heat transfer, 9
ratchet pipe cutter, 34–35
rivets, 80, 87
rivnuts, 83
rocket launchers, pneumatic, 194–199
rockets, model, 199–201
rockets, pneumatic paper, 190–93
roll pins, 80
rotating pipe cutter, 34–35
rubber bands, 75
rust, 88–89
S
scalars, 140–41
scale modeling, 23–25, 27
Schrader valves, 190, 196–199
screws, 4, 80–81, 84–86, 95–96
scrounging, 64
seesaws, 114
servos, 207–8
Shaduf, 113
Mechanical Engineering for Makers 215sheet glass, 53
sheet metal, 60
sheet metal screws, 81
shoulder bolts (stripper bolts), 82
silicone adhesive, 92
simple machines, 1, 3–5. See also levers; pulleys; screws
sketching, 20–22
SketchUp, 10
skinning material, 101
slotted joints, 101
solenoid sprinkler valves, 190, 196–199
SolidWorks, 10
spacers, 3D printed, 180–81
spiral bevel gears, 169
spray adhesive, 91
spreadsheets, 11
sprinkler valves, 190, 196–199
spur gears, 168, 171
steel/stainless steel, 50–51
stiffening beads, 103
stiffness-to-weight ratio, 56–57
strap joints, 101
stress, 6
structural shapes, 62
structure, 99–111
bracing (triangulation), 101–2
defined, 99
degrees of freedom (DOF) and constraints, 109–11
design overview, 100
dynamic example (Tot-Size Tank tracks), 108–9
flight simulator example, 104–5
gusseting, 101
joints, 100–1, 104–5
overbuilding, 103
skinning material, 101
static example (Tot-Size Tank body), 106–8
static vs. dynamic, 7, 99–100
stiffening beads, 103
strength, 101–5
trusses, 102
weight, 103
superglue (syanoacrylate), 92
T
Tacoma Narrows Bridge, 7
tapping a hole, 40–42
tee joints, 101
tempered glass, 52
thermal/fluid systems, 8–9. See also pneumatic cannons
threaded rods, cutting, 138
thread pitch (fasteners), 84, 86
3D printing filament, 55, 64
through-holes, 85
TinkerCAD, 10
tolerance, 128
toothpicks, 75
torque, 115, 143. See also gears
torque wrenches, 88
Tot-Size Tank (Bunnell)
construction and article on, 13–14
fasteners, 93–97
levers, 114
materials, 64–73
modules, 42–44, 64–65
pulleys, 135
sketch/model, 17
specifications, 19
steering system, 45
structure of body, 106–8
structure of tracks, 108–9
subsystems, 21–22
testing/refining, 28
toys, repurposed, 75
trailing-link suspension, 130–31
triangulation (bracing), 101–2
trusses, 102
T-slot nuts, 83
tube cutter, 34–35
tube stock/pipe, 61
tweezers, 115
two-part foam, 58
U
U-channel shape, 62
Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW),
54–55, 67
Unified National Coarse (UNC) thread, 86
Unified National Fine (UNF) thread, 86
US Customary System, 79, 84, 86
216 INDEXV
vectors, 140–41
vibration, 7
voltage regulators, 208
W
washers, 83–85, 88
wax paper, 75
wedges, 3–4
wheel-and-axle, 3
wheelbarrows, 114–15
white foam, 57
winches, 169–70
wood
hardwoods, 48–49
Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), 49, 59
overview, 48
patching holes, 90
plywood, 48–49, 70
pressure-treated, safety when working with, 59
protection from the environment, 62
from remodeling projects, 64
self-tapping with metal pipe fitting, 42
softwoods, 48–49
wood glue, 92
wood screws (deck screws), 81, 85
work, defined, 5
worm gears, 169–70
Y
yard sales, 76


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