كتاب Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - A Guide to Non-Wovens in Packaging Applications
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - A Guide to Non-Wovens in Packaging Applications

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كتاب Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - A Guide to Non-Wovens in Packaging Applications  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - A Guide to Non-Wovens in Packaging Applications    كتاب Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - A Guide to Non-Wovens in Packaging Applications  Emptyالأربعاء 22 نوفمبر 2023, 11:38 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - A Guide to Non-Wovens in Packaging Applications
Second Edition
Liesl K. Massey  

كتاب Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers - A Guide to Non-Wovens in Packaging Applications  F_p_o_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Introduction
1.0 Packaging Materials . 2
Uses of Packaging Materials 2
2.0 Test Methods . 3
Tests for Physical Properties 3
Tests for Permeability Properties 5
Tests for Optical Properties 6
3.0 Units . 8
4.0 Regulations 8
2.4 Tests for Electrical Properties . 7
The rmop I ast i cs
Acrylic Resin
Acrylonitrile-Methyl-Acrylate Copolymer . AMA . Chapter 1 9
Tabular Information 10
Cellulosic Plastic
Cellulosic . Chapter 2 13
Tabular Information 13
Fluoroplastic
Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer . ETFE . Chapter 3 15
Tabular Information 16
Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Copolymer . FEP . Chapter 4 17
Tabular Information 18
Perfluoroalkoxy Resin . PFA . Chapter 5 . 21
Tabular Information 22
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene . PCTFE . Chapter 6 25
Tabular Information 26 vi
Polytetrafluoroethylene . PTFE . Chapter 7 . 29
Tabular Information 29
Polyvinyl Fluoride . PVF . Chapter 8 31
Graphical Information 31
Tabular Information 32
Ionomer
lonomer . Chapter 9 . 33
Tabular Information 34
Graphical Information 36
Polyamide
Nylon Overview . Chapter 10 . 41
Tabular Information 42
Amorphous Nylon . Chapter 11 . 43
Tabular Information 44
Nylon 6 . PA 6 . Chapter 12 . 47
Tabular Information 48
Nylon 66 . PA 66 . Chapter 13 . 51
Tabular Information 52
Nylon 6/66 . PA 6/66 . Chapter 14 . 55
Tabular Information 55
Nylon 6/12 . PA 6/12 . Chapter 15 . 57
Tabular Information 58
Nylon 6/69 . PA 6/69 . Chapter 16 . 59
Tabular Information 60
Nylon 661610 . PA 661610 . Chapter 17 . 63
Tabular Information 64
Polyester
Polyethylene Napthalate . PEN . Chapter 18 65
Tabular Information 66
Polycyclohexylenedimethylene
Terephthalate . PCTG . Chapter 19 71
Tabular Information 72 vi i
Po lye t h y I e n e Te re p h t h a I ate
Glycol-Modified . PETG . Chapter 20 . 73
Tabular Information 73
Polyethylene Terephthalate . PET . Chapter 21 . 75
Tabular Information 76
Polyimide
Polyimide . Chapter 22 79
Tabular Information 80
Graphical Information 84
Polyolefin
Polyethylene . Overview . Chapter 23 . 89
Tabular Information 89
Ultra Low Density Polyethylene . ULDPE . Chapter 24 91
Tabular Information 92
Low Density Polyethylene . LDPE . Chapter 25 95
Tabular Information 97
Graphical Information 96
Linear Low Density Polyethylene . LLDPE . Chapter 26 . 99
Tabular Information 100
Metallocene-Catalyzed Linear Low Density Polyethylene . mLLDPE . Chapter 27 103
Tabular Information 104
Graphical Information 105
Linear Medium Density Polyethylene . LMDPE . Chapter 28 . 111
Tabular Information . 112
High Density Polyethylene . HDPE . Chapter 29 . 113
Tabular Information . 114
Polyolefin Plastomers . POP . Chapter 30 . 117
Graphical Information . 117
Tabular Information . 118
Cyclic Olefin Copolymer . COC . Chapter 31 125
Tabular Information 126
Graphical Information 127
Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer . EVA . Chapter 32 . 129
Tabular Information 131 viii
Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer . EVOH . Chapter 33 135
Tabular Information 136
Ethylene Acrylic Acid Copolymer . EAA . Chapter 34 . 139
Tabular Information 140
Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene and Oriented Polypropylene .
BOPP and OPP . Chapter 35 141
Tabular Information 142
Polybutene . PB . Chapter 36 . 145
Graphical Information 146
Tabular Information 147
Vinyl Resin
Polyvinyl Alcohol . PVOH . Chapter 37 149
Tabular Information 150
Polyvinyl Chloride . PVC . Chapter 38 . 153
Tabular Information 153
Polyvinylidene Chloride . PVDC . Chapter 39 . 155
Tabular Information 156
Polyvinylidene Chloride Coated Films .
PVDC Coated Films . Chapter 40 . 159
Tabular Information 162
Mu I ti layer Structures
Multilayer Films
Mylar Films . Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Barrier . Chapter 41 . 165
Tabular Information 166
Thermoplastic Elastomers
Olefinic Thermoplastic Elastomers
Olefinic Thermoplastic Elastomers . TPO . Chapter 42 167
Tabular Information 168 ix
Polyether Block Amide
Polyether Block Amide . PEBA . Chapter 43 . 169
Tabular Information 170
Polybutadiene Thermoplastic Elastomer . Chapter 44 171
Tabular Information 171
Polyester Thermoplastic Elastomer
Polyester Thermoplastic Elastomer . Chapter 45 173
Tabular Information 174
Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomer . Chapter 46 . 177
Additional Materials
Metallized Films . Chapter 47 . 179
Tabular Information 179
Biodegradable or Organic Films . Chapter 48 181
Appendix
Glossary of Terms . 183
Indices
Trade Names . 219
References 221 Glossary of Terms
A
ABS: SeeAcrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Polymer.
ABS Nylon Alloy: See Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
Polymer Nylon Alloy.
ABS PC Alloy: SeeAcrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Poly-
mer Polycarbonate Alloy.
ABS Resin: See Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Poly-
mer.
Accelerant: SeeAccelerator.
Accelerator: A chemical substance that accelerates
chemical, photochemical, biochemical, etc., reactions or
processes, such as cross-linking or degradation of polymers, that is triggered andor sustained by another substance, such as a curing agent or catalyst, or environmental factor, such as heat, radiation, or a microorganism.
Also called accelerant, promoter, and cocatalyst.
Acetal Resins: Thermoplastics prepared by polymerization of formaldehyde or its trioxane trimer. Acetals have
high impact strength and stiffness, low fiiction coefficient
and permeability, good dimensional stability and dielectric properties, and high fatigue strength and thermal stability. Acetals have poor acid and UV resistance and are
flammable. Processed by injection and blow-molding and
extrusion. Used in mechanical parts such as gears and bearings, automotive components, appliances, and plumbing
and electronic applications. Also called acetals.
Acetals: SeeAcetal Resins.
Acetone: A volatile, colorless, highly flammable liquid
with molecular formula CH,COCH,. Acetone has an
autoignition temperature of 537"C, mixes readily with water and some other solvents, and is moderately toxic. Acetone dissolves most thermoplastics and some thermosets.
Used as organic synthesis intermediate, e.g., in the manufacture of bisphenol A and antioxidants, as solvent in
paints and acetate fiber spinning and for cleaning of electronic parts. Also called dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone.
Acrylate Styrene Acrylonitrile Polymer: Acrylic rubber-modified thermoplastic with high weatherability.
Acrylate Styrene Acrylonitrile Polymer has good heat and
chemical resistance, toughness, rigidity, and antistatic
properties. Processed by extrusion, thermoforming, and
molding. Used in construction, leisure, and automotive
applications such as siding, exterior auto trim, and in outdoor furniture.
Acrylic Resins: Thermoplastic polymers of alkyl acrylates such as methyl methacrylates. Acrylic resins have
good optical clarity, weatherability, surface hardness,
chemical resistance, rigidity, impact strength, and dimensional stability. They have poor solvent resistance, poor
resistance to stress cracking, flexibility, and thermal stability. Processed by casting, extrusion, injection molding,
and thermoforming. Used in transparent parts, auto trim,
household items, light fixtures, and medical devices. Also
called polyacrylates.
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Polymer: ABS resins
are thermoplastics comprised of a mixture of styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) and SAN-grafted butadiene
rubber. They have high impact resistance, toughness, rigidity, and processability,but low dielectric strength, continuous service temperature, and elongation. Outdoor use
requires protective coatings in some cases. Plating grades
provide excellent adhesion to metals. Processed by extrusion, blow-molding, thermoforming, calendaring, and
injection molding. Used in household appliances, tools,
nonfood packaging, business machinery, interior automotive parts, extruded sheet, pipe, and pipe fittings. Also
called ABS, ABS resin, and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer.
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Polymer Nylon Alloy:
A thermoplastic processed by injection molding, with
properties similar to ABS, but higher elongation at yield.
Also called ABS Nylon Alloy.
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Polymer Polycarbon-
ate Alloy: A thermoplastic processed by injection molding and extrusion, with properties similar to ABS. Used
in automotive applications. Also called ABS PC alloy.Acrylonitrile Copolymer: A thermoplastic prepared by
copolymerization of acrylonitrile with small amounts of
other unsaturated monomers. Has good gas barrier properties and chemical resistance. Processed by extrusion,
injection molding, and thermoforming. Used in food packaging.
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Polymer: See Acry-
lonitrile Butadiene Styrene Polymer.
Activation Energy: An excess energy that must be added
to an atomic or molecular system to allow a process to
proceed such as diffusion or chemical reaction.
Adsorption: Retention of a substance molecule on the
surface of a solid or liquid.
Alcohols: A class of hydroxy compounds in which a hydroxy group(s) is attached to a carbon chain or ring. Alcohols are produced synthetically from petroleum stock,
e.g., by hydration of ethylene, or derived from natural
products, e.g., by fermentation of grain. The alcohols are
divided in the following groups: monohydric, dihydric,
trihydric, and polyhydric. Used in organic synthesis, as
solvents, plasticizers, fuels, beverages, and detergents, etc.
AMA: SeeAcrylonitrile Methyl Acrylate.
Amorphous Nylon: Transparent aromatic polyamide thermoplastics. Produced by condensation of hexamethylene
diamine, isophthalic and terephthalic acid.
Annulus Test: An ozone resistance test for rubbers that
involves a flat-ring specimen mounted as a band over a
rack, stretched 0 to loo%, and subjected to ozone attack
in the test chamber. The specimen is evaluated by comparing to a calibrated template to determine the minimum
elongation at which cracking occurred.
Anthraquinone: An aromatic compound comprising two
benzene rings linked by two carbonyl (C=O) groups,
C,H,(CO),C,H,. Combustible. Used as an intermediate in organic synthesis, mainly in the manufacture of
anthraquinone dyes and pigments. One method of preparation is by condensationof 1,4-naphthaquinone with butadiene.
Antioxidant: A chemical substance capable of inhibiting
oxidation or oxidative degradation of another substance
such as plastic in which it is incorporated. Antioxidants
act by terminating chain-propagating free radicals or by
decomposing peroxides, formed during oxidation, into
stable products. The first group of antioxidants include
hindered phenols and amines; the second group includes
sulfur compounds, such as thiols.
Ar: See argon.
Arc Resistance: Arc Resistance is the relative ability of
a material to withstand arcing across its surface when electrodes placed on the specimen are impressed with high
voltage (low amperage) current.
Area Factor: The ratio between the total area of pore
openings on the surface of a membrane that is in contact
with the incoming flow of a penetrant, to the area of this
surface.
Argon (Ar): A chemically inert, tasteless, colorless, noncombustible monoatomic gas. Argon is often used to characterize permeability of polymeric films, such as carrier
gas in gas chromatography, as inert gas shield in welding,
in electric bulbs such as neon, lasers, and as a process
environment.
Aroma Barrier: A plastic film or its component preventing the escape of aromatic volatiles from foodstuffs or
cosmetics seal-packaged in the film.
Aromatic Polyester Estercarbonate: A thermoplastic
block copolymer of an aromatic polyester with polycarbonate. Has higher heat distortion temperature than regular polycarbonate.
Aromatic Polyesters: Engineering thermoplastics prepared by polymerization of aromatic polyol with aromatic dicarboxylic anhydride. They are tough with
somewhat low chemical resistance. Processed by injection
and blow-molding, extrusion, and thermoforming.Drying
is required. Used in automotive housings and trim, electrical wirejacketing, printed circuit boards, and appliance
enclosures.
ASA: SeeAcrylate Styrene Acrylonitrile Polymer.
ASTM International: Formerly known as the American
Society for Testing and Materials.
ASTM D96: (Discontinued Test Method) Standard test
method for determining water vapor transmission of materials suchas paper, plastic film and sheeting, fiberboards,
wood products, etc., that are less than 31 mm in thickness. Two basic methods, the Desiccant Method and the
Water Method are used. The specimens have either one
side wetted or one side exposed to high humidity and
another to low humidity. In the Desiccant Method, the185
specimen is placed airtight on a test dish with a desiccant
that is weighed to determine the gain of weight due to
water vapor transmission. In the Water Method, the
water is placed in the dish that is weighed to determine
the loss of water due to evaporation through the specimen.
ASTM D149: StandardTest Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Solid Electrical
Insulating Materials at Commercial Power Frequencies
may be used to determine dielectric strength of solid insulating materials. The frequency of the tests is generally
at commercial power frequencies of 60 Hz, but the method
is appropriate for any frequency from 25 through 60 Hz.
Various temperatures and any suitable gaseous or liquid
medium may be used. D149 is used for determining the
dielectric breakdown voltage most often through the thickness of a test specimen (puncture), but also along the interface between a solid specimen and a gaseous or liquid
surrounding medium (flashover). Proof testing may be
performed through the use of Section 12 modifications
instruction.
ASTM D150: Standard Test Methods for AC Loss Characteristics and Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Solid
Electrical Insulation includes the determination of relative* permittivity, dissipation factor, loss index, power
factor, phase angle, and loss angle through specimens of
solid electrical insulating materials when the standards
used are lumped impedances. The frequency range that
can be covered extends from less than 1 Hz to several
hundred megahertz.
*In common usage, the word relative is frequently
dropped.
ASTM D256: Standard Test Methods for Determining
the Izod Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastics. Used
to determine the resistance of a plastic specimen to impact by a pendulum-type hammer. Specimens contain a
milled notch and depending upon the test method, failure
may be brittle or ductile. Testresults are reported in terms
of energy absorbed per unit of specimen width or per unit
of cross-sectional area under the notch.
ASTM D257: Standard Test Methods for DC Resistance
or Conductance of Insulating Materials. Used to determine DC insulation resistance, volume resistance, volume
resistivity, surface resistance, and surface resistivity of
electrical insulating materials, or the corresponding conductances and conductivitiesof insulating materials. D256
is not suitable for use in measuring the electrical resistivitylconductivity of moderately conductive materials.
ASTM D471: An American Society for Testing of Materials. Standard method for determining the resistance of
nonporous rubber to hydrocarbon oils, fuels, service fluids, and water. The specimens are immersed in fluids for
22-670 hours at -75 to 250"C, followed by measuring of
the changes in mass, volume, tensile strength, elongation,
and hardness for solid specimens and the changes in breaking strength, burst strength, tear strength, and adhesion
for rubber-coated fabrics.
ASTM D495: Standard Test Method for High-Voltage,
Low-Current, Dry Arc Resistance of Solid Electrical Insulation. Recommended as a preliminary screening
method to differentiate among similar materials with
respect to their resistance to the action of a high-voltage, low-current arc close to the surface of insulation,
intending to form a conducting path therein or in causing the material to become conducting due to the localized thermal and chemical decomposition and erosion.
D495 will not, in general, permit conclusions to be drawn
concerning the relative arc resistance ranking of materials that may be subjected to other types of arcs: for example, high voltage at high currents, and low voltage at
low or high currents.
ASTM D523: Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss.
Used to determine the specular gloss ofnonmetallic specimens for glossmeter geometries of 20", 60", and 85".
ASTM D542: StandardTest Method for Index of Refiaction of Transparent Organic Plastics. Used to measure the
index of refiaction of transparent organic plastic materials
throughuse of arefiactometer. D542 requires optically homogeneous specimens of uniform refractive index. This
test method and IS0 489 are technically equivalent.
ASTM D570: Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Plastics. Used to determine the relative rate of absorption of water by plastics when immersed. D570 is
applicable to the testing of all types of plastics, including
cast, hot-molded, and cold-molded resinous products, and
both homogeneous and laminated plastics in rod and tube
form and in sheets 0.13 mm (0.005 in.) or greater in thickness. IS0 62 is technically equivalent to this test method.
ASTM D638: Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics is used to determine the tensile properties
of unreinforced and reinforced plastics under defined conditions of pretreatment, temperature, humidity, and testing machine speed. Specimens are dumbbell-shaped and
can be of any thickness up to 14 mm. However, test
Method D882 is the preferred test method for testing filmsless than 1.O mm. Materials with a thickness greater than
14 mm (0.55 in.) must be reduced by machining. D638
also includes the option of determining Poisson's ratio at
room temperature. This test method and IS0 527-1 are
technically equivalent.
ASTM D696: Standard Test Method for Coefficient of
Linear Thermal Expansion of Plastics Between
-30°C and 30°C. With a Vitreous Silica Dilatometer. Used
to determine the coefficient of linear thermal expansion
by use of a vitreous silica dilatometer for plastic materials having coefficients of expansion greater than 1 x lo6
1°C. Plastic materials generally have negligible creep or
elastic strain rate or both at the temperatures and stresses
herein imposed.
ASTM D774: StandardTest Method for Bursting Strength
of Paper is used to measure the bursting strength of paper
and paper products whose bursting strength lies between
30kPa and 1400kPa. These products shall be single or
laminated flat sheets not over 0.6 mm (0.025 in.) in thickness. This method is similar to IS0 2758 and TAPPI 403.
ASTM D790: Standard Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and
Electrical Insulating Materials. Used to determine flexural properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics,
and is generally applicable to both rigid and semirigid
materials. D 790 uses a three-point loading system applied to a simply supported beam, and is valid for those
materials that break or fail in the outer surface of the test
specimen within the 5.0% strain limit of these test methods. It should be noted that these test methods are not
technically equivalent to IS0 178.
ASTM D792: Standard Test Methods for Density and
Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement. Used to determine the specific gravity and
density of solid plastics in forms such as sheets, rods,
tubes, or molded items. It should be noted that this standard is not equivalent to IS0 11 83 method A.
ASTM D882: Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic Sheeting. Used to determine tensile
properties of plastics in the form of thin sheeting, including film having a nominal thickness not greater than 0.25
mm (0.010 in.). InD882, specimenextensionmaybemeasuredby grip separation, extension indicators, or displacement of gage marks. This test method is similar to IS0
527-3, but is not considered technically equivalent.
ASTM D1709: Standard Test Methods for Impact Resistance of Plastic Film by the Free-Falling Dart Method.
Provides two methods for the determination of the energy, expressed as weight (mass), that causes plastic film
to fail under the impactof a fiee-falling dart. Specified conditionsinclude height fiom whichthe dart will fallas well as
the weight of the dart. Failure energy is when 50% of the
tested specimens fail with a specific weight of dart. Both
methods, the staircase technique and the alternative technique give equivalent results with respect to the dart impact weight at failure as well as to the precisions with
which they are determined. This method is similar to IS0
7765-1, IS0 7765-1 which has several differences.
ASTM D1746: Standard Test Method for Transparency
of Plastic Sheeting. Used to determine the regular transmittance (Tr) of plastic sheeting. The primary use of
D 1746 is with nominally clear and colorless thin sheeting, but the method is generally applicable to any translucent or transparent material.
ASTM D1922: Standard Test Method for Propagation
Tear Resistance of Plastic Film and Thin Sheetingby Pendulum Method. Used to determine the average force to
propagate tearing after the tear has been started using an
Elmendorf-type tearing tester. Two specimens of a specified length of plastic film or nonrigid sheeting are used,
one rectangular type and one with a constant radius testing length. The latter is the preferred or referee specimen.
Provisions are made in the test method to compensate for
oblique directional tearing, which may be found with some
materials.
ASTM D1938: Standard Test Method for Tear-Propagation Resistance (Trouser Tear) of Plastic Film and Thin
Sheeting by a Single-Tear Method. Used to determine the
force necessary to propagate a tear in plastic film and thin
sheeting (thickness of 1 mm or less) by a single-tear
method. D1938 employs a constant rate of separation of
the grips holding the test specimen and the specimen extension may be measured in this test method by grip separation. The method is not applicable for film or sheeting
material where brittle failures occur during testing.
ASTM D2176: Standard Test Method for Folding Endurance of Paper by the M.I.T. Tester.Used to determine
the folding endurance of paper using the M.1.T.-typefolding apparatus. This test method is the technical equivalent of TAPPI T511.
ASTM D2457: Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss
of Plastic Films and Solid Plastics. Used for the measurement of gloss of opaque and transparent plastic films
and solid plastics. D2475 contains three separate gloss
angles: 60", recommended for intermediate-gloss films,187
20", recommended for high-gloss films, and 45", recommended for intermediate gloss and low-gloss films. Note:
The 60" and 20" apparatus and method of measurement
duplicate those in ASTM D523; those for the 45" procedure are similarly taken from ASTM C346.
ASTM D2863: Standard Test Method for Measuring
the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support
Candle-Like Combustion of Plastics (Oxygen Index). Used to measure the minimum concentration
of oxygen that willjust support flaming combustion in a
flowing mixture of oxygenandnitrogen. Methods are provided for testing materials that are structurally self-supporting in the form of vertical bars or sheet up to 10.5
mm thick as well as flexible sheet or film materials supported vertically.
ASTM D3420: Standard Test Method for Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastic Film. Used to determine the
resistance of film to impact-puncture penetration at ambient conditions. Also called Spencer Impact.
ASTM D3985: Standard test method for determining the
steady-state transmission rate of oxygen gas through a
plastic film, sheeting, laminates, coextrusions, or plasticcoated paper or fabric. An American Society for Testing
of Materials.
ASTM D5214: Withdrawn Standard Test Method for
Polyimide Resin Film for Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Application (Withdrawn 1995). Replaced by
D2305: StandardTest Methods for Polymeric Films Used
for Electrical Insulation
ASTM E96: Standard test method for determining water
vapor transmission of materials such as paper, plastic film
and sheeting, fiberboards, wood products, etc., that are
less than 3 1mm in thickness. Two basic methods, the Desiccant Method and the Water Method, are used. The specimens have either one side wetted or one side exposed to
high humidity and another to low humidity. In the Desiccant Method, the specimen is placed airtight on a test dish
with a desiccant that is weighed to determine the gain of
weight due to water vapor transmission. In the Water
Method, the water is placed in the dish that is weighed to
determine the loss of water due to evaporation through
the specimen.
ASTM E398: Standard test method for the determination of water vapor transmission rate of sheet materials
with at least one side being hydrophobic, such as plastic
film, by a rapid dynamic method. The specimen is mounted
between two chambers, one of known relative humidity
and another of dry air. The response of an electrical sensor capable of detecting water vapor accumulation in the
dry chamber is recorded and used, with the help of a calibrating curve, to determine the water vapor transmission
rate. Also called ASTM E398-70.
ASTM E398-70: SeeASTME398.
ASTM E424: Standard Test Method for Solar Energy
Transmittance and Reflectance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials. Used to determine solar energy transmittance and
reflectance of materials in sheet form using one of two
procedures. Method A, the referee method, is applicable
for both transmittance and reflectance and uses a spectrophotometer. Method B is applicable only for measurement
of transmittance and uses a pyranometer in an enclosure
and the sun as the energy source. Both test methods have
given essentially equivalent results for those materials
studied by the task group who prepared the method.
ASTM F372: Standard test method for the rapid determination of water vapor transmission rate of flexible barrier films and thin sheeting consisting of single or multilayer synthetic or natural polymers and metal foils including coated materials. The specimen is mounted between
two chambers, one of known relative humidity and another of dry air. The time for a given increase in water
vapor concentration of the dry chamber is measured by
monitoring the differential between two bands in the infrared spectral region, one in which water molecules absorb and the other where they do not. The values obtained
are used to calculate the water vapor transmission rate.
ASTM F1249: Standard test method for determining
water vapor transmission rate through plastic film and
sheeting up to 3 mm in thickness using a pressure-modulated infrared sensor. In addition, this method provides
for the determination of the permeance of the film to
water vapor and the water vapor permeability coefficient.
The specimen is placed as a sealed semi-barrier between
two chambers at ambient atmospheric pressure. One
chamber is wet and another is dry. As water vapor penetrates through the film from the wet chamber into the
dry one it is carried by air into the sensor. It measures
the fraction of infrared energy absorbed by the vapor
and produces an electric signal that is proportionalto water
vapor concentration
ASTM F456: Withdrawn Standard Test Method for Pinhole Flex Life of Films by Axial Vibration of a Tubular
Sample (Withdrawn 1987). No replacement.Atmosphere: A metric unit of measurement of pressure equal to 1.013250 x 1.OE+06 dynes/cm2 or
1.013250 x 1.OE+05pascals, which is the air pressure
measured at mean sea level. It has a dimension of unit of
force per unit of area. Used to denote the pressure of gases,
vapors, and liquids. Also called atm, standard atmosphere,
and std atm.
Azo: A prefix indicating an organic group of two nitrogen atoms linked by a double bond, -N=N-, or a class of
chemical compounds containing this group, like azo dyes.
B
Bar: A metric unit of measure of pressure equal to
1.OE+06 dynes/cm2 or 1.OE+05pascals. It has a dimension of unit of force per unit of area. Used to denote the
pressure of gases, vapors, and liquids.
Barrier Material: Materials such as plastic films, sheeting, wood laminates, particle board, paper, fabrics, etc.,
with low permeability to gases and vapors. Used in construction as water vapor insulation, food packaging, and
protective clothing, etc.
Benzene: An aromatic hydrocarbon with a six-atom carbon ring, C,H,. Highly toxic and flammable (autoignition
point 562°C). A colorless or yellowish liquid under normal conditions (b.p.SO.l"C), soluble inmany organic solvents such as ethanol, acetone, tetrachlorocarbon, etc.
Used for synthesis of organic compounds.
Bisphenol A Polyester: A thermoset unsaturated polyester based on bisphenol A and fumaric acid.
Blowup Ratio: In extrusion blowing of film, it is the
ratio of the extrusion die diameter and the diameter of
the tubular film. In blow-molding, it is the ratio between
the diameter of a parison and the maximum diameter of
the mold cavity.
Blown Film: A plastic film produced by extrusion blowing, wherein an extruded plastic tube is continuously inflated by internal air pressure, cooled, collapsed by rolls,
and wound up. The thickness of the film is controlled by
air pressure and rate of extrusion.
BOPP: Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene.
Bubbling: The presence of bubbles of trapped air andor
volatile vapors in nonmetallic coating or plastic specimen or article. Bubbling is often caused by improper application or excessive mixing of paints or degassing.
Bursting Strength: Bursting strength of a material is
the maximum hydrostatic pressure required to produce
rupture of the material when a controlled and constantly
increasing pressure is applied through a rubber diaphragm
to a circular area.
C
CA: See Cellulose Acetate.
CAB: See Cellulose Acetate Butyrate.
Carbon Black: A black colloidal carbon filler made by
the partial combustion or thermal cracking of natural
gas, oil, or another hydrocarbon. There are several types
of carbon black depending on the starting material and
the method of manufacture. Each type of carbon black
comes in several grades. Carbon black is widely used as a
filler and pigment in rubbers and plastics. It reinforces,
increases the resistance to W light, and reduces static
charging.
Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, tasteless gas, CO,, is found
in the atmosphere. It is produced as a result of metabolism (e.g., oxidationof carbohydrates) and is used by plants
in photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide has low toxicity and is
noncombustible. Derived industrially from synthesis gas
in ammonia production and from cracking of hydrocarbons. Used widely in refrigeration, carbonated beverages,
chemical synthesis, water treatment, medicine, fire extinguishing, and as inert atmosphere.
Carbon Monoxide: A colorless, tasteless gas, CO. Highly
flammable (liquid autoignition point, 609°C) and toxic.
Found in automobile exhaust gases and is a major air pollutant. Manufactured from coke by action of oxygen and
carbon dioxide or steam. Used in organic synthesis, synthetic fuels, and metallurgy.
Cast Film: Film produced by pouring or spreading resin
solution or melt over a suitable temporary substrate,
followed by curing via solvent evaporation or melt cooling and removing the cured film from the substrate.
Cellulose Acetate: Thermoplastic esters of cellulose
with acetic acid. Has good toughness, gloss, clarity,
processability, stiffness, hardness, and dielectric properties, but poor chemical, fire and water resistance and
compressive strength. Processed by injection and blowmolding and extrusion. Used for appliance cases, steering wheels, pens, handles, containers, eyeglass frames,
brushes, and sheeting. Also called CA.Cellulose Acetate Butyrate: Thermoplastic mixed esters of cellulose with acetic and butyric acids. Has good
toughness, gloss, clarity, processability, dimensional stability, weatherability, and dielectric properties, but poor
chemical, fire, and water resistance, and compressive
strength. Processed by injection and blow-molding and
extrusion. Used for appliance cases, steering wheels, pens,
handles, containers, eyeglass frames, brushes, and sheeting. Also called CAB.
Cellulose Propionate: Thermoplastic esters of cellulose
with propionic acid. Has good toughness, gloss, clarity,
processability, dimensional stability, weatherability, and
dielectric properties, but poor chemical, fire and water
resistance and compressive strength. Processed by injection and blow-molding and extrusion. Used for appliance
cases, steering wheels, pens, handles, containers, eyeglass
frames, brushes, and sheeting. Also called CP.
Cellulosic Plastics: Thermoplastic cellulose esters and
ethers. Has good toughness, gloss,clarity, processability,and
dielectric properties, but poor chemical, fire, and water resistance and compressive strength. Processed by injection
and blow-molding and extrusion. Used for appliance cases,
steering wheels, pens, handles, containers, eyeglass
frames, brushes, and sheeting.
Centimeter of Mercury: See cm Hg.
CFR: See Code of Federal Regulations.
Chain Scission: Breaking of the chainlike molecule of a
polymer as a result of chemical, photochemical, etc., reaction such as thermal degradation or photolysis.
Chalking: Formation of a dry, chalk-like, loose powder
on or just beneath the surfaceof paint film or plastic caused
by the exudation of a compounding ingredient such as
pigment, often as a result of ingredient migration to the
surface and surface degradation.
Channel Black: Carbon black made by impingement of
a natural gas flame against a metal plate or channel iron,
from which a deposit is scraped. Used as a reinforcing
filler in rubbers. Also called Gas Black.
Chemical Saturation: Absence of double or triple
bonds in a chain organic molecule such as that of most
polymers, usually between carbon atoms. Saturation
makes the molecule less reactive and polymers less susceptible to degradation and cross-linking. Also called
Chemically Saturated Structure.
Chemical Unsaturation: Presence of double or triple
bonds in a chain organic molecule such as that of some
polymers, usually between carbon atoms. Unsaturation
makes the molecule more reactive, especially in freeradical addition reactions such as addition polymerization, and polymers more susceptibleto degradation, crosslinking, and chemical modification. Also called Polymer
Chain Unsaturation.
Chemically Saturated Structure: See Chemical Satu-
ration.
Chlorendic Polyester: A chlorendic anhydride-based unsaturated polyester.
Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride: Thermoplastic produced by chlorination of polyvinyl chloride. Has increased
glass transition temperature, chemical and fire resistance,
rigidity, tensile strength, and weatherability as compared
to PVC. Processed by extrusion, injection molding, casting, and calendering. Used for pipes, auto parts, waste
disposal devices, and outdoor applications. Also called
CPVC.
Chloroethyl Alcohol(2-): See Ethylene Chlorohydrin.
Chloroform: Trichloromethane, CHC1,. Chloroform is a
clear, colorless, volatile, nonflammable liquid with characteristic pungent smell. It is toxic and carcinogenic. Derived by chlorination of methane. Formerly used as an
anesthetic, it is now used mainly as a solvent and in organic synthesis to manufacture fluorocarbon plastics and
insecticides.
Chlorohydrins: Halohydrins with chlorine as a halogen atom. One of the most reactive of halohydrins.
Dichlorohydrins are used in the preparation of epichlorohydrins, important monomers in the manufacture of
epoxy resins. Mostchlorohydrins are reactive colorless liquids, soluble in polar solvents such as alcohols.
Note: Chlorohydrins are a class of organic compounds, not to be mixed with a specific member of this
class, l-chloropropane-2,3-diol sometimes called Chlorohydrin.
Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber: Thermosetting
elastomers containing 20-40% chlorine. Has good
weatherability and heat and chemical resistance. Used
for hoses, tubes, sheets, footwear soles, and inflatable
boats.
Cm Hg: A metric unit of measurement of pressure equal
to 13332.2 dynes/cm2 or 1333.22 pascals at 0°C. Onecentimeter of mercury is the pressure that would support
a column of mercury of length one centimeter and density
12,595 kg/m3 under the standard acceleration of free fall.
Used to denote the pressure of gases, vapors, and liquids.
Also called Centimeter of Mercury.
COC: Cyclic Olefin Copolymer.
CoF: Coefficient of Friction
Cocatalyst: SeeAccelerator.
Code of Federal Regulations 21 CFR 177: The 21 CFR
177 establishes specific guidelines for materials that come
into “indirect food contact”, i.e., materials that contact
food but are not ingredients. 21CFR 177 sets guidelines
for the manufacture of these materials and requires independent laboratory testing of the materials to ensure that
they do not exceed specified levels of extractables.
Coefficient of Friction (CoF): The coefficientof fiiction
is definedas the ratio ofthe weightof anobject being moved
along the surface of a specimen to the force that is required to maintain contact between the object and the surface.
Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity: The coefficient
of thermal conductivity, sometimes called the K-factor, is
defined as the quantity of heat that passes through a unit
cube of the substance in a given unit of time when the
difference in temperature of the two faces is 1 “C.
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (Linear): The
coefficient of thermal expansion (linear) is the change in
length per unit length of material for a 1°C change in
temperature.
Coextruded Film: A film made by coextrusion of two or
more different or similar plastics through a single die with
two or more orifices arranged sothat the extrudates merge
and weld together into a laminar film before cooling. Each
ply of coextruded film imparts a desired property, such as
impermeability or resistance to some environment and
heat-sealability, usually unattainable with a single material.
Color Change: SeeDiscoloration.
Coloration: SeeDecoloration
Compatibilizer: A chemical compound used to increase
the compatibility or miscibility and to prevent the separation of the components in a plastic composition, such
as the compatibility of a resin and a plasticizer or of two
polymers in a blend. Block copolymers bearing blocks
similar to the polymers in the blend are often used as
compatibilizers in the latter case.
Concentration Units: The units for measuring the content of a distinct material or substance in a medium other
than this material or substance, such as solvent.
Note: The concentration units are usually expressed
in the units of mass or volume of substance per one unit
of mass or volume of medium. When the units of substance and medium are the same, the percentage is often
used.
Conditioning: Process of bringing the material or apparatus to a certain condition, e.g., moisture content or temperature, prior to further processing, treatment, etc. Also
called Conditioning Cycle.
Conditioning Cycle: See Conditioning.
Corona Discharge Treatment: Treating the surface of
an inert plastic such as polyolefin with corona discharge
to increase its affinityto inks, adhesives, or coatings.Plastic films are passed over a grounded metal cylinder
with a pointed high-voltage electrode above it to produce the discharge. The discharge oxidizes the surface,
making it more receptive to finishing. Also called Corona
Treatment.
Corona Treatment: See Corona Discharge Treatment
CONEG: The Coalition of Northeastern Governors is a
nonpartisan association of the Governors of the eight
Northeastern states that encourages intergovernmental
cooperation in the Northeast on issues relating to the
economic, environmental, and social well-being of the
Northeast states.
COPE: See Copolyester Ether.
Copolyester Ether: Copolyester ethers (COPE) are clear,
tough copolymers with elastomeric-like properties. They
provide strength and durability and resist puncturing.
Covulcanization: Simultaneous vulcanization of a blend
of two or more different rubbers to enhance their individual properties such as ozone resistance. Rubbers are
often modified to improve covulcanization.
CP: See Cellulose Propionate.
CPVC: See Chlorinated Polyvinyl chloride. 191
Cracking: Appearance of external andor internal cracks
in the material as a result of stress that exceeds the strength
of the material. The stress can be external andor internal
and canbe caused by a variety of adverse conditions: structural defects, impact, aging, corrosion, etc., or a combination thereof. Also called Cracks. See also Processing
Defects.
Cracks: See Cracking.
Crazes: See Crazing.
Crazing: Appearance of thin cracks on the surface of the
material or, sometimes, minute frost-like internal cracks,
as a result of stress that exceeds the strength of the material, impact, temperature changes, degradation, etc. Also
called Crazes.
Cross-linked Polyethylene: Polyethylene thermoplastics
partially photochemically or chemically cross-linked. Has
improved tensile strength, dielectric properties, and impact strength at low and elevated temperatures.
Cross-linking: Reaction of formation of covalent bonds
between chain-like polymer molecules or between polymer molecules and low-molecular compounds such as
carbon black fillers. As a result of cross-linking, polymers, such as thermosetting resins, may become hard and
infusible. Cross-linking is induced by heat, UV or electron-beam radiation, oxidation, etc. Cross-linking can be
achieved either between polymer molecules alone as in
unsaturated polyesters or with the help of multifunctional
cross-linking agents such as diamines that react with functional side groups of the polymers. Cross-linking can be
catalyzed by the presence of transition metal complexes,
thiols, and other compounds.
Crystal Polystyrene: See General Purpose Polystyrene.
Crystalline Melting Point: The temperatureofmelting of
the crystallite phase of a crystalline polymer. It is higher
than the temperature of melting of the surrounding amorphous phase.
Cycle Time: SeeProcessing Time.
Cyclic Compounds: A broad class of organic compounds
consisting of carbon rings that are saturated, partially
unsaturated, or aromatic, in which some carbon atoms
may be replaced by other atoms such as oxygen, sulfur,
and nitrogen.
D
d-Limonene: One of two optical isomers of limonene, a
naturally occurring terpene closely related to isoprene.
Limonene is a colorless liquid that oxidizes to film in air.
Derived from lemon, orange, and other essential oils. Used
as flavoring, fragrance, solvent, and wetting agent.
DAP: See Diallyl Phthalate Resins.
Dart Drop: See Impact Resistance, Dart Drop
Decoloration: Complete or partial loss of color of the
material as a result of degradation or removal of colored
substances present. Also called Decoloring.
Decoloring: SeeDecoloration.
Defects: See Processing Defects.
Deflection Temperature Under Load: SeeHeat Deflec-
tion Temperature.
Degradation: Loss or undesirable change in the properties, such as color,of a material as a result of aging, chemical reaction, wear, exposure, etc. See also Stability.
Diallyl Phthalate Resin: Thermoset supplied as diallyl
phthalate prepolymer or monomer. Hashigh chemical, heat
and water resistance, dimensional stability, and strength.
Shrinks during peroxide curing. Processed by injection,
compression, and transfer-molding. Used in glass-reinforced tubing, auto parts, and electrical components. Also
called DAP.
Dielectric Constant: The ability of an insulator to store
electrical energy can be measured through the dielectric
constant. Better insulating materials have lower dielectric constants.
Dielectric Strength: The maximum electric field strength
that an insulator can withstand intrinsically without breaking down, i.e., without experiencing failure of its insulating properties.
Differential Scanning Calorimeter: Used to determine
the specific heat of a specimen by measurement of the
thermal response of the unknown specimen as compared
with a standard when the two are heated uniformly at a
constant rate. The ratio of the departure of the standard
and unknown from the baseline is used to calculate the
specific heat of the unknown. Also called DSC.192
Diffusion: Spontaneous slow mixing of different substances in contact without influence of external forces.
E
EAA: See Ethylene Acrylic Acid Copolymer.
Diffusion Coefficient: Weight of a substance diffusing
through a unit area in a unit time per a unit concentration
gradient. Also called Diffusivity.
Diffusivity: SeeDiffusion CoefJicient.
Dihydric Alcohols: See Glycols
Dihydroxy Alcohols: See Glycols.
Dimethyl Ketone: SeeAcetone.
Dimensional Stability: Dimensional stability is often
represented as a percentage change in the specimen
shape when the specimen is subjected to varying degrees of stress for example: temperature, moisture or pressure.
DIN 53122: A German Standards Institute (Deutsches
Institut fuer Normen, DIN) standard test method for determining water vapor transmission of flat materials such
as plastic film and sheeting.
DIN 53380: A German Standards Institute (Deutsches
Institut fuer Normen, DIN) standard test method for determining gas permeability of flat materials such as plastic film and sheeting.
Discoloration: A change in color due to chemical or
physical changes in the material. Also called Color
Change.
Disperse Dyes: Nonionic dyes insoluble in water and
used mainly as fine aqueous dispersions in dying acetate, polyester, and polyamide fibers. A large subclass
of disperse dyes comprises low-molecular-weight aromatic
azo compounds with amino, hydroxy, and alkoxy groups
that fix on fibers by forming van der Waals and hydrogen
bonds.
Displacement: Process of removing one object, e.g., a
medium in an apparatus, or its part, and replacing it with
another. Also called Displacement Cycle.
Displacement Cycle: SeeDisplacement.
Dissipation Factor: The ratio of the power loss in a dielectric material to the total power transmitted through
the dielectric material.
ECTFE: See Ethylene Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copoly-
mer.
Elastic Modulus: The force needed to elongate a material, or the ratio of the applied stress to the change in shape
of an elastic body.
Elmendorf Tear: A measurement of the tear resistance
of sheet materials including paper, packaging, foils, textiles, non-wovens, and plastic films.
Elongation: The change in length (lengthening, stretch)
of a material when subjected to tensile stress.
Elongation at Break (ultimate tensile strength): Elongation at break isthe strain at failure, or the percent change
in length at failure. (IS0 527)
Elongation at Yield: Elongation at yield is the strain that
the material undergoes at the yield point, or the percent
change in length that occurs while the material is stressed
to its yield point.
EMA: Ethylene Methyl Acrylate.
EMAC: See Ethylene Methyl Acrylate Copolymer.
Embrittlement: A reduction or loss of ductility or toughness in materials such as plastics resulting from chemical
or physical damage.
EP: Ethylene Propene. SeeEPDMRubber.
EPDM: See EPDM Rubber.
EPDM Rubber: Sulfur-vulcanizable thermosetting elastomer produced from ethylene, propylene, and a small
amount of nonconjugated diene such as hexadiene. Has
good weatherability and chemical and heat resistance.
Used as impact modifiers and for weather stripping, auto
parts, cable insulation, conveyor belts, hoses, and tubing.
Also called EPDM.
Epoxides: Organic compounds containing three-membered cyclic group(s) in which two carbon atoms are linked
with an oxygen atom as in an ether. This group is called
an epoxy group and is quite reactive, allowing the use of
epoxides as intermediates in preparation of certain fluorocarbons and cellulose derivatives and as monomers in
DSC: See Differential Scanning Calorimeter. 193
preparation of epoxy resins. Also called Epoxy Compounds.
Epoxies: SeeEpoxy Resins.
Epoxy Compounds: SeeEpoxides.
Epoxy Resins: Thermosetting polyethers containing
cross-linkable glycidyl groups. Usually prepared by
polymerization of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin or
reacting phenolic novolaks with epichlorohydrin. Can
be made unsaturated by acrylation. Unmodified varieties are cured at room or elevated temperatures with
polyamines or anhydndes. Bisphenol A epoxy resins have
excellent adhesion and very low shrinkage during curing.
Cured novolak epoxies have good W stability and dielectric properties. Cured acrylated epoxies have high
strength and chemical resistance. Processed by molding,
casting, coating, and lamination. Used as protective coatings, adhesives, potting compounds, and binders in laminates and composites. Also called Epoxies.
EPR: SeeEthylene Propene Rubber.
ESCR: Environmental-stress-crack resistance.
ETFE : SeeEthylene Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer
Ethane: An alkane (saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon) with
two carbon atoms, CH,CH,. A colorless, odorless, flammable gas. Relatively inactive chemically. Obtained from
natural gas. Used in petrochemical synthesis and as fuel.
coatings and plastics, organic synthesis, artificial flavors,
and pharmaceuticals.
Ethyl Alcohol: An aliphatic alcohol, CH,CH,OH. A colorless, volatile, flammable liquid (autoignition temperature, 422°C). Toxic by ingestion at high concentrations.
Derived by catalytic hydration of ethylene, fermentation
of biomass such as grain, or enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Used as an automotive fuel additive, in alcoholic
beverages, as solvent for resins and oils, in organic synthesis, cleaning compositions, cosmetics, antifreeze, and
antiseptic. Also called Ethanol.
Ethylene: An alkene (unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon)
with two carbon atoms, CH,=CH,. A colorless, highly
flammable gas with sweet odor (autoignition temperature,
543°C). Derivedby thermal crackingof hydrocarbon gases
or from synthesis gas. Used as monomer in polymer synthesis, refrigerant, and anesthetic. Also called Ethene.
Ethylene Acrylic Acid Copolymer: Specialtythermoplastic created by high-pressure copolymerization of ethylene
(E), methacrylic acid (MAA), or acrylic acid (AA). Also
called EAA.
Ethylene Acrylic Rubber: Copolymers of ethylene and
acrylic esters. Has good toughness, low temperature properties, and resistance to heat, oil, and water. Used in auto
and heavy equipment parts.
Ethylene Alcohol: SeeEthylene Glycol.
Ethylene Copolymers: SeeEthylene Polymers.
Ethanediol(l,2-): SeeEthylene Glycol.
Ethanol: SeeEthyl Alcohol.
Ethene: SeeEthylene.
Ethers: A class of organic compounds in which an oxygen atom is interposed between two carbon atoms in a
chain or a ring. Ethers are derived mainly by catalytic
hydration of olefins. The lower molecular weight ethers
are dangerous fire and explosion hazards.
Note: Major types of ethers include aliphatic, cyclic, and
polymeric ethers.
Ethyl Acetate: An ethyl ester of acetic acid,
CH,CO,CH,CH,. A colorless, fragrant, flammable liquid (autoignition temperature, 426°C). Toxic by inhalation and skin absorption. Derived by catalytic esterification of acetic acid with ethanol. Used as solvent in
Ethylene Methyl Acrylate Copolymer: Thermoplastic copolymers of ethylene with <40% methyl- acrylate.
Has good dielectricproperties, toughness, thermal stability,
stress crack resistance, and compatibility with other
polyolefins. Transparency decreases with increasing content of acrylate. Processed by blown film extrusion and
blow and injection molding. Used in heat-sealable films,
disposable gloves, and packaging. Some grades are FDAapproved for food packaging. Also called EMAC.
Ethylene Oxide: A colorless gas at room temperatures,
ethylene oxide is used in a sterilization process.
Ethylene Polymers: Ethylene polymers include ethylene homopolymers and copolymers with other unsaturated monomers, most importantly, olefins such as propylene and polar substances such as vinyl acetate. The
properties and uses of ethylene polymers depend on the194
molecular structure and weight. Also called Ethylene Copolymers.
Ethylene Propene Rubber: Stereospecific copolymers
of ethylene with propylene. Used as impact modifiers for
plastics. Also called EPR.
Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer: Thermoplastic alternating copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene. Has good impact strength, abrasion and
chemical resistance, weatherability, and dielectric properties. Processed by molding, extrusion, and powder coating. Used in tubing, cables, pump parts, and tower packing in a wide temperature range. Also called ETFE.
Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer: Athermoplasticprepared by hydrolysis of ethylene-vinylacetatepolymers. Has
good barrier properties, mechanical strength, gloss, elasticity, weatherability, clarity, and abrasion resistance. Barrier
properties and processibilityimprove with increasing content of ethylene due to lower absorptionof moisture.Ethylene contentofhigh-barriergrades range fiom32to 44mol%.
Processed by extrusion, coating,blow and blow-film molding, and thermoforming. Used as packaging films and container liners. Also calledEVA.
ETO: See Ethylene Oxide.
EVA: SeeEthylene Mnyl Acetate Copolymer.
EVOH: Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer.
Extenders: Relatively inexpensive resin, plasticizer, or
filler such as carbonate used to reduce cost andor to improve processing of plastics, rubbers, or nonmetallic coatings.
Extrusion Coating: Coating by extruding a layer of molten resin onto a substrate with sufficient pressure to bond.
Used in coating paper and fabrics with polyolefins by extruding a web directly into the roller nip through which
the substrate is passing.
Extrusion Temperature: Temperature of the molten thermoplastic maintained in the extruder barrel during the extrusion by means of barrel heating and internal friction of
the melt pushed along by a screw or a ram. The temperature may vary along the length of the barrel.
F
FEP: See Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Copolymer:
Fick’s First Law: A physics law that states that the volume (V) of a penetrant, such as gas, that penetrates a
barrier wall is directly proportional to the area (A) of
the wall, partial pressure differential (p) of the penetrant, and time (t); and inversely proportional to the
wall thickness (s), if the wall is homogeneous in the direction of penetration. The coefficient P in the equation
representing Fick’s first law, V = P . (A . p . t)/s, is the
permeability coefficient.
Fireproofing Agent: SeeFlame Retardant.
Five-Membered Heterocyclic Compounds: A class of
heterocyclic compounds containing rings that consist of
five atoms.
Five-Membered Heterocyclic Nitrogen Compounds: A
class of heterocyclic compounds containing rings that
consist of five atoms, some of which are nitrogen.
Five-Membered Heterocyclic Oxygen Compounds: A
class of heterocyclic compounds containing rings that
consist of five atoms, some of which are oxygen.
Flame-Retardant: A substance that reduce the flammability of materials such as plastics or textiles in
which it is incorporated. There are inorganic flame
retardants such as antimony trioxide (Sb,O,) and organic flame retardants such as brominated polyols.
The mechanisms of flame retardation vary depending on the nature of material and flame retardant.
For example, some flame retardants yield a substantial volume of coke on burning, which prevents oxygen
from reaching inside the material and blocks hrther combustion. Also called fireproofing agent, flame retardant
chemical additives, and ignition resistant chemical additives.
Flame-Retardant Chemical Additives: See Flame Re-
tardant.
Flammability Classification: This classification system
defines the level of ignition and burning resistance of a
specimen.
Flaw: See Processing Defects.
Flexural Modulus: The ratio, within the elastic limit, of
the applied stress on a test specimen in flexure, to the
corresponding strain in the outermost fibers of the specimen.195
Flexural Strength: The strength of a material in bending, expressed as the stress on the outermost fibers of a
bent test specimen, at the instant of failure.
Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Copolymer: Thermoplastic copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and hexafluoropropylene. Has decreased tensile strength and wear and
creep resistance, but good weatherability, dielectric
properties, fire and chemical resistance, and friction.
Decomposes above 204°C (400"F), releasing toxic products. Processed by molding, extrusion, and powder coating. Used in chemical apparatus liners, pipes, containers,
bearings, films, coatings, and cables. Also called FEP.
Fluoro Rubber: SeeFluoroelastomers.
Fluoroelastomers: Fluorine-containing synthetic rubber
with good chemical and heat resistance. Used in underhood applications such as fuel lines, oil and coolant seals,
and fuel pumps, and as a flow additive for polyolefins.
Also called Fluoro Rubber.
Fluoroplastics: SeeFluoropolymers.
Fluoropolymers: Polymers prepared from unsaturated
fluorine-containing hydrocarbons. Has good chemical
resistance, weatherability, thermal stability,
antiadhesive properties, low friction, and flammability, but low creep resistance, strength, and difficulty processing. The properties vary with the fluorine content. Processed by extrusion and molding. Used as liners inchemical apparatus, in bearings, films, coatings, and containers.
Also called Fluoroplastics.
Fluorosilicones: Polymers with chains of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms and trifluoropropyl pendant groups.
Most are rubbers.
FMQ: SeeMethyljluorosilicones.
Folding Endurance Test: The folding endurance test is
a measure of strength in that a specimen under a constant
tensile load is continually folded until it is severed.
Formaldehyde: The simplest aldehyde, H,CO. A readily
polymerizable, toxic, skin irritating, carcinogenic gas
with strong, pungent odor (autoignition temperature,
430°C). Derived by oxidation of methanol or low-boiling olefins. Used as monomer in manufacture of phenolic, acetal, and amino resins; as fertilizer, disinfectant,
reducing agent, biocide, sterilant, corrosion inhibitor; in
wood products such as plywood, foam insulation, and
organic synthesis as an intermediate.
FPC: Flexible printed circuit.
Fractional Melt Index Resin: Thermoplastics having a
low melt index of4. These resins have higher molecular
weights and are harder to extrude because of lower rate
and greater force requirements compared to the lower
molecular weight resins. They are mainly used for heavy
duty applications such as pipe.
Furnace Black: The most common type of carbon black
made by burning vaporized heavy oil fractions in a furnace
with 50% of the air required for complete combustion. It
comes in high abrasion, fast extrusion, high modulus,
general purpose, semireinforcing, conducting,high elongation, reinforcing,and fast-extruding grades, among others. Furnace black is widely used as a filler and pigment
in rubbers and plastics. It reinforces, increases the resistance to W light, and reduces static charging.
b
Gas Black: See Channel Black.
Gas-Permeability Coefficient: A measure of gas permeability of a barrier wall such as plastic film. Gas permeability coefficient, P, is a coefficient in Fick's first law
that states that the volume (V) of a substance that penetrates a barrier wall is directly proportional to the area
(A) of the wall, partial pressure differential (p) of the penetrant, and time (t); and inversely proportional to the wall
thickness (s), if the wall is homogeneous in the direction
of penetration. Gas permeability coefficient depends on
the test temperature.
Gas-Transmission Rate: This is a measure of the steady
state rate of transmission of a gas through plastics in the
form of film, sheeting or laminates.
General-Purpose Polystyrene: General-purpose polystyrene is an amorphous thermoplastic prepared by
homopolymerization of styrene. Has good tensile and
flexural strengths, high light transmission, adequate
resistance to water, detergents, and inorganic chemicals. It is attached by hydrocarbons and has a relatively
low impact resistance. Processed by injection molding and
foam extrusion. Used to manufacture containers, health
care items such as pipettes, kitchen and bathroom
housewares, stereo and camera parts, and foam sheets for
food packaging. Also called Crystal Polystyrene.
Gloss: Measured on a glossmeter, gloss is a measure of
the light reflected by the surface of a plastic film.196
Glycols: Aliphatic alcohols with two hydroxy groups attached to a carbon chain. Can be produced by oxidation
of alkenes followed by hydration. Also called Dihydric
Alcohols and Dihydroxy Alcohols.
G U S : Generally Recognized as Safe.
GTR: See Gas Transmission Rate.
H
H: See Hydrogen.
Halogen Compounds: A class of organic compounds containing halogen atoms such as chlorine. A simple example
is halocarbons but many other subclasses with various
functional groups and of different molecular structure exist
as well.
Halohydrins: Halogen compounds that contain a halogen atom (s) and a hydroxy (OH) group (s) attached to a
carbon chain or ring. Can be prepared by reaction of halogens with alkenes in the presence of water or by reaction
of halogens with triols. Halohydrins can be easily dehydrochlorinated in the presence of a base to give an epoxy
compound.
Hard Clays: Sedimentary rocks composed mainly of fine
clay mineral material without natural plasticity, or any
compacted or indurated clay.
Haze: Measured on a hazemeter, haze is the scattering of
light as it passes through a transparent material, resulting
in poor visibility andor glare.
HDPE: See High Density Polyethylene.
HDT: See Heat Deflection Temperature.
He: See Helium.
Heat Deflection Temperature: The heat deflection temperature is defined as the temperature at which a specimen deflects a specified amount under specific heat and
load conditions.
Heat-Seal Temperature: Temperature of a thermoplastic film or sheet required to join two or more films or
sheets in contact by fusion.
Helium (He): A chemically inert, tasteless, colorless,
noncombustible monatomic gas. Helium is often used
to characterize permeability of polymeric films, as carrier
gas in gas chromatography,as inert gas shield in welding, in
electricbulbs such as neon, as heat-transfer medium, in lasers, and as a process environment.
Henry’s Law: A law that states that the weight of the
gas that dissolves in a given quantity of liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid.
The law holds true only for equilibrium conditions.
Heptane: An alkane (saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon)with
sixcarbon atoms,CH,(CH,),CH,. A volatile, colorless, flammableliquid (autoignition temperature, 222°C).Toxicby inhalation. Obtained by fiactionation of petroleum. Used as
a solvent and in organic synthesis. Also calledn-Heptane.
n-Heptane: SeeHeptane.
Heterocyclic Compounds: A class of cyclic compounds
containing rings with some carbon atoms replaced by
other atoms such as oxygen, sulhr, and nitrogen.
High Density Polyethylene: A linear polyethylene with
density 0.94-0.97 g/cm3.Has good toughness at low temperatures, chemical resistance, dielectric properties, and
high softening temperature, but poor weatherability. Processed by extrusion, blow and injection molding, and powder coating. Used in houseware containers, food packaging, liners, cable insulation, pipes, bottles, and toys. Also
called HDPE.
High Impact Polystyrene: See Impact Polystyrene.
High-Molecular-Weight, Low Density Polyethylene:
Thermoplastic with improved abrasion and stress crack
resistance and impact strength, but poor processibility and
reduced tensile strength. Also called HMWLDPE.
HIPS: See Impact Polystyrene.
HMWLDPE: See High Molecular Weight Low Density
Polyethylene. .


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