كتاب Fluoroelastomers Handbook - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Fluoroelastomers Handbook - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Fluoroelastomers Handbook - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook    كتاب Fluoroelastomers Handbook - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook  Emptyالأربعاء 22 نوفمبر 2023, 11:22 am

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Fluoroelastomers Handbook - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook
Albert L. Moore, Sc.D.
Wilmington, Delaware

كتاب Fluoroelastomers Handbook - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook  F_p_h_11
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Contents
Series Editor’s Preface . ix
Preface . xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Part I. Fluoroelastomers Overview
1. Fundamentals . 3
1.1 Introduction . 3
1.2 Scope: Fluorocarbon Elastomers 4
1.3 Nature of Fluoroelastomers . 5
1.4 Fundamental Properties 6
1.4.1 VDF Copolymers 6
1.4.2 TFE/Olefin Copolymers 6
1.4.3 Perfluoroelastomers . 6
1.4.4 Other Compositions . 6
1.5 Developmental History: Compositions, Cure Technology . 7
1.6 Major Uses of Fluoroelastomers . 9
1.7 Producers of Fluoroelastomers . 11
References 12
2. Fluoroelastomer Composition and Properties . 13
2.1 Major Families of Fluorocarbon Elastomers 13
2.2 VDF/HFP/(TFE) Elastomers 15
2.3 VDF/PMVE/TFE Elastomers . 17
2.4 TFE/PMVE Perfluoroelastomers . 17
2.5 TFE/P Elastomers . 19
2.6 E/TFE/PMVE Elastomers 20
References 22
Part II. Fluoroelastomers Technology
3. Fluoroelastomer Monomers 25
3.1 Introduction . 25
3.2 Vinylidene Fluoride (VDF) . 25
3.2.1 VDF Properties 25
3.2.2 VDF Synthesis . 26iv Contents
3.3 Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) . 26
3.3.1 TFE Properties . 27
3.3.2 TFE Synthesis 27
3.4 Hexafluoropropylene (HFP) 29
3.4.1 HFP Properties 29
3.4.2 HFP Synthesis . 29
3.5 Perfluoro(Methyl Vinyl Ether) (PMVE) . 31
3.5.1 PMVE Properties . 31
3.5.2 PMVE Synthesis 31
3.6 Olefins: Ethylene and Propylene . 32
3.7 Cure-site Monomers 32
3.7.1 Types of Cure-site Monomers 32
3.7.2 Halogenated Vinyl Monomers 32
3.7.3 Functional Vinyl Ethers 33
3.8 Safety Aspects of Monomer Handling . 33
3.8.1 Toxicity Considerations 33
3.8.2 Flammability . 34
3.8.3 Explosivity 34
References 35
4. Production of Fluoroelastomers 37
4.1 Introduction . 37
4.2 General Process Description 37
4.3 Free Radical Copolymerization . 38
4.3.1 General Reaction Scheme . 38
4.3.2 Copolymer Composition Relationships 39
4.3.3 Monomer Reactivity Ratios 40
4.4 Emulsion Polymerization . 41
4.4.1 Emulsion Polymerization Kinetics 42
4.4.2 Continuous Emulsion Polymerization 49
4.4.3 Semibatch Emulsion Polymerization 53
4.5 Suspension Polymerization . 59
4.5.1 Polymer Compositions . 61
4.5.2 Polymerization Mechanism and Kinetics . 61
4.5.3 Reactor Design and Operation 63
4.5.4 Polymerization Control . 63
4.6 Process Conditions and Polymer Characteristics . 65
4.6.1 Molecular Weight Distribution 65
4.6.2 End Groups 68
4.6.3 Composition and Monomer Sequence Distributions 68
4.7 Monomer Recovery . 71
4.8 Isolation . 71Contents v
4.9 Process Safety 73
4.10 Commercial Process Descriptions 74
References 75
5. Cure Systems for Fluoroelastomers . 77
5.1 Introduction . 77
5.2 VDF/HFP/(TFE) Copolymers: Diamine, Bisphenol, Peroxide . 77
5.2.1 Diamine Cure . 77
5.2.2 Bisphenol Cure 78
5.2.3 Peroxide Cure 83
5.3 VDF/PMVE/TFE Elastomers: Peroxide (Bisphenol) 89
5.4 Perfluoroelastomers – Various Systems . 93
5.5 TFE/Propylene Elastomers: Peroxide, Bisphenol . 95
5.6 Ethylene/TFE/PMVE Elastomers: Peroxide, Bisphenol 99
References 101
6. Processing of Fluoroelastomers . 103
6.1 Introduction . 103
6.2 Mixing 103
6.2.1 Compounding Ingredients 103
6.2.2 Mill Mixing 103
6.2.3 Internal Mixers . 105
6.3 Extrusion . 106
6.4 Molding 110
6.4.1 General Considerations . 110
6.4.2 Compression Molding 111
6.4.3 Transfer Molding 112
6.4.4 Injection Molding 113
6.5 Calendering . 117
6.6 Other Processing Methods 119
6.6.1 Latex 119
6.6.2 Thermoplastic Elastomers . 119
References 122
Part III. Environmental Resistance and Applications of Fluoroelastomers
7. Fluid Resistance of VDF-containing Fluoroelastomers . 125
7.1 Introduction . 125
7.2 Fluid Resistance Data . 125
7.3 Discussion of Results 125
7.4 Fluid Service Recommendations 126
Table 7.1 Chemical Resistance - FKM, VDF/CTFE, FKM/TFE
Fluoroelastomers . 127
Acetaldehyde to Butyl Cellosolve . 127vi Contents
Butyl Ether to Ethylene Trichloride . 138
Ethylenediamine to Lime Sulfur . 150
Lindol to Ramjet Fuel . 165
Rapeseed Oil to Zinc Sulfate . 178
Table 7.2 Fluid Resistance of Fluoroelastomer Families . 192
References 193
8. Fluid and Heat Resistance of Perfluoroelastomers . 195
8.1 Introduction . 195
8.2 Fluid Resistance Data . 195
8.3 Heat Resistance Data . 195
8.4 Resistance to Special Environments . 196
8.5 Major Applications . 196
Table 8.1 Chemical Resistance: FFKM Fluoroelastomer . 198
Abietic Acid to Lithium Hypochlorite . 198
Lithium Nitrate to Zirconium Nitrate 212
Table 8.2 Chemical Resistance . 223
Table 8.3 Upper Continuous Service Temperatures for Perfluoroelastomer
Compounds 223
Table 8.4 Tecnoflon PFR: Heat Aging . 224
Table 8.5 Perfluoroelastomer Black Compounds for Chemical Processing
Industry 224
Table 8.6 Perfluoroelastomer Compounds for Semiconductor Applications 225
References 226
9. Fluid Resistance of TFE-olefin Fluoroelastomers . 227
9.1 Introduction . 227
9.2 Fluid Resistance of TFE/Propylene Elastomers 227
9.2.1 TFE/P Dipolymer 227
9.2.2 TFE/P/VDF Terpolymers 233
9.2.3 TFE/P/TFP Terpolymers 234
9.2.4 Service Recommendations 236
9.3 Fluid Resistance of Ethylene/TFE/PMVE Elastomer 236
9.3.1 Fluid Resistance Data 237
9.3.2 Resistance to Oil Field Environments 237
9.3.3 Cure System Effects 237
9.3.4 Service Recommendations 237
References 239
10. Fluoroelastomer Applications 241
10.1 Introduction . 241
10.2 Major End Uses . 241
10.3 Fabrication Methods 241Contents vii
11. Compounds for O-rings and Molded Goods . 243
11.1 O-rings 243
11.1.1 Specifications . 243
11.1.2 Compression Set Measurement 243
11.1.3 VDF/HFP Dipolymer Compounds 245
11.2 VDF/HFP/TFE Compounds . 253
11.3 VDF/PMVE/TFE Compounds 259
11.4 Seal Design Considerations 260
11.5 Additional Fluoroelastomer Molding Compounds . 260
References 277
12. Compounds for Auto Fuel Systems 279
12.1 Introduction . 279
12.2 Fuel Line Veneer . 280
12.3 Fuel Tank Components . 287
12.4 Fuel Injector Seals 288
12.5 Development Trends . 289
References 290
13. Compounds for Auto Power Train Service 291
13.1 Introduction . 291
13.2 Oil Seal Requirements 291
13.3 Compounds for Oil Seals 294
13.3.1 FKM Elastomers 294
13.3.2 FEPM Elastomers 295
13.4 Compounds for Transmission Seals . 296
References 298
14. Compounds for Power Plant Service 299
14.1 Introduction . 299
14.2 Flue Duct Expansion Joints . 299
14.3 High-fluorine Terpolymers . 299
References 302
15. Other Fluoroelastomer Applications and Processing 303
15.1 Introduction . 303
15.2 Latex and Coatings . 303
15.3 Thermoplastic Processing . 303
15.4 Fluoroelastomer Caulks 304
15.5 Processing Aids for Hydrocarbon Plastics 304
References 305
16. Fluoroelastomer Safety and Disposal . 307
16.1 Introduction . 307
16.2 Safety in Production 307viii Contents
16.3 Safety in Applications 308
16.4 Disposal 308
References 309
Appendix: PDL Ratings 311
Glossary 313
Trademarks . 347
Index 349
Index
Index terms Links Index terms Links
A
Accelerators 78 83 253
phosphonium 8
quaternary phosphonium salt 103
Accumulator 55 57
Acetone 111
Acids
organic and inorganic 196
Acrylic elastomers
seals 291
Acrylic rubbers
oil seals 293
Addition reactions
tetrafluoroethylene 27
Additives 305
engine oils 292
Adhesion
to metal inserts 292
Adhesive systems 292
Adiabatic reactor 52
Aeration
effect on oil seals 293
Aeronautical applications 196 197
Air entrapment 117
Aliphatic peroxides 85
Alkylphenol amines
engine oil additives 292
Amine-free radical inhibitors 87
Amines
engine oil additives 292
oil-soluble 237
water-soluble 237
Amino phosphinic derivatives 83
Aminosilane-coated wollastonite 90
Amorphous elastomer compounds 280
Analysis methods 15
Applications
aeronautical 197
automotive 3
automotive power train 291
automotive transmission 296
chemical processing 197
of fluoroelastomers 9 11 308
oil fields 197
of perfluoroelastomers 6 19 196
pharmaceutical industry 197
seals 3
semiconductor fabrication industry 197
Aqueous brine 237
Aqueous oligomeric radical growth 47
Aqueous phase oligomerization rates 50
Aqueous phase termination 46
Aromatic dihydroxy compounds 78
ASTM classification 3
Autoclave curing 283
Automotive
fluids service 126
fuel system requirements 279
fuel tanks 287
lubricants 78
shaft seals 241
Automotive seals 291
Automotive shaft seals 295
B
Backbone
perfluoroelastomer 8
Backrinding 112
Banbury mixer 105
Barwell Precision Preformer 110
Base-resistant fluoroelastomers 32350
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Base-resistant product 96
Bases
organic and inorganic 196
Benzyltriphenylphosphonium
chloride 250
Bifluoride 79
Bimodal blends 105
Bimodal polymers 287
Biocides 119
2,2’-Bis(t-butylperoxy)diisopropylbenzene 227
Bis(triarylphosphin)iminium salts 83
Bisphenol 77
bulk systems 82
commercial 82
curing 16 32 61
78 79 110
111 195 227
precompounds 253 283
vulcanizates 82
Bisphenol AF 8 250 282
Bisphenol curing 293
Bisphenol precompounds 294
Bisphenol-containing precompounds 295
Bisphenol-curable
dipolymers 287
gums 299
polymers 125
precompounds 282
terpolymers 287 288
VDF/HFP 110
Bisphenol-curable gums 294
Bisphenol-cured
compounds 6
fluoroelastomers 3 79
Bisphenol-cured elastomers 291 292
Bisphenol-cured terpolymers 294
Black compounds 245
Blisters 112
Branching 254
excessive 33
Breaker plate 108
Brittle point 17
Bromine cure sites 18 110
Bromine-containing cure-site
monomers 90
Bromine-containing fluoroelastomers 85
Bromine-containing monomers 8 9
Bromine-containing olefins 32
BTFB monomer 33
C
Ca(OH)2/MgO ratio 249
Calcium hydroxide level
adhesion effect 292
Calendering 117 299
Carbon black levels 246
Carbon dioxide environment 197
Carbonyl fluoride
for synthesis of PMVE 31
Caulks 304
Chain branching 59
Chain-transfer agents 37 55 58
Charging 57 59
Chemical attack
by additives 294
Chemical processing
applications 196 197
Chemical resistance
engine seals 295
vulcanizates 195
Chlorotrifluoroethylene 6
copolymers 7
Clamp unit 114
Coagulants 38
Coal-fired power plants 299
Coatings
latex 303
Coefficient of linear expansion 196
Cold feed extruder 108351
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Combustion products
from fluoroelastomer compounds 308
Commercial elastomeric products 16
Commercial fluorocarbon elastomers 5
Commercial fluoroelastomers 37
Components
addition of 57
Composition
determination of 15
determines characteristics 13
Compounding 99 241
Compression 260
Compression molding
advantages 111
disadvantages 111
shaft seals 291
Compression set 246 250
resistance 254 288 289
tests 243 245
Compression stress relaxation
measurements 245
Computer-controlled mixing lines 105
Conjugated diene structure 79
Continuous emulsion polymerization
process 40 43 44
47 48 49
50
Continuous reactor
control of 52
design and operation 50
operation 37 51
Continuous stirred tank reactors
(CSTR) 49 50
Control systems 117
Cooling jackets 51 54
Copolymer composition relationship 39 41
Copolymerization 39
with ethylene 15
with propylene 15
Copolymers
elastomeric 234
TFE-propylene 227
VDF/HFP 78
vinylidene fluoride 7
Counter-rotating rolls 104
Cracking products
tetrafluoroethylene 29
Creaming 119 303
Creep 304
Critical length 45
Critical micelle concentration (cmc) 45
Cross linking agent
radical trap 196
Cross-head die 108 280
Crosslinker 250
Bisphenol AF 103
Crosslinking 288
reactions 86
temperatures 77
Crosslinks 243
Crystalline aluminosilicates 90
Crystalline plastics 304
Crystallinity
affected by monomers 13
CSTR 54
monomer feeds 51
polymerization systems 52
shutdown 51
startup procedures 51
steady states polymerization systems 52
CTFE-based plastics 7
Curative masterbatches 250
Curatives 106
dispersion of 103
Cure characteristics 295
Cure kinetics 77
Cure rates 253
Cure-site monomers 32 37 59
61352
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Cure sites 6 8 17
monomers 32
perfluorophenyl 18
Cure systems
bisphenol 195
characteristics 77
peroxide 195
Cure times 250
Cured stock 111
Curing 14
characteristics 260
ETP 20
fluoroelastomers 32
by irradiation 304
peroxide systems 14
systems 8
Cyano FVE 33
Cyclic amidine base 82
D
Dai-el® G-101 304
Dai-el® LT-303 260
Decomposition rate
first order 52
Dehydrofluorination 79 234 254
Demolding 254
Detergents
engine oil additives 292
Deuterated tetrahydrofuran solution 98
Dewatering 106
Diamine 119
Diamine cure system 77 78
Die coating 304
Die entrance 305
Die-cut gaskets 245
Diels-Alder adducts 29
Dienic phenyl ether crosslinks 82
Dienone 82
Differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC) 15
Difluoroacetamides 27
Diiodide transfer 119
Dimethylacetamide 79
Dipolymer compositions 14 15
Dipolymers
commercial 82
curing of 250
gums 250 282
heat-treated TFE/P 96
TFE/P 227
VDF/HFP 77 104 106
303
Dispersants
engine oil additives 292
Dispersion
stability 51 53
stabilizer 44
volume 56
Disposal of fluoroelastomers 308
Divinylperfluoroalkane
crosslinks 196
DLVO model of colloid science 46
Drying extruder 106
DuPont Dow Vertex™ seal 304
Dust lips 291
Dynamar™ Polymer Processing
Additives 304
Dyneon® FC 2210X 304
Dyneon® Fluoroelastomer FX 10180 303
Dyneon® precompounds
properties of 282
Dyneon® THV fluorothermoplastic 304
E
E/TFE/PMVE elastomers 20
Elastomeric behavior 5
Elastomeric seals 260
Elastomers
cure systems 77
definition 15353
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Elastomers (Continued)
ethylene acrylic 304
ETP 100
extrusion 114
fluorinated thermoplastic 303
pellets 106
synthetic 103
VDF/HFP/TFE 253 254
Elastoplastics 16
Elongation at break 250
Embrittlement 78 288
Emissions 288 289
Emulsion polymerization 41 42 44
free-radical 37
soapless 47
End groups
iodine 59
ionic 52 53 78
sulfonate 43
Engine oil
additives 292
Engineering controls 307
Environmental conditions
for engine seals 295
Environments
aggressive 197
in deep wells 197
fluid 260
harsh 196
temperature 260
Epichlorohydrin 282
Epoxysilane 90
Ethylene
copolymerization 15
flammability 34
properties 32
tetrapolymer 6
Ethylene/TFE/PMVE 99 227 236
ETP 237
curing 20
elastomers 100 236 237
fluid resistance 236
fluoroelastomers 237
vulcanizates 100
Exothermic decomposition 308
Expansion joints 299
elastomeric 299
flue duct 241
Explosion hazards 307
tetrafluoroethylene 27
Explosion potential 34
Explosive decompression 197
Exposure to severe environments 237
Extruder barrels 108
Extrusion 241 283
Extrusion characteristics 287
F
Fabrication 241
Feed section 108
Feed zone 108
FEPM elastomers 295
Fick’s Laws 280
Filler neck hose 288
Filler system 279
Fillers 245
Fires during post curing 308
Fissures 89
FKM elastomers
seals 291
FKM shaft seals 293
Flammability
ethylene and propylene 32
hazards 34
Flash 111
Flexible fuels 289
Flexural modulus 304
Flow characteristics 254
Flue duct expansion joints 241354
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Flue duct system 299
Flue gases 299
Fluid resistance 6 8 9
100
HK classification 3
vulcanizates 195
Fluorinated matrix 77
Fluorinated monomers 25
Fluorinated vinyl ethers 33
Fluorine content 14 15 16
253
affects chemical resistance 294
TFE/P elastomers 19
varying 14
Fluoroalkoxyphosphazene 7
Fluorocarbon elastomers 13
Fluorocarbons 41
Fluoroelastomers 13
applications 9
base-resistant thermoplastic 120
bisphenol-curable 282
characteristics 77
components 279
compounding 103
copolymerization 15
gums 303
high-fluorine 260
incorporated iodine units 59
latex 119
low-viscosity 303 304
o-rings 279
operating conditions 114
peroxide-curable 243 254
PMVE-containing 289
polymerization 42
processing methods used 103
producers 11
sales 13
for seals 291
setting and controlling 48
TFE-olefin 227
thermoplastic 119
VDF-based FKM 227
VDF/HFP 77
VDF/HFP/TFE 243 254
VDF/PMVE/TFE 289
veneer stock 283
without ionic end groups 60
worldwide production 3
Fluoromonomers
toxicity 33
Fluoroplastics
production volumes 25
Fluoropolymers
melt-processible 107
processing 305
Fluorosilicone 7
Fouling 87
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) 15
Free radicals 83 288
curing 6 8 14
32
polymerization 9 37 38
Fuel
compositions 279
emission limits 287
methanol-containing 282
oxygenated 279
partially oxidized 280
Fuel hose 279 280
additional layers of 282
estimation of M15 fuel loss 282
veneer 287
Fuel injector
o-rings 288
Fuel permeability 281
Fuel pump 279
seals 288
Fuel sender module 287
Fuel swell measurements 289
Fuel tank components 279355
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Full (black) compounds 245
Furnace blacks 246
FVE
cyano 33
FVMQ o-rings 288
G
Gas deposition processes 197
Gaskets 10
cured-in-place 304
Gates 116
Gelation 82
Glass transition temperature 5 6 9
E/TFE/PMVE 20
fluoroelastomers 10
Green strength 250
Grit-blasting 292
Grooves
in seals 19
Gum fluoroelastomers 104
Gum polymer 38
VDF/HFP/TFE 253
H
Halogen cure site 6
Halogenated vinyl monomers 32
Handling precautions
fluoroelastomers 307
Handling procedures
fluoromonomers 34
Hard chrome plating 111
Hazardous monomer mixtures 34
Hazards
explosion 54 56
safety 52
Heat
exchange limits 56
of polymerization 50 52 56
removal of 51
Heat of reaction
TFE deflagration 29
Heat resistance 195
HK classification 3
Heats of fusion 15
Helix angle 108
Hexafluoropropylene 13
in fluoroelastomers 25
properties 29
synthesis 29 30
Hexamethylene diamine 77
HFP-based fluoroelastomers 7
HFP-containing fluoroelastomers
adequate seal performance 289
HFP-containing polymers 293
High-fluorine elastomers 289
High-fluorine product 260
High-VDF elastomers
chemical resistance 296
HK classification
properties 3
HNBR
o-rings 288
oil seals 293
seals 291
Homogeneous nucleation 45 46
Hoses 241
automobile fuel 60
Hydraulic clamp 114
Hydrocarbon fuel mixtures 279 287
Hydrocarbon swell 227
Hydrocarbon thermoplastics 304
Hydrocarbons
resistance to 13 20
Hydrogen sulfide
environment 197
Hydropentafluoropropylene 90
Hydroperoxides 288
Hydroxides 103356
Index terms Links Index terms Links
I
Ignition sources 34
Immersion testing 293
Initiation 43 45
by thermal decomposition 49
constant rate 58
Initiator 37 55 57
decomposition 86
molar feed rate of 53
Injection molding 78 113
machinery 114
shaft seals 291
troubleshooting 117
Injection unit 114
Inorganic acids 196
Inorganic backbones 7
Inorganic bases 196
Intermeshing rotors 105
Intrinsic viscosity 48
Iodine cure sites 18
Iodine end groups 8 9 59
294
Iodine groups 196
Iodine-containing transfer agents 33
Ionic end-group level. See end groups
optimizing 58
Irradiation curing
FTPE 304
Isobutene 111
ITFB monomers 33
J
Jamak stress relaxation jigs 288
Jigs 243 245
Shawbury-Wallace 245
K
Kinetic analysis 38
Kinetic models 47 48 53
L
Latex processing 303
Lips
seals 291
Liquid feeds 51
"Living radical" polymerization 93
Loading fixtures 112
Low-fluorine polymers 294
Low-pressure extrusion 304
Low-temperature characteristics 14 17
Low-temperature flexibility 6 19 20
Lube oils
amine additives 125
M
M15 fuel 281
loss estimation 282
Magnesium oxide level
adhesion effect 292
Maintenance procedures 307
Mandrel 280
Masterbatches 250
Material Safety Data Sheets 307
Melt fracture 305
Melt-processible fluoropolymers 107
Melting endotherm 303
Melting points
of elastomers 15
Melting temperature
THV 304
Metal oxides 90 103
Metering zone 108
Methyl bromide 86 111
Methyl radicals 86
Methyltributylammonium Bisphenol
AF salt 96
Micellar entry 45
mechanism 46
Microemulsion process 59
Mineral fillers 100 249357
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Mixed stock 107
Modulus 250
Mold
cavities 110
closing 117
designs 117
flash 117
fouling 111
opening 117
platens 111
precision extruded shapes 241
release 110
sticking 87
Molded composite parts 249
Molding
compression 241
injection 241
of shaft seals 291
temperatures 77
transfer 241
Molecular sieve zeolites 90
Molecular weights
controlling 44
Monitoring systems 307
Monomer 37
affect on characteristics 13
charge 59
combinations 5
compositions 50 57
concentration 47
CSTR feeds 51
fugacity 48
gaseous 51
recovery and recycle 49
MT black 77
N
Nitrile rubber 13 281
hydrogenated 281
Nitrogen leakage 289
Nonionic radical 43
Nozzle flash 117
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 15 79
Nucleophiles 90
Nucleophilic attack 234
Nucleophilic diamine 77
Nylon 12 282
O
O-ring compounds 243
O-ring seals 3 10 241
288
O-rings 287 289
specifications 243
Octafluorocyclobutane
cracking product 29
Octafluoroisobutylene
cracking product 29
ODR modulus 85
Oil fields
applications 196 197
Oil resistance 295
Oil seals 291
testing 293
Olefin monomers 32 34
Operating procedures 307
Organic acids and bases 196
Oscillating disk rheometry 78
Oxidizing agents
resistance to 196
P
Particles
by secondary nucleation 47
determining number 48
determining number of 44
entry into 45
formation 47 55
formation and growth 44358
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Particles (Continued)
formation by homogeneous
nucleation 45
micellar entry mechanism 46
polymerization rate 47
precursor 45
PDL Ratings 125 195 311
Pendant vinyl groups 196
2H-Pentafluoropropylene 100
Perfluorinated polymer backbone 8
Perfluoro(alkyl vinyl ethers) 25
Perfluoro(methyl vinyl ether)
(PMVE) 14 25 31
Perfluorocarbon diiodides 58
Perfluoroelastomers 6 14 40
51 77 236
applications 19
FFKM 237
Perfluoroisobutylene 28
Perfluorophenyl cure sites 18
Permeation rate 280
Permeation test method
Thwing Albert cup 281
Peroxide curing 6 14 86
93 95 195
227 254
fluoroelastomers 86
study 85
vulcanizate properties of 86
Peroxide level 86
Peroxide systems 110
Peroxide-curable fluoroelastomers 8 32 87
Peroxide-curable gums 294 299
Peroxide-curable perfluoroelastomers 94
Peroxide-curable products 294
Peroxide-curable VDF/HFP/TFE
fluoroelastomers 294
Peroxide-curable VDF/PMVE/TFE
elastomers 90
Peroxide-cured terpolymer 96
Peroxide-cured vulcanizates 90
Peroxide-initiated curing 6
Peroxides 77 83
Persulfate-sulfite redox initiation
systems 93
Pharmaceutical
applications 196 197
Phenolates
engine oil additives 292
Phosphatizing 292
Phosphonium accelerators 83
Phosphonium salts 83
Piston injection unit 113
Plant tests 307
Plasma processes 197
Plasticization 289
Plastics
high-fluorine 304
Polar fluids 196
resistance 20
Polyamine curative 119
Polycaprolactone 305
Polyethylene
high density 304
linear low density 304
Polymer
composition 54
degradation 95
desired composition 57
dispersion 37
estimates of composition 53
formed in the reactor 37
isolation 38
optimizing viscosity 58
pellets 106
radical propagation of particles 46
radicals 86
scale-up 56
VDF/HFP/TFE 259
VDF/PMVE/TFE 243 259359
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Polymer (Continued)
viscosity control 53
Polymeric peroxide 27
Polymerization 42 55
commercial production 39
conditions 49
emulsion 37
heat of 50 52 56
inhibitors 29
living radical 58
process safety 307
rate in a CSTR 52
removal of heat 51
shutdown 55
Polymerization rate 44 47 53
54 56 59
second stage 61
semibatch reactors 56
Polymerization systems 39 42
Polytetrafluoroethylene
thermoplastics 93
Post cure temperatures
adhesion systems 292
Post curing 118
Pot 112
Power generation facilities 299
Power systems 117
Power train systems 241
Precompounds
Dai-el® 253
VDF/HFP 245 249 250
VDF/HFP/TFE 253
Premature crosslinking (scorch) 78
Premature curing 87
Press heating system 112
Primer curing 292
Production
worldwide 3
Propagation rate coefficient 41 44
Propagation reactions 39
Properties
by varying composition 13
Propylene
copolymerization 15
copolymers 9
flammability 34
properties 32
Pyrolysis
products 28
tetrafluoroethylene 30
Q
Quaternary ammonium salts 83
Quaternary phosphonium accelerator 250
Quick-connect seals 287
R
Radial squeeze 289
Radical adducts 86
Radical growth
aqueous oligomeric 47
Radical trap 83 195 196
237
Radical-generation rate 48 52 57
Radicals
determining number of 44
entry efficiency 53 57
estimating cumulative 58
flux 43
lost by recombination 43
nonionic 43
propagation 46
rate of conversion 39
ratio of 39
summation of generated 58
Ram injection units 113
Random copolymerization 41
Rate
of aqueous-phase oligomerization 50
of constant initiation 58360
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Rate (Continued)
conversion 39
of decomposition 42 52
determining 48
goals for monomer feed 53
of incorporation of monomers 39
of polymerization 44 56
See also Polymerization
of radical-generation 57
of transfer 49
Ratio of radical types 39
Reaction temperature
vinylidene chloride 26
Reactions
chain transfer-to-polymer 59
kinetics relationships 39
Reactive fluids 126
Reactivity ratios 40 41
estimating 40
Reactor
dynamics 53
jacket cooling of temperature 51
jacketed cylindrical 55
volume 56
Reciprocating screw injection unit 114
Recovery
from strain 5
Redox initiation 95
persulfate-sulfite 18
Redox initiator 42
Redox rate 43
Relationships
dependence 48
Relative viscosity 48
Relaxation
from strain 5
Reversion 288
Rubber
cure characteristics 110
injection mold 113
mill 104
Runners 116
S
Safe handling
of monomers 307
Safety
fluoroelastomer life cycle 307
handling of monomers 33
tetrafluoroethylene 27
Salt removal 38
Scorch 112
Screen pack 108
Seals
for aggressive fluids 197
application 260
automotive 295
automotive transmission 296
FTPE 304
groove geometry 19
for high-temperature 196
o-rings 3 10
oil retention 291
performance at low temperature 17
shaft 10
Secondary nucleation 47
Semibatch emulsion polymerization 42 43 47
50 53 55
control of 57
Semibatch reactors 54
charging 57
design and operation 55
design considerations 56
limitations 54
operation 37
scale-up 56
Semiconductor
applications 196 197
Service temperatures
in chemical processes 197361
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Set resistance
o-ring 196
Shaft seals 3 10 291
294 295
automotive 295
Shaw Intermix 105
Shawbury-Wallace
jigs 245
load cell 245
load stand 288
Silane primers 292
Silicone
oil seals 293
seals 291
Single-screw extruder 107
Soap 37 44
concentration 46
Sodium alginate 119
Solubility equilibria 280
Solubility limit 53
Solution coating 303
Solvent
ozone-depleting 61
Sour fuel 288
effect of 288
Sprue 112 116
Static seals 243
performance 260
Steady state permeability 280
Sterilization
steam 197
Stock
to rolls 104
temperature 106
Straight head extruder 108
Stress
recovery from 5
relax 118
Strip feeding 118
Succinimides
engine oil additives 292
Sulfides
engine oil additives 292
Supernatant 119
Suppliers
fluoroelastomer 11
Surfactants 46
fluorinated anionic 44
Suspension polymerization 39 60
advantages 59
Suspension products
bisphenol-curable 60
Sustained particle nucleation 50
Swell
varies with fluorine 14
T
TAIC radical trap 86
Tangential rotors 105
Tecnoflon FOR 4391 282
Tecnoflon FOR 50HS 245
Tecnoflon FOR 90HS 245
Tecnoflon N 535 283
Tecnoflon TN Latex 303
Temperature
control systems 52
cycling 243
jacket-coolant 57
Temperature environment
seals 291 296
severe 293
Temperature stability
vulcanizate 196
Tensile strength
and heat resistance 195
Termination reactions 43
Terpenes
polymerization inhibitors 29
Terpolymers 96
bisphenol-curable 254 287362
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Terpolymers (Continued)
composition 15
ethylene/TFE/PMVE 227
TFE and PMVE 41
TFE/P/VDF 234
VDF/HFP/TFE 14 87 119
243 253 282
Terpolymers and tetrapolymers
compositions of 39
Test block 289
Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen
sulfate 83
Tetrafluoroethers 27
Tetrafluoroethylene 26
copolymers 9
cracking 29
epoxide 27
explosive hazards 27
in fluoroelastomers 25
properties 27
synthesis 27
Tetraphenyltin 93
TFE
explosion potential 33
particle formation 45
TFE/olefin elastomers 77
TFE/olefin FEPM elastomers 293
chemical resistance 293
TFE/P 6 9 19
dipolymer vulcanizates 96
FEPMs 236
fluid resistance 236
peroxide-cured 234
TFE/P dipolymer 295
TFE/P fluoroelastomers 294
chemical resistance 294
TFE/P/TFP
bisphenol-cured 234
vulcanizates 234
TFE/P/TFP elastomers
chemical resistance 296
TFE/P/VDF 96 227 233
234
TFE/P/VDF elastomers
chemical resistance 296
TFE/P/VDF terpolymers 295
TFE/PMVE 17 93
TFE/propylene 227
Thermal black 245
Thermal expansion 196
Thermal resistance 8 9
engine seals 295
TFE/PMVE 94
Thermal stability 254
Thermoplastics 281
THV fluorothermoplastics 304
Thwing Albert cup 281
Tie-coats 292
Toggle clamp 114
Toxicity
fluoromonomers 33
TR-10 test 14
Transfer agents
semibatch reactor 49
Transfer coefficient 49
Transfer mold
three-plate multiple cavity 113
Transfer molding process 112
Transfer pad 112
Transfer rate 49
Transfer reactions 48
Transition zone 108
Triallyl cyanurate 85
Triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) 85 237 254
radical trap 196
Triazine crosslinks 18 93 94
195
Triethylenetetraamine 119
Trifluoropropylene 100 227363
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Trifluorovinyethers 27
Trimethallyl isocyanurate 85 237 254
Triphenylphosphine oxide 82
Tubing die 108
Two-part liquid systems 304
Two-roll mills 103
V
Variable speed DC drive 108
VDF copolymers 6 44 49
51
commercial 48
continuous emulsion polymerization 50
particle formation 45
with soap 48
systems 44
VDF homopolymer 59
VDF production 26
VDF-based fluoroelastomers 18
VDF-containing fluoroelastomers 296
effects of fluids 125
VDF/HFP 13 118
bisphenol-cured 111
copolymerization 40
copolymers 78 82 287
dipolymers 77 304
elastomers 96
fluoroelastomers 77
precompounds 104 245 249
250
VDF/HFP/(TFE) 60 77
polymerization 49
products 50
VDF/HFP/PMVE/TFE 90
VDF/HFP/TFE 77 78 82
119 243 253
259 299
bimodal polymers 60
bisphenol-cured 299
gum 253
high-fluorine 299
iodine-containing 254
latex 303
peroxide-curable 254
peroxide-curable fluoroelastomers 60
precompounds 253
terpolymers 15 243 253
287
vulcanizates 90
VDF/HFP/TFE elastomers 291 292
VDF/HFP/TFE terpolymers 293
seals 291
VDF/PMVE/TFE 31 243 259
peroxide-curable 260
products 50
ternary diagram 17
terpolymers 89
vulcanizates 90
VDF/PMVE/TFE elastomers 293
chemical resistance 293
VDF/PMVE/TFE fluoroelastomer 293
VDF/TFE copolymers 41
Veneer barrier layer 282
Vent stacks 299
Vented barrel design 108
Ventilation 307
Vertical ram machine 113
Vinyl ethers 33
Vinyl groups 196
Vinyl monomers 33
Vinylidene fluoride 13
physical properties 25
production volume 25
Viscosity
inherent 48
intrinsic 48
polymer 52
relative 48
stocks 246
Viton® polymers
high-fluorine 254364
Index terms Links Index terms Links
Viton® B-202 283
Viton® Curative No. 50 250
Viton® E-60C 104
Viton® Extreme™ TBR-605CS 234
Viton® F605C 282
Viton® Fluoroelastomer 126
Viton® FreeFlow™ additives 304
Viton® GLT 260
Viton® type nomenclature 16
Volatile materials 86
Volatile products
measurement of 307
Volume swell
elastomers 282
Vulcanizates
chemical resistance 195
ETP 100
fluid resistance 195
heat resistance 195
peroxide-cured 227
properties 86 250 254
260
temperature stability 196
with varying fluorine 14
VDF/HFP/(TFE) 96
Z
Z-mer 45 47


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