كتاب Fluoroelastomers Handbook - The Definitive User’s Guide
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 كتاب Fluoroelastomers Handbook - The Definitive User’s Guide

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Fluoroelastomers Handbook - The Definitive User’s Guide    كتاب Fluoroelastomers Handbook - The Definitive User’s Guide  Emptyالسبت 18 نوفمبر 2023, 11:50 am

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Fluoroelastomers Handbook - The Definitive User’s Guide
Second Edition
Jiri George Drobny

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Table of contents
Part I: Fluoroelastomers Overview
1. Fundamentals
Abstract
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Scope: Fluorocarbon Elastomers
1.3 Nature of Fluoroelastomers
1.4 Fundamental Properties
1.5 Developmental History: Compositions, Cure Technology
1.6 Major Uses of Fluoroelastomers
1.7 Producers of Fluoroelastomers
References
2. Market and Consumption Statistics and Future Trends
Abstract
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Consumption, Demand, and Trends
References
3. Fluoroelastomer Composition and Properties
Abstract
3.1 Major Families of Fluorocarbon Elastomers
3.2 VDF/HFP/TFE Elastomers
3.3 VDF/PMVE/TFE Elastomers
3.4 TFE/PMVE Perfluoroelastomers
3.5 TFE/P Elastomers
3.6 E/TFE/PMVE Elastomers
References
Part II: Fluoroelastomers Technology
4. Fluoroelastomer Monomers
Abstract
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Vinylidene Fluoride
4.3 Tetrafluoroethylene
4.4 Hexafluoropropylene
4.5 Perfluoro(methyl vinyl ether)
4.6 Olefins: Ethylene and Propylene
4.7 Cure-Site Monomers
4.8 Safety Aspects of Monomer Handling
References
5. Production of Fluoroelastomers
Abstract
5.1 Introduction
5.2 General Process Description
5.3 Free Radical Copolymerization
5.4 Emulsion Polymerization
5.5 Suspension Polymerization
5.6 Process Conditions and Polymer Characteristics
5.7 Monomer Recovery
5.8 Isolation
5.9 Process Safety
5.10 Commercial Process Descriptions
References
6. Cure Systems for Fluoroelastomers
Abstract
6.1 Introduction
6.2 VDF/HFP/TFE Copolymers: Diamine, Bisphenol, and Peroxide
6.3 VDF/PMVE/TFE Elastomers: Peroxide (Bisphenol)
6.4 Perfluoroelastomers—Various Systems
6.5 TFE/Propylene Elastomers: Peroxide, Bisphenol
6.6 Ethylene/TFE/PMVE Elastomers: Peroxide, Bisphenol
6.7 Cross-Linking by Ionizing Radiation
References
7. Processing of Fluoroelastomers
Abstract
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Compounding
7.3 Mixing
7.4 Extrusion
7.5 Calandering
7.6 Curing
7.7 Molding
7.8 Other Processing Methods
References
Part III: Environmental Resistance and Applications of Fluoroelastomers
8. Fluid Resistance of VDF-Containing Fluoroelastomers
Abstract
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Fluid Resistance Data
8.3 Discussion of Results
8.4 Fluid Service Recommendations
References
9. Fluid and Heat Resistance of Perfluoroelastomers
Abstract
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Fluid Resistance Data
9.3 Heat Resistance Data
9.4 Resistance to Special Environment
9.5 Major Applications
References
10. Fluid Resistance of TFE–Olefin Fluoroelastomers
Abstract
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Fluid Resistance of TFE/Propylene Elastomers
10.3 Fluid Resistance of ETP Elastomers
References
Part IV: Fluoroelastomer Applications and Compounds
11. Fluoroelastomer Applications
Abstract
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Major End Uses
11.3 Fabrication Methods
Further Reading
12. Compounds for O-Rings and Molded Goods
Abstract
12.1 Compounds or O-Rings
12.2 VDF/HFP/TFE Compounds
12.3 VDF/PMVE/TFE Compounds
12.4 Seal Design Considerations
12.5 Additional Fluoroelastomer Molding Compounds
References
13. Compounds for Automotive Fuel Systems
Abstract
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Fuel Line Veneer
13.3 Fuel Tank Components
13.4 Fuel Injector Seals
13.5 Development Trends
References
14. Compounds for Automotive Power Train Systems
Abstract
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Oil-Seal Requirements
14.3 Compounds for Oil Seals
14.4 Compounds for Transmission Seals
References
15. Compounds for Power Plant Service
Abstract
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Flue Duct Expansion Joints
15.3 High-Fluorine Terpolymers
References
16. Other Fluoroelastomer Applications and Processing
Abstract
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Latex and Coatings
16.3 Thermoplastic Processing and Fluorinated Thermoplastic Elastomers
16.4 Fluoroelastomer Caulks
16.5 Processing Aids for Hydrocarbon Plastics
References
17. Fluoroelastomer Safety and Disposal, Sustainability
Abstract
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Safety in Production
17.3 Safety in Applications
17.4 Disposal
17.5 Sustainability
References
18. New Developments and Current Trends
Abstract
18.1 Introduction
18.2 New Developments in Chemistry and Processing
18.3 New Products
18.4 Other Developments
18.5 C8 Issues
References
Appendix 1. PDL Resistance Ratings
Appendix 2. Examples of FKM-Based Compounds
Appendix 3. Acronyms and Abbreviations
Bibliography
Fluoropolymers
Elastomer & Rubber Science and Technology
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.
A
Accelerators, 82, 86, 447, 449
phosphonium, 9
quaternary phosphonium salt, 108
Accumulator, 59, 61
Acetone, 118
Acetone methyl ethyl ketone, 495
Acids
organic and inorganic, 406
Acrylic elastomers
seals, 483
Acrylic rubbers
oil seals, 485
Addition reactions
tetrafluoroethylene, 3132
Additional cross-linking, 133
Additives, 497
engine oils, 484
Adhesion
to metal inserts, 484
Adhesive systems, 484
Adiabatic reactor, 56
Advanced Polymer Architecture (APA)
technology, 78, 503
Aeration
effect on oil seals, 485486
Aeronautical applications, 406407
Air entrapment, 125
Aliphatic peroxides, 8889
Alkylphenol amines
engine oil additives, 484
Amine-free radical inhibitors, 92
Amines
engine oil additives, 484
oil-soluble, 430
water-soluble, 430
Amino phosphinic derivatives, 86
Aminosilane-coated wollastonite, 9394
Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO),
506
Ammonium salt of perfluorooctanoic acid
(PFOA), 506
Amorphous elastomer compounds,
472473
Amorphous polymers, 2021
Amyl acetate, 495
Analysis methods, 19
Applications
aeronautical, 407
automotive, 3
automotive power train, 483
automotive transmission, 488
chemical processing, 406407
of fluoroelastomers, 1013, 500
oil fields, 407
of perfluoroelastomers, 6, 23, 406407
pharmaceutical industry, 407
seals, 3
semiconductor fabrication industry,
407409
Aqueous brine, 430
Aqueous oligomeric radical growth, 51
Aqueous phase oligomerization rates, 54
Aqueous phase termination, 4950
Aromatic dihydroxy compounds, 82
ASTM, 501
classification, 34
suppliers, 7
Atomic force microscopy, 505
Autoclave curing, 475
Automotive
applications, 15
fluids service, 327328
fuel system requirements, 471
fuel tanks, 475478
lubricants, 82
shaft seals, 436
Automotive automatic transmission oil
comparison, 128t
Automotive seals, 483484
Automotive shaft seals, 436, 487488
B
Backbone
perfluoroelastomer, 9
Backrinding, 119
Banbury mixer, 109111
Barwell Precision Preformer, 115116
Base-resistant fluoroelastomers, 35
Base-resistant product, 100101
Bases
organic and inorganic, 406
Benzyltriphenylphosphonium chloride,
443444
Bifluoride, 83
Bimodal blends, 109
Bimodal polymers, 475
Biobased plastics, 501
Biobased products, 501
Biocides, 125
Bio-ethanol, 501
Biomass, 501
Bio-methane, 501
Bio-naphta, 501
Bisphenol, 8192
bulk systems, 8586
commercial, 84
curing, 2021, 36, 6465, 8287, 115,
118, 329, 411
precompounds, 447449, 475
vulcanizates, 84
Bisphenol AF, 9, 443444, 474475
Bisphenol curing system, 484485,
505506
Bisphenol precompounds, 486
Bisphenol-containing precompounds, 487
Bisphenol-curable
dipolymers, 475
gums, 486, 491
polymers, 133
precompounds, 474475
terpolymers, 475478
VDF/HFP, 116117
Bisphenol-cured
compounds, 6
elastomers, 483484
fluoroelastomers, 34, 83
terpolymers, 486487
2,20-Bis(t-butylperoxy)diisopropylbenzene,
411427
Bis(triarylphosphin)iminium salts, 86
Black compounds, 107, 441
Blisters, 119120
Branching, 453454
excessive, 36
Breaker plate, 114115
Brittle point, 21
Bromine cure sites, 2223, 118
553Bromine-containing cure-site monomers,
93
Bromine-containing fluoroelastomers,
8889
Bromine-containing monomers, 9
Bromine-containing olefins, 36
BTFB monomer, 36
C
C8 issues, 506
Calandering, 491, 512
Calcium hydroxide level
adhesion effect, 484
Calendering, 116117
Ca(OH)2/MgO ratio, 443
Carbon black levels, 442
Carbon dioxide environment, 407
Carbonyl fluoride
for synthesis of PMVE, 35
Caulks, 497
Chain branching, 63
Chain-transfer agents, 41, 59, 62
Channel sealants, 78
Charging, 6061, 63
Chemical attack
by additives, 486
Chemical processing
applications, 406407
Chemical resistance, 404t, 411
engine seals, 487
FFKM fluoroelastomer, 330t
vulcanizates, 329
Chemistry and processing
new developments in, 503504
Chemours, 503
Chlorofluorocarbons, 503
Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), 6
copolymers, 8
Clamp unit, 121123
Closed cell foam, compound for, 513
Coagent, 90
TAIC, 8990
Coagulants, 42
Coal-fired power plants, 491
Coatings
latex, 495
Coefficient of linear expansion, 406
Cold feed extruder, 113114
Combustion products
from fluoroelastomer compounds, 500
Commercial elastomeric products, 20
Commercial fluorocarbon elastomers, 5
Commercial fluoroelastomers, 41
Components
addition of, 61
Composition
determination of, 19
determines characteristics, 17
Compounding, 102, 107, 436
of fluorocarbon elastomers, 107
Compression, 457
Compression molding, 117118,
436437
advantages, 119
disadvantages, 119
shaft seals, 483
Compression set, 442, 444445
resistance, 453454, 475478, 480
tests, 439441
Compression stress relaxation
measurements, 441
Computer-controlled mixing lines,
109111
Conjugated diene structure, 83
Consumption, 15, 16t
market drivers, 1516
Continuous emulsion polymerization
process, 44, 4648, 51, 5357, 54f
Continuous mixing, 112
Continuous reactor
control of, 56
design and operation, 5455
operation, 4142, 55
Continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR),
5355
Control systems, 124
Cooling jackets, 55, 58
Copolymer composition relationship,
43, 45
Copolymerization, 43
with ethylene, 1819
with propylene, 1819
Copolymers, 1718, 2124
elastomeric, 428
gums, 475
peroxide-cured TFE/P, 24
TFE/P, 2324
TFE-propylene, 411
VDF/HFP, 19, 8283, 495
VDF/TFE, 1920
vinylidene fluoride (VDF), 8
Counter-rotating rolls, 108109
Cracking products
tetrafluoroethylene, 34
Creaming, 125, 495
Creep, 495496
Critical length, 49
Critical micelle concentration (cmc), 49
Cross-head die, 114115, 472
Cross-link density, 8284
Cross-linker, 444445
Bisphenol AF, 108
Cross-linking, 6, 9, 23, 102103, 480
reactions, 90
temperatures, 81
Cross-linking agent, 2224, 82, 88
radical trap, 404405
Cross-links, 439441
Crystalline aluminosilicates, 93
Crystalline plastics, 496
Crystallinity
affected by monomers, 17
Crystallization, 126127
CSTR, 5758
monomer feeds, 55
polymerization systems, 56
shutdown, 56
startup procedures, 55
steady states polymerization systems,
56
CTFE-based plastics, 6
Curative master batches, 445447
Curatives, 111112
dispersion of, 108
Cure characteristics, 487
Cure kinetics, 81
Cure rates, 449
Cure sites, 6, 9, 2021
monomers, 3637
perfluorophenyl, 2122
Cure system effects, 430431
Cure systems
bisphenol, 329
characteristics, 81
peroxide, 329
Cure times, 444
Cured stock, 118
Cure-site monomer, 2022, 3637, 41,
6365
ETP curing, 24
Curing, 1718, 117118
characteristics, 457
ETP, 24
fluoroelastomers, 36
by irradiation, 495496
peroxide systems, 1718
systems, 9
Curing time, 117118
Cyano FVE, 37
Cyclic amidine base, 8386
D
DAI-EL Fluoro TPV, 126127, 495496,
496t, 504
electrical properties, 128t
typical properties, 128t
DAI-EL G-101, 497
Dai-el LT-303, 457
Decomposition rate
first order, 56
Degree of polymerization (DP), 126127
Dehydrofluorination, 83, 428, 451453
Demand, 1516
Demolding, 453454
Detergents
engine oil additives, 484
Deuterated tetrahydrofuran solution, 101
Dewatering, 112
Diamine, 125
Diamine cure system, 8182
554 INDEXDie coating, 497
Die entrance, 497498
Die rheometer, 117118
Die-cut gaskets, 441
Diels-Alder adducts, 34
Dienic phenyl ether cross-links, 8384
Dienone, 84
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
1920
Difluoroacetamides, 3132
Diiodide transfer, 126127
Dimethylacetamide, 83
Dipolymer compositions, 1719
Dipolymers
commercial, 84
curing of, 445
gums, 445
heat-treated TFE/P, 98
TFE/P, 411
VDF/HFP, 81, 109, 118119
Dispersants
engine oil additives, 484
Dispersion
stability, 5455, 57
stabilizer, 48
volume, 60
Disposal of fluoroelastomers, 500
Divinylperfluoroalkane
cross-links, 404405
DLVO model of colloid science, 50
Drying extruder, 112
Duct expansion joints, 491
DuPont Dow Vertex seal, 497
DuPont Fluoropolymer Solutions, 12
DuPont Viton fluoroelastomers, 503
Dust lips, 483484
Dynamar Polymer Processing Additives,
497
Dynamic vulcanization, 125, 495496
Dynamic vulcanization characteristics of
fluoroelastomer, 504505
Dyneon FC 2210X, 497
Dyneon Fluoroelastomer FX 10180, 495
Dyneon precompounds
properties of, 475
Dyneon THV fluorothermoplastic, 496
E
Elastomeric behavior, 5
Elastomeric seals, 457
Elastomers, 504
cure systems, 81
definition, 1920
ethylene acrylic, 497
ETP, 102
extrusion, 123124
fluorinated thermoplastic, 495497
pellets, 111112
synthetic, 107108
VDF/HFP/TFE, 447, 454
Elastoplastics, 1920
Electron beam (EB) irradiation, 505
Elongation at break, 444445
Embrittlement, 82, 480
Emissions, 478479, 482
Emulsion polymerization, 4563, 46f
free-radical, 41
soapless, 51
End groups
iodine, 6263
ionic, 5657, 82
sulfonate, 47
Engine oil
additives, 484
Engineering controls, 499
Environmental conditions
for engine seals, 487
Environments
aggressive, 407409
in deep wells, 407
fluid, 457
harsh, 406
temperature, 457
Epichlorohydrin, 474
Epoxysilane, 9394
E/TFE/PMVE elastomers, 2425
Ethylene
copolymerization, 1819
flammability, 37
properties, 36t
tetrapolymer, 6
Ethylene/TFE/PMVE (ETP), 102, 411,
428431
curing, 24
elastomers, 102, 428430
fluid resistance, 428431
fluoroelastomers, 430
vulcanizates, 102
Exothermic decomposition, 500
Expansion joints, 491
elastomeric, 491
flue duct, 436, 438
Explosion hazards, 499
tetrafluoroethylene, 31
Explosion potential, 3738
Explosive decompression, 407
Explosivity, 3738
Exposure to severe environments, 430t
Extruder barrels, 114
Extrusion, 437, 475
Extrusion characteristics, 475
F
Fabrication, 436438
Farrel Continuous Mixer (FCM), 112
Feed section, 113114
Feed zone, 114
FEPM elastomers, 487488
FFKM fluoroelastomer
chemical resistance, 330t
Fick’s Laws, 472
Filler neck hose, 478479
Filler system, 471
Filler-filler interaction, 505506
Fillers, 442
Fires during post curing, 500
FischerTropsch fuel production, 501
Fissures, 9293
75 FKM 260 466, 504
FKM diaphragms, 437f
FKM elastomers
seals, 483
FKM fluoroelastomers, 134t
FKM shaft seals, 485
FKM sparkplug boot, 437f
FKM-based compounds, 511
calandering compound, 512
for closed cell foam, 513
compounds based on TFE/P elastomer,
513
injection moldable compound, 511
for low-temperature service, 512
for molded goods, 511
steam-resistant compound, 514
FKM/TFE fluoroelastomers, 134t
Flammability
ethylene and propylene, 35
hazards, 37
Flash, 119
Flexible fuels, 482
Flexural modulus, 496
Flow characteristics, 453454
Flue duct expansion joints, 436, 438
Flue duct system, 491
Flue gases, 491
Fluid resistance, 56, 9, 102, 126127,
129
HK classification, 34
vulcanizates, 329
Fluid resistance of fluoroelastomer
families, 327t
Fluorinated matrix, 81
Fluorinated monomers, 24, 29, 504
Fluorinated thermoplastic elastomers
(FTPEs), 126127, 495496, 496f,
500
Fluorinated thermoplastic vulcanizates
(FTPVs), 126127, 496497, 504
Fluorinated vinyl ethers, 37
Fluorine content, 1720, 126127, 447
affects chemical resistance, 486
TFE/P elastomers, 23
varying, 18
Fluorine thermoplastic vulcanizates
(FTPEs), 504
fluid resistance of, 504
Fluoroalkoxyphosphazene, 78
Fluorocarbon elastomers, 35, 7, 1719,
102103, 129
commercial, 107
INDEX 555Fluorocarbon elastomers (Continued)
compounding, 107
curing, 117
examples of, 435t
manufacturers, 2426
Fluorocarbons, 4546
Fluoroelastomers, 17
applications, 1011
base-resistant thermoplastic, 129
bisphenol-curable, 474475
characteristics, 81
components, 471
compounding, 107
consumption, 15, 15t
copolymerization, 1819
gums, 495
high-fluorine, 457
incorporated iodine units, 63
without ionic end groups, 64
latex, 125
low-viscosity, 495, 495t, 497
operating conditions, 121
O-rings, 471
peroxide-curable, 439, 451454
PMVE-containing, 480
polymerization, 4546
processing methods used, 107
producers, 1113
resistance to fluids, 15
sales, 1718
for seals, 483484
setting and controlling, 52
TFE-olefin, 411
thermoplastic, 125129
VDF-based FKM, 411
VDF/HFP, 81
VDF/HFP/TFE, 439, 451454
VDF/PMVE/TFE, 480
veneer stock, 475
worldwide production, 3
Fluoromonomers
toxicity, 37
Fluoroplastics, 129, 496497
production volumes, 29
Fluoropolymers
melt-processible, 113
processing, 497498
Fluorosilicone, 7
mechanical properties, 7
physical properties, 7
FluoroXprene, 129, 496497, 504
Fouling, 90
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), 19
Four-roll calander, 116f
Free radicals, 88, 480
curing, 56, 9, 1718, 36
polymerization, 910, 4142
Freudenberg NOK-GP, 504
Fuel
compositions, 471
emission limits, 475
methanol-containing, 474
oxygenated, 472
partially oxidized, 472
Fuel hose, 435t, 471472
additional layers of, 474
estimation of M15 fuel loss, 474
veneer, 475
Fuel injector
O-rings, 479480
seals, 479482
Fuel permeability, 473
Fuel permeation resistance, 129
Fuel pipe with FKM lining, 436f
Fuel pump, 471
seals, 475478
Fuel sender module, 475478
Fuel swell measurements, 480
Full (black) compounds, 441
Functional vinyl ethers, 37
Furnace blacks, 442
FVE
cyano, 37
FVMQ O-rings, 480
G
Gas deposition processes, 407409
Gaskets, 11, 471
cured-in-place, 497
Gasoline, 471
Gates, 124
Gelation, 8586
Glass transition temperature, 57, 910,
126127
E/TFE/PMVE, 24
fluoroelastomers, 10
Green strength, 445447
Grit-blasting, 484
Grommets, 471
Grooves
in seals, 23
Gum fluoroelastomers, 109
Gum polymer, 42
VDF/HFP/TFE, 447
H
Halloysite clay mineral, 505506
Halogen cure site, 6
Halogenated vinyl monomers, 36
Handling precautions
fluoroelastomers, 499500
Handling procedures
fluoromonomers, 37
Hard chrome plating, 118
Hazardous monomer mixtures, 3738
Hazards
explosion, 58, 60
safety, 56
Heat
exchange limits, 60
of polymerization, 5354, 56, 60
removal of, 55
Heat of reaction
TFE deflagration, 32
Heat resistance, 329
HK classification, 34
Heat sealable tubing, 435t
Heats of fusion, 1920
Helix angle, 114
Hexafluoropropylene (HFP), 1718
in fluoroelastomers, 29
properties, 3334
synthesis, 34
Hexamethylenediamine, 81
HFP-based fluoroelastomers, 6, 8
HFP-containing fluoroelastomers
adequate seal performance, 480
HFP-containing polymers, 485486
High-fluorine elastomers, 482
High-fluorine product, 457
High-molecular-weight PMTFPS, 78
High-VDF elastomers
chemical resistance, 488
HK classification
properties, 34
HNBR
oil seals, 485
O-rings, 480
seals, 483
Homogeneous nucleation, 4950
Hoses, 436
automobile fuel, 64
2H-Pentafluoropropylene, 102
Hydraulic clamp, 121123
Hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, 472, 475
Hydrocarbon swell, 411
Hydrocarbon thermoplastics, 497
Hydrocarbons
resistance to, 17, 24
Hydrogen sulfide
environment, 407
Hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber
(HNBR), 504
Hydropentafluoropropylene, 93
Hydroperoxides, 480
Hydroxides, 108
I
Ignition sources, 3738
Immersion testing, 485
Incineration, 500
Initiation, 47, 49
constant rate, 62
by thermal decomposition, 53
Initiator, 41, 59, 61
decomposition, 8990
molar feed rate of, 5657
Injection moldable compound, 511
Injection molding, 8283, 120125
machinery, 121
556 INDEXrole of, 505
shaft seals, 483
troubleshooting, 124125
Injection unit, 121124
Inorganic acids, 406
Inorganic backbones, 7
Inorganic bases, 406
Intermeshing rotors, 109111
Internal mixer, 107, 109112
Intrinsic viscosity, 52
Iodine cure sites, 2223
Iodine end groups, 9, 6263, 486487
Iodine groups, 404405
Iodine-containing transfer agents, 36
Ionic end-group level see also End groups
optimizing, 62
Ionizing radiation, 102103
Irradiation curing
FTPE, 495496
Isobutene, 118
ITFB monomers, 36
J
Jamak stress relaxation jigs, 480
Jigs, 439441
Shawbury-Wallace, 441
K
Ketones, 495
Kinetic analysis, 42
Kinetic models, 5152, 57
L
Landfill, 500
Latex processing, 495
Lips
seals, 483484
Liquid feeds, 55
Liquid fluoroelastomers, 503
Living radical copolymerization, 125
“Living radical” polymerization, 96
Loading fixtures, 120
Loss of properties, 133
Low-fluorine polymers, 486
Low-pressure extrusion, 497
Low-temperature characteristics, 18,
2021
Low-temperature flexibility, 56, 2224
Low-temperature fluoroelastomer, 503
Low-temperature service, compound for,
512
Lube oils
amine additives, 133
M
M15 fuel, 473474
loss estimation, 474
Magnesium oxide level
adhesion effect, 484
Maintenance procedures, 499
Mandrel, 472
Market and consumption statistics, 15
Master batches, 443447
Material Safety Data Sheets, 499500
Mechanochemical milling, 505
Medium-molecular-weight PMTFPS, 78
Melt fracture, 497
Melting endotherm, 495496
Melting points
of elastomers, 1920
Melting temperature
THV, 496
Melt-processible fluoropolymers, 113
Metal oxides, 93, 108
Metering zone, 114
Methyl bromide, 8990, 89t, 118
Methyl isobutyl ketone, 495
Methyl radicals, 8990
Methyltributylammonium Bisphenol AF
salt, 100101
Micellar entry, 49
mechanism, 50, 50f
Microemulsion process, 63
Mill mixing, 108109, 111
Mineral fillers, 102, 442
Mixed stock, 112
Modulus, 445447
Mold
cavities, 118
closing, 124
designs, 124
flash, 125
fouling, 118
opening, 124
platens, 118
precision extruded shapes, 437
release, 118
sticking, 90
Molded composite parts, 443
Molded goods, compound for, 511
Molded parts, 436
Molding, 118125
compression, 436437
injection, 436437
of shaft seals, 483
temperatures, 81
transfer, 436437
Molecular sieve zeolites, 93
Molecular weight distribution, 7071, 78
Molecular weights
controlling, 4748
Monitoring systems, 499
Monomer, 4142
affect on characteristics, 17
charge, 63
combinations, 5
compositions, 54, 61
concentration, 51
CSTR feeds, 55
fugacity, 5152
gaseous, 5455
recovery and recycle, 53
Monomer handling
safety aspects of, 3738
Monomer sequence distribution, 7274
Mooney viscosity, 99t
MT black, 8182
N
Nanometer-sized rubber particles, 505
Natural rubber/fluoroelastomer/highdensity polyethylene (NR/FKM/
HDPE), 504
Nitrile rubber, 17, 473
hydrogenated, 473
Nitrogen leakage, 481482
Nonionic radical, 47
Nozzle flash, 125
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 19,
83
Nucleophiles, 93
Nucleophilic attack, 427428
Nucleophilic diamine, 81
Nylon 12, 474
O
Octafluorocyclobutane
cracking product, 34
Octafluoroisobutylene
cracking product, 34
ODR modulus, 89
Oil fields
applications, 406407
Oil resistance, 487
Oil seals, 483
testing, 485
Olefin monomers, 35, 37
Operating procedures, 499
Organic acids and bases, 406
O-ring compounds, 439441
O-ring seals, 3, 1011, 436, 441,
479480
O-rings, 475478, 481482
applications, 437f
specifications, 439
Oscillating disk, 117118
Oscillating disk rheometry, 82
Oxidizing agents
resistance to, 406
Oxygenated fuels, 472, 474
P
Particles
determining number of, 48, 5152
entry into, 49
formation, 51, 59
formation and growth, 48
formation by homogeneous
nucleation, 49
micellar entry mechanism, 50, 50f
INDEX 557Particles (Continued)
polymerization rate, 51
precursor, 49
by secondary nucleation, 51
PDL Ratings, 133, 329
PDL resistance ratings, 509
Pelletizing die, 112
Pendant vinyl groups, 404405
Perfluorinated polymer backbone, 9
Perfluoro(alkoxyalkyl vinyl ether), 18
Perfluoro(alkyl vinyl ethers), 29
Perfluorocarbon diiodides, 6263
Perfluoroelastomers, 6, 18, 4445, 55, 81,
103, 428430, 504505
applications, 23
FFKM, 431
and fluoroelastomers, 505
Perfluoroisobutylene, 32
Perfluoromethoxy vinyl ether, 504
Perfluoro(methyl vinyl ether) (PMVE),
18, 29, 3435
Perfluorophenyl cure sites, 2122
Perlast ICE G75LT, 503504
Perlast ICE G90LT, 503504
Permeation rate, 472
Permeation test method
Thwing Albert cup, 473
Peroxide curing, 6, 1718, 8990, 89t,
96, 98, 329, 411, 453454
fluoroelastomers, 89
study, 8889
vulcanizate properties of, 90
Peroxide level, 89
Peroxide systems, 118
Peroxide-curable fluoroelastomers, 9, 36,
92, 503
Peroxide-curable gums, 486, 491
Peroxide-curable perfluoroelastomers, 97
Peroxide-curable products, 486487
Peroxide-curable VDF/HFP/TFE
fluoroelastomers, 486487
Peroxide-curable VDF/PMVE/TFE
elastomers, 93
Peroxide-cured fluoroelastomer, 117
Peroxide-cured terpolymer, 100
Peroxide-cured vulcanizates, 93
Peroxide-initiated curing, 56
Peroxides, 8192
Persulfatesulfite redox initiation
systems, 9496
Pharmaceutical applications, 406407
Phenolates
engine oil additives, 484
Phenolformaldehyde resin, 504
Phosphatizing, 484
Phosphonium accelerators, 86
Phosphonium salts, 86
Photovoltaic (PV) cell manufacturing
process, 505
phr, 107
Piston injection unit, 121
Plant tests, 499
Plasma processes, 407409
Plasticization, 481482
Plastics
high-fluorine, 496
Polar fluids, 406
resistance, 24
Polyamine curative, 125
Polycaprolactone, 497498
Polyethylene
high density, 497
linear low density, 497
Polymer
composition, 5758
degradation, 98
desired composition, 61
dispersion, 4142
estimates of composition, 57
formed in the reactor, 41
isolation, 42
optimizing viscosity, 62
pellets, 111112
radical propagation of particles, 50
radicals, 90
scale-up, 60
VDF/HFP/TFE, 455
VDF/PMVE/TFE, 439, 455
viscosity control, 57
Polymer-filler interaction, 505506
Polymeric peroxide, 3132
Polymerization, 4546, 5859
commercial production, 43
conditions, 53
emulsion, 41
heat of, 5354, 56, 60
inhibitors, 32
living radical, 6263
process, 503
process safety, 499
rate in a CSTR, 56
removal of heat, 55
shutdown, 59
Polymerization rate, 4748, 51, 5758,
60, 6263
second stage, 64
semibatch reactors, 60
Polymerization systems, 43, 4546
Polytetrafluoroethylene thermoplastics,
9496
Postcure temperatures
adhesion systems, 484
Postcuring, 89, 9497, 102, 117
Postvulcanized fluoroelastomer, 505
Pot, 120
Power generation facilities, 491
Power systems, 124
Power train systems, 435436
Precision Polymer Engineering Ltd,
503504
Precompounded grades, 107
Precompounds
bisphenol-cured fluorinated rubber, 503
Dai-El, 449
VDF/HFP, 441, 443, 447
VDF/HFP/TFE, 449
Premature cross-linking (scorch), 82
Premature curing, 92
Press heating system, 119
Primer curing, 484
Production
worldwide, 3
Propagation rate coefficient, 4445, 48
Propagation reactions, 43
Properties
by varying composition, 17
Propylene
copolymerization, 1819
copolymers, 910
flammability, 37
properties, 36t
Pyrolysis
products, 32
tetrafluoroethylene, 34
Q
Quaternary ammonium salts, 8687
Quaternary phosphonium accelerator, 445
Quick-connect seals, 475478
R
Radial shaft seals, 504
Radial squeeze, 481482
Radiation promoters, 102103
Radiation-cured FFKM, 102103
Radical adducts, 8990
Radical growth
aqueous oligomeric, 51
Radical trap, 88, 329, 404405, 430431
Radical-generation rate, 52, 56, 61
Radicals
determining number of, 48
entry efficiency, 57, 61
estimating cumulative, 61
flux, 4647
lost by recombination, 47
nonionic, 47
propagation, 50
rate of conversion, 43
ratio of, 43
summation of generated, 62
Ram injection units, 121
Random copolymerization, 45
Rate
of aqueous-phase oligomerization, 54
of constant initiation, 62
conversion, 43
of decomposition, 46, 56
determining, 5152
goals for monomer feed, 57
558 INDEXof incorporation of monomers, 43
of polymerization, 4748, 60. See also
Polymerization
of radical-generation, 61
of transfer, 53
Ratio of radical types, 43
Reaction temperature
vinylidene chloride, 30
Reactions
chain transfer-to-polymer, 63
kinetics relationships, 43
Reactive fluids, 327328
Reactivity ratios, 4445
estimating, 44
Reactor
dynamics, 57
jacket cooling of temperature, 55
jacketed cylindrical, 59
volume, 60
Reciprocating screw injection unit,
123124
Recovery
from strain, 5
Recycling, 500
Redox initiation, 98
persulfatesulfite, 2122
Redox initiator, 46
Redox rate, 4647
Reinforcing carbon blacks, 107
Relationships
dependence, 52
Relative viscosity, 52
Relaxation
from strain, 5
Renewable resource, 501
Reversion, 480
Rubber
cure characteristics, 118
curing, 107
injection mold, 120121
mill, 108109, 108f
Runners, 123124
S
Safe handling
of monomers, 499
Safety
fluoroelastomer life cycle, 499
handling of monomers, 3738
tetrafluoroethylene, 31
Salt removal, 42
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 505
Scorch, 120
Screen pack, 114115
Seals
for aggressive fluids, 407409
application, 457
automotive, 487488
automotive transmission, 488
FTPE, 495496
groove geometry, 23
for high-temperature, 406
oil retention, 483f
O-rings, 3, 1011
performance at low temperature, 21
shaft, 11
Secondary nucleation, 51
Semibatch emulsion polymerization,
4547, 51, 54, 5763
control of, 60
Semibatch emulsion process, 126127
Semibatch reactors, 5758
charging, 60
design and operation, 5859
design considerations, 60
limitations, 58
operation, 4142
scale-up, 60
Semiconductor
applications, 406409, 408t
manufacturing operations, 431
Semicrystalline perfluoropolymers, 505
Service temperatures
in chemical processes, 406407
Set resistance
O-ring, 406
Shaft seals, 3, 11, 483f, 486488
automotive, 487488
Shaw Intermix, 109111
Shawbury-Wallace
jigs, 441
load cell, 441
load stand, 480
Silane primers, 484
Silicone
oil seals, 485
seals, 483
Simrit, 504
Single-screw extruder, 112113, 113f
Soap, 41, 4748
concentration, 50
Sodium alginate, 125
Solubility equilibria, 472
Solubility limit, 57
Solution coating, 495
Solvent
ozone-depleting, 6465
Sour fuel
effect of, 480
Sprue, 120, 123124
Static seals, 439
performance, 455
Steady state permeability, 472473
Steam-resistant compound, 514
Sterilization
steam, 407
Stock
to rolls, 108109
temperature, 111
Straight head extruder, 114115
Stress
recovery from, 5
relax, 117
Strip feeding, 116117
Strong bases and acids, 406
Succinimides
engine oil additives, 484
Sulfides
engine oil additives, 484
Supercritical carbon dioxide, 503
Supernatant, 125
Suppliers
fluoroelastomer, 12
Surface cracking, 133
Surfactants, 4950
fluorinated anionic, 48
Suspension polymerization, 43, 6369
advantages, 63
Suspension products
bisphenol-curable, 64
Sustainability, 500501
environmental, 500501
Sustained particle nucleation, 54
Swell, 133
varies with fluorine, 18
T
TAIC radical trap, 89, 404405
Tangential rotors, 109111
Tecnoflon FOR 4391, 475
Tecnoflon FOR 50HS, 441
Tecnoflon FOR 80HS, 441
Tecnoflon N 535, 475
Tecnoflon PFR, 405t
Tecnoflon TN Latex, 495
Temperature
control systems, 56
cycling, 441
jacket-coolant, 61
Temperature environment
seals, 483, 488
severe, 486
Temperature stability
vulcanizate, 404405
Tensile strength, 505
and heat resistance, 404
Termination reactions, 47
Terpenes
polymerization inhibitors, 32
Terpolymers, 99100
bisphenol-curable, 451453, 478479
composition, 1920
ethylene/TFE/PMVE, 411
TFE and PMVE, 45
TFE/P/VDF, 428
VDF/HFP/TFE, 18, 9092, 125, 439,
449451, 474475
Terpolymers and tetrapolymers
compositions of, 43
Test block, 481482
INDEX 559Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate,
8687
Tetrafluoroethers, 3132
Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), 17, 3032,
503504
copolymers, 910
cracking, 34
epoxide, 3132
explosive hazards, 31
in fluoroelastomers, 29
properties, 3132
synthesis, 32
Tetraphenyltin, 96
TFE
explosion potential, 37
particle formation, 49
TFE/olefin elastomers, 81
TFE/olefin FEPM elastomers, 486
chemical resistance, 486
TFE-olefin fluoroelastomers, 411
TFE/P, 6, 910, 2324
dipolymer vulcanizates, 9899
FEPMs, 428430
fluid resistance, 428430
peroxide-cured, 428
TFE/P copolymer, 487
TFE/P elastomer
compounds based on, 513
TFE/P fluoroelastomers, 486
chemical resistance, 486
TFE/PMVE, 2123, 9496
TFE/propylene, 411427
TFE/P/TFP
bisphenol-cured, 428
vulcanizates, 428
TFE/P/TFP elastomers
chemical resistance, 488
TFE/P/VDF, 99100, 411, 427428
TFE/P/VDF elastomers
chemical resistance, 488
TFE/P/VDF terpolymers, 487
Thermal black, 442
Thermal expansion, 406
Thermal resistance, 9
engine seals, 487
TFE/PMVE, 97
Thermal stability, 451454
Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs), 112,
505
fluorinated, 126127, 129
Thermoplastics, 473
Thermoset fluorocarbon
elastomers, 12, 13t
Thermosetting resin, 504
Thermosetting rubbers, 107
Three-roll calander, 116f
THV fluorothermoplastics, 496
Thwing Albert cup, 473
Tie-coats, 484
Toggle clamp, 121123
Toxicity
fluoromonomers, 37
TR-10 test, 18
Transfer agents
semibatch reactor, 53
Transfer coefficient, 53
Transfer mold
three-plate multiple cavity, 120
Transfer molding process, 120, 120f
Transfer pad, 107, 120
Transfer rate, 53
Transfer reactions, 52
Transition zone, 114
Transmission electron microscopy
techniques, 505506
Transmission seals, 488
Trends, 1516
Triallyl cyanurate, 8889
Triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC), 8889,
430431, 453454
radical trap, 89, 404405
Triazine cross-links, 2122, 9697, 329,
404
Triethylenetetraamine, 125
Trifluoropropylene, 102, 411
Trifluorovinylethers, 3132
Trimethallyl isocyanurate (TMAIC),
8889, 430431, 453454
Triphenylphosphine oxide, 8384
Tubing die, 114115
Twin-screw extruders, 112, 129
Two-part liquid systems, 497
Two-roll mills, 108
Typical applications, 126127
U
UV-curable fluoroelastomers, 503
V
Valve seals, 436f
Valve stem seals, 436
Valve stems, 436f
Variable speed DC drive, 113
VDF copolymers, 56, 48, 5355
commercial, 52
continuous emulsion polymerization, 54
particle formation, 49
with soap, 52
systems, 4748
VDF homopolymer, 63
VDF production, 30
VDF-based fluoroelastomers, 22f
VDF-containing fluoroelastomers, 131,
488
effects of fluids, 133
VDF/CTFE fluoroelastomers, 134t
VDF/HFP, 1718, 116117
bisphenol-cured, 118119
copolymerization, 44
copolymers, 8283, 8586, 475, 497
dipolymers, 81
elastomers, 100
fluoroelastomers, 81
precompounds, 109, 441, 443, 447
VDF/HFP/PMVE/TFE, 93
VDF/HFP/TFE, 8182, 8586, 125, 439,
455, 491
bimodal polymers, 64
bisphenol-cured, 491
gum, 447
high-fluorine, 491
iodine-containing, 454
latex, 495
peroxide-curable, 451454
peroxide-curable fluoroelastomers, 64
precompounds, 447
terpolymers, 1920, 439, 449451,
475
vulcanizates, 94
VDF/HFP/(TFE), 6364
polymerization, 53
products, 54
VDF/HFP/TFE elastomers, 483484
VDF/HFP/TFE terpolymers, 484485
seals, 483
VDF/PMVE/TFE, 34, 439, 455457
peroxide-curable, 457
products, 54
ternary diagram, 2021
terpolymers, 9293
vulcanizates, 94
VDF/PMVE/TFE elastomers, 486
chemical resistance, 486
VDF/PMVE/TFE fluoroelastomer,
485486
VDF/TFE copolymers, 45
Veneer barrier layer, 474
Vent stacks, 491
Vented barrel design, 114
Ventilation, 499
Vertical ram machine, 121
Vinyl ethers, 37
Vinyl groups, 404405
Vinyl monomers, 36
Vinylidene fluoride, 17, 102103
physical properties, 29
production volume, 29
Vinylidene fluoride (VDF)-based FKMs,
503
Viscosity
inherent, 52
intrinsic, 52
polymer, 56
relative, 52
stocks, 442
Viton B-202, 475
Viton Curative No. 50, 445
Viton E-60C, 109
Viton Extreme ETP-600S, 503
Viton Extreme TBR-605CS, 428
560 INDEXViton F605C, 475
Viton Fluoroelastomer, 327328
Viton FreeFlow additives, 497
Viton GF-600S, 503
Viton GLT, 457
Viton polymers
high-fluorine, 454
Viton type nomenclature, 20
Viton VTR-9307, 503
Volatile materials, 89
Volatile products
measurement of, 499500
Volume swell
elastomers, 474
Vulcanizates
chemical resistance, 329, 330t
ETP, 102
fluid resistance, 329
heat resistance, 404405
peroxide-cured, 411
properties, 90, 444445, 454455, 457
temperature stability, 404405
with varying fluorine, 18
VDF/HFP/(TFE), 100
W
Wide-angle X-ray scattering, 505506
Y
Young’s modulus, 505
Z Z
-mer, 49, 51


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