كتاب Fluoroplastics - Volume 2
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Fluoroplastics - Volume 2

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كتاب Fluoroplastics - Volume 2  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Fluoroplastics - Volume 2    كتاب Fluoroplastics - Volume 2  Emptyالسبت 18 نوفمبر 2023, 11:44 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Fluoroplastics - Volume 2
Melt Processible Fluoropolymers - The Definitive User’s Guide and Data Book
Second Edition
Sina Ebnesajjad

كتاب Fluoroplastics - Volume 2  F_p_2_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of contents
Dedication
Preface to Second Edition
Acknowledgments to Second Edition
1. Introduction to Fluoropolymers
1.1. Coming of Age of Polymer Science
1.2. Roy Plunkett's Story
1.3. Commercialization of PTFE
1.4. Developmental History of Fluoropolymers
1.5. Trends in Application Development
1.6. Globalization: Present and Future
2. Production and Market Statistics
2.1. Growth of Fluoropolymers
2.2. Regional Consumption of Fluoropolymers
2.3. Consumption of Fluoropolymers
3. From Fundamentals to Applications
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Uniqueness of Fluorine
3.3. Fluorine Characteristics
3.4. What are Fluoropolymers?
3.5. Fundamental Properties of Fluoropolymers
3.6. Developmental History of Fluoropolymers
3.7. Examples of Uses of Fluoropolymers
4. Fluoropolymers: Properties and Structure
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Impact of F and C–F Bond on the Properties of PTFE
4.3. Copolymers of TFE
4.4. Reaction Mechanism
4.5. Effect of Solvents on Fluoropolymers
4.6. Molecular Interaction of Fluoropolymers: Low Friction and Low Surface Energy
4.7. Conformations and Transitions of PTFE
4.8. Conformations and Transitions of PCTFE
4.9. Conformations and Transitions of FEP Copolymers
4.10. Conformations and Transitions of Perfluoroalkoxy Polymer
4.11. Conformations and Transitions of Polyvinylidene Fluoride
4.12. Conformations and Transitions of Ethylene–Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer
4.13. Conformations and Transitions of Ethylene–Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copolymer
5. Operational Classification of Fluoropolymers
5.1. Introduction
5.2. TFE Homopolymers
5.3. TFE Copolymers
5.4. CTFE Polymers
5.5. VDF Polymers
5.6. VF Polymers
5.7. Process Classification
6. Preparation and Properties of Fluorinated Monomers
6.1. Introduction
6.2. TFE Preparation
6.3. Purification of TFE
6.4. Properties of TFE
6.5. Synthesis of HFP
6.6. Properties of HFP
6.7. Synthesis of PAVEs
6.8. Properties of PAVEs
6.9. Synthesis of CTFE
6.10. Properties of CTFE
6.11. Synthesis of VDF
6.12. Properties of VDF
6.13. Synthesis of Vinyl Fluoride
6.14. Properties of VF
7. Polymerization Surfactants
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate
7.3. Issues with PFOS
7.4. Problem with PFOA
7.5. EPA Action
7.6. Alternative Surfactants for Fluoropolymer Polymerization
7.7. Summary
8. Polymerization and Finishing Melt-Processible Fluoropolymers
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Polymerization Mechanism for TFE
8.3. Preparation of PFA Polymers
8.4. Preparation of Perfluorinated Ethylene–Propylene Copolymers
8.5. End Group Stabilization
8.6. Preparation of VDF Polymers
8.7. Preparation of ETFE Polymers
8.8. Preparation of ECTFE Polymers
8.9. Preparation of VF Polymers
8.10. Polymerization in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
8.11. Characterization of Fluoropolymers
9. Commercial Grades of Melt-Processible Fluoropolymers
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Perfluoroalkoxy Polymer
9.3. Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Polymer
9.4. Polyvinylidene Fluoride
9.5. Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene Polymer
9.6. Ethylene Chlorotrifluoroethylene Polymer
9.7. Terpolymer Fluoroplastics
9.8. Polyvinyl Fluoride
9.9. Fluoroplastic Films
10. Injection Molding
10.1. Introduction
10.2. General Considerations
10.3. Basic Technology
10.4. The Process
10.5. Injection Molding Machinery
10.6. Troubleshooting
10.7. Injection Molds
10.8. Materials of Construction
10.9. Rheology of Fluoropolymer Melts
10.10. Processing of Fluoropolymers
11. Extrusion
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Fundamentals of Extrusion Processes
11.3. Fluoropolymer Wire Coating
11.4. Fluoropolymer Tube Extrusion
11.5. Fluoropolymer Film Extrusion
11.6. Fluoropolymer Fibers
11.7. Thermal Stability of Fluoropolymers
12. Rotational Molding and Linings
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Background
12.3. Basic Process Technology
12.4. Rotational Molding Equipment
12.5. Equipment and Process Design
12.6. Operation of Rotomolding Processes
12.7. Rotolining Process
12.8. Rotomolding and Rotolining of Fluoropolymers
12.9. Melting of Polymer and Part Formation
12.10. Troubleshooting
12.11. Conclusion
13. Other Molding Techniques
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Compression Molding
13.3. Transfer Molding
13.4. Blow Molding
14. Fluoropolymer Foams
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Background
14.3. Foaming Technology
14.4. Foam Manufacturing Processes
14.5. Benefits of Fluoroplastic Foams
14.6. Foaming Technology
14.7. Extrusion Foaming of Melt-Processible Perfluoropolymers
14.8. Summary
15. Chemical Properties of Fluoropolymers
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Chemical Compatibility of Perfluoropolymers
15.3. Chemical Compatibility of Partially Fluorinated Fluoropolymers
15.4. Permeation Fundamentals
15.5. Permeation Measurement and Data
15.6. Environmental Stress Cracking
16. Properties of Fluoropolymers
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Influence of Processing on Fluoroplastics
16.3. Mechanical and Dynamic Properties
16.4. Thermal Properties
16.5. Weatherability
16.6. Electrical Properties
16.7. Optical and Spectral Properties
16.8. Radiation Effect
16.9. Flammability
16.10. Biofilm Formation
17. Surface Treatment of Fluoropolymers for Adhesion
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Sodium Etching of Fluoroplastics
17.3. Plasma Treatment of Fluoropolymers and PTFE
17.4. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment
17.5. Corona Treatment
17.6. Flame Treatment
18. Fabrication of Fluoropolymers
18.1. Introduction
18.2. Machining
18.3. Adhesive Bonding Methods
18.4. Welding and Joining
18.5. Heat-Sealing Films
18.6. Heat Bonding
18.7. Metallization
18.8. Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Films
18.9. Cross-Linking
18.10. Thermoforming
18.11. Other Processes
19. Applications in Microelectronics Industry
19.1. Introduction
19.2. Review of Microelectronics Manufacturing
19.3. Geometry Trends
19.4. Use of Fluoropolymers
19.5. Purity Measurement Methods and Standards
19.6. Trends for the Use of Fluoropolymers in the Semiconductor Industry
20. Applications of Fluoropolymers
20.1. Chemical Processing
20.2. Piping
20.3. Vessels
20.4. CPI Components
20.5. Self-Supporting Components
20.6. Trends in Using Fluoropolymers in Chemical Service
20.7. Semiconductor Processing
20.8. Electrical Applications
20.9. Mechanical Applications
20.10. Automotive and Aerospace
20.11. Medical Devices
20.12. Summary
21. Safety, Health, Environmental, Disposal, and Recycling
21.1. Introduction
21.2. Toxicology of Fluoropolymers
21.3. Thermal Properties of Fluoropolymers
21.4. Emission during Processing
21.5. Safety Measures
21.6. Food Contact
21.7. Fluoropolymer Scrap and Recycling
21.8. Environmental Protection and Disposal Methods
Glossary
General
Semiconductor Glossary
Index
.
GLOSSARY 731Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” indicate figures and tables respectively.
A
Abrasion, 492e514
resistance, 507e510
of fluoroplastics, 515t
of thermoplastics, 515t
ABS. See Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
(ABS)
Absence of catalyst, 76
Absorption
constant, 614
index, 605
AC. See Alternating current (AC)
Accelerators, 160, 165
Accordion, 107
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS),
311
Activators, 159e160, 165
Acyl fluoride groups, 142
Adherends, 611e612
Adhesive bond, 564
Adhesive bonding methods, 590e591.
See also Machining; Welding
Adhesive-less joining. See Welding
Adjustable ducting hood, 683f
ADONA surfactant, 95, 95f
Advanced hot runner gates, 258, 258f
Aerospace, 677
braided hose, 676f
data cables, 673f
AFM. See Atomic force microscopy
(AFM)
Alternating current (AC), 642
American Kuhne cutaway extruder,
283f
American Society for Testing Materials
(ASTM), 117
Ammonia (NH3), 568
plasma, 574e575
Ammonium perfluoro 3, 6-
dioxaoctanoate (APFDO), 116
Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO),
83, 102, 684
special characteristics of, 91
Ammonium persulfate (APS), 103, 105,
128, 145
Amorphous plastics, 619
Angioplasty catheter application,
677f
Anion contamination, 650
Annealing. See Dimensional stabilization
APFDO. See Ammonium perfluoro
3,6-dioxaoctanoate (APFDO)
APFO. See Ammonium
perfluorooctanoate (APFO)
Applications in microelectronics
industry, 640
comparison of metal extraction,
657t
fluoropolymers use, 653e656
trends for, 658e659
geometry trends, 645e651
microelectronics manufacturing,
640e645
performance values using rinse test and
cycle test, 657t
purity measurement methods and
standards, 656e658
TOC contamination requirements, 659t
Applications of fluoropolymers, 661,
675f
automotive and aerospace, 677
CPI, 661
components, 664e665
electrical applications, 672e674
mechanical applications, 674e675
medical devices, 677e678
piping, 661e662
self-supporting components,
666e667
semiconductor processing, 668e672
trends in using fluoropolymers in
chemical service, 667e668
vessels, 662e664
APS. See Ammonium persulfate (APS)
APT. See Atmospheric pressure plasma
treatment (APT)
Arc tracking, 533
ASTM. See American Society for Testing
Materials (ASTM)
ASTM Method D3123, 267
Atmospheric glow discharge treatment
effect, 574t
Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment
(APT), 577e583
comparison with low-pressure plasma
treatment, 579t
functional principles, 581f
Atomic force microscopy (AFM),
31e32
Attrition factor (Af), 135
Automotive, 677
sensor, 675f
Automotive PTFE-lined
fluid transfer hose, 676f
fuel hose, 676f
Auxiliary-ram molds, 383
Auxiliary-ram transfer process. See
Plunger molding
Azeotropic copolymerization,
109
B
Bagley correction, 266
Balanced runner, 254, 255f
Bare-roll, 583e584
Barrier screws, 284, 284f
Basic melt indexer, 269f
Batch system, 352
BCDS. See Bulk chemical dispense
systems (BCDS)
BCF. See Bioconcentration factor (BCF)
Bearing pads, 674
Bed, 606
Bent strip test, 192
Beta-hydroxypropyl tertiary butyl
peroxides, 165
Biaxial orientation, 285, 311
Biaxially oriented film, 288e290
Bioconcentration factor (BCF), 92,
92te93t
Biofilm formation, 559e561
Birefringence, 334e335
2,2-bis-trifluoromethyl-4,5-difluoro-1,3-
dioxole, 42, 46f
Blade ejectors, 261
733Blow molding, 392e393, 393f. See also
Compression molding; Transfer
molding
blow molds, 402
blowing and calibrating devices,
403e404
cooling, 404
features, 402
pinch-off zone, 403, 403f
venting and surface finish, 404
coextrusion
blow-molding techniques, 400e401,
401f
operating conditions, 406t
dip blow-molding process, 400, 400f
extrusion blow molding, 395e397
fluoropolymer parts, 404e410
injection blow molding, 398, 398f
multiblock blow molding, 400,
400f
processes, 393e395
sequential extrusion, 401e402,
401f
stretch blow-molding process,
398e399
Blow pin, 403
Blowing agent, 425
Blowing devices, 403e404
Blown film, 287e288
Blown process, 288e289, 289f
Blowup ratio, 311
BN. See Boron nitride (BN)
Boeing Specification Support Standard
(BSS), 632e633
Bond strength, 598
Bonding adhesives, 591
Boranes (B2H6), 432
Boron (B) atoms, 641
Boron nitride (BN), 270, 318e319,
414e417, 420
on foaming efficiency FEP, 420t
nucleating and blowing agents,
426e427
triple nucleating package of extrusion
process, 429
Branched perfluorinated vinyl ethers,
185
Break stress, 333
BSS. See Boeing Specification Support
Standard (BSS)
Bubble process. See Blown process
Buildup time, 356
Bulk chemical dispense systems (BCDS),
645e650
Burnout hood, 683f
Butt weld, 617f
C
Cables
aerospace data cables, 673f
coaxial, 673f
plenum, 672e673
for signal transmissions, 673f
Calcium tetraborate (CTB),
318e319
Calibrating devices, 403e404
Capacitance, 642
Capacitors, 640, 642, 643f
Capillary viscometers, 266
Capture velocity, 682e683
Carbon, 475
Carbon dioxide (CO2), 140, 421, 613
foaming
extruder design and processing
conditions, 422t
Carbonefluorine bond (CeF bond), 11
Carbonyl fluoride (COF2), 69, 140, 682t
Cardoid type, 394
Carlson’s method, 147
Carousel machines, 352
Carriers, 668
Cashew gate. See Winkle gate
Cast film, 285e287, 285f
Catalysts. See Initiators
CClF2-CHF2. See 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-
tetrafluoroethane (CClF2-CHF2)
Cell growth, 414
Cellular polymers. See Foamed plastics
Centrifugal casting, 350
CeF bond. See Carbonefluorine bond
(CeF bond)
CF3COF. See Trifluoroacetyl fluoride
(CF3COF)
Chain transfer agent (CTA), 104
CHClF2. See Chlorodifluoromethane
(CHClF2)
Chemical foaming, 414
Chemical process industry (CPI),
661
components, 664e665
Chemical processing, 661
Chemical properties of fluoropolymers,
432
chemical compatibility
partially fluorinated fluoropolymers,
436e438
perfluoropolymers, 432e436
chemical resistance, 432f
environmental stress cracking,
471e473
permeation
fundamentals, 438e470
measurement and data, 470
Chemical resistance, 216, 227
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 643
Chill roll, 285, 286f, 287t
Chip geometry, 643e644
Chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), 432
Chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2),
48e49
Chlorodifluoromethane, 59
Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), 39, 48,
102, 421
polymers, 42e45
properties, 74e75, 75t
synthesis, 72e74
Chlorotrifluoroethylene vinylidene
fluoride copolymer (CTFE-VDF
copolymer), 9e10
Choker bar. See Restrictor bar
Circuit density, 669
Clamp force conversion table, 240t
Clamp unit, 237e239, 238f
Clamshell machines, 353
ClF3. See Chlorine trifluoride (ClF3)
Closed-loop principle, 247
CMC. See Critical micelle concentration
(CMC)
Coagulum, 92
Coat hanger design, 308, 309f
Coat hanger die, 290
Coaxial cables, 673f
Coextrusion, 292e294
COF2. See Carbonyl fluoride (COF2)
Cold flow. See Creep
Cold runner, 253e254, 254f
Comonomer, 42
Compression molding, 371, 371fe372f.
See also Blow molding; Transfer
molding
fluoropolymers, 375e379
press, 374e375
rectangular compression mold, 377f
types, 372e374
Compression ratio, 283e284
Computing industry, 640
Concentricity, 294
Conduction, 605
Conductors, insulation structures on, 633t
Cone and plate viscometer, 266e267
Conformational disorder. See Molecular
relaxation
Conquest technology, 619e620
Contact adhesives, 591
Control systems, 245e247
Convection, 605
Conventional crosshead design, 297f
Conventional screw design, 296f
Conversion, 49e50
734 INDEXConvoluted PTFE-lined braided hoses,
669f
Cooling, 259e261, 259fe260f, 404
cycle, 357e358
Copolymer, 23, 39
Copper-beryllium (CueBe), 273
Corona treatment, 583e584. See also
Flame treatment; Plasma
treatment
Corrosion-resistant metals and suppliers,
262t
Couette viscometer, 266e267
CPI. See Chemical process industry (CPI)
“Cradle-to-grave” rules, 688
Creep, 482e487
Critical micelle concentration
(CMC), 89
Critical shear rate, 262, 282
Critical solvent content, 325
Cross-linking, 631e633
Cryolite. See Cryolith
Cryolith, 12
Crystallinity, 236, 470, 472, 475
CTA. See Chain transfer agent (CTA)
CTB. See Calcium tetraborate (CTB)
CTFE. See Chlorotrifluoroethylene
(CTFE)
CTFE-VDF copolymer. See
Chlorotrifluoroethylene
vinylidene fluoride copolymer
(CTFE-VDF copolymer)
CueBe. See Copper-beryllium (CueBe)
CVD. See Chemical vapor deposition
(CVD)
Cycle test, performance values using,
657t
D D
-limonene, 77, 77f
“d” coefficients, 535
Daikin technology, 61
Davis Standard grooved feed throat,
284f
DC. See Direct current (DC)
DDR. See Drawdown ratio (DDR)
Decompression foaming, 415
Decompression screws. See Vented
screws
Deformation-under-load, 482e487
of FEP, 496fe498f
PFA, 493fe495f
Degating, 252
Denier, 291
DF. See Dissipation factor (DF)
DFE. See 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE)
DH. See Hydraulic diameter (DH)
DHP. See Di-(w-hydrodecafluoroheptanol)
peroxide (DHP)
1,1-DHPPTE. See 1,1-dihydropentafluoropropyl trifluorovinyl ether
(1,1 DHPPTE)
Di-(w-hydrodecafluoroheptanol)
peroxide (DHP), 138
Diaphragms, 274
1,2-Dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane
(CClF2-CHF2), 1
Dichlorodifluoromethane, 48
Die. See Parison head
Die coextrusion, 293e294
Die head. See Parison head
Die lips, 308
DielseAlder adducts, 69e70
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
112
Diffusion, 644e645
1,1-difluoroethane (DFE), 77
Diglutaric acid peroxide, 160
Diglyme, 570
1,1-dihydropentafluoropropyl
trifluorovinyl ether (1,1
DHPPTE), 71
Dimensional stabilization, 145e147
Dimethylformamide (DMF), 51e54,
166e168
Dipole polarization, 606
Direct current (DC), 642
Direct hot runner gate, 258, 258f
Direct positive mold. See Fully
positive
Direct sprue gating. See Sprue gating
Dispersion grade fluoropolymers,
684
Dispersion polymerization. See Emulsion
polymerization
Dispersion processes, 39
Displacement-controlled welding. See
Welding by distance
Disposal methods, 688e689
Dissipation factor (DF), 524e525,
606
Disuccinic acid peroxide, 160
DMF. See Dimethylformamide (DMF)
Doping, 640e641, 644e645
Draft ratio, 333
Draw-ratio balance (DRB), 301
Drawdown ratio (DDR), 300e301,
300te301t
DRB. See Draw-ratio balance (DRB)
Drilling, 590
DSC. See Differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC)
Dual laminate, 661
E
ECF. See Electrochemical fluorination
(ECF)
ECTFE. See Ethylene
chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE)
Eddy currents, 597
EHMW. See Extra-high molecular weight
(EHMW)
Ejection, 261
Ejection half. See Moving half
Elastomer-supported PTFE gaskets, 665f
Electrical applications, 672e674
Electrochemical fluorination (ECF),
67, 84
Electrochemical method, 13, 14f
Electromagnetic materials, 598f
Electromechanical coupling coefficient,
535
Electronegativity, 11
Electronic
devices, 640
packaging, 640
polarization, 606
Electrophiles, 27
Elevated temperature etching,
570e572
etching, 571
shelf life of etch surfaces, 572
storage and preparation, 571
washing, 571e572
Emission during processing, 681
Emulsifiers, 197
Emulsion polymerization, 83, 102
End group stabilization, 140, 148t,
150t
extractable fluorine ion content, 153t
FEP stabilization, 140e145
fluorination effect and ammoniation,
152t
infrared wave number, 140t
PFA stabilization, 145e154
thermal stability, 149t
Enflurane, 14e15
Environmental protection, 688e689
EPA. See US Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA)
ePTFE
aortic repair graft, 676f
vascular graft configured for pediatric
shunt, 676f
Equipment cleaning and maintenance,
685
Etching, 571, 644
ETFE. See Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
(ETFE)
Ethylene (Et), 110
INDEX 735Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene
(ECTFE), 7, 36, 206, 227, 348,
361, 391, 415e416, 432,
437e438, 477, 565, 623, 653,
661. See also Fluorinated
ethylene propylene (FEP);
Perfluoroalkoxy polymer (PFA
polymer); Polyvinylidene fluoride
(PVDF)
conformations and transitions, 36
copolymer chemical compatibility, 469t
dielectric constant, 546fe547f
dissipation factor, 547fe548f
electrical properties, 536, 546t
films, 315e316
flexural modulus, 489f
g-radiation effect, 556t
high-purity fluid water piping system,
655f
polymers preparation, 191e196
polymerization conditions and
characteristics of, 193t
properties, 194te195t
Solvay Solexis ECTFE polymers
properties, 230t
stress relaxation, 510f
tensile creep, 508fe509f
thermal properties, 524t
transmission, 552
transmittance, 555f
weathering effect, 532f
welding, 623
yield and tensile strength, 484f
yield and ultimate elongation, 485f
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE),
7, 35, 39e42, 112e113, 113f,
205e206, 227, 348, 361e365,
378, 415e416, 432, 436, 477,
661. See also Fluorinated
ethylene propylene (FEP);
Perfluoroalkoxy polymer
(PFA polymer); Polyvinylidene
fluoride (PVDF)
adhesion improvement, 573
AGC ETFE resins
compositions, 229t
properties, 229t
apparent flexural modulus, 493f
chemical compatibility, 440te447t
conformations and transitions, 35e36
convoluted tubing, 670f
creep-apparent flex modulus vs. time and
temperature, 508f
Daikin ETFE resins properties, 229t
dielectric constant, 543fe544f
temperature effect comparison, 545f
dielectric strength vs. thickness, 545f
dissipation factor, 543fe544f
DuPont ETFE resins properties, 228t
Dyneon ETFE resins properties,
230t
electrical properties, 535e536, 542t
films, 315e316
flex fatigue behavior, 512f
flexural creep behavior, 506fe507f
flexural modulus, 489fe490f
hydrolytic stability, 451t, 528t
effect of immersion, 448t
infrared scan, 554f
polymers preparation, 178e191
copolymerization results, 179t
polymerization conditions and
characteristics, 182t
properties, 180t, 183te184t
reaction ingredients and conditions,
180t
effect of termonomer, 186t
thermal stability, 181t
tensile modulus, 491f
tensile properties, 531t
tensile strength, 483f
thermal properties, 523t
transmittance vs. wavelength, 554t
ultimate elongation, 484f
welding, 622e623
Euromap international size classification,
242
Exclusion model, 110
Exhaust
scheme for blow molding, 682f
system, 683f
typical setup for, 683f
Expandable foaming, 415
Expanded plastics. See Foamed plastics
Extended mandrel technique,
305, 306f
Extra-high molecular weight (EHMW),
377
Extraction, 645e650
Extrudate. See Extrusion
Extruder, 282e285, 393
Extrusion, 282e294
blow molding, 395e397, 395f
fluoropolymer
fibers, 328e344
film extrusion, 308e328
thermal stability of, 344e345
tube extrusion, 303e308
wire coating, 294e303
fundamentals, 282e294
stretch blow molding, 399
welding, 612e613, 613f, 621
F
F/C. See Fluorine-to-carbon ratio (F/C)
F22. See Dichlorodifluoromethane
Fabrication of fluoropolymers, 683e685
adhesive bonding methods, 590e591
comparison of piezoelectric materials,
631t
cross-linking, 631e633
encapsulation of metal parts, 633
heat bonding, 625e626
heat-sealing films, 623e624
hot stamping, 634
machining, 589e590
metallization, 626e627
piezoelectric films, 627e631
pyroelectric films, 627e628, 631
thermoforming, 633, 634f
welding
ECTFE, 623
ETFE, 622e623
FEP, 618
and joining, 591e623
PFA, 618e620, 619f
PTFE, 615e617, 619f
PVDF, 620e622
Fabs, 653
Family mold, 254
Far-field welding, 603, 603f
FDA. See Food and Drug Administration
(FDA)
Feed block coextrusion, 293e294, 294f
Feedback, 247
FEP. See Fluorinated ethylene propylene
(FEP)
Fiber extrusion, 291
Fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP), 661
Fibrillation, 325
Filled compounds, 679
Film extrusion, 285e290
biaxially oriented film, 288e290
blown film, 287e288
cast film, 285e287, 285f
fluoropolymer, 308e328
Film flame treater, 584f
Filter cartridge, 658
Fire hazard, 685
Fixed half, 251e252
Flame nozzle design, 584
Flame treatment, 584e586, 585t.
See also Corona treatment;
Plasma treatment
Flame-ionization detector-analyzed
gases, 55
Flammability, 557e559
Flash type, 372e373
Flex fatigue properties, 491e492
736 INDEXFlex life, 491
Flexible foam, 413
Flexural life. See Flex life
Floating-plate, 383
Flory model, 110
Flow length, 267
Fluff, 135
Fluorinated emulsifier, 114e115
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP),
15, 218e219, 476, 507, 555, 565,
661, 673. See also Ethylene
tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE);
Perfluoroalkoxy polymer
(PFA polymer); Polyvinylidene
fluoride (PVDF)
coefficient of friction, 514f
compression stressestrain behavior,
478f
convoluted tubing, 670f
creep behavior, 499f
Daikin EFEP resins properties,
225t
Daikin FEP resins properties, 223t
deformation-under-load, 496fe498f
dielectric constant, 537fe538f
dissipation factor, 537fe538f
DuPont FEP resins properties, 222t
Dyneon FEP resins properties, 224t
electrical properties, 536t
flex fatigue resistance, 511t
flexural modulus, 486f
infrared transmittance spectrum,
551f
radiation effect, 556t
stressestrain behavior of various grades,
479fe480f
tensile properties, 529t
retention, 530t
tensile strength, 481f
tensile stress relaxation, 509fe510f
tensile stressestrain behavior,
478f
thermal properties, 522t
transmission of visible light,
551fe552f
transmittance comparison, 549f
ultimate elongation, 481f
wear and PV data, 515t
welding, 618
Fluorinated monomers, 48
CTFE
properties, 74e75, 75t
synthesis, 72e74
HFP
properties, 69e70, 70t
synthesis, 64e69
PAVEs
properties, 72, 73t
synthesis, 70e71, 72t
TFE
preparation, 48e59
properties, 62e64, 63t
purification, 59e61
VDF
properties, 76, 76t
synthesis, 75e76
VF
estimated thermal conductivity and
viscosity, 79t
flammability properties, 79t
properties, 77e78, 78t
solubility, 78t
synthesis, 76e77
Fluorinated surfactants, 83e84, 84f
Fluorination, 145
Fluorine, 11, 12t, 475
characteristics, 11e15
organic chemistry, 13e15
preparation, 13
fluorine-containing compounds, 14e15
fluoropolymers, 15e16
uniqueness, 11
Fluorine-to-carbon ratio (F/C), 586
Fluoroaromatics, 14
Fluoroelastomer applications, 675f
Fluoroplastic(s), 348, 357e358,
499e502, 516, 590, 633
abrasion resistance, 515t
degradation products, 520t
degradation rate, 518f, 519t
films, 227, 626e627
g-radiation effect, 559f
glass transition temperatures and
melting points, 521t
hardness, 513t
impact strength, 513t
radiation resistance, 560f
Fluoropolymer(s), 1, 4f, 7, 9t, 15e16,
17t, 20t, 103, 348, 371, 564, 679.
See also Applications of
fluoropolymers; Chemical
properties of fluoropolymers;
Properties of fluoropolymers
age of polymer science, 1e2
alternative surfactants for fluoropolymer
polymerization, 91
alternative chemical structures,
93e97
requirements, 91e93
special characteristics of APFO, 91
characterization, 201
ECTFE polymer, 206
ethylene tetrafluoroethylene polymer,
205e206
FEP, 201e205
PFA polymer, 201
polyvinyl fluoride, 208
polyvinylidene fluoride, 206e208
compression molding, 375e379
compression profile, 376t
consumption, 9e10
regional, 8e9
developmental history, 3e5, 16e18
emission during processing, 681
environmental protection and disposal
methods, 688e689
examples of uses, 18e20
fibers, 328e344
perfluoropolymer fibers, 337e340
PVDF fibers, 330e337
ultrafine fibers, 340e344
film extrusion, 308
ETFE and ECTFE films,
315e316
perfluoropolymer films, 316e319
PVDF films and sheets, 309e315,
310te311t
PVF, 319e328
fluoropolymer-lined
components, 663f
fittings, 662f
FRP pipe and fittings, 663f
pipe, 662f
pump, 664f
food contact, 686
fundamental properties, 16, 18t
globalization, 5e6
growth of, 7e8
melting points, continuous use, and
processing temperatures, 680t
molecular interaction of, 28e30
onset decomposition, peak mass loss
rate and ignition temperatures,
681t
Poisson ratio of, 511t
process classification, 46
PTFE commercialization, 3
resins, 686, 688
rotolining, 360e365
rotomolding, 360e365
Roy Plunkett’s story, 2e3
safety measures, 681e685
scrap and recycling, 686e688
effect of solvents on, 27e28
specialty valves and control
components, 654f
thermal properties, 679e681
toxicology, 679
INDEX 737Fluoropolymer(s) (Continued)
trends in application development, 5
tube extrusion, 303e308
heat shrink tubes, 307e308
large diameter tubes, 307
medium diameter tubes, 307
sizing of tubes, 303e305
small diameter tubes, 307
use in microelectronics industry,
653e656
special considerations, 655e656
weight loss, 680f
wire coating, 294e303
DDR, 300e301
melt flow, 298e300
melt fracture, 298e300
process control, 298, 298t
processing conditions, 303
processing equipment, 294e298
shear rate and stress calculation, 301
tooling design, 301
Fluorotelomers, 85e86
Fluorspar, 12, 13f, 48e49
Fluroxene, 14e15
Foam-insulated wire, 430
Foamed fluoropolymers, 412
benefits, 415
cells, 413
foam manufacturing process, 415
foaming technology, 413e425
melt-processible perfluoropolymers
extrusion foaming, 426e430
Foamed plastics, 412
Foaming
ECTFE, 423e424
ETFE, 423e424
melt-processible perfluoropolymers,
416e423
PTFE, 423
PVDF, 424e425
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 19
Food contact, 686
Four-pair FEP plenum cable, 688f
Freon, 2
Friction, 492e514
FRP. See Fiberglass-reinforced plastic
(FRP)
Fully positive, 373, 373f
Fume fever, 681
Fusion time, 356e357
G
Gate, 253, 255e257, 256f
Gel permeation chromatography (GPC),
168
General Motors (GM), 2
General-purpose screw, 239
Geometry trends, 645e651. See also
Microelectronics manufacturing
detection limit of metal ions, 652t
DRAM half-pitch projection, 646t
nature of impurities, 645e651
particle contamination and chemical
impurity requirements, 647t
recommended ultrapure water quality,
649t
semiconductor industry association
technology roadmap, 645t
silicon wafer fabrication, chemicals used
in, 651t
Globalization, 5e6
Glow discharge method, 573
Glyme-based etchant, 571e572
Glymes, 570
GM. See General Motors (GM)
Gore-Tex GR sheet gasketing, 667f
Gore-Tex film, 627
GPC. See Gel permeation
chromatography (GPC)
Gylon sheet gasketing material, 666f
H
HagenePoiseuille equation, 266
Halex reaction, 13e14
Halogenated solvents, 433
Halogens, 11, 14
Hardness, 492
of fluoroplastics, 513t
Haze in transmission, 542
HCFC-22. See Chlorodifluoromethane
(CHClF2)
HCl. See Hydrogen chloride (HCl)
HDPE. See High-density polyethylene
(HDPE)
Head-to-head and tail-to-tail units,
196
Health hazards, 682t
Heat, 236
bonding, 625e626
heat-sealing films, 623e624
shrink tubes, 307e308
Heated tool welding, 593e595, 615,
620
Heating elements, 611
Hexafluoropropylene (HFP), 8, 25,
39e42, 48, 110, 218, 227, 476,
534
epoxide, 69
properties, 69e70, 70t
synthesis, 64e69
Hexafluoropropylene index (HFPI),
138
Hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO), 71,
93, 199e201
HF. See Hydrogen fluoride (HF)
HFP. See Hexafluoropropylene (HFP)
HFPI. See Hexafluoropropylene index
(HFPI)
HFPO. See Hexafluoropropylene oxide
(HFPO)
High-density polyethylene (HDPE),
405
High-energy radiation, 554
Homogeneous tempering, 261
“Hopper”, 323e325
Hose brake lines, 675f
Hot air welding. See Hot gas welding
Hot gas welding, 595e596, 596f, 597t,
616
Hot plate welding. See Heated tool
welding
Hot runner manifold tool, 255f
Hot runner systems, 257e259, 257f
velocity profiles in, 258f
Hot stamping, 634
HPA. See Hydroxyl propyl acrylate
(HPA)
Hydraulic diameter (DH), 253, 254f
Hydrochloric acid, 1
Hydrofluoric acid, 140
Hydrogen, 475
Hydrogen chloride (HCl), 59
Hydrogen fluoride (HF), 54, 682t
Hydrolytic stability, 148
Hydroxyl propyl acrylate (HPA),
195
Hysteresis, 597
I
IC. See Integrated circuit (IC)
ICP-MS. See Inductively Coupled
Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy
(ICP-MS)
Imaging. See Photolithography
Implanted pace maker, 677f
Inclusion model, 110
Incubation period, 105
Induction welding, 596e599
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass
Spectroscopy (ICP-MS), 650
comparison of metal extraction, 657t
Infrared welding, 604e605, 622
Initiators, 159
Injection
pressure conversion table, 243t
stretch blow-molding process, 398
unit, 239e242
Injection half. See Fixed half
738 INDEXInjection molding, 236, 241f, 246f, 247t,
275t
basic technology, 236e237
considerations, 236
fluoropolymers processing, 267,
275te276t
dimensional stability of parts,
279e280
injection molding equipment,
267e274
process conditions and operations,
274e279
machinery, 237e247, 237f
clamp force conversion table, 240t
clamp unit, 237e239, 238f
control systems, 245e247
injection pressure conversion table,
243t
injection unit, 239e242
material residence times, 246f
power systems, 242e245
shot volume conversion table, 244t
shot weight conversion factors, 245t
materials of construction, 261e262
parameters for PVDF, 277t
process, 237, 237t
settings for ETFE, 278t
rheology of fluoropolymer melts,
262e267
troubleshooting, 247, 248t
Injection molds, 247e261
components, 250
cooling, 259e261, 259fe260f
ejection, 261
feed system, 253e259
materials, 259
types, 250e253
venting, 261
Inks, 634
Insulated runner, 257e258
Insulation structures on conductors,
633t
Integrated circuit (IC), 642e643
Integrated Risk Information System
(IRIS), 90
Intermittent accumulator extrusion
blow-molding, 397
Intermittent extrusion blow molding, 396
International Standards Organization
(ISO), 201
Intrinsic viscosity, 174
Inversions. See Head-to-head and
tail-to-tail units
Ion implantation, 644e645
IRIS. See Integrated Risk Information
System (IRIS)
Iserson process, 162
ISO. See International Standards
Organization (ISO)
iso-PPVE, 71
Isoflurane, 14e15
J
Jacketing, 294
Jetting avoidance, 274
Joining, 591e623
K
K-416, 3
kilonewtons (kN), 242
Knot strength, 335
Krytox, 71
L
L/D ratio. See Length to diameter ratio
(L/D ratio)
Land area, 308
Land length, 256
Landed positive, 373, 373f
Large diameter tubes, 307
Laser welding, 613e614, 614f
Latent solvents, 166e168
LCP. See Liquid crystal polymer (LCP)
LD. See Longitudinal direction (LD)
Le Chatelier-Braun principle. See Le
Chatelier’s principle
Le Chatelier’s principle, 49e50
Leaching, 645e650
Length to diameter ratio (L/D ratio), 239,
283e284, 309, 316e318
Lennard-Jones potential, 28
Limiting oxygen index (LOI), 557e559,
560t
Line drawing, 325
Linear low-density polyethylene, 110,
110f
Linear vibration welding, 608f
Lined FRP piping, 662
Lined plug valve, 664f
Liquid crystal polymer (LCP),
408
Liquid oxygen (LOX), 437e438
LOI. See Limiting oxygen index (LOI)
Longitudinal direction (LD), 309
Low friction, 28e30
Low surface energy, 28e30
Low-pressure plasma treatment (LPT),
564
LOX. See Liquid oxygen (LOX)
LPT. See Low-pressure plasma treatment
(LPT)
Lumiflon resins, 42, 46f
M
Machining, 589e590, 685. See also
Adhesive bonding methods;
Welding
cutting tool for machining tape,
591f
drilling, 590
sawing, 590
shearing, 590
skiving, 590
Manhattan Project, 2e3
MarkeHouwink equation, 1e2, 174
Masking. See Photolithography
Mass polymerization, 105e106
Material incompatibility, 685
Mechanical applications, 674e675
Mechanical foaming, 414
Medical devices, 677e678
Medium diameter tubes, 307
Megapascals (MPa), 242
Melt
blowing technology, 342e343, 343f
flow, 298e300
fracture, 168, 262, 262t, 282,
298e300
processing, 684e685
techniques, 42e45
viscosity, 297
Melt flow index (MFI). See Melt flow rate
(MFR)
Melt flow rate (MFR), 70, 96e97,
124e125, 236, 262e263, 299,
377, 420, 476
compression stressestrain behavior,
483f
flexural modulus, 490t
tensile stressestrain behavior, 483f
Melt-processible fluoroplastics, 198, 589,
617, 625
Melt-processible fluoropolymers, 216,
662, 687e688
ECTFE polymers, 227
ETFEs, 227
FEP polymers, 218
fluoroplastic films, 227
PFA polymers, 216e218
PVDF polymers, 219
PVF polymers, 227
terpolymer fluoroplastics, 227, 231t
Melt-processible resin, 8
Mercerization, 197
Metal contamination, 650
Metal heater, 620
Metal spring, 665f
Metal-oxide-silicon (MOS), 641
Metallization, 626e627
INDEX 739MFA. See also Ethylene
tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE);
Fluorinated ethylene propylene
(FEP)
creep behavior, 499f
dielectric constant, 535f
electrical properties, 534t
film thickness effect on transmittance,
550f
haze comparison, 550f
isochronous stressestrain curves,
501f
MIT flex life, 511t
Solvay Solexis MFA resins properties,
220t
tensile creep curves, 500fe501f
tensile modulus, 492f
thermal properties, 521t
transmittance comparison, 549f
Young’s modulus, 492t
MFR. See Melt flow rate (MFR)
Microelectronics manufacturing, 640
microelectronic components, 641e642,
642t
semiconductor fabrication stages,
642e645
semiconductors, 640e641
Micropowders, 5, 681, 685
Microwave welding, 609e611
Mixing head, 296f
MMH. See Monomethylhydrazine
(MMH)
Modified PTFE, 615, 619f
Modifiers, 487, 615
Moduli of fluoropolymers, 477e482
Modulus test, 632
Moissan’s reactions, 13, 14f
Mold design, 273e274
Mold heating, 352
Moldability, 366
index, 267
Molding
powder, 371e372
process, 370
Molecular relaxation, 518e519
Molecular weight distribution (MWD),
264
Molecular weights (MWs), 5, 102
Molten layer thickness, 595
Monofilament, 328
yarns, 292, 292f
Monoglutaric acid peroxide, 160
Monoglyme, 570
Monomethylhydrazine (MMH),
437e438
Monosuccinic acid peroxide, 160
MOS. See Metal-oxide-silicon (MOS)
Moving half, 251e252
MPa. See Megapascals (MPa)
Multifilament, 328
yarns, 291e292
MWD. See Molecular weight distribution
(MWD)
MWs. See Molecular weights (MWs)
N
n-methyl pyrolidine (NMP), 170
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA), 32,
437e438
Nd-YAG. See Neodymium ions in
medium of yttriumealuminume
garnet (Nd-YAG)
Near-field welding, 603, 603f
Neodymium ions in medium of
yttriumealuminumegarnet
(Nd-YAG), 613
Net effect, 354
Nitrogen tetroxide (NTO), 437e438
NMP. See n-methyl pyrolidine (NMP)
Nonmelt techniques, 42e45
Nonoriented Tedlar SP films,
227
NPN transistor, 642f
NTO. See Nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)
Nucleation, 414
Nucleophiles, 27
O
Occupational Safety and Health Act
(OSHA), 681
1-octanecarbonyl fluoride, 84e85
OF2. See Oxygen difluoride (OF2)
Oil hydraulics, 245
Organic
halogen compounds, 11
peroxide initiators, 156
solvent, 564
OSHA. See Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
Oven dwell time, 356e357
Oven residence cycle, 356
Oxidation, 643
Oxygen difluoride (OF2), 432
P
Packaging disposal and recycling,
688e689
Parison head, 394e395, 394f
Parison process, 393
Part formation, 365e366
Part stripping, 358
Partially fluorinated fluoropolymers, 16,
555e557
chemical compatibility, 436e438
Particle contribution testing, 657
Parting line, 402
PAS. See Polyarylsulfone (PAS)
PAVE. See Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ether
(PAVE)
PCTFE. See Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
(PCTFE)
PE. See Polyethylene (PE)
Pendulum technique, 618
Perfluorinated
fluoroplastics, 482e487
fluoropolymers, 554e555
olefins, 185
surfactants, 84
vinyl ethers, 185
Perfluorinated ethylene propylene, 7, 25,
39e42, 130, 284, 348, 432, 684,
687e688
chemical compatibility, 438t
conformations and transitions,
33e34
preparation, 130e140
stabilization, 140e145
Perfluoroalkoxy polymer (PFA polymer),
4e5, 34, 39e42, 96e97,
216e218, 284, 348, 365, 375,
410, 432, 475, 555, 617, 661, 684,
687e688. See also Ethylene
tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE);
Fluorinated ethylene propylene
(FEP)
AGC Chemicals America PFA resins
properties, 218t
components for high-purity fluid
handling systems, 653f
conformations and transitions, 34
Daikin PFA resins properties, 219t
deformation-under-load, 493fe495f
dielectric constant, 533f
dissipation factor, 533f
distribution block, 654f
DuPont PFA resins properties, 217t
DuPont ECCtreme ECA 3000
Fluoropolymer Resin, 221t
Dyneon PFA resins properties, 218t
electrical properties, 533e534, 534t
flare tube fittings, 655f
flex life, 512f
flexural modulus, 486f, 490t
haze comparison, 550f
high-purity fluid handling components
from, 670f
high-temperature PFA, 216
740 INDEX150-mm PFA wafer handling systems,
671f
immersion effect
in inorganic chemicals, 433t
in organic chemicals, 434t
infrared transmittance spectrum, 549f
isochronous strainestress curves, 495f
MIT flex life, 511t
modulus as temperature function, 485f
nonaqueous polymerization media PFA,
216e218
optical properties, 549t
polymers preparation, 116e130
aqueous polymerization, 122e130,
128t
nonaqueous polymerization,
116e122, 118te119t
in perfluorinated solvents, 117t
radiation effect, 556t
semicon wafer carrier, 655f
Solvay Solexis PFA resins properties,
219t
stabilization, 145e154
strainestress curves, 477f
tensile creep curves, 494f
tensile modulus, 492f
thermal properties, 521t
ultimate elongation, 476f
wear and friction data, 513t
welding, 618e620, 619f
yield stress retention vs. exposure time,
525f
Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ether (PAVE), 34,
69, 114, 216
properties, 72, 73t
synthesis, 70e71, 72t
Perfluorobutyl ethane (PFBE), 110
Perfluorobutyl ethylene (PFBE), 110
Perfluorobutylsufonate (PFBS), 86
Perfluoroethyl vinyl ether (PEVE), 110,
216
1-H-perfluoroheptane, 87
Perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB), 67, 298,
682t
Perfluoromethyl perfluorovinyl ether
(PMPVE), 129
Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE), 110
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS),
83e86, 84f
issues with, 86
PFOA, 84e86
physical and chemical properties, 85t
Perfluorooctanoate ammonium (PFOA),
189
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), 83e86,
84f
PFOA-based salts and compounds, 85t
physical and chemical properties, 85t
problem with, 86e90
degradation, 87e89
toxicity, 89e90
Perfluoroolefins, 27
Perfluoropolymers, 15, 415, 516, 653.
See also Fluoropolymer(s)
chemical compatibility, 432e436
fibers, 337e340
films, 316e319
melt-processible extrusion foaming,
426e430
Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether (PPVE), 48,
110, 121, 131t, 216, 661
Permeation
fundamentals, 438e470
measurement and data, 470
Personal hygiene, 685
PEVE. See Perfluoroethyl vinyl ether
(PEVE)
PFA polymer. See Perfluoroalkoxy
polymer (PFA polymer)
PFBE. See Perfluorobutyl ethane (PFBE);
Perfluorobutyl ethylene (PFBE)
PFBS. See Perfluorobutylsufonate
(PFBS)
PFF. See Polymer fume fever (PFF)
PFIB. See Perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB)
PFOA. See Perfluorooctanoate
ammonium (PFOA);
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)
PFOS. See Perfluorooctane sulfonate
(PFOS)
Phosphorous (P), 641
phosphorous-doped silicon crystal, 641f
Photolithography, 643e644, 644f
Photoresist layer, 644
Physical foaming, 414e415
Physical vapor deposition (PVD), 643
Piezoelectric films, 627e631
Piezoelectricity, 534e535, 627e628
Piezofilm, 629
properties, 630t
Pinch-off zones, 402e403, 403f
Pipe extrusion, 292, 294f
Piping, 661e662
Planartron source, 575f
Plasma treatment, 572e577. See also
Corona treatment; Flame
treatment
Plasmodul device, 574f
Plastic corona treatment machine, 598f
Plastic foams, 413
Plastication unit design, 270e273
Plasticity number, 330
Plastics, 607
Plateeplate viscometer, 266e267
Plenum cables, 672e673, 687
Plug flow, 308
Plunger molding, 380e382, 381f
PMMA. See Polymethylmethacrylate
(PMMA)
PMPVE. See Perfluoromethyl
perfluorovinyl ether (PMPVE)
PMVE. See Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether
(PMVE)
Pock marks, 358
Poisson ratio of fluoropolymers, 491,
511t
Poly[tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene] film, 581e582
Poly[tetrafluoroethylenecoperfluoroalkyl vinyl ether] film,
581e582
Polyarylsulfone (PAS), 611e612
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 9,
22, 25e26, 42e45, 48, 377
conformations and transitions, 32e33
Polycrystalline silicon, 643
Polyethylene (PE), 22, 24t, 227
films, 287e288
Polymer fume fever (PFF), 681
Polymeric foams, 412, 412t
Polymerization
aid, 83
mechanism for TFE, 103
with APFO replacements, 114e116
copolymer equation, 108e110
homopolymerization reactions,
103e105
monomer for copolymerization with
TFE, 110e114
preparation of PTFE by emulsion
polymerization, 106e108
suspension polymerization, 105e106
surfactants
EPA action, 90e91
fluoropolymer polymerization,
alternative surfactants for, 91e97
issues with PFOS, 86
PFOS, 83e86
problem with PFOA, 86e90
technologies, 83
Polymers
mechanical properties, 42t
melting, 365e366
effect of organic chemicals, 45t
physical and mechanical properties, 40t
thermal and electrical properties, 43t
water absorption and effect of inorganic
chemicals, 44t
INDEX 741Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), 309
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 360
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 1, 7, 15,
22, 24t, 39, 48, 83, 102, 216, 377,
415, 432, 487, 564, 589, 661, 665,
674, 679, 687. See also Ethylene
chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE);
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
(ETFE); Fluorinated ethylene
propylene copolymer (FEP);
Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE)
autoignition temperature, 680
bridge bearing, 674f
commercialization, 3
conformations and transitions, 30e32
images of PTFE molecule, 31e32
convoluted tubing, 670f
creep behavior, 499f
crystalline structure, 31f
impact of F and CeF bond on properties
of, 22e24
fundamental properties, 16t
high performance aerospace PTFE tapewrapped wire, 672f
micromachining, 590
peel strength, 582f
plasma treatment, 572e577
poppet valves for high-purity
applications, 654f
properties unaffected by molecular
weight, 686t
PTFE-lined braided hose, 669f
PTFE-lined expansion joints, 662f
PTFE/PFA valve, 671f
radiation effect, 556t
sodium etching
chemistry, 565e568
surface chemistry, 568f
surface, 626e627
temperature effect comparison on
dielectric constants, 545f
tensile properties, 531t
useful attributes, 16t
wafer carrier, 671f
welding, 615e617, 619f
Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), 4f, 9e10, 102,
206e208, 216, 219, 227,
319e328, 436, 528, 565
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 7, 34,
140, 348, 415e416, 432, 437,
476e477, 593, 628, 653, 661.
See also Ethylene
tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE);
Fluorinated ethylene propylene
(FEP); Perfluoroalkoxy polymer
(PFA polymer)
Arkema PVDF homopolymer resins
properties, 226t
characteristics, 542t
chemical compatibility, 451te468t
compression modulus and ultimate
compressive strength, 488f
conformations and transitions, 34e35
creep behavior, 499f
creep under tensile stress, 505fe506f
development of extinction coefficient,
553f
dielectric constant, 540fe541f
dissipation factor, 540fe541f
electrical properties, 534e535, 539t
experimental values for creep, 505f
fibers, 330e337
films and sheets, 309e315, 310te311t
flare tube fittings, 655f
flexural creep, 503fe504f
flexural modulus, 487fe488f, 491t
high-purity fluid water piping system,
655f
g-rays effect, 557f
infrared absorption spectrum, 553f
insoluble fraction, 558f
mechanical properties, 558f
modeled isochrones, 504f
optical properties, 553t
piezoelectric and pyroelectric constants,
629t
properties, 630t
Solvay Solexis PVDF copolymer resins
properties, 225t
Solvay Solexis PVDF homopolymer
resins properties, 225t
tensile creep, 502fe503f
tensile modulus, 487f
tensile properties, 517te518t, 529f
tensile strength, 482f
thermal properties, 522t
thermogravimetric analysis, 520t
ultimate elongation, 483f
ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared
light transmittance spectra, 552f
volume resistivity, 540f
welding, 620e622
Young’s modulus, 487f
Porter Process, 569
Positive-type mold, 373e374
Powder. See Fluff
Power factor, 606
Power systems, 242e245
PPS. See Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)
PPVE. See Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether
(PPVE)
Precut-filled PTFE gaskets, 666f
Preform, 398e399
Press. See Injection molding
Pressure and velocity limit (PV limit),
492e499, 511e514
Pressure die, 297f
Pressure-sensitive adhesives. See
Bonding adhesives
Primary insulation, 294
Process G, 216
Projected area of mold, 237e238
Properties of fluoropolymers, 475, 475t
biofilm formation, 559e561
biofilm removal, 561t
electrical properties, 532e536
ECTFE, 536
ETFE, 535e536, 542t
perfluoroalkoxy polymers, 533e534
PVDF, 534e535, 539t
TFE/HFP copolymer, 534
flammability, 557e559
mechanical and dynamic properties, 475
deformation-under-load, 482e487,
493f
flex fatigue properties, 491e492
friction, wear, and abrasion, 492e514
hardness, 492
impact strength, 492
moduli of fluoropolymers, 477e482
Poisson ratio, 491
tensile properties, 475e477
microbial fouling of materials, 561f
optical and spectral properties, 536e552
processing influence on fluoroplastics,
475
radiation effect, 554e557
thermal properties, 514e522
temperature-related properties,
518e520
thermal aging, 520e522
thermal stability, 516e518
weatherability, 522e532
Protective clothing, 685
PTFE. See Polytetrafluoroethylene
(PTFE)
Purging, 278e279
Purity measurement methods and
standards, 656e658. See also
Microelectronics manufacturing
PV limit. See Pressure and velocity limit
(PV limit)
PVD. See Physical vapor deposition
(PVD)
PVDF. See Polyvinylidene fluoride
(PVDF)
PVF. See Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF)
Pyroelectric films, 627e628, 631
742 INDEXPyroelectricity, 534e535, 627e628
Pyrolysis, 48e50
R
R22. See Dichlorodifluoromethane
Radiation, 605
effect, 554e557
Radiation-induced polymerization of
VDF, 176, 177t
Radio-frequency heating (RF heating),
592
Radiolysis, 26
RC318. See TFE dimer
Reaction mechanism, 27
Reciprocating screw injection unit, 239,
241f
Recrystallization, 357e358
Recycling, 686e688
Redox system, 160
Reflection index, 605
Reheat injection stretch blow-molding
process. See Two-stage stretch
blow-molding process
Repro polymers. See Reprocessed
polymers (Repro polymers)
Reprocessed polymers (Repro polymers),
686
Residence time, 242
Resistant welding, 611e612
Resistors, 640, 642f
Restrictor bar, 290
Reynolds number (Re), 259e260
RF heating. See Radio-frequency heating
(RF heating)
Rheology of fluoropolymer melts,
262e267
characterization, 263e267
Rigid foam, 413
Ring gates. See Diaphragms
Rinse test, performance values using,
657t
“Rock and roll” motion, 349e350
Rod welding, 620
Rotation rate, 358e359
Rotation ratio, 358e359
Rotational casting. See Rotational
molding
Rotational lining, 359e360, 664
Rotational molding, 348, 349f
adhesion of polymer, 350f
equipment, 352e353
mold surface preparation, 355
molds, 353e355
and process design, 353
fluoropolymers rotomolding and
rotolining, 360e365
melting of polymer, 365e366
operation, 355
cooling cycle, 357e358
oven dwell time, 356e357
part stripping, 358
rotation rate and ratio, 358e359
venting, 358
part formation, 365e366
process technology, 349e352
rotolining process, 359e360
slush molding process, 348
troubleshooting, 366e367
Rotolined transition component,
663f
Rotolining. See Rotational lining
Rotomolding. See Rotational molding
S
SAE. See Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE)
Safety devices, 584
Safety measures of fluoropolymers,
681e685
equipment cleaning and maintenance,
685
fire hazard, 685
health hazards, 682t
limiting oxygen index values, 686t
material incompatibility, 685
personal hygiene, 685
processing and fabrication, 683e685
protective clothing, 685
spillage cleanup, 685
types of exposure limit, 684t
ventilation of degradation products,
682e683
SAP. See Solvent-aided pelletization
(SAP)
Saturated perfluorinated solvents, 132
Sawing, 590
SCC. See Supercritical carbon dioxide
(SCC)
Scrap, 686e688
and recycling of fluoropolymer,
686e687
melt-processible fluoropolymers,
687e688
PTFE, 687
Screw transfer molding, 382
SEBS. See Styrene-ethylene-butadienestyrene (SEBS)
Second-order transitions, 518e519
Self-centered die crosshead design,
297f
Self-supporting components, 666e667
SEMI, 656e657
proposed list
of anions, 658t
of metals, 658t
proposed part surface roughness
specification, 659t
Semiconductor manufacturing industry
(semicon), 640
Semiconductor(s), 640e641
fabrication stages, 642e643
wafer manufacturing, 643e645
wafer test and assembly, 645
manufacturing processes, 640
processing, 668e672
trends for fluoropolymers use in
semiconductor industry, 669e672
Semicrystalline
plastics, 604
polymers, 236
Semipositive horizontal flash, 373, 373f
Semipositive vertical flash, 373, 374f
Semipositive-type mold, 374
Sevoflurane, 14e15
SG. See Specific gravity (SG)
Shark skinning, 282, 318e319
Sharkskin, 299
Shear rate calculation, 301
Shear thinning, 266
Shearing, 590
Sheathing. See Jacketing
Sheet extrusion, 290
production, 290e291
Shelf life of etch surfaces, 572
Short chain fluoroether, 93
Shot volume conversion table, 244t
Shot weight conversion factors, 245t
Shrinkage, 279
Shuttle machines, 352e353, 352f
Silicon
chemicals used in silicon wafer
fabrication, 651t
crystals, 641
wafers, 642e643, 643f
Simons Electro-Chemical Fluorination.
See Electrochemical fluorination
(ECF)
Single-mode microwave system, 611f
Single-screw extruder, 283f
Single-stage injection stretch blowmolding process, 398e399, 399f
Sintering, 684
Skiving, 590
Sleeve ejectors, 261
Slurry capping, 141
Slush molding process, 348
Small diameter tubes, 307
Smear head design, 272e273, 272f
INDEX 743Smooth PTFE-lined braided hoses,
669f
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE),
632e633
Society of Plastics Industry, Inc. (SPI),
679
Sodium, 564
Sodium etching of fluoroplastics,
564e572
apparent defluorination depth, 568f
elevated temperature etching,
570e572
new chemistry, 570
skived PTFE film etched on one side,
569f
sodium etching chemistry of PTFE,
565e568
sodium etching process description,
568e570
Sodium naphthalenide, 569, 569f
Sodium naphthalide. See Sodium
naphthalenide
Solid reaction products analysis, 56, 56t
Solubility parameter, 607
Solvent
cement, 607
solvent-aided extrusion of polyvinyl
fluoride, 328f
welding, 607
Solvent-aided pelletization (SAP), 135
Special halogenated solvents, 564
Specific gravity (SG), 477e482
Specific melt viscosity, 141e142
Specific viscosity, 174
Specific wear rate. See Wear factor
Speed, 358
SPI. See Society of Plastics Industry, Inc.
(SPI)
Spider-type die for pipe extrusion, 292,
293f
Spillage cleanup, 685
Spin casting, 350e351
Spin stretch factor (SSF), 339e340
Spin welding, 599e601, 621
Sponge, 412
Sprue, 253e255, 255f
gating, 256e257
Sputtering, 626
Square pitch screw, 283
SR. See Stretch ratio (SR)
SSF. See Spin stretch factor (SSF)
Stack mold, 252e253, 253f
Stallings process, 166e168
Staphylococcus epidermidis film, 559
Steel vessels, 662
Storage modulus, 165
Stress
calculation, 301
cracking, 607
relaxation, 487
Stretch ratio (SR), 309
Structure-rheology-fabrication process,
46, 46t
Styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene
(SEBS), 405
Submarine gate, 257
Super shear zone, 299
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCC),
3e4, 4f
polymerization in, 198e201
Surface energy, 582
Surface treatment of fluoropolymers for
adhesion, 564
APT, 577e583
corona treatment, 583e584
effect on surface composition and
adhesion bond strength, 566te567t
flame treatment, 584e586, 585t
fluorine content effect, 565t
peel strength of adhesive bonded
fluoropolymers, 572t
plasma treatment of fluoropolymers and
PTFE, 572e577
sodium etching of fluoroplastics,
564e572
Surface-to-volume ratio, 656
Suspension polymerization, 83, 102e103
Suspension processes, 39
T
Tab gate, 257
TAIC. See Triallyl cyanurate, triallyl
isocyanurate (TAIC)
Tapping, 590
TCAP. See Trichloroacetyl peroxide
(TCAP)
TCFM. See Trichlorofluoromethane
(TCFM)
TCTFE. See 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-
trifluoroethane (TCTFE)
TD. See Transverse direction (TD)
Tedlar, 39, 227
Teflon AF, 16e17
Teflon, 1
Telomerization, 84e86
Temperature-related properties, 518e520
Tensile properties of fluoropolymers,
475e477
Tentered biaxially oriented film, 290,
290f
Tenterhooks, 290
Tentering. See Biaxial orientation
Tergital hydrocarbon surfactants, 96,
97f
Terpolymer, 183e184
Terpolymer fluoroplastics, 227, 231t
Tert-amyl perpivalates, 172
Tert-butyl perpivalates, 172
Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), 7, 23, 39, 65,
83, 102, 131t, 360, 476, 534, 679,
682t. See also Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
copolymers, 24
FEP, 25
polychlorotrifluoroethylene, 25e26
copolymers, 39e42
dimer, 67
homopolymers, 39
polymerization mechanism,
103e116
preparation, 48e59
review of developments for TFE
synthesis, 51e59
properties, 62e64, 63t
purification, 59e61
Tetraglyme, 570
Tetrahydrofuran, 569e570
Tex, 291
TFE. See Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE)
TGA. See Thermogravimetric analysis
(TGA)
Thermal aging, 520e522
Thermal conductivity, 236
Thermal degradation, 357
Thermal stability of fluoropolymers,
344e345, 516e518
Thermally induced discoloration, 154
Thermoforming, 633, 634f
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),
516
Thermoplastic(s)
abrasion resistance of, 515t
materials, 611e612
polymers, 370
comparison of molding and extrusion
techniques for, 370t
Thread sealant tapes, 665f
Threading, 590
3D blow molding, 402, 402f
Three-multimanifold coextrusion die,
295f
Three-plate mold, 252, 252f
3M FC series solvents, 564
Tiger of elements, 11
TOC. See Total organic carbon (TOC);
Total oxidizable carbon (TOC)
Total organic carbon (TOC), 659t
Total oxidizable carbon (TOC), 650e651
744 INDEXTransfer molding, 379. See also Blow
molding; Compression molding
advantages for manufacturing, 379
examples, 390e392
fluoropolymers, 383
mold design, 383e386, 386t
mold operation, 386
process variables, 387e390
plunger molding, 380e382, 381f
screw transfer molding, 382
transfer molds types, 382e383
transfer-in compression mold, 380
versatile process, 379e380
Transfer-in compression mold, 380
Transistors, 640e641
Transition
period, 105e106
section, 296
Transmission index, 605
Transverse direction (TD), 288
Triallyl cyanurate, triallyl isocyanurate
(TAIC), 631e632
1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane
(TCTFE), 72e73
Trichloroacetyl peroxide (TCAP), 130
Trichlorofluoromethane (TCFM), 130
Trifluoroacetyl fluoride (CF3COF), 69
5-trifluoromethoxy-1,3-dioxole (TTD),
151
Triisobutylborane, 196
Triton hydrocarbon surfactants, 96, 96f
Troubleshooting, 247, 248t, 366e367
TTD. See 5-trifluoromethoxy-1,3-dioxole
(TTD)
Tube die, 297f
Tube extrusion, 292, 294f
Tubular die, 300f, 303f
Tubular extrusion, 311
Tubular process. See Blown process
Tunnel gate. See Submarine gate
Twin roll stretch device, 318f
Two-plate mold, 251e252, 252f
Two-stage screws. See Vented screws
Two-stage stretch blow-molding process,
399
2003 process, 67
U
Ubbelohde viscometer, 175
UF6. See Uranium hexafluoride (UF6)
Ultrafine fibers, 340e344
Ultrahigh-purity fluoropolymer O-ringfree poppet check valves, 670f
Ultrapure water (UPW), 641
Ultrasonic vibrations, 601e602
Ultrasonic welding, 601e604, 602f,
621e622
Ultraviolet (UV), 528
Unbalanced runner, 254, 255f
Unique fabrication techniques, 4e5
UPW. See Ultrapure water (UPW)
Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), 3
US Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), 83
action, 90e91
UV. See Ultraviolet (UV)
V
Vacuum trough method, 303e305, 306f
Van der Waals forces, 28
Vapor capping, 141
VDF. See Vinylidene fluoride (VDF)
VDF-based polymers, 628t
Vented screws, 284e285
Ventilation of degradation products,
682e683
Venting, 261, 358
Vessel(s), 662e664
internals, 668f
VF. See Vinyl fluoride (VF)
VI. See Volatiles index (VI)
Vibration welding, 607e609, 610f
Vinyl chloride, 77
Vinyl fluoride (VF), 39, 76e77, 102
estimated thermal conductivity and
viscosity, 79t
flammability properties, 79t
polymers, 45e46, 196e198
properties, 77e78, 78t
solubility, 78t
synthesis, 76e77
Vinylidene fluoride (VDF), 25, 39, 48,
102
polymers, 45, 154e178, 627e628
emulsion polymerization, 156e170,
163te164t
high-temperature polymerization,
159t
process conditions and polymer
characteristics, 157te158t
solution polymerization, 175e178
suspension polymerization, 170e175
properties, 76, 76t
synthesis, 75e76
Viscosity, 236, 570
Volatiles index (VI), 142
W
Wafer, 642e643
carriers, 653
manufacturing, 643e645
test and assembly, 645
Washing, 571e572
Water Quench, 286e288, 287fe288f
Water-soluble dibasic peroxides, 160
Wear, 492e514
Wear factor, 499, 507
Weather-o-meters, 524
Weatherability, 522e532
Weld factor (WF), 592, 621
Weld induction time. See Weld initiation
time (WIT)
Weld initiation time (WIT), 600
Weld penetration, 609
Weld-quality analysis, 596f
Welding, 591e623. See also Adhesive
bonding methods; Machining
ECTFE, 623
ETFE, 622e623
extrusion, 612e613, 613f
factor, 620
FEP, 618
heated tool, 593e595
hot gas, 595e596, 596f, 597t
induction, 596e599, 597f
infrared, 604e605
laser, 613e614, 614f
methods for welding fluoroplastics, 592t
microwave, 609e611
PFA, 618e620, 619f
of polymer, 685
PTFE, 615e617, 619f
PVDF, 620e622
resistant, 611e612
RF, 605e607
sheets and skived films, 616f
solvent, 607
spin, 599e601
techniques, 592e614
ultrasonic, 601e604, 602f
vibration, 607e609, 610f
“Welding by distance”, 594
“Welding by pressure”, 593e594
WF. See Weld factor (WF)
Wheel machines, 396
White Knight air-operated doublebellows pumps (White Knight
AODB pumps), 653f
Winkle gate, 257
Wire insulation line equipment, 295t
WIT. See Weld initiation time (WIT)
Work coils, 599
Y
Yield stress, 333


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