كتاب Fluoroplastics - Volume 1
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 كتاب Fluoroplastics - Volume 1

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كتاب Fluoroplastics - Volume 1  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Fluoroplastics - Volume 1    كتاب Fluoroplastics - Volume 1  Emptyالسبت 18 نوفمبر 2023, 10:27 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Fluoroplastics - Volume 1
Non-Melt Processible - Fluoropolymers
The Definitive User’s Guide and Data Book
Second Edition
Sina Ebnesajjad  

كتاب Fluoroplastics - Volume 1  F_p_2_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Table of contents
Dedication
Series
2nd edition Acknowledgments
1st edition Acknowledgments
2nd edition Preface
1st edition Preface
Part I
1. Discovery and History of Fluoropolymers
1.1. Coming of Age of Polymer Science
1.2. Roy Plunkett's Story
1.3. Commercialization of PTFE
1.4. Developmental History of Fluoropolymers
2. Production and Market Statistics
2.1. Growth of Fluoropolymers
2.2. Regional Consumption of Fluoropolymers
2.3. Consumption of Fluoropolymers and PTFE
2.4. Trends
3. From Fundamentals to Applications
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Uniqueness of Fluorine
3.3. Fluorine Characteristics
3.4. What are Fluoropolymers?
3.5. Fundamental Properties of Fluoropolymers
3.6. Developmental History of Fluoropolymers
3.7. Examples of Uses of Fluoropolymers
4. Fluoropolymers: Properties and Structure
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Impact of F and C–F Bond on the Properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene
4.3. Distruping the Linear PTFE Chain: Perfluorinated Ethylene–Propylene Copolymer and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
4.4. Reaction Mechanism
4.5. Effect of Solvents on Fluoropolymers
4.6. Molecular Interaction of Fluoropolymers: Low Friction and Low Surface Energy
4.7. Conformations and Transitions of PTFE
4.8. Conformations and Transitions of PCTFE
5. Operational Classification of Fluoropolymers
5.1. Introduction
5.2. TFE Homopolymers
5.3. TFE Copolymers
5.4. CTFE Polymers
5.5. VDF Polymers
5.6. VF Polymers
5.7. Process Classification
6. Preparation of Tetrafluoroethylene and Other Monomers
6.1. Introduction
6.2. TFE Preparation
6.3. Purification of TFE
6.4. Properties of TFE
6.5. Synthesis of HFP
6.6. Properties of HFP
6.7. Synthesis of PAVE
6.8. Properties of PAVE
6.9. Synthesis of CTFE
6.10. Properties of CTFE
7. Polymerization Surfactants
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate
7.3. Issues with PFOS
7.4. Problems with PFOA
7.5. EPA Action
7.6. Alternative Surfactants for Fluoropolymer Polymerization
7.7. Summary
8. Polymerization and Finishing of Tetrafluoroethylene
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Polymerization Mechanism
8.3. TFE Polymers
8.4. Evolution of Suspension Polymerization of TFE
8.5. Preparation of PTFE by Emulsion Polymerization
8.6. Preparation of Dispersion Grade PTFE
8.7. Preparation of Fine Powder PTFE
8.8. CTFE Polymers and Polymerization
8.9. Characterization of PTFE
8.10. Characterization of PCTFE
9. Commercial Grades of Fluoropolymers
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Granular PTFE
9.3. PTFE Dispersions
9.4. Fine Powder PTFE
9.5. Polychlorotrifluoroethylene Polymers
Part II
10. Fabrication and Processing of Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Resin Selection
10.3. Compression Molding
10.4. Automatic Molding
10.5. Isostatic Molding
10.6. Ram Extrusion
11. Fabrication and Processing of Fine Powder Polytetrafluoroethylene
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Resin Handling and Storage
11.3. Paste Extrusion Fundamentals
11.4. Extrusion Aid or Lubricant
11.5. Wire Coating
11.6. Extrusion of Tubing
11.7. Unsintered Tape
11.8. Expanded PTFE Manufacturing
11.9. Fine Powder Resin Selection
12. Fabrication and Processing of Polytetrafluoroethylene Dispersions
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Applications
12.3. Storage and Handling
12.4. Surfactants
12.5. Principles of Coating Technology
12.6. Dispersion Formulation and Characteristics
12.7. Glass Cloth Coating
12.8. Impregnation of Flax and Polyaramide
12.9. Coating Metal and Hard Surfaces
12.10. PTFE Yarn Manufacturing
12.11. Film Casting
12.12. Anti-drip Applications
12.13. Filled Bearings
12.14. Dedusting Powders
12.15. Other Applications
13. Processing of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Processing Considerations
13.3. Compression Molding
13.4. Injection Molding
13.5. Extrusion
13.6. Machining and Joining
14. Fluorinated Additives
14.1. Introduction
14.2. PTFE Additives
14.3. Applications of PTFE Additives
14.4. Feedstock for PTFE Additives
14.5. Manufacturing PTFE Additives
14.6. PTFE-Modified Waxes
15. Surface Treatment of Polytetrafluoroethylene for Adhesion
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Sodium Etching of Fluoroplastics
15.3. Plasma Treatment of Fluoropolymers and PTFE
15.4. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment
16. Filled Fluoropolymer Compounds
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Granular-Based Compounds
16.3. Fine Powder-Based Compounds
16.4. Co-coagulated Compounds
16.5. Processing Compounds
16.6. Typical Properties of Filled Fluoropolymers
16.7. Nanocomposites of PTFE
16.8. Commercial Products
Part III
17. Chemical Properties of Fluoropolymers—Polytetrafluoroethylene and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Chemical Compatibility of PTFE
17.3. Chemical Compatibility of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
17.4. Permeation Fundamentals
17.5. Environmental Stress Cracking
17.6. Solubility Parameters
18. Properties of Tetrafluoroethylene Homopolymers
18.1. Introduction
18.2. Crystallinity
18.3. Molecular Weight
18.4. Influence of Processing
18.5. Microstructure and Fracture of PTFE
18.6. Mechanical Properties
18.7. Fatigue Properties
18.8. Electrical Properties
18.9. Thermal Behavior
18.10. Flammability Characteristics
18.11. Irradiation Behavior
18.12. Surface Properties
18.13. Refractive Index
18.14. Standard Measurement Methods
19. Properties of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
19.1. Introduction
19.2. Crystallinity
19.3. Mechanical Properties
19.4. Electrical Properties
19.5. Thermal Properties
19.6. Irradiation Behavior
19.7. Properties of PCTFE Films
19.8. Barrier Properties
19.9. Spectroscopic Properties
19.10. Chemical and Weathering Properties
20. Fabrication Techniques for Polytetrafluoroethylene
20.1. Introduction
20.2. Machining
20.3. Adhesive Bonding Methods
20.4. Welding and Joining
20.5. Thermoforming
20.6. Other Processes
21. Applications of Polytetrafluoroethylene and Fluoropolymers
21.1. Chemical Processing
21.2. Piping
21.3. Vessels
21.4. CPI Components
21.5. Self-Supporting Components
21.6. Trends in Using Fluoropolymers in Chemical Service
21.7. Semiconductor Processing
21.8. Electrical Applications
21.9. Mechanical Applications
21.10. Automotive and Aerospace
21.11. Medical Devices
21.12. Summary
22. Safety, Health, Environmental, Disposal, Recycling, and Economics
22.1. Introduction
22.2. Toxicology of Fluoropolymers
22.3. Thermal Properties of PTFE
22.4. Emission during Processing
22.5. Safety Measures
22.6. Food Contact
22.7. Fluoropolymer Scrap and Recycling
22.8. Environmental Protection and Disposal Methods
Appendix 1. Chemical Resistance of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Appendix 2. Chemical Resistance of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
Appendix 3. Permeability of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Appendix 4. Permeability of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
Appendix 5. Melt Creep Viscosity of Polytetrafluoroethylene
Glossary
Index
.
GLOSSARY 691Index
A
Adjustable ducting hood, 482, 483f
Agglomeration processes
continuous process, 114, 115te116t
Dravo pelletizing pan, 114e117,
118f
dry process, 111e112
Fitzpatrick Homoloid Mill, 114, 117f
mechanism, 110f
particle size distribution, 118, 118f
pellets production steps, 117
pipeline homomixer, 113
properties, 112, 112t
protective colloid, 112e113
PTFE-graphite mixture, 117e118
toxicity and flammability, 110e111
wet process, 112
Air milling
advantage of, 106
Micron-MasterBSF Mill, 105e106,
105f
working principle, 105e106, 106f
Alumina (Al2O3), 339e340
Ammonia (NH3), 315e318
Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO),
84, 84f
Ammonium persulfate (APS)
degradation, 96, 97f
Amorphous locking, 272e273
Amorphous phase, 398
Annealing, 197, 197f
Applications
automotive and aerospace, 475e477
chemical processing, 461
chemical service, using fluoropolymers
in, 467e468
CPI components, 464e466
electrical applications, 470e471
mechanical applications, 471e475
medical devices, 477
piping, 461e462, 461f, 463f
self-supporting components,
466e467
semiconductor processing, 468e470
vessels, 463
APT. See Atmospheric pressure plasma
treatment (APT)
Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment
(APT), 328e333, 329t
Atomic force microscopy (AFM),
33e34, 35t
Automatic molding, 38
demolding, 199
pressure/dwell period and specific
gravity, 200, 201f
steps of, 199, 200f
B
Barrier properties, 448
Billet molding, 178e179, 179t
cooling
annealing, 197, 197f
crystallinity, 194, 197t
sintering cycle, 194, 196f
tetrafluoroethylene sintering
conditions, 194, 195t
preforming
dielectric breakdown voltage, 186,
188f
double acting compression molding,
189, 191f
mechanical properties vs. preform
pressure, 185e186, 187f
molding pressure, 186, 189f, 191f
mold shrinkage vs. preform pressure,
186, 190f
preform removal systems,
189, 192f
press closing rates, 185e186, 187t
press force vs. dwell time, 185e186,
187f
P/T diagram, 186, 188f
resting time for degassing, 189e190,
193f
sintered PTFE parts vs. preform
temperature and pressure, 184,
185fe186f
telescopic mold, 189, 193f
tensile strength, 186, 188f
transition point and linear thermal
expansion, 184, 184f
sintering
cycle, 192, 196f
mechanism, 190, 194f
peak temperature/time effect,
193e194, 196f
seven-hour sintering, 190e192,
194f
tetrafluoroethylene sintering
conditions, 192, 195t
Bioconcentration factor (BCF), 85
Bronze, 338e339, 339f
Bulk polymerization
CTFE, 140
Burnout hood, 482, 483f
C
Calcium fluoride, 339e340
Carbon fiber, 337e338, 338f
Carbon powder, 337, 338f
Centerless grinding, 454, 454t
Chemical processing, 461
Chemical properties, 452
Chlorodifluoromethane
perfluorocarbon, 50, 51t
pyrolysis reactor, 59
and tetrafluoroethylene
pressure and temperature effect, 49,
49t
steam effect, 50, 50t
Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE)
PCTFE, 139
polymerization
acrylic monomers, 141, 141f, 142t
copolymers, 141, 141t
film made from polymer, 142t
peroxides, 139
types, 140
VDF-TrFE copolymer, 143, 143t
properties, 72e73, 73t
synthesis
HCL and TFE, 72, 72t
TCTFE, 70e71
VDF, 45
Coagulated dispersion, 95
Compression molding, 38, 303, 303f
billet molding, 178e179, 179t
692cooling, 194e197, 196fe197f, 197t
preforming, 184e190, 184fe187f,
187t, 188fe193f
sintering, 190e194, 194f, 195t
carbonization, 179
densification and sintering mechanism,
182e184, 183f
equipment
mold design, 180e181, 180f
ovens, 181e182
presses, 181, 181f
hot compression molding, 198e199,
199t
sintering cycles, 195t, 198f
Contact angle, 285
Crack propagation, 408
Crystallinity, 301e302, 302t, 441e442
Crystal model, 399
D
Daikin Neoflon, 300, 300t, 303
Davis electric vertical extruder, 251f
Degradation, 427
Die land, 249
Dielectric constant, 443, 444f
Dielectric strength, 405, 405t
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
401e402
Diglyme, 319e320
Diglyme etchants, 320
1,1-Dihydropentafluoropropyl
trifluorovinyl ether
(1,1 DHPPTE), 69
Disproportionation, 96
Disuccinic acid peroxide, 102
Double acting compression molding,
189, 191f
Drilling, 454
E
Elastomeric seals, 309
Electrical applications, 470e471
Electrical properties, 443, 444t
Electrochemical fluorination (ECF)
process, 78
Electropolishing, 129e130
Elevated temperature
etching, 320e321
shelf life of etch surfaces, 321
storage and preparation, 320
washing, 321
Elongation, 442, 442f
Emulsion polymerization
ammonium sulfite, 126
with APFO replacements
fluorinated emulsifier, 127
polymerization conditions and
properties, 127, 127t
autoclave, 122e123
chlorendic acid, 120e121, 121f
core-shell polymer, 123
CTFE, 140, 140t
dispersion stability, 121
HFP and methanol modifiers,
122, 122t
mechanism
accordion-shape crystal formation,
130e131, 132f
initiation step, 130e131, 131f
micelle, 130e131, 132f
particle size formation, 130e131,
132f
PTFE chain folding, 130e131, 132f
single PTFE particle, 132, 133f
surface tension, 132e133, 133f
surfactant concentrations, 133, 134f
modifier comonomers, Alfrey-Price Q
and e values, 134e135, 135f, 135t
perfluoroalkyl vinyl ether comonomers,
123
perfluorovinyl ether, 126
polykettle, 125
polymer properties, 123e124, 125t
product finishing processes, 120, 120f
reactor
electropolished cage agitator, 130,
131f
paddle mixers, 130, 131f
schematic diagram, 128e129, 129f
SEM micrographs, 129, 130f
stainless-steel surface, 129, 130f
wall-sweeping agitator, cross-section,
130, 131f
recipe and polymerization data, 123,
124t
scanning electron micrograph,
120, 120f
tetrafluoroethylene, in stabilizers,
121e122, 121t
Environmental stress cracking (ESC),
392e395
fluoropolymers, 394e395
ESC. See Environmental stress cracking
(ESC)
ETFE. See Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
copolymer (ETFE)
Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene
(ECTFE), 315, 316t
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), 18,
322, 322f
Excessive microporosity, 406
Excessive treatment, 315
Exhaust system, 482, 483f
Extrusion, 305e306, 306t
F
Fabrication techniques
adhesive bonding methods
bonding adhesives, 456
contact adhesives, 456
machining, 453e455
centerless grinding, 454, 454t
drilling/tapping and threading, 454
machining filled PTFE parts, 455
sawing and shearing, 454
skiving, 454e455
turning and milling, 454
other processes, 460, 460f
thermoforming, 458e459, 459f
welding and joining
welding technique, 457e458, 457f
Filled fluoropolymer compounds
co-coagulated compounds, 350e353
steps of, 351
commercial products, 370, 371te375t,
377te379t
filled fluoropolymers, typical properties
of, 355e362
chemical properties, 356, 366t
electrical properties, 356, 365t
mechanical properties, 356, 358t
thermal properties, 356
tribological properties, 359e362
fine powder-based compounds,
346e350
fillers and compounding methods,
347
reinforced gasketing material,
fabrication of, 347e350
granular-based compounds, 336e346
filled PTFE, production techniques,
340e346
fillers, 336e340, 337t
PTFE grade, selection of, 340
processing compounds, 353e355, 354f
PTFE, nanocomposites of, 362e370
hydrophobicity, 368e369
multifunctionality, 369e370
wear, 366e368
Fine powder polytetrafluoroethylene
Asahi Glass Company’s Fluon fine
powder PTFE, 171t
Daikin’s fine powder PTFE, 172t
DuPont Teflon fine powder PTFE,
170t
Dyneon’s Hostaflon fine powder PTFE,
171t
expanded PTFE manufacturing
INDEX 693Fine powder polytetrafluoroethylene
(Continued)
air permeability-water entry pressure
relationships, 274, 275f
amorphous locking, 272e273
biaxially expanded
polytetrafluoroethylene, 273, 273f
expanded vs. full density
polytetrafluoroethylene, 274, 275t
Gore-Tex, 272
microporous polytetrafluoroethylene,
274, 276f
Poisson’s ratio, 276f
porosity/pore-size relationships,
273e274, 274f
uniaxially expanded
polytetrafluoroethylene, 273, 273f
Young’s Modulus, 274e275, 276f
extrusion aid/lubricant
commercial lubricants, 239
Isoparsolvents, 239, 240t
Shell Corporation, 239, 242t
paste extrusion
abused, 237
agglomerates, 236, 236f
crystalline structure, 236, 237f
definitions, 234
DSC diagram, 237, 238f
extrusion pressure and lubricant
content, 238, 239f
fibrilation, 236e237, 238f
PTFE fibrils, 236e237, 237f
structure of one particle, 236, 237f
reduction ratio, 235f
Daikin polytetrafluoroethylene, 254,
255t
definitions, 234
and extrusion pressure, 254, 256f
master die, 252f, 253
TeflonCFP 6000 fluoropolymer
resin, 254, 254t
resin handling and storage
fibrillation, 234
temperature vs. cooling time, 235,
235f
treatment, 236
resin selection, 276e277
Solvay Solexis fine powder PTFE, 172t
tubing extrusion
blending lubricant and pigment/
preforming, 256
pressure hoses, 258e265, 260f, 261t
spaghetti tubing, 257e258, 257f,
258te259t
types of, 255e256, 256t
unsintered tape
blending lubricant and pigment/
preforming, 240t, 266
calendaring process, 266e268,
269fe270f
drying and stretching, 268e272, 271f,
271t, 272f
final tape product, 272, 272f
round and rectangular bead, 266,
267f, 268t
thread sealant tape, 265e266
wire coating
conductor, 254e255
die, 244f, 248e250, 252f
drying, 243t, 250e253
pigment addition, 245
polytetrafluoroethylene paste
changes, 246, 250f
preforming, 245e246, 247fe248f,
248t
properties, 242
ram extruder, 248, 251fe252f
reduction ratio, 246, 253e254
resin blending, lubricant, 244e245,
244fe245f
sintering and cooling, 254te255t
wire extruder, 246, 249f
Fischer-Tropsch process, 313
Fluorinated additives
PTFE additives, 309, 309t
applications of, 309, 310t
feedstock for, 309e310
grinding, 312
modified waxes, 312e313
radiation, 312
thermal cracking, 312
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP)
polymer, 17
Fluorination
polyolefin surfaces, 13
SelectfluorTM, 13e14
Fluorine, 315, 318f
characteristics, 13e17, 14t
extreme element, 14
inorganic chemistry, 15e16
and nature, 17
organic chemistry, 16e17
preparation, 14e15, 15f
uniqueness, 12e13, 13t
Fluoropolymers
applications and uses, 20, 22t
automotive and transportation
industry, 9
bond values of, 315, 316t
characteristics, 8
competition and industry structure, 11
consumption of, 10, 10f
evolution of, 5, 6f
films, 322
fundamental properties, 18, 18te19t
growth waves, 5, 6f
low friction and surface energy, 30e32,
32t
market for, 8
PDL resistance rating, 1e3, 2t
plasma treatment, 321e326
polymer science, 1e3, 2f, 2t
polytetrafluoroethylene, 3e5, 5t
properties, 8
regional consumption, 9e10, 9f
Roy Plunkett, 3e4
solvents effect, 30, 30te31t
structure-rheology-fabrication process,
46t
vs. key processing/application
trade-offs, 18, 19t
Fluroxene, 16
Forming lined piping, 462
Freon, 3
G
Glass fabric, 462
Glass fiber, 337, 338f
Glow discharge treatment, 322, 323t
Glyme-based etchant solution, 320
Gore-Tex GR sheet gasketing,
465e466, 467f
Granular polytetrafluoroethylene
automatic molding
demolding, 199
pressure/dwell period and specific
gravity, 200, 201f
steps of, 199, 200f
commercial grades
Asahi Glass Company Fluon, 159t
Chenguang granular PTFE resins,
163t
Daikin Company Polyflon, 160t
DuPont Teflon, 159t
Dyneon Company Hostaflon, 160t
Fuxin Hengtong granular PTFE
resins, 164t
granular fine-cut grouping, low-flow,
157t
granular pelletized grouping, freeflow, 158t
Gujarat Fluorochemical Company
Inoflon granular PTFE resins,
167t
Halopolymer Company
Fluoropolast, 162t
homopolymer polytetrafluoroethylene
ram extrusion granular resins, 158t
694 INDEXJiangsu Meilan granular PTFE resins,
165t
modified polytetrafluoroethylene
granular resins, 158t
Shandong Dongyue granular PTFE
resins, 164t
Shandong Huafu (Jinan 3F) granular
PTFE resins, 166t
Shanghai 3F granular PTFE resins,
164t
SinoFluoron Company granular PTFE
resins, 166t
Solvay Solexis Company Algoflon,
161t
Zhejiang Juhua granular PTFE resins,
163t
Zhejiang Jusheng granular PTFE
resins, 165t
compression molding. See Compression
molding method
fabrication process, 177, 177t
free sintering, 177
isostatic molding. See Isostatic molding
process
ram extrusion. See also Ram extrusion
compaction, 220e223, 220fe222f
cycles, 219, 220f
definition, 218
horizontal ram extruder, 219, 219f
resin feed, 219e220
steps for, 218e219
vertical ram extruder, 218, 218f
resin selection
commercial free and low flow PTFE
resins, 178, 179t
dielectric strength vs. apparent
density, 178, 178f
filling example, in three dimensions,
178, 179f
free flow, 177
property and apparent density vs. flow,
177, 178f
tensile strength vs. apparent density,
178, 178f
Graphite, 338, 339f
Gylon sheet gasketing material, 465,
466f
H
Halex reaction, 16
Halogens, 12
Hammer milling
amoeboid and dendritic structures, 107,
107f
commercial products, 107, 108t
PTFE powders, 107, 107f
schematic diagram, 106e107, 106f
temperature, 107, 108f
HCFC-22, 48e49
Hexafluoropropylene (HFP)
properties, 67e68, 68t
synthesis
CFC-216ba, 67
chlorofluorination, 64
dimerization, 66, 66t
perfluoroisobutylene, 65
pyrolysis of R23, 65, 65te66t
High-purity fluid handling components,
468, 471f
Hollow glass microspheres, 339, 340f
Hot compression molding, 198e199,
199t
Hourglassing, 226
Hydraulic presses, 181, 181f
Hydrostatic molding. See Isostatic
molding process
Hysteresis loop, 284
I
Injection molding, 304e305,
304f, 305t
Irradiation behavior, 444e446
Isochronous stress-strain, 416f
Isostatic molding process
bag exertion pressure, 203
basics, 204, 204f
bolt clamping, fluid sealing, 204e205,
206f
design
bag attachment, 211, 211f
flexible bag, 214, 215t
mold and bag sealing, 211f, 213
mold configuration and dimensions,
212e213
preform shape, 208e209, 208f
pressurization direction, 209e210
procedure, 214e217, 216t
surface finish of preform, 209
mandrel, 204e205
molded parts, 203, 203t
outer flexible bag and inner rigid part,
205, 207f
pressed samples, 201e202, 202f
principle steps, 202e203, 202f
PTFE resins, 193f, 217e218
vs. fabrication techniques, 203e204
wet and dry bag process, 205,
206fe207f
J
Jennings international horizontal
extruder, 251f
K
K-416, 4
Kettle/polykettle, 98
L
Le Chatelier-Braun principles, 49e50
Lethal concentration, 319
Lethal dose, 319
Limiting oxygen index (LOI), 384e387,
430e431
Liquid ammonia, 318
M
Machining, 453e455
centerless grinding, 454, 454t
drilling/tapping and threading, 454
machining filled PTFE parts, 455
sawing and shearing, 454
skiving, 454e455
turning and milling, 454
Mechanical applications, 471e475
Mechanical properties, 442
Medical devices, 477
Melt creep viscosity (MCV), 401, 401t
Melt processible fluoropolymers, 463
Melt processing, 38
Milling, 454
Modified waxes, 312e313
Moissan’s reactions, 15, 15f
Molecular weight (MW), 399e400
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), 339,
340f
Monoglyme, 319
N
Natural waxes, 313
Nonbioaccumulative fluorinated
surfactants, 86
O
Orientation Index (OI), 263e264
P
PCTFE. See Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
(PCTFE)
Perfluorinated ethylene-propylene
copolymer
vs. polytetrafluoroethylene, 28t
Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA), 17e18
Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ethers (PAVEs)
properties, 70, 71t
synthesis
1,1 DHPPTE, 69
hexa-fluoropropylene oxide, 69e70
specifications, 70t
steps, 70t
INDEX 695Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), 79
Perfluoroisobutylene (PFiB), 65
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)
chemical structure, 77f, 77t
issues, 78e79
perfluorinated surfactants, 77
physical properties, 77t
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)
chemical structure, 77f, 77t
commercial uses, 78t
degradation, 80e82
ECF process, 78
physical structure, 77f, 77t
problems, 79e83, 81t, 82f
telomerization, 78
toxicity, 82e83
Perfluoroolefins, 29
Permeation fundamentals
measurement, 391e392, 391f
testing by absorption, 392, 392f
transmission, 393t
variables, 389, 389t
Plastics
organic chemical effect, 43t
physical and mechanical properties, 38,
39te40t
thermal and electrical properties, 41t
water absorption effect, inorganic
chemicals, 42t
Plastics design library (PDL), 8e9,
610te611t
Poisson ratio, 419e420
Poker chipping, 219
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE),
17, 17f
application and uses, 24, 25te26t, 28t,
30te31t
chemical structure of, 25f
Polymerization aid, 95
Polymerization surfactants
alternative surfactants
APFO, 84, 84f
chemical structures, 86e90
requirements, 84e85, 85te86t
emulsion and suspension
polymerization, 76
EPA action, 83e84
perfluorooctane sulfonate
chemical structure, 77f, 77t
issues, 78e79
perfluorinated surfactants, 77
physical properties, 77t
perfluorooctanoic acid
chemical structure, 77f, 77t
commercial uses, 78t
degradation, 80e82
ECF process, 78
physical structure, 77f, 77t
problems, 79e83, 81t, 82f
telomerization, 78
toxicity, 82e83
Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE), 309, 309t
anti-drip applications, 296, 297t
applications, 279, 279t, 297e298
applications of, 309, 310t
atmospheric pressure plasma treatment,
328e333, 329t
atomic resolution images, 34, 34f
characterization
dispersions, 148e149, 149te150t
fine powder PTFE resins, 145e148,
147te148t
granular PTFE resins, 143e145,
144te146t
standard specification methods, 143,
143t
chemical compatibility, 382e387
effect of ozone on, 382e384
with halogenated chemicals, 385t
with various chemicals, 385t
coating technology
processes, 282e283, 283f
rheology, 283e285, 284fe285f
surface energy, 285e286, 285f, 287t
commercial grades
Asahi Glass Company PTFE
dispersions, 168t
ASTM Method D 4441, 157
Daikin PTFE Dispersions, 169t
DuPont’s dispersions, 168t
Dyneon’s Dispersions, 169t
Solvay Solexis Algoflon PTFE
dispersions, 170t
commercialization, 4e5, 5t
conformations and transitions, 32e35, 33f
dedusting powders, 297
dispersion formulation and
characteristics, 286e289, 288f,
288t, 289f, 289t, 290f
emission during processing, 480e481,
481t
environmental protection and disposal
methods, 486e487
packaging disposal and recycling,
486e487
ESC, 392e395
fluoropolymers, 394e395
F and CeF bond, impact of
comparative polarization, 24e25, 25f
hydrogen and halogens, 24, 25t
phase diagram of, 25, 25f
polyethylene properties, 26, 26t
feedstock for, 309e310
filled bearings, 297
film casting, 295e296, 295t, 296f, 296t
flax and polyaramide impregnation,
292
porous metals and graphite, 293
processing, 292e293
fluoroplastics, sodium etching of,
314e321
description of, 315e319
elevated temperature etching,
320e321
new chemistry, 319e320
sodium etching chemistry, 315
fluoropolymer scrap and recycling,
485e486
fluoropolymers, toxicology of, 479
food contact, 485
glass cloth coating, 289e290
equipment, 290e291, 290fe292f
processing, 291e292, 292t
grinding, 312
homopolymer, 12, 13te14t, 18te19t,
21te22t, 652te654t
melt creep viscosity, 38
melting point, 38
metal and hard surface coating,
293e294
modified, 12e13, 655t
modified waxes, 312e313
oxygen compatibility, 384e387
PCTFE
chemical compatibility of, 387, 388t
perfluorinated ethylene-propylene
copolymer, 27, 27f, 28t
plasma treatment of, 321e326
polychlorotrifluoroethylene
CeCl and CeF bonds, comparative
polarization, 27e28, 28f
fluorine to chlorine atom ratio,
28e29, 28f
FTIR spectra, 28e29
procedure, 38e40, 44f
properties, 278, 278t
PTFE yarn manufacturing, 294e295
radiation, 312
safety measures, 481e485, 481t
degradation products, ventilation of,
482
equipment cleaning and maintenance,
484
fire hazard, 485
material incompatibility, 485
personal hygiene, 485
processing and fabrication, 482e484
protective clothing, 485
696 INDEXspillage cleanup, 484
scanning electron micrograph, 326, 326f
scanning probe microscopy, 326, 327f
solubility parameters, 395
storage and handling, 279e280
surfactant transition, 280e282
fingering, 280e282
fluoropolymers manufacturing, 280,
281f
Gendorf fluoropolymer
manufacturing process, 280, 281f
thermal cracking, 312
thermal properties of, 479e480, 480f,
480t
X-ray diffraction, 35t
Poly vinyl fluoride (PVF), 18, 315, 316t,
383
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 18
Porter process, 318
Press, 304
Pressure hoses
applications, 260e261
blending lubricant and pigment/
preforming, 261
commercial grades, 261, 261t
convoluted and braided tubing,
259e260, 260f
crystallinity stiffness, 261, 261t
extrusion/sintering and cooling,
261e263
liner extrusion, 264e265, 265f
PTFE reinforcement, 258e259, 260f
quality control, 263e264
Protective colloid, 112e113
PTFE
applications and uses, 20, 22t
China, 9
India, 9e10
United States, 9
Western Europe, 9
R
Radiation, 312
Ram extrusion
compaction, 220e223, 220fe222f
cycles, 219, 220f
definition, 218
equipment design, 223t, 228
dies, 229e230
drive system, 228e229
extrusion ram, 229
horizontal ram extruder, 219f, 228
resin feed system, 230
vertical ram extruder, 218f, 228
horizontal ram extruder, 219, 219f
M-24 molded cylindrical rods, 232t, 233
M-24 multiple ram extrusion molding,
3-rod extrusion, 232t, 233
molding conditions and tensile
properties, 231t, 233
profile extrusions, 230f, 233
resin feed, 219e220
sintering and cooling, 200f, 220f
cooling, 227
die skin formation, 227e228
heat requirements, 223e224, 223t,
224f
steps for, 218e219
vertical ram extruder, 218, 218f
Reinforced gasketing material,
fabrication of
process background, 348, 348f
process description, 348e350, 349f
Resin, 303
Rotational lining, 463
Rotolined transition component, 464f
Roy Plunkett, 3e4
S
Safety measures, 481e485, 481t
degradation products, ventilation of, 482
equipment cleaning and maintenance,
484
fire hazard, 485
material incompatibility, 485
personal hygiene, 485
processing and fabrication, 482e484
protective clothing, 485
spillage cleanup, 484
Sawing, 454
Seamless lining, 463, 463f
SelectfluorTM, 13e14
Self-supporting components, 466e467
Semiconductor processing, 468e470
Shearing, 454
Simons Electro Chemical Fluorination,
78
Skiving, 454e455
Sodium amide, 318
Sodium-ammonia method, 318
Sodium etching, time of, 315, 317t
Sodium naphthalenide, 318e319, 319f
Solubility parameters, 395
Spaghetti tubing
Daikin-polyflon TFE, 258, 259t
extrusion conditions, 258, 258t
hydraulic paste extruder, 257f
tube extrusion die, 257, 257f
Spectroscopic properties, 448
SSG. See Standard specific gravity (SSG)
Standard specific gravity (SSG), 400
Stress, 302
Stress relaxation, 413
Stress-strain curves, 409, 409fe410f
Stretch Void Index (SVI), 263e264
Stretch void index (SVI), 148
Surface chemistry, 315, 318f
Suspension polymerization
CTFE, 140
evolution
carboxylic acid effect, 102e103, 103t
commercial comonomers,
101e102
disuccinic acid peroxide, 102
finishing processes, 100, 100f
Plunkett polymerization, 100e101,
101f
reactor for, 102, 103f
scanning electron micrograph, 100,
100f
incubation period, 98
pelletized granular PTFE, 109e118
presintered granular PTFE
ram extrusion and resistance,
118e119, 119f
800X series cutter and interior design,
119, 119f
process conditions, 98, 98f
reactor and operations
air milling, 105e106, 105fe106f
automatic tank internal washer, 104,
104f
fine cut powders, 105, 105f
hammer milling, 106e107,
106fe108f, 108t
schematic representation, 103, 103f
temperature, 103e104
surfactant micelle, 99f
wet reactor bead
slurry, 107e108
Taylor Stiles cutters, 109f
Synthesized hydrocarbons, 313
Synthetic waxes, 313
T
Tapping, 454
Tedlarby DupontA, 38
Teflon, 396
Telomerization process, 78
Tetra-Etch, 317t
Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE)
chlorotrifluoroethylene. See
Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE)
copolymers
2,2-bis-trifluoromethyl-4,5-difluoro-
1,3-dioxole, 45, 45f
fluorinated vinyl ethers, 44e45, 45f
hexafluoropropylene, 44
INDEX 697Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) (Continued)
Lumiflonresins, cross-linking
mechanism, 44e45, 45f
crystallinity, 398e400
melting point, 399e400, 400t
structure, 396f, 398e399, 398fe399f
dispersion grade PTFE
Berry’s technique, 137
electrodecantation, 138
process variable, 137, 137t
salting out, 136e137
electrical properties, 422e424
emulsion/dispersion polymerization. 95,
95t. See also Emulsion
polymerization)
fatigue properties, 415e420
abrasion and wear, 419
friction, 415e416
hardness, 415
impact strength, 415
poisson ratio, 419e420
PV limit, 416e419
fine powder PTFE
agglomerates, 139
coagulating agent, 138
steps of, 138
fine powder resins, 95, 95t, 100
flammability characteristics, 430e431
granular resins, 95, 95t
homopolymers
automatic molding, 38
compression molding, 38
dispersion and suspension processes,
38, 40
fine powder particles, 38, 44f
granular particle, 38, 44f
irradiation behavior, 431e432
mechanical properties, 409e413
deformation under load (creep) and
cold flow, 411e413
molecular weight, 400e402
melt creep viscosity (MCV), 401, 401t
Mn calculation using DHc, 401e402
practical aspects of, 402, 402fe404f
SSG, Mn calculation using, 401
standard specific gravity (SSG), 400
polymerization mechanism and
reactions, 96e99, 96fe97f
preparation
chlorodifluoromethane, 48e49
fluorspar, 48e49
pyrolysis temperature and pressure,
49, 49t
R23, 48
R12/F12, 48
temperature effect, 50e51, 52fe53f
processing, influence of, 403e407, 404t
voids and flaws, 406e407
properties, 63t
HCl, 62
heat reaction, 61
oxygen, 61e62
PTFE, microstructure and fracture of,
407e409
purification methods
Daikin technology, 60
preliminary distillation column, 60,
61t
second distillation column, 61, 61t
starting material composition, 60, 61t
refractive index, 438
standard measurement methods, 438
surface properties, 432e435
suspension polymerization. See also
Suspension polymerization
evolution, 100e119, 100fe101f
incubation period, 98
process conditions, 98, 98f
surfactant micelle, 99f
synthesis
C4F8, 57, 58t
CF3-CHF2 to CF2¼CF2, 55, 56t
final gaseous product, 55t
gas chromatography, 54, 54t
gases and conversion, 51e54, 54t
graphite tube, 55
HFP, 59t, 60
hydrogen chloride, 59
reaction gases, 54t
solid reaction product analysis, 56,
56t
thermal behavior, 424e430
heat deflection temperature, 430
thermal conductivity and heat
capacity, 429
thermal expansion, 428e429
thermal stability, 424e428
van der Waals forces, 99
Tetraglyme, 320
Tetrahydrofuran, 319
Thermal behavior, 424e430
Thermal cracking, 312
Thermal degradation, 444, 448f
Thermal properties, 443e444, 447t
Thermal stability, 424e428
Thermoplastic fluoropolymers, 463
Threading, 454
Thread sealant tapes, 465, 465f
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane
(TCTFE), 70e71
Turbula Shaker Mixer, 245, 245f
Turning, 454
Turpentine, 14
U
Unlined valves, 465
Unsintered tape
blending lubricant and pigment/
preforming, 240t, 266
calendaring process, 266e268,
269fe270f
drying and stretching, 268e272, 271f,
271t, 272f
final tape product, 272, 272f
round and rectangular bead, 266, 267f,
268t
thread sealant tape, 265e266
V
van der Waals forces, 30
Vessels, 463
Vinyl fluoride (VF) polymers, 45
Vinylidene fluoride (VDF) polymers, 45
Viscosity, 320
Volume resistivity, 443, 446f
W
Weathering properties, 452
Weep Test, 263, 264
X
Xanthate, 294
Z
Zero strength time (ZST), 149, 301, 301f,
301t
ZST. See Zero strength time (ZST)


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