كتاب Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook - the Definitive User’s Guide - Second Edition
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook - the Definitive User’s Guide - Second Edition

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كتاب Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook - the Definitive User’s Guide - Second Edition  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook - the Definitive User’s Guide - Second Edition    كتاب Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook - the Definitive User’s Guide - Second Edition  Emptyالإثنين 13 نوفمبر 2023, 6:52 am

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Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook - the Definitive User’s Guide
Second Edition
Laurence W. McKeen

كتاب Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook - the Definitive User’s Guide - Second Edition  F_c_a_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of contents
Dedication
Foreword
Acknowledgments
1. Fluoropolymers
1.1. The Discovery of Fluoropolymers
1.2. What Are Fluoropolymers?
1.3. Comparison of Fluoropolymer Properties
2. Producing Fluoromonomers, Fluoropolymers, and Fluoropolymer Finishing
2.1. Monomers
2.2. Polymerization
2.3. Finishing
3. The Components of Paint
3.1. Binder, Vehicle, Film Former
3.2. Important Properties of Liquid Coatings
4. Binders
4.1. Nonfluoropolymer Binders
4.2. Effect of Temperature on Properties of Binders
4.3. Comparison of Properties of Nonfluoropolymer Binders
5. Pigments, Fillers, and Extenders
5.1. Dispersion of Pigments
5.2. Measuring Dispersion Quality or Fineness
5.3. Dispersion Stabilization
5.4. Pigment or Particle Settling
5.5. Functions of Pigments
5.6. Types of Pigments
5.7. Permeability, Barrier Properties
5.8. Abrasion Resistance, Reinforcement: Physical Property Improvement
5.9. Electrically Conductive Fillers
5.10. Corrosion Inhibition
5.11. Quantifying Pigment Concentrations in Formulations
5.12. Commercial Pigment Dispersions
6. Solvent Systems
6.1. Classes of Solvents
6.2. Solubility and Dissolution of Polymers
6.3. Solids–Viscosity Relationships
6.4. Viscosity as a Function of Temperature
6.5. Evaporation
6.6. Solvent Composition and Evaporation Time
6.7. Solubility
6.8. Surface Tension and Wetting
6.9. N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone
6.10. Conductivity
6.11. Flash Point
6.12. Autoignition Temperature
6.13. Summary
7. Additives
7.1. Abrasion Resistance Improvers
7.2. Acid Catalysts
7.3. Acid Scavengers
7.4. Adhesion Promoters, Coupling Agents
7.5. Algaecides, Biocides, Fungicides
7.6. Anticratering Agent, Fisheye Preventer
7.7. Anticrawling Agent
7.8. Antifoaming Agent, Defoamer
7.9. Antifouling Agent
7.10. Rust Inhibitor, Corrosion Inhibitor, Flash Rust Inhibitor
7.11. Antisag Agent, Colloidal Additives, Thickeners, Rheology Modifiers
7.12. Antisettling Agent
7.13. Antistatic Agent, Electroconductive Additives
7.14. Coalescents, Coalescing Agent, Film-Forming Agent
7.15. Deaerators
7.16. Degassing Agent
7.17. Dispersant, Dispersing Agent, or Surfactant
7.18. Flattening Agents
7.19. UV Absorbers and Stabilizers
7.20. Lubricants
7.21. Moisture Scavenger
7.22. pH Control Agent
7.23. Summary
8. Substrates and Substrate Preparation
8.1. Substrates
8.2. Adhesion
8.3. Substrate Preparation
8.4. Soluble Salts at the Metal Paint Interface
8.5. Modifications to Fluoropolymer Surfaces to Improve Adhesion
8.6. Preventing Rust after Surface Preparation
8.7. Platings
8.8. Anodization
8.9. Substrate Characterization
8.10. Summary
9. Liquid Formulations
9.1. Selecting Ingredients
9.2. Recipes and Formulas
9.3. Formulating Water-Based Coatings
9.4. Solvent-Based Coatings
9.5. Soluble Fluoropolymers
9.6. Fluorotelomer-Based Coatings
9.7. Mixing Liquid Coatings Prior to Use
9.8. Filtering/Straining
9.9. Shelf Life
9.10. Commercial Producers and Their Product Lines
10. Application of Liquid Coatings
10.1. Liquid Spray Coating Application Technologies and Techniques
10.2. Liquid Bulk or Direct Coating Application Techniques
10.3. Summary
11. Powder Coating and Films
11.1. What is Powder Coating?
11.2. Spray Powder Coating Process
11.3. Thick Film Coatings
11.4. Bulk Application: Fluidized Bed Coating
11.5. Powder Fluorocoating Products
11.6. Fluoropolymer Film Lamination
12. Fluoropolymer Coating Processing Technology
12.1. Baking and Curing; Physics or Chemistry
12.2. Monitoring Bake
12.3. Types of Ovens
13. Measurement of Coating Properties and Performance
13.1. Viscosity Measurement
13.2. Density, Gallon Weight, or Liter Weight Measurement
13.3. Film Thickness
13.4. Wet Film Build
13.5. Adhesion Tests
13.6. Environmental Exposure Testing
13.7. Cathodic Disbondment
13.8. Electro-Impedance Spectroscopy
13.9. Autoclave Testing
13.10. Tribology Testing
13.11. Cure
13.12. Nonstick Testing
13.13. Conductivity
13.14. Cookware Testing
13.15. Summary
14. Permeation of Fluoropolymer Coatings
14.1. History
14.2. Transport of Gases and Vapors through Solid Materials
14.3. Permeation of Coatings
14.4. Permeation and Vapor Transmission Testing
15. Introduction to the Tribology of Fluorocoatings
15.1. Friction
15.2. Wear and Erosion
15.3. Characterizing Wear
15.4. Tribology Testing
15.5. Tribology Testing for Cookware
15.6. Hardness Testing
15.7. Erosion Tests
15.8. Standard Tests
15.9. Coating Selection for Tribology Applications
15.10. Tribology Data for Various Fluoropolymers
16. Recognizing, Understanding, and Dealing with Coating Defects
16.1. Surface Tension and Shear
16.2. Common Coating Defects
16.3. Summary
17. Commercial Applications and Uses of Fluorocoatings
17.1. A Historical Chronology of Fluoropolymer Finishes Technology
17.2. Food Contact
17.3. Commercial Applications of Fluorocoatings
17.4. Manufacturers Tables of Specific Applications
17.5. Summary
18. Health and Safety
18.1. Toxicology of Fluoropolymers
18.2. Safe Handling and Application of Liquid Fluoropolymer Coatings
18.3. Thermal Properties of Fluoropolymers
18.4. Removal of Fluoropolymer Films and Coatings
18.5. Fire Hazard
18.6. Spillage Cleanup
18.7. Protective Clothing
18.8. Personal Hygiene
18.9. Material Incompatibility
18.10. Food Contact and Medical Applications
18.11. Fluoropolymer Scrap and Recycling
18.12. Environmental Protection and Disposal Methods
Appendix 1. Fluoropolymer Properties
Appendix 2. Permeability Data of Fluoropolymer Films
Appendix 3. Chemical Resistance of Fluoropolymers
Glossary
Index
.
GLOSSARY 599Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” indicate figures and tables, respectively.
A
Abrasion, measuring, 256e257
Abrasion resistance, 119e120, 120t,
142e143, 322
Abrasion tests, 257
Abrasive wear, 278e279
Accelerated in-home abuse test (AIHAT)
procedure, 258
Accelerated tests, cookware, 255
Acid catalysts, 120
Acid primer, 74
Acid scavengers, 120
Acrylic polymer, 28e29
Acrylic resin, for cracking, 151
Acrylics, 74e75
Acyl fluoride, 14, 27e28, 36
Additives, 52, 119e127, 335
food contact, 311e312
function, 119
to powders, 196
Adhesion, 59, 129e130
of coating, 309
to copper, 129
of films, 233
fluoropolymer surface modification, 141
measurement of, 235
promoters, 120
ratings, 237f
scale, 237t
tests, 235e238
postboiling cross-hatch tape, 236,
236fe237f, 237t
post-boiling nail, 236e237, 237f
Adhesive bond strength, 235e236
Adhesive wear, 279
Aerosil, 124
Agglomerates, 29e30
AgION, 121e122
Air, removal of entrapped, 300
Air bubbles, 299e300
Air entrapment, 124, 299e301
Air-knife coating, 183
Alkyd resins, 77
Alkyl ammonium salts, 121
Alligatoring, 302
Alloy, 142e143, 309
Aluminum oxide (Al2O3), 100e101, 101t
Aluminized steel, 142
Aluminum flake, 126
Aluminum oxide, 132e133
Amines, 123, 126e127
Ammonium hydroxide, 121, 126e127
Ammonium salts, 16e18
Amorphous fluoropolymer (AF), 5e6
regions, 4
Teflon AF, 396, 396f, 396t
Andrade’s equation, 109
Anodization, 142e143
Anti-cratering additives, 303
Anticratering agents, 122
Anticrawling agent, 122
Antifoaming agents, 122
Antifouling agent, 122e123
Antisag agents, 123
Antisettling agents, 124
Antistatic agents, 124
Applications
architectural coatings, 328, 328f,
328t
automotive, 322e324, 322fe324f
bakeware, 312e313
chemical processing industry, 325e326,
325fe326f
commercial dryer drums, 326, 326f
commercial/industrial bakeware,
318e321, 320f
cookware, 312e313
ductwork, 326
efficiency, of coating techniques,
183t
fuser rolls, 321e322, 321f
glass ovenware, 311
gourmet cookware, 311
hardware, 310
industrial rollers, 326, 327f
light bulbs, 322, 322f
of liquid spray coatings. See Liquid
spray techniques
medical devices, 326e327, 327f
office automation, 311
oil production and refining, 327, 328f
small electrical appliances, 312e313
Aquadag, 125
Aqueous dispersions, 150e151,
335e336
Aqueous fluoropolymer coatings, 121
Arc spray, 136
Architectural coatings, 328, 328f, 328t
Arrhenius equation, 265e266
parameters, 266, 266t
vs. temperature
diffusion coefficient, 266, 267f
permeability coefficient, 266, 267f
solubility coefficient, 266, 268f
Asahi Glass, 157
ASTM
B117-03, 238
C868-02, 240
D1005-95, 232
D1186-01, 230
D1212-91, 233e234
D1475-98, 229
D1644-01, 58
D1654-92, 239
D1876-01, 237
D1894-08, 283
D2196-99, 229
D2697-03, 58
D2803-03, 239
D3359-97, 236
D3363-00, 287e288
D3702-94, 284
D4138-94, 232
D4212-99, 229
D4214-98, 239
D4414-95, 233
D4541-02, 237
D610-01, 239
D6132-04, 231
D714-02, 239
D968-93, 288e289
G87-02, 239e240
Atlas Cell test, 240
Atomization, 300, 304e305
Atomizing air pressure, 173
601Aluminum anodizing, 142
Autocatalytic nickel plating, 77
Autoclave testing, 253
Autoignition temperature, 118
Automatic flash point tester,
115
Automotive applications, 137,
322e324
Automotive brake lines, 324, 324f
Autopolymerization, TFE inhibitors, 14
Axial impellers, 154
Azeotropes, 111
B
Bake temperatures, 129
Baking, 211e215, 212fe214f
Baking soda, 133
Ball mills, 84, 84fe85f
Batch ovens, 219e220
Batch size, 150
Bearings, coatings, 309
Benard cell, 302e303
Benzoguanamine formaldehyde,
dispersing aid, 152
Bimetallic corrosion, 136
Binders, 51e52
additional, 74
nonfluoropolymer, 60e78
resins, 309
selection, 149
Bisulfite initiators, 15e16
Black body radiation, 216e217
Blended pigments, 195
Blisters, 301, 301f
cookware coatings, 258e259
Block copolymer, 73
Bodying agents, 123
Brake dampers, 324, 324f
Branched chain alcohols, 122
Bristle blast, 135, 135f
Brookfield Viscometer, 52e53, 229, 229f
Bubble breakers, 122
Bubble-breaking additives, 301
Bubbles, 192
Bubbling onset temperature, 301
Bulk application, 193e194, 193fe195f
liquid coatings
coil coating, 179e180,
179fe180f
curtain coating, 178e179, 179f
dip coating, 176, 176f
dip-spin coating, 176e177, 177f
Landau-Levich equation, 175
meniscus-coating techniques, 175
pad printing, 182e183, 182f
postforming coatings, 182
roller coating, 180e182, 181f
spin-flow coating, 177e178, 178f
techniques, 185
C
Calcium carbonate, 120
Capture velocity, 336
Carbon dioxide, supercritical, 27, 153,
175
Carbonyl fluoride, 338e339, 338t
Carboxylic acid, 36
Cascading action, 84, 85f, 86
Cataracting action, 86
Cathodic disbondment, 252, 252f
Ceramic fillers, 311
Chain transfer, 15
Checking, 302
Chemetall Oakite, 137e138
Chemical agents, 121
Chemical etch, 135e136
Chemical processing industry, 325e326
Chemical resistance
guidelines, 413
ratings, 413, 414t
Chemical washes, 130
Chemours, 157e160
Chemours Cookware Coating Systems,
313t
Chromate conversion, 136
Chromic anodizing, 142
Clear coatings, 308e309
Cloud point, 28
Cosolvent, 107
Coagulated dispersion, 15
Coagulum, 26
Coating defects, 299e306
Coating process, fry pans, 213, 213f
Coating weight, 137
Coefficient of friction, 277
Teflon PTFE, 278, 279f
Vespel SP-21, 278, 278f
Coil, induction, 224, 224f
Colloidal dispersion, 123
Colloidal particles, 123
Colloid mill, 90, 90f
Complex inorganic pigments, 97e98
Components of paint, 51e58
Conductive coatings, 101e103
Conductive pigment loading, 103
Conductivity, 114, 254e255, 255f
Contaminants, removing, 303
Contamination, 121
Continuous ovens, 220
Convection heating, 220e221
Convection ovens, 220e221
Conversion coatings, 136e138
Cookware, 307
coating of, 307
quality, 308
Cookware testing
accelerated, 256, 256f
in-home, 255
Copolymers, 4
Coreeshell polymerization, 26e27
Corona charging, 186e188, 188f
Corona treatment, 138e139
Corrosion inhibition, 103e105, 123
Corrosion resistance tests, 238e240
Cracks, 302e303, 302fe303f
in coatings, 151, 299, 302
Craters, 122, 303, 303f
in coatings, 299
formation, 303
Crawling, 122, 304
Crazing, 302
Critical cracking thickness, 151
Critical pigment volume concentration
(CPVC), 105
Cross-hatch tests, 235e236
Cross-linkers, 76
Cross-linking, 211
Cross-links, 59
Crushed glass, 133
Cup method, 54e58
Cure tests, 253e254
Curing process, fluoropolymer coatings,
211
Curtain coating, 178e179, 179f, 311
D
Daikin Liquid Primers, 160t
Daikin Polyflon, 161t
Daikin topcoats, 162t
Deaerators, 124e125
Deagglomeration, 33
Decomposition
gases, 192
of fluoropolymers, 338
products, 336e337, 338t, 341e342
Defects
“chicken tracks”, 180
in coatings, 299e306
Defoamers, 122, 301
Degassing agents, 125
Degradation
of polytetrafluoroethylene, 33, 35e36
products, 335e336, 338e339
temperatures, 33, 35, 35t
Density measurements, 124
of coatings, 229
Destructive film thickness measurement,
232e233
602 INDEXDewetting, 304
Diamond stylus, 132, 145e146
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy
resin, 75e76, 76f
Dilatant flow, 53, 54f
Dimethyl formamide (DMF), 108
DIN Standard 50018, 239e240
Dip coating, 176, 176f
Dip cup, 227e229
Dip-spin coating, 176e177, 177f
Direct-fired gas, 221
Dispersed pigment particles, 91
Dispersibility, 235
Dispersing agent, 17
Dispersing aids, 152
Dispersing mills, 86
Dispersion-based fluoropolymer
products, 124
Dispersions
aqueous, 335e336
commercial, 150
for liquid coatings, 152
polymerization, 15, 28, 41
processes, 84, 86, 88e89
products, 18, 26
stabilization, 91e92, 92fe93f
Disposal fluoropolymer, 335, 342
Disuccinic acid peroxide, 17
Drip marks, 176
Dripping, 192
Dry blending, 195
Dry film thickness, 230
calculated, 231
measurement, 232
Dry lubrication, 125, 277, 310e311
Dry paint, 185
Dry powders, 51
Dry spraying, 304e306
Dry film thickness, 194
Dryer baskets, 326
Ductworks, 326
Dynamic coefficient of friction, 277
DyneonTHE, 7
DyneonTHV, 7
E
Eddy current, 223e224, 224f
film thickness measurements, 230e231
Elasticity, 235
Elcometer Payne permeability cups, 270,
270t, 274f, 275f
Electro-impedance spectroscopy,
252e253, 253f
Electroless nickel plating, 77, 78f
Electron beam irradiation, 37, 37f
Electroplate, 142
Electrostatic coating, 191, 194
Electrostatic spray, 114, 173e175,
173fe175f, 185
Electrostatic wrap, 191
Emission control, 336
Emissivity, 217e218, 218t
temperature calculation, 217
Emitter temperatures, 222
Emulsion polymerization, 17e18, 41
Enamel topcoat, 310
Encapsulated pigments, 195
Endgroups, 36
hydroxyl, 16
stability, 27
Engrave, 136
Erosion measurements, 292
Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene
(ECTFE), 9, 9fe10f, 406,
406te407t, 408f, 408t,
409f, 410f
chemical resistance, 421te460t
chemical structure, 9f
thermal properties, 373, 373f
Ethylene fluorinated ethylene propylene
terpolymers, 7e8, 8f
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE),
7, 7f, 356, 356f,
403, 403te404t, 405f,
461te497t
chemical structure, 7f
thermal properties, 368, 368te369t,
370fe372f
Evaporation solvent, 302e303
Evaporation rate, 111
Evaporation time, 111
Exhaust air, 336
F
Fabric printing rollers, 326
Falling abrasive erosion test, 288e289,
289f, 290t
Faraday Cage effect, 191, 191f,
193e194
Fast-evaporating nonsolvents, 114
Fasteners, 323
Fatty acids, 122
FDA compliance, 41
Ferrous metals, 130
Fillers, 52, 337
Film build, 191
Film forming agent, 124
Film shrinkage, 98, 99f
Film thickness
measurements, 230
powder coatings, 152, 190
Filtration, 156
Fine powder
processing steps, 29
products, 15
PTFE, 33
resins, 15
Fine mixtures, 340
Fingerprint contamination, 130
Fisheyes, 122
formation, 303e304
Flake pigments, 98, 99f
Flame treating, 138
Flammability tetrafluoroethylene,
14
Flash point, 114e118, 115f
Flash rusting, 123, 130e131
Flattening agents, 125
Flexibility, 79
Flocculation, 91e92, 103, 103f
Flow agent, fumed silica, 196, 197f
Fluid energy mill, 39e40
Fluidized bed coating, 193e194,
193fe195f
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP),
4e5, 5f, 13, 34t
chemical resistance, 498t
chemical structure, 5f
electrical properties, 375, 375f
fluff, 41e44
mechanical properties, 347,
347fe349f
melting point, 211
permeation, 387, 387f, 388f,
388te390t
powder, 41e44
thermal properties, 360, 360fe361f,
361t
tribology, 294, 295f
Fluorinated surfactants, 122
Fluorine
in fluoropolymers, 335
sheath, 4
Fluorine-containing polymers, 1
Fluoroadditives, 31e33, 41, 341
irradiated, 41
Fluoroalkenes, 338e339
Fluoro copolymers
chemical properties, 378t
electrical properties, 373t
mechanical properties, 344t
thermal properties, 357t
Fluoroolefin polymerization, 28
Fluoropolymers
adhesive laminating, 207e208, 207t
coatings, 1, 10, 51
commercial films, 208, 208t,
209t
INDEX 603Fluoropolymers (Continued)
discovery of, 1e2
dispersions, 340e341
disposal of, 335, 342
endgroups, 28, 28f
handling and processing, 335e336
heat bonding, 207
film production
melt extrusion, 197e203, 203f
paste extrusion, 203e204
skiving, 204, 204f
one-coats, 60
paint formulations, 51
polymerizations, 24e26
powder, 119e120
properties, 11e12
selection of, 147e149, 148te149t
surface treatment
atmospheric glow discharge, 207t
corona treatment, 206, 206t
flame treatment, 205e206, 206t
plasma treatment, 206
sodium etch, 204e205, 205f, 205t
Fluorotelomer-based coatings, 153
Foam
macro, 124
micro, 124
Food contact, 311e312, 341
Formic acid rinse, 130
Free radical
mechanism, 15e16
reaction, 16
Fretting wear, 280
Frictional force
asperities, 277e278
basic frictional forces, 277, 277f
block and coated plate contact,
277e278, 277f
coefficient of friction, 277
Teflon PTFE, 278, 279f
Vespel SP-21, 278, 278f
kinetic, 277
properties, 278
static, 277e278
testing, 283e284, 283fe284f
Fuel pump coatings, 323
Fume fever, 339
Fumed silica, 196e197, 197f
Fuser rolls, 321e322, 321f
G
Gallon weight, 229, 299e300
GALVALUME, 142
Galvanized steel, 142
Gas permeation, 261e262
Glass beads, 133
Glass containment, 322
Glass transition temperature, 62, 79
Glycerol, cracking, 151
Glycol, cracking, 151
Graham’s law, 262
Granular resins, 15
Graphite, 125
Gravimetric film thickness measurement,
231
Grinding media, 84, 88
Grinding process, 84
Grit blasting, 131e134, 311, 339
air pressures, 131e132
Grit types, properties, 132, 133t
H
Halar, 9
Hammer mill, 39e41, 40f
Hand-tool manufacturers, 309
Hansen solubility parameters, 108e109,
112
Hard grit, 131
Hardcoat anodizing, 143
Hardness, 235
test, 235
Health hazards, 338t
Heat transfer, IR source, 222
Heating methods
convection, 220e221
induction, 223e225, 224fe225f
infrared, 221e223, 223f
Heating treatment/thermal cleaning, 130
Hegman Fineness Gauge, 91, 91f
Henkel Acheson products, 163t
Hexafluoropropylene (HFP), 4e5
as comonomer, 13e14
Hexafluoropropylene epoxy (HFPO), 13
Hexafluoropropylene,
tetrafluoroethylene, ethylene
terpolymer (HTE), 394, 394t
Hiding ability of a coating, 96
High molecular weight amides, 122
High-bake coatings, 125
High-build coatings, 192
High-speed disperser (HSD), 89e90,
89fe90f
High-temperature non-fluoropolymer
binders, properties of, 79,
80te81t
High-temperature polymers, 64, 70, 147
High-temperature processing, thermal
degradation, 192
High-volume, low-pressure (HVLP)
atomization, 173
Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS),
125
Homofluoropolymers
chemical properties, 378t
electrical properties, 373t
mechanical properties, 343t
thermal properties, 357t
Homopolymer, 4
Horizontal media mills, 87e89, 88f
Hot flocking, 191e192, 192f
House paint, 51
Hydantoin, 121
Hydroblasting, 130
Hydrofluoric acid production, 13, 27e28
Hydrogen bonding, 112
Hydrogen gas, 126
Hydrolysis of free radicals, 16
Hygroscopic silica, 126
Hysteresis heating, 225
I
ILAG, 160
ILAG Bakeware Coating Systems, 318t
ILAG Cookware Coating Systems, 315t
ILAG Small Electric Appliances Coating
Systems, 320t
Impeller variations, 154
Indirect-fired gas systems, 221
Induction baking, 223e225, 224f
Induction heating, 223e225, 224fe225f
Infrared heating, 221e223, 223f
Ingredients
order of addition, 150
selection of, 312
Inherently conductive polymers, 124
Inhibitors
corrosion, 123
rust, 123
Initiation, 4, 15e16
Initiators, 15e16
bisulfite, 15e16
Inorganic acids, 30
Inorganic glass, 74
Inorganic pigments, 96e98, 97t
Inorganic salts, 30
Instron peel test, 237, 238f
Intercoat adhesion, 235
Inversions, 9
IR curing, 222
IR ovens, 222, 223f
IR source heat transfer, 222
IR thermometers, 216
Iron impregnation, 133
Iron phosphates, 136e137
Irradiated fluoropolymers, 311e312
Irradiation, 38
ISO 3231, 239e240
Isocyanate group, 77
604 INDEXJ
Jet mill, 39e40, 39f
K
Kapton, 67e68
Kesternich test, 239e240, 240f
Ketjen black, 96, 101
Kinetic coefficient of friction, 277
KYNAR, 8, 10
L
Landau-Levich equation, 175
Lawn and garden tools, 309
Leveling, 111
Licensees, 308
Light bulbs, 322, 322f
Liquid bulk/direct coatings, 51e52
coil, 179e180, 179fe180f
curtain, 178e179, 179f
by dip, 176, 176f
by dip-spin, 176e177, 177f
meniscus-coating techniques, 175
pad printing, 182e183, 182f
postforming, 182
properties, 52
roller, 180e182, 181f
spin-flow, 177e178, 178f
Light colored primers, 64
Liquid paint, spray, 171
Liquid spray techniques
conventional spray coating, 171e172,
172f
electrostatic spray application,
173e175, 173fe175f
high-volume, low-pressure (HVLP),
173
types, 171
Linear reciprocating abrasion testing,
286, 286f
Low Build Topcoat, 307
Lower explosive limit (LEL), 118
Lucite, 74e75
Lumiflon, 10e11, 11f
M
Magnetic “permeability”, 225
Magnetic pull-off gauges, 230, 230f
Manual Tiger Paw Test, 256
Manufacturing equipment, 149e150
Marine organisms, preventing attachment
of, 122e123
Market segments, industrial, 311
Mechanical Tiger Paw (MTP), 256e257,
257f
Media mills
attrition mills, 89, 89f
dispersion process, 86
horizontal media mills, 87e89, 88f
sand mills, 86e87, 87f
vertical mills, 86e87
Medical applications, 341
Medical devices, coatings, 326e327,
327f
Melamine formaldehyde, dispersing aid,
152
Melt creep viscosity, PTFE, 16
Melt viscosity, 4e5, 10, 192e193
Melting, 211
IR radiation, 221
Melting point, fluoroplastics, 343t
Meniscus-coating techniques, 175
Mesh number, 156
“Metal temperature”, 215
Metallic soaps, 122
Metal paint interface, 139e141,
139fe140f
MFA, 393, 393t, 394f
Mica pigments, 98
Micrometer film thickness measurement,
232
Micron sizes, for screens, 156
Micropowders, 33, 36
Microscopic film thickness measurement,
232
Mixing
impellers, 154
instructions, 153
RPM, 150
Modified granular PTFE, improvements,
4
Moisture scavengers, 126
Mold-release applications, 309
Molecular weight, micropowders, 31e33
Molybdenum disulfide, 125
Monomers
polytetrafluoroethylene, 13
structures, 3f
Morpholine, 123
Mud-cracking, 211, 213, 302e303
Multibody impact wear, 280
Multiple coats, powder coatings, 191
Multiple-layered films, 266e267
Multiple polar groups, 122
N
Nanoscale titanium dioxide, 121
National Association of Corrosion
Engineers International (NACE),
143e144
Newtonian flow, 53, 53f
Non-cookware applications, 329t, 331t
Non-Fickian diffusion, 265
Nonfluoropolymer binders, 60e78
Nonmetallic substrates, 138
Nonperfluorinated polymers, 147
Non-polar parameter, 112
Nonsolvents, 114
Nonstick coatings, 122e123
Nonstick cookware, 308
Nonstick testing, 254, 255f
Nondestructive measurements, 230e232
Nozzles, for spray guns, 171
O
Occupational Safety and Health Act
(OSHA), 336
Oil production and refining, 327, 328f
One-coat coatings, 64
Optical pyrometers, 216
Orange peel, 304e305, 305f
Organic polyesters, 77
Organic substrates, 138e139
Overheating, 337
Overspray, 190
Oxidation products, 338e339
Oxygen, in oven air, 213e214
Ozone, 138e139, 341e342
P
Painting, bulk applications, 171
Paints
adding pigments, 83e84
color matching, 94
defects, 299
density, 299e300
dry, 185
recipe, 149
Paper making rollers, 326
Partially fluorinated polymers, 3
Particle morphology, 194e195
Particle sizes, power, 192
Particulates, 303, 338e339
Pebble mill, 84e86, 84fe86f
Peel tests, 235
Peeling cookware, 258
Pencil hardness test, 287e288, 287f
Pencil type, thickness gauge, 230, 230f
Percolation threshold, 101e103
Perfluorinated polymers, 147
Perfluorinated side groups, 10
Perfluoro-2-alkoxy-propionyl fluoride,
14
Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) polymer, 5,
5fe6f, 29, 34t
chemical resistance, 523t
chemical structure, 5f
electrical properties, 376, 376f
mechanical properties, 349, 349fe351f
INDEX 605Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) polymer (Continued)
melt point, 192
permeation, 391e393, 391t, 392f, 392t
powders, 194e195
thermal properties, 361, 361t,
362fe363f
tribology, 294, 295t, 296f
Perfluoroalkylvinylethers (PAVEs), 13
Perfluorocarbon solvents, 28
Perfluoropolymers, 3
Perfluoropropylvinylether, 14
Performance tests, 227
“Permeability”, magnetic, 225
Permeation
of coatings, 268e269
gases and vapors transport, solid
materials
Arrhenius equation. See Arrhenius
equation
effusion, 262e263, 262f, 263t
multiple-layered films, 266e267
non-Fickian diffusion, 265
solution-diffusion and pore-flow
models, 263e265, 263fe265f
gas permeation, 261e262
properties, 261
and vapor transmission testing
ASTM, 269, 271t
coatings, substrates, 274
defect-free free-standing film,
272e274
DIN, 269, 273t
free paint film preparation, 274
gas permeability units, 269
gas permeation test cells, 270, 274f
ISO, 269, 273t
IUPAC’s STP, 270
JIS, 269, 274t
standard tests, 272
TAPPI, 269, 274t
vapor permeation cup testing,
270e272, 270t, 274f, 275f
wet-free film, 269
Personal protective equipment, 337
Persulfate, degradation of, 16
Pfund Gauge, 233e234, 234f
pH, 126e127
Phosphate coatings treatment, 136
Phosphate esters, 122
Pigment dispersions, 152
Pigment level, 304
Pigments, 52
acicular distribution, 100
additives, 83e84
concentration, 101e103, 103f, 105
food contact, 312
measure of, 105
mica, 98e99, 98fe99f
paint formulations, 93, 93f
purpose, 94
used in fluoropolymer coatings, 96
Pin-on-disk abrasion testing, 285e286,
285f
Pinholes, in coatings, 299
Pistons, coatings, 322e323
Planck’s law, 216e217
Plasma treatment, 139
handheld devices, 139
Plastic grit, 133
Plexiglass, 74e75
Polar/dipole, 112
Polar groups, 138e139
Polyaddition reaction, 15
Polyamideeimide (PAI), 60e62,
61fe62f, 63t, 113, 213
chemical structure, 62f
Polyamide-imide binder, 149
Polyaniline, 124
Polyaryletherketones (PAEK), 68e70,
69te72t
Polybasic acid, 77
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE),
9e10, 10f, 398, 398te400t
chemical resistance, 505t
chemical structure, 10f
electrical properties, 377, 377f
mechanical properties, 352,
352fe354f
thermal properties, 365, 365f, 365t
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK), 70,
70te72t
Polyetherimide (PEI), 70e74, 73fe75f,
75t
binder, 149
Polyetherimide sulfone, 73f
Polyethersulfone (PES), 62, 64f, 113
binder, 149
Polyethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene
(ECTFE), 294, 294t
Polyethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE),
294, 294t, 295f
Polyhydric alcohol, 77
Polyimide (PI), 67e68, 67fe68f,
68t
Polymer fume fever, 339
Polymerization, 14e28
reaction, tetrafluoroethylene, 17
Polymers, solubility and dissolution,
84e86
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA),
74e75
Polyols, for cracking, 151
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 66e67, 66f,
67t
binder, 149
Polyphenylenesulfone (PPSU), 65,
65f, 66t
Polysiloxanes, 122
Polysulfone, 62e64, 65f, 65t
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 13, 31t,
33t, 45t
agglomerates, 30e31
chemical resistance, 415t
electrical properties, 374, 374f
degradation, 33, 35e36
fibrillated, 30e31, 35f
granular, 15, 33
homopolymers, 16, 381e386,
381te385t, 385f
irradiated, 36, 39e41, 39fe40f
mechanical properties, 344,
344fe347f
modified PTFE, 386t
molecular weight, 15e16
monomers, 13
radiation-induced degradation reaction
scheme, 36f
scrap, 341
self ignition temperature, 340
structure, 3f
thermal decomposition, 13, 35
thermal properties, 357, 357fe359f,
359t
tribology, 292f, 292t, 293, 293f
Polyurethanes, 77
Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), 35t, 397, 397f,
397t, 398f
chemical structure, 9f
thermal properties, 364, 364f
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 8e9, 8f,
27e28, 400, 400f, 401f,
402f, 402t
chemical resistance, 536te587t
chemical structure, 8f
mechanical properties, 354,
354fe355f
thermal properties, 366, 366t, 367f
Popping, 301e302
Postboiling cross-hatch tape adhesion
test, 236, 236fe237f, 237t
Postboiling nail adhesion test, 236e237,
237f, 237t
Postforming coatings, 182
Powder coatings, 311
and films, 185e209
Powder dispersions, 152
Powder fluorocoating products, 194
formulation, 194e197, 196f
606 INDEXPowder particles, charging, 188
Powder pump, 185e186, 187f
Powdered fluoropolymer, 83
Primers, 130, 143
Printers, coatings, 311
Production code, 149
Profilometers, 132, 145e146, 145f
Propagation, of free radicals, 16
Protective clothing, 340e341
Pseudoplastic flow, 53, 54f
Pull-off adhesion test, 237e238
Pull-off gauges, 230
Pulmonary edema, 338t
Pumps, powder, 185e186, 187f
Pyrolysis
fumes, 337e338
reaction, 14
Pyrometers, 216
R
Radial impellers, 154
Radiation
black body, 216
exposure, 36
resistance, 67e68
Radical, 15, 27
Raw dispersions, 28, 30
Raw fluoropolymers, 1
Razor blade coatings, 327e328, 328f
Reactor deflagration, 17
Reactor tanks, 325e326, 325f
Recipes, 149e150
Regulatory agencies, food contact, 312
Release coatings, polysiloxane, 318
Remote sensing device, 218
Repro, molding powders, 341
Residual voids, 16
Resin-bonded coating, 310, 323
Resins
epoxy, 75e76, 76f
fine powder, 15
polyamideeimide, 61
Respirators, 336e337, 340e341
Rheocin, 123
Rheology, 52e58
Rollback thickness gauge, 230f
Roller coating, 180e182, 181f,
321e322, 326, 327f
Rolling contact wear, 280,
280f
Rotogravure, 180
Rotorestator, 90, 90f
Rotoviscometer, 53
Roughness, 144e146
Rust inhibiting formulations,
commercial, 141e142
S
Sagging, 193, 193f
Salt corrosion test, 259
Salt fog test, 238
Salt spray resistance, 142
Salt spray test, 238e239, 239f
Sand grit, 133
Sand mill, 86e87, 87f
Sand paper abrasion test, 257e258, 257f
Scouring pad abrasion test, 258
Scrap material, 341
Scratches, cookware, 256, 258
Scratching device, tiger paw, 256
Screens, mesh or micron size, 156
Scotch-Brite Egg Release Test, 258
Seat belt D-rings, 323, 323f
Semiconductor industry applications, 326
Shear force, 299
Shear rate, 53
Shear stability, of dispersions, 151
Shear stress, 52e53
Shear-thickening, 53
Shear-thinning, 53e54
Shelf life, 156
solvent-based coatings, 152
Shore (durometer)/Rockwell hardness,
288, 288f
Shrinkage, 193, 193f
Sieves, 156
Silanes, 120
Silica grit, 133
Silicon carbide, 100
grit, 133
Silicon dioxide, 101, 102t
grit, 133
Silk-screen coating, 183
Siltem, 73
SilverStone, 310e311
Single Package Primer, 307
Sintering, 2
“Skin depth”, 224e225
Skin over, 222, 301
Sliding wear process, 278e280
Slurry erosion tests, 289e290
Snake oils, 119
Society for Protective Coatings (SSPC),
143e144
Soda lime glass, 133
Sodium bicarbonate slurries, 132
Sodium chromate, 136
Solegel, 77e78
Solubility, 235
paint materials, 112, 113f
perfluorinated solvents, 153
Solution-diffusion and pore-flow models,
263e265, 263fe265f
Solvay, 160
Solvents
application properties, 107
classes, 83e90, 84f
cleaning, 130
composition, 111, 112f
evaporation, 302e303
molecules, 99
pops, in coatings, 299, 302
system, 107e118
Solvent-based coatings, 152
Spectragraphics, 310e311
Spin-flow coating, 177e178, 178f
Splitting, 302
Spontaneous ignition, 118
Spray booth, 336
Spray can, 171
Spray coating, 316t. See also Liquid
spray techniques
Spray dryer, key components, 44e46, 46f
Spray gun, 171, 185e186, 188, 188f
Spray sintering, 46, 46f
Spray techniques
electrostatic spray, 185
hot flocking, 191e192, 192f
Spray velocity, 171
Spraying molten metal, 136
Stability, 27, 29
Stabilizers, 125
Stack gas treatment, 38
Stain resistance, 310
Staining
of coatings, 309
cookware, 256
Stainless steel shot, 133
Static electricity, 101
Static coefficient of friction, 277
Steel grit, 133
Steel wool abrasion test (SWAT),
257e258, 257f
StefaneBoltzmann law, 216
Steric stabilization, 92, 92f
Stokes’ Law, 92e93, 124e125
Strainers, 156
Stratification, 60, 60f
control, 311
Stresses, in coatings, 302
Stylus deflection, 146
Styrene, heat of polymerization, 14
Substrate adhesion, 235
Substrate preparation, 130e139
Substrate roughness
replica tape measures, 144e145, 144f,
145t
stylus measures, 145e146, 145fe146f
visual comparator measures, 145, 145f
INDEX 607Sulfur dioxide, corrosion test, 239e240
Sulfuric anodizing, 142e143
Supercritical carbon dioxide, 27
Surface-active agent coating, 92
Surface area
calculation, 58
roughened, 131
Surface profiles, 132, 144
Surface tension, 112e113, 113f, 299
vs. surfactant concentration, 93f
Surface fatigue wear, 280
Surfactants
in aqueous dispersions, 150e151
with fluorocoatings, 125
perfluorinated carboxylic ammonium,
16e17
polymerization, 17e26
Surging powder, 191
Suspension method, 15
Suspension polymerization, 15, 17e18
T
Taber Abraser, 286e287, 286f
Taber shear/scratch tester, 288, 288f
Tallmadge Withdrawal Theory, 175
Target absorptivity factor, 222
Tedlar, 9
Tefal, 307e308
Teflon AF, 5e6, 6f
Teflon-S, 60, 309
Teflon, 1e2, 307e310
TEFLON ETFE coatings, 158
TEFLON FEP coatings, 158
Teflon NXT resins, 4
TEFLON one-coat systems, 158e159
TEFLON PFA coatings, 158
TEFLON primers, 159e160, 159t
TEFLON PTFE coatings, 158
Temperature dependence, viscosity, 110
Temperatures
maximum continuous-use, 337
measurement, optical pyrometers, 216
monitoring, 211, 215
noncontact measurement, 216e218
processing, 338
remote sensing devices, 217
vs. weight loss rates, 356, 356f
Termination, 4
of endgroups, 16
Terpolymer, 7
Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), 1
autopolymerization inhibitors, 14
deflagration, 14
heat of polymerization, 14
monomer, 13e14
polymerization, 14
Tetrafluoroethylene,
hexafluoropropylene, vinylidene
fluoride terpolymer (THV), 395,
395t
Tetrafluoromethane, 338e339
T-fal, 160
Thermal degradation, high-temperature
processing, 192
Thermal stability, 60e61, 235, 338
of polymers, 147
Thermocouples, 215e216, 215t
Thermoplastic polyimide, 67, 68f
Thermoplastics, 68, 341
Thermosets, 76
Thick films
electrostatic spray, 185
hot flocking, 191
Thick fluoropolymer coating, 191e192,
192f
Thickeners, 123e124
Thin films, 191e192
electrostatic spray, 185
Thinner, 109, 109f
Thixotropic flow, 53e54, 54f
Thixotropic loop, 53e54
Thrust washer abrasion testing, 284e285,
284fe285f
Tiger paw test, 256
Titanates, 120, 121f
tetraalkyl, 120
Toluene, 141
Toner beads, 310e311
Tools, coatings, 309
Toxic gases, 339
Toxicity, of fluoropolymers, 335
Tribocharge, 310
Tribocharging power gun, 189, 190f
Triboelectric charge, 321
Triboelectric series, 189, 189t
Tribology, 253
applications, 291e292
ASTM and ISO standard tests, 290, 290t
for cookware, 287
falling abrasive erosion test, 288e289,
289f, 290t
fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP),
294, 295f
friction. See Frictional force
linear reciprocating abrasion testing,
286, 286f
pencil hardness test, 287e288, 287f
perfluoroalkoxy (PFA), 294, 295t, 296f
pin-on-disk abrasion testing, 285e286,
285f
polyethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene
(ECTFE), 294, 294t
polyethylene tetrafluoroethylene
(ETFE), 294, 294t, 295f
polytetrafluoroethylene, 292f, 292t, 293,
293f
Shore (durometer)/Rockwell hardness,
288, 288f
slurry erosion tests, 289e290
Taber Abraser, 286e287, 286f
Taber shear/scratch tester, 288, 288f
thrust washer abrasion testing, 284e285,
284fe285f
tribometers, 283
wear
classification, 278, 279f
definition, 278
impact wear, 280
PV limit, 282e283
rolling contact wear, 280, 280f
sliding wear process, 278e280
wear factor, 281e282, 281fe282f
wear rate, 281
Triethyl amine, 141
Tumble blast, 135, 135f
Tunnel ovens, 213, 216, 221
Two-body impact wear, 280
Two-package primers, 309
Tyvek, 340e341
U
Ultem, 73e74
Ultrasonic film thickness gauge, 231,
231f
Upper explosive limit (UEF), 118
UV absorbers, 125
UV curing, 225
V
Vapor degreasing, 130
Vapor permeation cup testing, 270e272,
270t, 274f, 275f
Vapor pocket, 301
Venturi pump, 185e186
Vertical paint film, 299
Vespel, 67e68
Vespel SP-21
coefficient of friction, 278, 278f
wear factor, 281e282, 281fe282f
Vibratory box feeder, 185, 187f
Victrex, 160
View factor, 222
Vinyl chloride, heat of polymerization,
14
Virgin molding polymers, 341
Viscosity, 52e58, 109
dispersion-based products, 151
measurement, 227e229
608 INDEXpaint formulation, 93, 93f
temperature, 109e111
Viscosity cups, 228t
Viscous resistance, 92e93
Voids, closure, 16
Volatile gases, 180
Voltage blocking equipment, 175
Volume solids, 58
Volumetric film thickness measurement,
231
W
Walnut shells, 133
Waste fluoropolymer, 341
Water, 107
purified, 17
spots, 305, 305f
Water-based coatings, 150e152
Wear
classification, 278, 279f
definition, 278
impact wear, 280
PV limit, 282e283
rolling contact wear, 280, 280f
sliding wear process, 278e280
wear factor, 281e282, 281fe282f
wear rate, 281
Weathering
atmospheric pollutants, 242
factors, 240
laboratory-accelerated tests, 246e252,
247t, 248f, 248te249t, 250f, 250t,
251f
outdoor testing, 243e245, 244fe246f
photodegradation and
photooxidationeUV degradation
process, 242, 243f, 243t
physical process, 241e242
Weight solids, 58
Weilburger/Greblon Bakeware Coating
Systems, 317t
Weilburger/Greblon Cookware Coating
Systems, 315t
Weilburger/Greblon SEA Coating
Systems, 320t
Weld-nut/stud coating, 323e324, 323f
Wet abrasive blasting, 134
Wet film gauge, 233e234
Wet film thickness (WFT), 233
measurement, 234f
Wetting, 112e113, 113f
Wheel blasting, 134e135, 134fe135f
Wheel sanding, 135
White Teflon, 310
Whitford Worldwide Bakeware CoilCoating Systems, 317t
Whitford Worldwide Bakeware Small
Electric Appliances Coating
systems, 319t
Whitford Worldwide Bakeware Spray
Coating Systems, 316t
Whitford Worldwide Cookware Coating
Systems, 314t
Wien displacement, 221
Wire brushing, 135
Wrinkling, of fluorinated finishes, 304
Z
Zahn cup, 227e229, 227f
number, 227e229
Zeolite matrix, 121e122
Zinc electroplating, 142
Zinc phosphate process, 136


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