كتاب Fluoropolymers Applications in Chemical Processing Industries - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Fluoropolymers Applications in Chemical Processing Industries - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook

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كتاب Fluoropolymers Applications in Chemical Processing Industries - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Fluoropolymers Applications in Chemical Processing Industries - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook    كتاب Fluoropolymers Applications in Chemical Processing Industries - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook  Emptyالأربعاء 08 نوفمبر 2023, 10:48 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Fluoropolymers Applications in Chemical Processing Industries - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook
Sina Ebnesajjad, Ph.D.
DuPont Fluoroproducts
Wilmington, Delaware
Pradip R. Khaladkar
DuPont Engineering Technology
Wilmington, Delaware

كتاب Fluoropolymers Applications in Chemical Processing Industries - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook  F_a_i_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
1 Introduction to Fluoropolymers 1
1.1 Introduction . 1
1.2 What are Fluoropolymers? 1
1.3 Fundamental Properties of Fluoropolymers .2
1.4 Developmental History of Fluoropolymers 3
1.5 Examples of Uses of Fluoropolymers .5
References 6
2 Materials of Construction 7
2.1 Introduction .7
2.2 Historical Background 7
2.3 Definition of Polymer-based Materials 8
2.4 Comparison Between Polymer-based Materials and Metals 8
2.4.1 Position of Fluoropolymers in the Materials Spectrum 10
2.5 Applications of Polymer-based Materials for Corrosion Control 10
2.5.1 Applications of Fluoropolymers for Corrosion Control .10
References 14
3 Properties of Neat (Unfilled) and Filled Fluoropolymers .15
3.1 Introduction .15
3.2 Influence of Processing on Fluoroplastics 15
3.3 Chemical Compatibility of Fluoropolymers .15
3.3.1 Chemical Compatibility of Perfluoropolymers .15
3.3.1.1 Effect of Ozone on Fluoropolymers 16
3.3.1.2 Oxygen Compatibility of PTFE .17
3.3.2 Chemical Compatibility of Partially Fluorinated Fluoropolymers .17
3.3.3 Chemical Compatibility of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene 18
3.4 Permeation Fundamentals .18
3.4.1 Permeation Measurement and Data .20
3.5 Environmental Stress Cracking .21
3.6 Properties and Characteristics of PTFE 23
3.6.1 Introduction to Filled PTFE Compounds 23
3.6.1.1 Granular-based Compounds 23
3.6.1.2 Fine Powder-based Compounds 25
3.6.1.3 Compounding with Engineering Polymers 25
3.6.1.4 Reinforced Gasketing Material 26
3.6.1.5 Co-Coagulated Compounds .26
3.6.1.6 Fabrication of Parts from Compounds 26
3.6.1.7 Typical Properties of Filled Fluoropolymers 27
3.6.2 Mechanical Properties of PTFE 28
3.6.2.1 Deformation Under Load (Creep) and Cold Flow 35
3.6.2.2 Fatigue Properties 36
3.6.2.3 Impact Strength 36
3.6.2.4 Hardness 36
3.6.2.5 Friction .36xii CONTENTS
3.6.2.6 PV Limit 47
3.6.2.7 Abrasion and Wear 47
3.6.3 Electrical Properties of PTFE 47
3.6.4 Thermal Behavior of PTFE .47
3.6.4.1 Thermal Stability .47
3.6.4.2 Thermal Expansion 51
3.6.4.3 Thermal Conductivity and Heat Capacity .51
3.6.4.4 Heat Deflection Temperature 51
3.6.5 Irradiation Resistance of PTFE .51
3.6.6 Standard Measurement Methods for PTFE .52
3.7 Properties and Characteristics of Melt-processible Fluoroplastics 55
3.7.1 Mechanical and Dynamic Properties .55
3.7.1.1 Tensile Properties 55
3.7.1.2 Moduli 55
3.7.1.3 Deformation Under Load (Creep) .69
3.7.1.4 Poisson’s Ratio 69
3.7.1.5 Flex Fatigue Properties 69
3.7.1.6 Impact Strength 70
3.7.1.7 Hardness 82
3.7.1.8 Friction, Wear, and Abrasion .82
3.7.2 Thermal Properties of Melt-processible Fluoropolymers .86
3.7.2.1 Thermal Stability .86
3.7.2.2 Temperature-related Properties .89
3.7.2.3 Thermal Aging .89
3.7.3 Weatherability of Melt-processible Fluoroplastics .94
3.7.4 Electrical Properties of Melt-processible Fluoroplastics 96
3.7.4.1 Perfluoroalkoxy Polymers .96
3.7.4.2 FEP .98
3.7.4.3 PVDF .98
3.7.4.4 ETFE 100
3.7.4.5 ECTFE .100
3.7.5 Optical and Spectral Properties of Melt-processible Fluoroplastics 100
3.7.6 Radiation Effect on Melt-processible Fluoroplastics 100
3.7.7 Flammability of Melt-processible Fluoroplastics . 110
3.7.8 Biofilm Formation of Melt-processible Fluoroplastics . 110
References 112
4 Selecting Fluoropolymers for Corrosion Control 117
4.1 Introduction . 117
4.1.1 Corrosion of Metals . 117
4.1.2 Corrosion of Polymer Materials 117
4.1.3 Approaches to Selection 117
4.2 Economics of Selecting Fluoropolymers 118
4.3 Preparing to Determine Compatibility 118
4.4 Current Technology for Determining Compatibility 118
4.4.1 Experience . 118
4.4.2 Manufacturers’ Literature . 119
4.4.3 Testing .149
4.4.3.1 Coupon Testing 149CONTENTS xiii
4.4.3.2 Simulated Testing 150
4.4.3.3 Special Testing .154
4.4.4 Fabrication Considerations in Materials Selection .154
4.4.5 Inspection and Maintenance Aspects of Materials Selection .157
References 157
5 Manufacturing of Parts from Polytetrafluoroethylene Polymers 161
5.1 Granular Resin Processing 161
5.1.1 Resin Selection 161
5.1.2 Compression Molding .162
5.1.2.1 Equipment 162
5.1.2.2 Densification and Sintering Mechanism .163
5.1.2.3 Billet Molding 164
5.1.3 Automatic Molding 167
5.1.4 Isostatic Molding .168
5.1.4.1 Introduction to Isostatic Molding 168
5.1.4.2 Comparison of Isostatic with Other Fabrication Techniques 169
5.1.4.3 Wet- and Dry-Bag Isostatic Molding .170
5.1.5 Ram Extrusion .170
5.1.5.1 Introduction to Ram Extrusion 170
5.1.5.2 Ram Extrusion: Basic Technology 170
5.2 Fine Powder Resin Processing 174
5.2.1 Resin Handling and Storage 174
5.2.2 Paste Extrusion Fundamentals .175
5.2.3 Extrusion Aid or Lubricant 176
5.2.4 Wire Coating 176
5.2.4.1 Blending the Resin with Lubricant 176
5.2.4.2 Preforming .176
5.2.4.3 Extrusion Equipment and Process .177
5.2.5 Extrusion of Tubing .178
5.2.5.1 Spaghetti Tubing 178
5.2.6 Pressure Hoses .178
5.2.6.1 Blending Lubricant and Pigment and Preforming .183
5.2.6.2 Extrusion Process for Pressure Hoses .183
5.2.6.3 Quality Control of Pressure Hoses 183
5.2.7 Unsintered Tape .185
5.3 Fluoropolymer Dispersion Processing 185
5.3.1 Dispersion Applications 186
5.3.2 Storage and Handling of Dispersions 186
5.3.3 Dispersion Formulation and Characteristics .187
5.3.3.1 Formulation 188
5.3.4 Glass Cloth Coating by Dispersion .188
5.3.4.1 Equipment 189
5.3.4.2 Processing 189
5.3.5 Dispersion Impregnation of Flax and Polyaramide .191
5.3.5.1 Processing 191
5.3.6 Coating Metal and Hard Surfaces with Dispersion .191
References 192xiv CONTENTS
6 Manufacturing Parts from Melt-processible Fluoropolymers .193
6.1 Introduction .193
6.2 Materials of Construction .193
6.3 Rheology of Fluoropolymer Melts 193
6.3.1 Characterization of Rheology of Fluoropolymers .194
6.4 Thermal Stability of Fluoropolymers .198
6.5 Melt Extrusion .199
6.5.1 The Extruder 199
6.5.2 Film Extrusion .202
6.5.3 Sheet Extrusion 202
6.5.3.1 Production 202
6.5.4 Pipe and Tube Extrusion .202
6.5.4.1 Production 203
6.5.5 Coextrusion 203
6.5.6 Drawdown Ratio (DDR) 205
6.6 Fluoropolymer Tube Extrusion .206
6.6.1 Sizing of Tubes 206
6.6.1.1 Small Diameter Tubes .207
6.6.1.2 Medium Diameter Tubes .207
6.6.1.3 Large Diameter Tubes .208
6.6.2 Heat Shrink Tubes .208
6.7 Fluoropolymer Film Extrusion .209
6.7.1 PVDF Films .210
6.7.2 ETFE and ECTFE Films .214
6.7.3 Perfluoropolymer Films .217
6.8 Injection Molding 219
6.8.1 Injection Molding of Fluoropolymers .219
6.8.1.1 Injection Molding Equipment 219
6.8.1.2 Process Conditions and Operations .222
6.8.1.3 Dimensional Stability of Parts .225
6.9 Rotational Molding .226
6.9.1 Basic Process Technology .229
6.9.2 Rotomolding and Rotolining Processing Conditions 229
6.9.2.1 ECTFE .231
6.9.2.2 ETFE 232
6.9.2.3 PFA 232
6.9.3 Conclusion .233
6.10 Other Part Manufacturing Techniques 235
6.10.1 Compression Molding of Fluoropolymers 235
6.10.2 Transfer Molding of Fluoropolymers 237
6.10.2.1 Mold Design 237
6.10.2.2 Operation of the Mold .239
6.10.2.3 Transfer Molding Process Variables 239
6.10.3 Examples of Transfer Molded Parts 241
6.10.4 Blow Molding Fluoropolymers .244
6.11 Vacuum Bagging .248
References 250CONTENTS xv
7 Fabrication Techniques for Fluoropolymers 253
7.1 Introduction .253
7.2 Machining .253
7.2.1 Sawing and Shearing .254
7.2.2 Drilling (Tapping and Threading) .254
7.2.3 Skiving .254
7.3 Adhesive Bonding Methods 255
7.3.1 Contact Adhesives .255
7.3.2 Bonding Adhesives 255
7.3.3 Sodium Etching .256
7.3.4 Plasma Treatment 258
7.3.5 Flame Treatment 261
7.3.6 Corona Discharge (Hybrid Plasma) Treatment .262
7.4 Welding and Joining 265
7.4.1 Welding Techniques 266
7.4.2 Welding PTFE .267
7.4.3 Welding FEP 269
7.4.4 Welding PFA 269
7.4.5 Welding PVDF .271
7.4.6 Welding ETFE .273
7.5 Heat Bonding .273
7.5.1 Sheet Liners .274
7.6 Thermoforming .274
7.7 Other Processes .274
References 276
8 Design and Construction of Linings and Vessels .279
8.1 Introduction .279
8.2 Lining of Vessels .279
8.2.1 Adhesively Bonded Linings for Vessels 280
8.2.2 Rotolining 281
8.2.3 Spray and Baked Coatings .286
8.2.3.1 Powder Coating Processes .287
8.2.3.2 Liquid Dispersion Coatings .295
8.2.4 Loose Lining 295
8.2.5 Dual Laminate .296
8.3 Lining of Pipes and Fittings 299
8.4 Lined Valves .299
8.4.1 Plug Valves 301
8.4.2 Ball Valves .301
8.4.3 Butterfly Valves .301
8.4.4 Diaphragm Valves 301
8.4.5 Clamp Valves .301
8.5 Lined Hoses .301
8.6 Lined Expansion Joints .304
8.7 Lining or Coating of Internals .304
8.8 Design and Fabrication of Vessels for Lining 304
8.9 Shop Versus Field Fabrication 304xvi CONTENTS
References 309
9 Operations and Maintenance 311
9.1 Operations . 311
9.2 Maintenance . 311
9.2.1 Visual Examination . 311
9.2.1.1 Visual Inspections of Vessels 311
9.2.1.2 Visual Inspection of Piping and Fittings .312
9.2.1.3 Visual Inspection of Valves .312
9.2.1.4 Visual Inspection of Hoses 312
9.2.1.5 Visual Inspection of Expansion Joints 312
9.2.2 Nondestructive and Destructive Examination .312
9.2.3 Non-Intrusive Examination .313
9.2.4 Risk-based Inspection Strategy (RBI) .313
9.3 Repairs .314
10 Failure Analysis 315
10.1 Introduction .315
10.2 Part Failure .315
10.3 Defect Analysis .316
10.4 Application of Failure Analysis Methodology .322
10.4.1 Infrared Spectroscopy 324
10.4.2 Electron Microscopy Techniques 328
10.4.2.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 328
10.4.2.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) .328
10.4.2.3 Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopy .328
10.4.3 Mass Spectroscopy (MS) .328
10.4.4 Gas Chromatography (GC) 331
10.4.5 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) .331
10.4.6 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) .331
10.4.7 Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) .332
10.4.8 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) .339
10.4.9 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) .342
10.5 Surface Analysis .342
10.5.1 Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) 342
10.5.2 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) .345
10.6 Examples of Failure Analysis .345
10.6.1 Case 1: Failed Lined Pipe 345
10.6.2 Case 2: Failed Check Valves .345
10.6.3 Case 3: Black Spots on FEP Coating 348
10.6.4 Case 4: Braided Hose Failure 348
10.7 Physical Defects Due to Part Fabrication .350
10.7.1 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 350
10.7.2 Melt-processible Fluoropolymers 352
10.7.2.1 Injection Molding 352
10.7.2.2 Rotational and Transfer Molding 352
10.7.3 Measurement of Flaws 352
References 356CONTENTS xvii
11 Modeling and Mechanical Analysis of Fluoropolymer Components .359
J. S. Bergström and S. Brown, EXPONENT Engineering, Inc.
11.1 Introduction .359
11.2 Review of Modeling Techniques 359
11.3 Currently Available Material Models .360
11.3.1 Linear Elasticity .362
11.3.2 Hyperelasticity .362
11.3.3 Linear Viscoelasticity 363
11.3.4 Dual Network Fluoropolymer (DNF) Model 364
11.4 Failure and Deformation Predictions 368
11.4.1 Failure under Monotonic Loading .369
11.4.2 Failure under Cyclic Loading 370
11.5 Examples .371
11.5.1 Corrugated PTFE Hose 371
11.5.2 Threaded Connection Gasket 372
11.6 Summary .378
References 380
12 Cost Analysis .381
12.1 Introduction .381
12.2 Cost Analysis .381
References 384
13 Safety, Disposal, and Recycling of Fluoropolymers .385
13.1 Introduction .385
13.2 Toxicology of Fluoropolymers .385
13.3 Thermal Properties of Fluoropolymers .385
13.4 Emission During Processing .386
13.5 Safety Measures 386
13.5.1 Ventilation 386
13.5.2 Processing and Fabrication 389
13.5.2.1 Sintering .389
13.5.2.2 Paste Extrusion 389
13.5.2.3 Dispersion Coating 389
13.5.2.4 Melt Processing .389
13.5.2.5 Machining 390
13.5.2.6 Soldering and Melt Stripping 390
13.5.2.7 Welding Fluoropolymer .390
13.5.2.8 Welding and Flame-Cutting Fluoropolymer-Lined Metals .390
13.5.3 Spillage Cleanup 390
13.5.4 Equipment Cleaning and Maintenance 390
13.5.5 Protective Clothing 390
13.5.6 Personal Hygiene .390
13.5.7 Fire Hazard 390
13.5.8 Material Incompatibility 391
13.6 Food Contact and Medical Applications 391
13.7 Fluoropolymer Scrap and Recycling 391xviii CONTENTS
13.8 Environmental Protection and Disposal Methods 391
References 392
14 Future Trends 393
14.1 Introduction .393
14.2 Fluoropolymer Applications 393
14.3 Fluoropolymer Resin Manufacturing 393
14.4 Growth of Fluoropolymer Industries .393
14.5 Technological Needs of Chemical Processing Industry .394
14.5.1 Non-destructive and Non-intrusive Condition Assessment 394
14.5.2 Accelerated Testing for Compatibility .394
References 394
Appendix I: Permeation Properties of Perfluoroplastics .395
I.1 Perfluoroalkoxy Resin .395
I.1.1 Permeability to Gases .395
References 400
Appendix II: Permeation Properties of Partially Fluorinated Fluoroplastics .401
II.1 Polyvinylidene Fluoride .401
II.1.1 Permeability .401
II.1.2 Permeability To Gases .401
II.1.3 Permeability To Liquids .401
II.2 Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer 410
II.3 Ethylene Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copolymer 412
II.3.1 Permeability to Gases and Water Vapor .412
II.4 Polyvinyl Fluoride .417
II.5 Fluorinated Polyethylene .417
II.5.1 Permeability to Oxygen 417
References 420
Appendix III: Permeation of Automotive Fuels Through Fluoroplastics 421
III.1 Test Method .421
III.1.1 Fuel Types 421
References 422
Appendix IV: Permeation of Organic and Inorganic Chemicals Through
Fluoroplastic Films .423
References 426
Appendix V: Chemical Resistance of Thermoplastics .427
V.1 Chemical Resistance of Fluoropolymers 427
V.2 PDL Resistance Rating 427
Glossary .521
Trademarks 549
Index 551
Chemical Resistance Tables 429
Index
A
ABAQUS 374
Abrasion 82
mechanical 255
Abrasion resistance 25 83
data 83
testing 154
Abrasive slurries 154
Acetone 265
Acid gases exposure 94
Acids 17 214
Additives 25
Adhesion 253 266
journals 255
Adhesion bond 273
Adhesive bond
strength 258
Adhesive ring 269
Adhesiveless bonding 267
Adhesiveless joining 265
Adhesively bonded linings
success factors 281
Advanced constitutive models
advantages 361
Advanced finite element techniques 378
Aerospace 6
Aerospace applications 176
Aging stability 47
Agitators 150 304
Air gap width 263
Airports 6
Alkali metal 16
Alkalis 17
Alloy 20 7
Alternating copolymer 55
Alumina 24
Amine-resistant fluoroelastomers 393
Amines 16 18
hot 18
Amorphous phase 183
permeability 20
Amorphous plastics 271 393
Anisotropy 8 28
Annealing 167 226 254
Annular parts 163
Applications 209
automotive fuels 16
conduit 247
containers 247
dispersions 186
fine powder PTFE 176
fluoropolymer films 209
fluoropolymers 391
rotomolding 226
Arc tracking 96
Architectural fabric 6
ARDROX P135E 356
Asbestos 191
ASTM
D149 96
D256 36
D257 96
D495 96
D671 69
D758 82
D790 55
D792 351
D813 21
D1044 83
D1238 196
D1505 351
D1708 55
D2176 69 96
D2240 82
D2512 17
D2863 110
D3123 197
D3884 154
D4895 184
F739-81 21
Atlas cells 151
apparatus 150
tests 154
Atomic oxygen 16
Atoms 258
Attenuated total internal reflectance (ATIR) 325
Automotive applications 24 176 182
Automotive fuels
permeation 422
Axial pressure 272
B
Bacteria 110 187
Bacterial adhesion 110 111
Bacterial growth 187
Baffles 304
Bagley correction 197
Bakelite® 7
Balanced runners 239552 FLUOROPOLYMERS APPLICATIONS IN CHEMICAL PROCESSING INDUSTRIES
Ball valves 299
PFA-lined 345
Bare roll 263
Barrier (linings) 10
Barrier applications 118
Barrier film 248
Barrier screws 200
Basic properties 86
Beer-Lambert's law 100 214
Belleville washers 312
Bellows 168
Bending mode 340
Biaxial orientation 202
Biaxially oriented films 209
Biaxially oriented PVDF films 98
Biaxially oriented sheets 26
Billets
cracking 165
molding 162
molding equipment 162
Bimodal particle size distribution 161
Biofilm formation 110
Biofouling 111
Biopharmaceutical 1
Bioprocessing 110
Bisphenol A fumarate 7
Bladder 168
Bleeder cloth 248
Blind flange test 150
Blistering 8 16 117 311
Blisters 316
Blow molding 235 352
technology 247
Blowup ratio 211 214
Boltzmann’s superposition principle 363
Bond
failure 258
strength 255 261
Bonded sheet lining
fabrication 281
Bonding
adhesives 255
Bore hoses 301
Boron nitride
in FEP 217
Bottle blending 176
Braided hose failure 348
Braiding 178
Brake 172
Break elongation 89 350 351
Breaker plate type die 203
Breather cloth 249
Brittle fatigue crack 316
Bromine trifluoride
inertness 16
Bronze 24
Bubble process 211
Bubble-free lining 233
Bubbles 311
Burst strength 184
Butt fusion
technique 269
welding 273
Butt joint 256
Butt tensile test 258
Butt welding 271 272
Butterfly valve 299 301 312
C
Calcium tetraborate
in FEP 217
Calendaring 185
Calibration experiments 332 368
Capillary viscometer 197
Capture velocity 387
Carbon fiber 24
Carbon filled compounds 23
Carbon filled PTFE 301
Carbon steels 118
Carbon-carbon bonds (C–C) 3
Carbon-filled 23
Carbon-fluorine bonds (C–F) 3
Carbon-graphite 23
Carbonyl fluoride 48 385
Catalytic oxidation 324
Centrifugal casting 229
Ceramics 7
Chain scission effect 100
Chain stretch 369 370
Chalking 117
Char 198
Charging
automatic 167
Check ring valve 221
Chemical attack 117
Chemical bonds 324
Chemical changes 315
Chemical compatibility testing 151
Chemical degradation 117
Chemical etching 255
Chemical handling applications 7
Chemical handling processes 315
Chemical mechanisms 94
Chemical processing industry 1 7 117
Chemical resistance 5 15 28 393
fluoropolymers 119
lining technology 279INDEX 553
Chill rolls 210, 211
Chips 229
Chloralkali industry 7
Chlorendic anhydride 7
Chlorinated solvents 17
Chlorine trifluoride (ClF3)
inertness 16
Chlorosulfonated polyethylene 7
See also Hypalon®
Choker bar 202
Circuit boards
flexible 186
Clamp valve 299 301
Clamped modes 340
Clamps
tonnage 221
Cleaning
injection molding machines 225
Cleanrooms
molding 162 164
Cloth
protective 390
woven glass 186
Co-coagulation 26
Coagulated dispersion
powder 174
Coagulation 26
of dispersions 187
of PTFE particles 186
Coalescence 161 164
Coat hanger die 202 209 211
Coatings
on glass cloth 189
unfilled 192
Coefficient of friction 3 36 82 83 393
dynamic 36
static 36
Coextrusion 203 204
blow molding technology 247
sheet and film 244
Cohesion mechanism 266
Cold flow 23 26
Cold plasma 258
Cold-rolled steel 263
Colloidal emulsions 187
Color formation 198
Column internals 10
Compaction 170 176
Compatibility
with chemicals 119
Compatibility testing 149
simulated 150
Complex modulus 340
Composite parts 248
Compounding techniques 25
Compression molding 161 352
PTFE 162
sheets, blocks, and cylinders 162
stock shapes 162
Compression ratio
of extruder screws 200
Compression stress 315
Compressive loading 36
Compressive modulus 24
Conductivity of dispersions 187
Cone-and-plate viscometer 197
Contact adhesive 255 280
Continuous-use temperature
ETFE 4
Conventional configuration 263
Conveyer belts 186
Cooling 170 350
quenching 183
stack 202
Copper
stabilizers 198
Core material 244
Corner radius 231
Corners of molds 239
Corona charging 287
Corona discharge 255 262
Corona treatment 263
Corrosion 10
metals 117
pitting 117
of process surfaces 199
Corrosion control
applications 10
fluoropolymers 10
materials of construction 7
Corrosion of metals
phenomenology 8
Corrosion rates 117
Corrosion resistance 10 117 118
equipment 381
metals 193 199
molds 237
Corrosion terminology 8
Corrosive compounds 209
Corrosive degradation products 199
Corrosive environments 208
Corrosive fluoropolymers 193
Corrugated tubing 247
Cost analysis 381
Cost per molding 352
Couette viscometer 197
Coulomb stress 369
Coupons 149 154554 FLUOROPOLYMERS APPLICATIONS IN CHEMICAL PROCESSING INDUSTRIES
Cracking 8 21 117 165 311 324
critical thickness 188
Creep 23 24 26 35 55 69 215 217
reducing 82
variables 35
viscosity 166
Crevice corrosion 117
Critical shear rate 193 241
Crosslinked elastomers
behavior 363
Crosslinking 100 101
radiation effects 101
Cryogenic properties 5
Cryogenic temperatures 70
Crystalline phase
impermeability 20
Crystalline polymer
permeability 401
Crystalline structures 166
Crystallinity 15 36 55 69 166 350
and specific gravity 351
effect 55
stress cracking 21
Crystallization temperature 167
Cycle time 235
Cyclic loading
failure 370
D
Damaged systems
repairability 314
repairs 314
De-molding 167
Decision making processes 381
Decomposition
of fluoropolymers 385
products 386 389 391
rate 47
Decompression screws 200
Defect analysis
methodology 319
Defects 316
part analysis 316
Deformability
of tape 185
Deformation under load (creep) 26, 55, 69, 82
Degassing 165
Degradation 47 48 51 86
chemical 117
metals 117
products 385 386
radiation effects 101
Degradation mechanisms
underlying 311
Degradation products 198 209 214 239
of molten fluoropolymers 199
Degree of crystallinity 15 350
Degree of orientation 350
Delamination 117 221 255 311
Design 315
parts analysis 315
procedures 7
Destructive testing 312
Deviatoric flow rate
effective 367
Diaphragm gates 222
Diaphragm valves 299 301 312
Die cone angle 176
Die gap 202
Die land length 176
Die lips 202 209
Dielectric breakdown strength 23 96
Dielectric constant 5 47 96 100 210 393
ETFE 100
FEP 98
Dielectric heating 271
Dielectric loss factor 210
Dielectric strength 350
ECTFE 100
Dies
coat hanger 209
coextrusion 204
extrusion 199
extrusion head 245
for pipe production 203
multimanifold coextrusion 204
slit 202
Differential calorimetry 339
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)
183 332 345 349
Differential thermal analysis (DTA) 331 332
Diffusion
molecular size 20
nonpolar polymer 20
nonpolar species 20
permeant 20
polar chemical 20
swell 20
Diffusivity 154
Dimensional changes 51
Dimethylacetamide 18
Dimethylformamide 18
Dip tank 189
Dip tubes 304
Discoloration 8 23 117 187 311
Disk
tensile test 258
Disk joint 256INDEX 555
Dispersion coating 186 389
Dispersions 185
applications 186
discoloration 187
odor 187
processing steps 189
properties of 187
storage 186
Disposal
fluoropolymer 392
Dissipation factor 96
ETFE 100
FEP 98
Doctor blade 189
Dorno rays 214
Double bevel welding 272
Double bubble process 211
Double dielectric 263
Draw ratio
balance 205 207
Drawdown ratio 205 207 211 214
Drilling 254
Drucker-stable 363
Dry bag 170
Dry blends 290
Drying
ovens 177
DSC 183
Dual laminate
construction 296
fabrication
critical success factors 299
job sequence 296
supply chain 296
structures 7
Dual Network Fluoropolymer (DNF) model
362 368 372 374
calibration simulations 374
micromechanism-inspired approach 364
uniaxial data 378
validation simulations 378
Ductile fatigue crack 316
Dunk test 151
DuPont Company 1
Durability of insulation. See Insulation
Durameter 36
Durameter scales 82
Dust particulates 390
Dwell time 164
Dye penetration 355
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) 331 339
nomenclature 340
Dynamic mechanical analyzers 340
E
Economics
of fluoropolymers 118
ECTFE 10, 83, 89. See also Ethylene
chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE)
chemical resistance 18 119
electrical properties 100
films 100 214
increase in bond strength 262
melting point 198
properties 215
and solvents 18
tensile creep behavior 69
vs temperature 55
EHMW-FEP 235
EHMW-FEP/PTFE 237
Elastic modulus 8
Elasticity 244
Elastomers 7 8 21
Electrical applications 5
Electrical cables
tape 185
Electrical insulation material 96
Electrical properties
data 96
FEP 98
Electrochemical reaction 117
Electrode
width 263
Electron capture detection 331
Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
256, 342. See alsoESCA
equipment 344
Electronic applications 5
Electrostatic charge 290
Electrostatic spray 287
application 287
coating 286
Electrostatic wrap 286
Elongation 55
Encapsulation 274
Energized atomic fragments 255
Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) 328 349
Energy-based failure models 369
Engineering polymers 25
Environmental emission standards 393
Environmental stress cracking 21 154
Epoxy adhesive 280
ESCA 256. See Electron spectroscopy for
chemical analysis
Escape slot 239
Escherichia coli 110556 FLUOROPOLYMERS APPLICATIONS IN CHEMICAL PROCESSING INDUSTRIES
Esters 17
Etch rate 16
Etching 256
solutions 258
ETFE 2, 10, 17, 89. See also Ethylene
tetrafluoroethylene
adhesion improvement 258
break elongation 101
chemical resistance 17 119
electrical properties 100
films 214
flex modulus 55
glass-filled 83
infrared scan 100
melt viscosity 245
melting point 245
molecular structure 4
properties 215
radiation resistance 101
resins 83
stability 17
tensile moduli 55
thermal stability 198
ultrasonic welding 273
Ethylene 55
Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) 2
See also ECTFE
Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer 17 412
Ethylene propylene diene monomer 7
See also Nordel®
Ethylene propylene terpolymer 245
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene 17 410
See also ETFE
melt viscosity 194
Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer 245
Evaluation methods 394
Exhaust air 387
Exotic metal alloys 5 118
Expandability of tubing 208
Expander 245
Expansion joints 10 304 312
lining 150
Exposure
aging 47
climatic elements 47
hazards 389
limits 386
radiation 52
thermal 47
vacuum 48
weathering 47
Extended mandrel technique 206 208
Extensiometry 267
Extensometer 184
Extinction coefficient 100 324
Extrudate 199
Extruded sheet 202
Extruder 170 177 199
screws 200 210
systems 200
Extrusion 193 352
aids 174
blowing 202
casting 202
pressure 175 200
of PVDF films 210
speed 176
Extrusion conditions
ETFE and ECTFE 214
FEP 217
polyethylene 217
Extrusion head 245
Extrusion temperatures
FEP 217
PFA 217
PVDF/PMMA 214
Extrusion varibles 176
Extrusion welding 272
F
Fabrication decision tree 157
Fabrics 185
architectural 6
polyaramide 186
Failure 8
of parts 315
predict 368
root cause(s) 315
safety, environmental, and financial 359
Failure analysis
examples 345
Failure models
damage-based 370 371
develop for predictions 368
Faraday Cage effect 286
Fatigue 316
Feed block coextrusion 204
FEP 2 10 55 89 100 25 295
See also Fluorinated ethylene propylene
black spots 348
break elongation 101
chemical resistance 119
corona discharge treatment 263 264
dissipation factor 96
extra-high molecular weight 235 237
fillers 83INDEX 557
film adhesion 264
molecular structure 2
shrink tubing 208
thermal stability 342
treated 264
Fiber additives 7
Fibrillation 25 174
of fine powder particles 175
Fibrils 174
Fick’s law
mass transfer 18
Field application and cost
lining technology 279
Field fabrication 304
Field testing
for compatibility 149
Filaments
extrusion 199
Filled compounds 23
Filled PTFE 25
Fillers 25 83
characteristics 82
material 23
Film coextrusion 244
Film extrusion 202
PFA 217
Film formation techniques 210
Film thickness 100
Film/web speed 263
Films 202
perfluoropolymer 217
preparation 162
PVDF 210
release sheets 209
Filter bags 185
Fine cut resins 161
Fine powder 25
applications 176
processing 175
PTFE 25 174
Finishes
PTFE 185
Finite element analysis 359
Finite element packages 363
Finite element simulations
constitutive model 368
Flame ionization detector (FID) 331
Flame resistant 110
Flame test
vertical 110
Flame treatment 255 261
Flammability 17
Flange flares 312
Flanges 26
Flare 312
Flaws 352
physical 18
Flax 191
Flex life 36 69 96
PTFE 36
Flex modulus 55
Flexibility 70
Flexibility characteristics 36
Flexural characteristics 69
Flexural creep behavior 69
Flight depth 200
Flow fusion technique 295
Flow rate 241
Fluidization
finer particle-size coatings 290
purposes 287
Fluorescent dyes 356
Fluorinated ethylene propylene 2. See also FEP
melt viscosity 194
molecular structure 2
Fluorinated polyethylene 417
Fluorinated polymers 10 393
Fluorinated polyolefins 16
Fluorine 16
content 17
in fluoropolymers 385
sheath 3
Fluorine peak 349
Fluorine-to-carbon ratio (F/C) 262
Fluoroacrylate 1
Fluoroalkenes 385
Fluoroelastomers 7 8
Fluoroplastics 3 82
failure analysis 322
hardness 82
limitation of 315
partially fluorinated 209
tensile properties 55
variety of parts 316
Fluoropolymers 1 8 10 17 21
additives 290
behavior 361
bond 266
bond values 256
discovery of 1
disposal of 392
examination 311
fillers 290
films 209
finishes 185
handling and processing 385
history 3558 FLUOROPOLYMERS APPLICATIONS IN CHEMICAL PROCESSING INDUSTRIES
lining 8
mechanical analysis 371
melt viscosity 194
melt-processible 253 269
melt-processible films 273
modeling 359
moduli 55
nonlinear response 360
outdoor exposure 94
pigments 290
powder coatings 290
stabilizers 290
structure-rheology-fabrication 10
tanks 232
visual examination 394
water-based suspensions 295
welding 265
world consumption 393
Fluorosilicone 1
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 6
Food contact 391
Food processing applications 6
Forces
hydrogen bonding 20
van der Waals 20
Fouling of surfaces 111
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) 325
liner sample analysis 348
Fracture mechanics-based models 369
Free extrusion techniques 207
Free flow resins 161
Free radicals 258
Friction 3 24
welding 271
Frobenius norm 367
Fuel transport 182
Fully fluorinated polymers 10
Fume fever 386
Furans 7
G
Gamma rays 52
Gas chromatography (GC) 86 331
permeation analysis 21
Gas flame 261
Gaskets 10 26 150 151 185
compatibility testing 152
Gates
design 222 239
location 222 239
Geometry 359 368
Glass cloth 188
coating 189
Glass fibers 23 83 186
Glass transition 89
temperature 339
Glow discharge 16 261
Glycidyl compounds 244
Grain attack 8
Granular
filled 23
Granular powders 23
Granular PTFE
properties 27
Granular resins 161
Graphite 24
Grinding compounds 254
Grooved mandrel 254
H
Hagen-Poiseuille equation 197
Halogenated solvents 16
Hardness 24 82
radiation effects 101
Health hazards 386
Heat bonding 273 274
Heat flux DSC 332
Heat of fusion (Hf0) 86 183 332 350
Heat sealing 271
Heat shrink 215
tubing 208
Heat transfer consideration
lining technology 279
Heated console ovens 177
Heated tool (hot plate)
welding techniques 266
Heating and cooling cycles 235
Heating rate 166
Heaviside step function 363
Helium leak test 152
High density polyethylene 245
High energy radiation 100 254
High nickel alloys 118
High temperature limit 117
High temperature resins 393
Hollow objects
fabrication 226
Homogeneity 8
Hoods
ventilation 387
Hopper 287
Hoses 10
inspection 312
lining 150
Hot air gun 272
Hot air welding 271INDEX 559
Hot flocking 287 289
Hot gas method 269
Hot gas welding 281
hand 295
PFA 269
techniques 266
Hot runner systems 222
Hot stamping 274
Hot tool welding
device 267
Hourglassing 164
Houseware applications 6
Hydraulic transfer applications 182
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) 214
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) 193 198 199 214
239 345 390
Hydrogen bonding forces 20
Hydrolytic stability 89
Hydrophones 98
Hydrostatic molding 168
Hydrostatic stress 369 370
Hydrostatic test 281
Hyperelasticity 361 362
I
Ignition 17
Imines 16
Impact fracture 316
Impact strength 36 55 70
Izod 36
Impact tester 17
Imperial Chemical Industries 1
Impregnation 186
asbestos 191
Induction welding 273
Industrial applications 176
Infrared absorption spectrum 100 324
Infrared spectrometers 325 342
Infrared spectroscopy (IR) 86 324 356
Infrared welding 266
machine 273
mechanical testing 273
Inherent specific gravity 351
Injection molding 10 352
cleaning of machines 225
defects 352
machines 193 219
process 219 224
Injection pressures 224
Injection speed 224
Ink printing 274
Inorganic chemicals
permeation 426
Insoluble fraction
PVDF 101
Inspection
mean time between (MTBI) 117
Insulation 390
Intergranular attack 8
Intergranular corrosion 117
Internals 150
Iodine pentafluoride
inertness 16
Ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) 342
Ionic contamination 245
Ionic strength
of dispersions 187
ISO test methods 154
Isoparaffinic hydrocarbons 176
Isostatic molding 10 168 169
J
Jacketed vessels 151
Jar blending 176
Joining 266
K
Kalrez® 7
Ketones 17
Kevlar® 182
Klebsiella aerogenes 110
L
Lap shear 256
bond strength 256
test configuration 258
Lapping compounds 254
Laser micro-mass analysis method 331
Lathe 162
Leak testing 152
Life cycle cost 117
Light transmission
comparison 100
through films/sheets 214
Limiting oxygen index (LOI) 17 110
Limulus amoebocyte lysate 110
Linear elastic fracture mechanics 369
Linear elasticity 361 362
Linear viscoelasticity 361 363
experimental data 364
Lined fitting 299
Lined hoses 301
Lined piping 299
Lining applications 10560 FLUOROPOLYMERS APPLICATIONS IN CHEMICAL PROCESSING INDUSTRIES
Linings 7 10 150
compatibility testing 150
fabrication 279
infrared spectra 345
spray and baked 157
systems costs 381
technology 279
Liquid coatings 185
Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) 247 248
Liquid dispersion coatings 286 295
Liquid oxygen (LOX) 18
contact surface condition 17
Loading conditions 359 368
Loose lining
critical success factors 295
Loss factor measurements 211
Loudspeakers 98
Low earth-orbit environment 16
Low-temperature fluoroelastomers 393
Lubricants 176 389
M
Machining 253
high speed 390
Macroscopic flaws 352
Maintenance items 314
Major axis 229
Mandrels 163 176
extended 206
Manhattan Project 1
Manufacturing
processes 219
technologies 7
Mass spectrometry 331
Mass spectroscopy (MS) 86 328
permeation analysis 21
Mass spectrum 331
Mass transfer
Fick's law 18
Master curve 340
Matched-die forming 274
Materials
behavior 359
of construction 7
impregnation 186
lining technology 279
safety data sheets 390
selection 117
Maximum principal strain 369
Maximum principal stress 369
Measuring
corrosion rates 117
permeation rate 21
Mechanical
analysis 359
compatibility tests 149
failures 315
properties 55 117
strength 8
Medical applications 6 391
Melt creep viscosity 166
Melt extraction screws 200
Melt flow index (MFI) 193
Melt flow rate (MFR) 55, 86, 193, 196, 324
PFA 233
Melt fracture 193
symptoms of 193
Melt pots 241
Melt preparation
for extrusion 199
Melt processes 389
Melt processible PTFE 3
Melt-processing methods 352
Melt stagnation 221
Melt temperatures 224
Melt viscosity 193 194 266
PVDF films 211
Melting point
ECTFE 198
PFA 217
PTFE 178
Metals 7
corrosion 117
hydrides 16
n-Methylpyrrolidone 18
MFA 100
electrical properties 96
MFA (perfluoroalkoxy) (perfluoromethyl
vinyl ether) 10
Mica particles 24
Micromachining 254
Microorganisms 110
films 110
Microphones 98
Microporosity 350
measuring 356
visually detected 355
Microscopic flaws 352
Microtensile bar specimen
quality 267
Microvoids 350 351 355
Microwaves 394
Minor axis 229
Mises stress 369
MIT flex life 96
Mixing elements 200INDEX 561
Modeling of materials 359 360
Modified PTFE 36 393
Modifiers 69
Modulus 8 55
Modulus of elasticity 244 339
Moisture weatherability 94
Moldability
index 198
tests 197
Molding 167
areas 162
injection 219
isostatic 168
machines 219
pressure 164
PVDF 198
rotational 226
techniques 161
wet- and dry-bag 170
Molds
cavities 222
cooling 241
corrosion resistant 237
design 163 222 239
filling 194 196 229
nickel 237
operations 239
temperature 225
venting 239
Molecular weight (MW) 349
Molybdenum disulfide 24
Monoaxially oriented films 209
Monomethylhydrazine 18
Monotonic loading 370
predicting failure 369
Motion sensors 98
Multicoat applications 295
Multilayer coextrusion 244 245
Multimanifold coextrusion 204
Multimodal particle size distribution 161
N
Naphtha 176
Nelder-Mead simplex minimization algorithm 368
Neoprene 7. See alsoPolychloroprene
adhesive 280
Newtonian fluid 197
Nitric acid 16
Nitrogen tetroxide 18
Non-intrusive examination 313
Non-resonance technique 339
Non-stick surfaces 192
Nondestructive testing methods 312
Nonoxidizing 24
Nonrigid polymers 8
Nozzle 219
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 331
Nucleating agents 217
Nylon 7
O
Odor of dispersion 187
Ogden model
strain energy density 363
Operating costs
limit designer's choice 381
Operational safety 258
Operations of piping 311
Operations of tanks 311
Operations of vessels 311
Optical microscopy (OM) 319 348
Organic chemicals
permeation 426
Organic chemistry 8 342
Organic solvents 17
Orientation 350
after sintering 184
Orientation Index 183 184
Oriented films 209 210 211
heat shrinkable 215
Oriented tape 185
OSHA 386
Outgassing 48
Oven temperature 244
Ovens 177
Oversintered 183
Overspray 286
Oxidation products 385
Oxidizers 17
Oxygen difluoride (OF2)
inertness 16
Oxygen exposure 94
Oxygen uptake 16
Ozone 16 391
reactive substance 16
resistance of polymers 16
P
Packings 150 185
pump 186
valve 186
Parison
programming 245
thickness 245
weight control 245562 FLUOROPOLYMERS APPLICATIONS IN CHEMICAL PROCESSING INDUSTRIES
Part failures
analysis 315
categories 316
outcome 316
reasons 315
Part geometry 287
Part manufacturing flaws 315
Partially fluorinated 2 10
Particle morphology
ease of fluidization 290
Particle shape
ease of fluidization 290
Particle size distribution 161
Particulate additives 7
Particulates 386
Paste extrusion 174 389
PCTFE 2 18 255
See also Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
molecular structure 2
Peel strength 231 258
Peel-pull test 151
Peeling 255
Peening 221
Pelletized resins 161
Pendulum Technique 269
Perfluorinated fluoroplastics 69
Perfluorinated fluoropolymers 48 101
Perfluorinated polymers 2
Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) 2, 55, 339. See also PFA
melt viscosity 194
thermal properties 89
Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ether 55
Perfluoroammoniumoctanoate 186
Perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) 48
Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE) 55
Perfluoroplastics
adhesion treatment 262
Perfluoropolymers 1 86
chemical resistance 15 16
films 217
Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether (PPVE) 348
See also PPVE
Permeability 401
to gases 401 412
to liquids 401
to oxygen 417
to water vapor 412
Permeation 15 18 154
of gases 395
molecular structure 20
rates 20 21 117
testing 154
variables 21
Personal protective equipment 389
PFA 55 100 255 269 271
See also Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA)
break elongation 89 101
chemical resistance 119
critical success factors 295
molecular structure 2
rotomolding 232
tensile strength 89
typical fillers 295
wear data 82
PFA (perfluoroalkoxy) (perfluoropropyl
vinyl ether) 10
PFA-lined ball valves 345
Pharmaceutical 1
Phenol formaldehyde 7
Phosphorous acids 198
Photodegradation 94
Physical changes 315
key variables 316
Physics 342
Pickup heads 98
Piezoelectric films
properties 98
Piezoelectricity 98
Pigments 290
Pinholes 151
Pinpoint gates 222
Pipe extrusion 203
Pipes
sealing tape 185
Piping 10 312
costs 381
lining 150
operations of 311
Pitting 117
Plasma 258
Plasma etching 16
Plasma treatment 255 258
Plastic materials 381
Plastication 219 221
screws 219 241
Plastics
extrusion 199
Plastics and elastomers
physical and mechanical properties 8
Plate-like parts
molding 235
Plate-plate viscometer 197
Plenums 5
Plug flow 210
Plug valves 299 301
Plunkett, Roy 1
Pneumatic test 281INDEX 563
Poisson’s ratio 35 69 362 368
Poker chipping 170
Polar solvents 18
Pollutants exposure 94
Polyamide-imide 25
Polyamides 83
Polyaramid yarns 182
Polyaramide 191
fibers 186
Polyarylates 25
Polyarylene plastics 25
Polycarbonates 83
Polychloroprene 7, 8. See alsoNeoprene
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) 2 18
See also PCTFE
Polyester resins
initiatives in development 7
Polyetherketone (PEK) 25
Polyethylene
extrusion conditions 217
high density 245
Polyethylene terphthalate (PET) 247
Polyethylene-vinyl acetate 245
Polymer-based materials
phenomenology of applications 7
Polymer components
failure 368
Polymer materials 10
Polymer system
description 8
Polymer/chemical interaction 117
Polymeric components
failure 369
Polymeric materials 7
Polymers 8
fatigue and failure behavior 371
fume fever 386
refractive index 100
yield strength 101
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) 210
Polynomial model
strain energy density 363
Polyolefins
stress cracking 21
Polyphenylene sulfide 25
Polyphenylene sulfone 25
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 1 7 17
253 254 267 320 339 349
See alsoPTFE; Teflon®
applications 5
coefficient of expansion 51
coefficient of friction 36
design of parts 35
dispersions 186
electrical stability 47
fabrication conditions 350
fillers 36 51
heat deflection temperature 51
modified 267
molecular weight 349
paste extruded 356
properties 5
steam 356
test methods 52
thermoformed 274
transition temperature 51
unsintered 185
vacuum 48
void content 356
wear properties 47
Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) 17, 98, 417. See alsoPVF
molecular structure 2
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) 17 98 320 401
See also PVDF
melt viscosity 194
piezoelectric film 98
sheet 202
welded 271
Powder coatings 185
additives 290
advantages and limits 286
fillers 290
material 287
pigments 290
stabilizers 290
Powder metallurgy technique 299
Powders 23
metal processing 168
voltage 287
Power compensation 332
PPVE 348. See alsoPerfluoropropyl vinyl ether
(PPVE)
Precision molded parts 225
Preforming 164 350
and sintering 163
pressure 164
Preforms 176
snap back 163
Presses
molding 163
Pressure 266
compaction 177
decay 169
forming 274
hoses 182 183
molding 168564 FLUOROPOLYMERS APPLICATIONS IN CHEMICAL PROCESSING INDUSTRIES
Pressure and velocity 83
Pressure-velocity 24
Pretension 340
Processing
baking 189
calendaring 189
drying 189
Profile
extrusion 199
Protective clothing 185 390
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 110
PTFE 10 253 255
See also Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
auto-ignition 17
bearers 235
chain stability 17
chemical resistance 119
coatings and fibers 186
corona discharge treatment 263
decomposition rates 48
degradation 48
deviatoric and volumetric flow 374
dielectric strength 47
dimensions 253
dispersions 23 187
enthalpy 51
experimental data 364
fabrication 174
finishes 185
gasket 372
granular 161
hardness 36
high bulk modulus 367
limiting oxygen index 17
melting point 178
molecular structure 1
perfluorinated 256
Poisson’s ration 35
processing 299
radiation stability 52
reinforced fine powder 26
resins 36
self ignition temperature 391
sintering temperatures 23
specific gravity 162
specific heat 51
stress-strain behavior 35
stress-strain curves 269
surface modification 261
surface treatment 256
Teflon® AF 4
thermal conductivity 267
transition point 174
transition temperature 175
voids 164
weld line 269
Pulmonary edema 386
Pumps 10
lining 150
packing 186
Purity testing 151
PV (pressure × velocity) 83
convention 47
limits 47 82
PVDF 10 17 89 271 295
See also Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)
break elongation 101
chemical resistance 17 119
films 100 210 211
molecular structure 2
orientation 211
parts 272
piezoelectric 99
thermal stability 198
PVF 17 98 101
See also Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF)
increase in bond strength 262
Pyroelectricity 98
Q
Q-Panel Co 96
Quad-screw extruder 200
Quenching 170
QUV Weather-o-meter 96
R
Radiation
chain scission effect 100
stability 101
Radiation exposure 52
Radiation resistance 101
Ram extruder 170 172 177 199
Ram extrusion 10
Ram speeds 164 221
Rate of degradation 86
Reactors 10
Recycling fluoropolymers 391
Reduction ratio 174 176
Refractive index 100
Refrigerants 1
Reinforced material 26
Relaxation moduli 364
Relaxation of stresses 164
Release agent 248
Release film 248
Research and development 394
Residence time 210INDEX 565
Residual stresses 164
Resin converters 7
Resin type 176
Resins 86
compression 176
flow 161
removal 253
selection 161
Resistivity
volume 96
Restrictor bar 202
Retention time 331
Rheology 193
melt 196
Rigid polymers 8
Ring gates 222
Rings 167
Risk-based inspection (RBI) 311 313
Rod welding 271
Roll cooling stack 202
Roll temperatures 202
Roofing 6
Room Temperature Tightness Test (ROTT) 152
Root cause analysis 316
Rotary extruders 199
Rotation ratio 229
Rotational casting 226
Rotational lining 281
Rotational molding 352
Rotational speed 272
Rotational viscometers 197
Rotolinings 157 229 281
critical success factors 284
Rotomolding 226 229 352
ROTT data 152
Rubber
vulcanization properties 7
Runners
design 222
and gates 222
shape and size 237
Rupture disks 389
S
Sampling depth 345
Sawing 254
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 319 328
analysis 348
Scrap material 391
Screenpack 202
Screws 219
extruders 200 210
extrusion 200
plastication 219
plastification 241
types 200
Seals 10 26 150 151 167
Seals and gaskets
compatibility testing 151
Seamless hollow plastic products 229
Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS)
342 345
Selection of resins 161
Self-supporting structures 10
Semicrystalline
plastics 208
polymers 89
Semirigid polymers 8
Settling of dispersions 187
Shark-skinning 193 217
Shear damage 174
Shear rates 193 197 241
critical 193
PFA 217
Shear thinning 197
Shearing 254
Sheet 202
coextrusion 244
extruded 202
extrusion 199
grades 202
preparation 162
surface texture 202
Sheeting 26
Shock absorbers 24
Shrink tubing 208
Shrinkage 163 217
during molding 225
oriented films 215
preform 164
Silicones
stress cracking 18
Single-screw extruders 200
Single-screw extrusion 214
Sink marks 224
Sintered PTFE 271
See also PTFE: sintering temperatures
Sintering 27 164 170 267 350
cycle profiles 166
incomplete 328
ovens 163
temperatures 23
See also PTFE: sintering temperatures
Sizing
agents 188
sleeve method 206566 FLUOROPOLYMERS APPLICATIONS IN CHEMICAL PROCESSING INDUSTRIES
tank 203
of tubes 206
Sizing-plate method 206
Skiving 254
Skiving blades 162
Slider 239
Sliding speed 36
Slipstick behavior 36
Slurry abrasion 154
Small punch tests 374 378
Smear head 221
Soak time 269
Socket welding 271 272
Sodium 255
Sodium etching 258
effect 256
Sodium naphthalenide treatment 258
Solubility parameter 154
Solvents
bonding 271
Spacers 167
Spaghetti tubing 178
Spark test 151 177 281 311
Specific gravity 350 356
Specific wear rate 82
Spherulite size 214
Spider type die 203
Spin-casting 229
Spin welding 272
ETFE 273
See also ETFE technique 269
Spiral mandrels
die 203
Spray and baked coatings 286
Spray coating 286
Sprue 219
bushing 237
removal 221
Sprueless systems 222
Square pitch screw 200
Stability of dispersions 187
Stabilizers 290
copper 198
Stadium 6 186
Stainless steels 7 118
Standard specific gravity (SSG) 23
Staphylococcus aureus 110
Staphylococcus epidermidis 110
Static charge 182
Static discharge 301
Steel powder 24
Stochastic failure modeling 369
Stock shapes
compression molding 162
Storage
of dispersions 187
Storage vessels 10
Strain-based failure models 369
Strain energy density 362
Streak formation 221
Strength classifications 8
Stress 167
Stress cracking 21
corrosion 117
environmental 21
Stress relaxation 36 69
modulus 363
Stress-based failure models 369
Stress-strain 55
compressive 55
Stresses
residual 21
Stretch ratio 210 215
Stretch Void Index 183
Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) 245
Styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene (SEBS) 245
Sunlight weatherability 94
Supply chains 10
Surface analysis techniques 319
Surface attack 311
Surface energy 3 393
Surface finish
of molded parts 224
Surface modification
journals 255
Surface resistivity 96
Surface roughness 229
Surface science 342
Surface texture 202
Surfactants 186 188
Suter tester 264
Swelling 117
T
T-fittings 244
Tabor abrader test 154
Tabor Test procedure 83
Tanks 232
operations of 311
Tape 255
oriented 185
unsintered 185
Teflon®. SeePTFE
Temperature 176
extrusion 210
roll 202
transfer molding 241INDEX 567
Tensile strength 35 55 350 351
Tensile stress 315
tests 272
Tensile stress-strain 55
Tension and compression
true stress 360
Tentering 211
Testing
compatibility 149
simulated 150
Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) 48, 55.See also TFE
copolymers 35
molecular structure 1
Tetrafluoromethane 385
TFE 1, 48. See alsoTetrafluoroethylene (TFE)
Thermal aging 89
Thermal analysis 331
Thermal conductivity 51 253
detectors 331
PTFE 163
Thermal cycling
stress-crack 356
Thermal degradation 51 101 194 350 389
Thermal diffusivity 194
Thermal exposure 47 48
Thermal imaging analysis 394
Thermal processing 8
Thermal stability 5 86 385
ETFE 198
Thermal stabilizers
ECTFE 198
Thermoforming 10 208
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) 86 331 342
techniques 48
Thermoplastics 8 235 360 391
extrusion 199
low-end 7
molding 235
Thermosets 8
Thermosetting materials 7
Thermotropic liquid crystal 248
Thin walled articles 247
Threaded connection gasket 372
Threads
sealing tape 185
Tie layers 244 245
Tightness parameter 152
Time of Flight (TOF) SIMS 345
Time-dependent deformation 339
Time-temperature superimposition 340
Tin powder 233
Tool wear 253
Torsion 340
Torsional damping 356
Toxic gases 391
Toxicity
of fluoropolymers 385
Transducers 98
Transfer molding 237 239 241 352
melt-pot 241
Transfer pressures 241
Transfer rate 241
Transition temperature 51
Transmission 100
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) 328
Transmittance spectra 100
Trapezoid runners 237
Tresca stress 369
Tribocharging 287
Triboelectric series 287
Tubes
extrusions 206
large diameter 208
medium 207
size 206
small 207
Tubing 206 247
categories 178
pressure hoses 178
shrink 208
Tubular
extrusion 211
film 214
oven 177
Tunnel gating 222
Twin-screw extruders 200
Two-stage screws 200
Types of degradation 311
U
U.S. Food and Drug Administration 391
UHMWPE 370
Ultimate elongation 55
Ultra-purity water
systems 111
Ultrasonic welding 266 271 272
Ultrasonics 356
Ultraviolet rays 6
US Bronze 24
V
V-cone blenders 176
Vacuum
bagging 248 249
exposure 48
forming 274
sizing tank 203568 FLUOROPOLYMERS APPLICATIONS IN CHEMICAL PROCESSING INDUSTRIES
stress 315
trough 206
Valve diaphragms 36
Valve packing 186
Valve seats 167
Valves 10 221 299 312
lining 150
Vapor phase chemical 264
Velocity
critical 193
Vent
design 239
Vented screws 200
Ventilation 386
Venting
mold 239
Vertical extrusion 183
Vessel internals
agitators, baffles, and tip tubes 304
Vessel linings 314
design guidelines 304
inspected 312
Vessel size
lining technology 279
Vessels
costs 381
lining 150 151
lining options 279
operations of 311
Vibratory box feeder 287
Vinyl esters 7
Viscometers 197
cone-and-plate 197
Viscosity 194
measurement 197
melt 196
Visible light transmission 100
Visual inspection 319
Viton® 7
Voids 36 183
formation 241
Volatile organic content (VOC) 286
Voltage 263
Volume resistivity 96
Volumetric strain 369 370
Vulcanized rubber 7
W
Waste disposal 258
Waste fluoropolymer 391
Water
contact angle 256
vapor permeation 21
Water pumps 24
Waterproof fabrics 185
Wear 23 24
data 82
factor 82
rate 82
rate and abrasion 83
Wear index 83
Weather-o-meters 94
Weatherability 94
Weathering 47
data 96
resistance 96
Weatherproof fabrics 185
Weep test 184
Weld
high quality 271
joint 266
lines 203 224
penetration 272
strength 272
Weld factor (WF) 266 272 320
Weld initiation time (WIT) 272
Welding 10 265 267 390
double bevel 271
equipment 269
FEP 269. See also FEP
methods 266
PTFE 267. See also PTFE: weld line
techniques 266
technology 267
Wet bag 170
Wire 185
insulation 176
Wrapping electrical cables 185
X
X-ray diffraction 356
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) 256 342
Y
Yield deformation 35
Young’s modulus 362 368


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