كتاب Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction - Second edition
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction - Second edition

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction - Second edition    كتاب Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction - Second edition  Emptyالأربعاء 08 نوفمبر 2023, 10:31 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction
Second edition
Phil Hughes MBE MSc, FCIOSH, RSP, Chairman NEBOSH 1995–2001
Ed Ferrett PhD, BSc, (Hons Eng), CEng, MIMechE, MlEE,
MI0SH, Deputy Chairman NEBOSH

كتاب Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction - Second edition  T_o_m_17
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
PREFACE xiii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xv
ABOUT THE AUTHORS xvi
LIST OF PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS xvii
ILLUSTRATIONS CREDITS xix
1 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOUNDATIONS 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Some basic definitions 2
1.3 The legal framework for health and safety 3
1.4 The legal system in England and Wales 4
1.5 The legal system in Scotland 5
1.6 European Courts 5
1.7 Sources of law (England and Wales) 6
1.8 Common law torts and duties 7
1.9 Levels of statutory duty 7
1.10 The influence of the European Union (EU) on health and safety 8
1.11 The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 10
1.12 The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 13
1.13 The main legal instruments relating to construction work 13
1.14 Role and function of external agencies 14
1.15 The scope and definition of construction 15
1.16 The health and safety problem in the construction industry 15
1.17 Moral, legal and financial arguments for health and safety management 16
1.18 The framework for health and safety management 19
1.19 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 1 21
2 POLICY 23
2.1 Introduction 23
2.2 Legal requirements 23
2.3 Key elements of a health and safety policy 24
2.4 Review of health and safety policy 25
2.5 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 2 27
Appendix 2.1 – Health and Safety Policy checklist 27
v3 ORGANIZING FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY 31
3.1 Introduction 31
3.2 Control 32
3.3 Employers’ responsibilities 32
3.4 Employees’ responsibilities 32
3.5 Organizational health and safety responsibilities 33
3.6 Role and functions of health and safety and other advisers 34
3.7 Persons in control of premises 35
3.8 Self-employed 36
3.9 The supply chain 36
3.10 Contractors 38
3.11 Joint occupation of premises 44
3.12 Cooperation with the workforce 45
3.13 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 3 46
Appendix 3.1 – Typical organizational responsibilities 47
Appendix 3.2 – Checklist for supply chain health and safety management 49
4 PROMOTING A POSITIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY CULTURE 51
4.1 Introduction 51
4.2 Definition of a health and safety culture 51
4.3 Safety culture and safety performance 52
4.4 Human factors and their influence on safety performance 53
4.5 Human errors and violations 57
4.6 The development of a positive health and safety culture 60
4.7 Effective communication 61
4.8 Health and safety training 62
4.9 Internal influences 64
4.10 External influences 65
4.11 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 4 67
5 RISK ASSESSMENT 69
5.1 Introduction 69
5.2 Legal aspects of risk assessment 69
5.3 Forms of risk assessment 70
5.4 Some definitions 70
5.5 The objectives of risk assessment 72
5.6 Accident categories 72
5.7 Health risks 72
5.8 The management of risk assessment 72
5.9 The risk assessment process 73
5.10 Risk control measures 74
5.11 Hierarchy of risk control 75
5.12 Prioritization of risk control 75
5.13 Record of risk assessment findings 75
5.14 Monitoring and review 75
5.15 Special cases 76
5.16 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 5 77
Appendix 5.1 – Hazard checklist 78
Appendix 5.2 – Example of a risk assessment record 79
6 PRINCIPLES OF CONTROL 81
6.1 Introduction 81
6.2 Principles of prevention 81
6.3 Hierarchy of risk control 82
Contents
vi6.4 Controlling health risks 85
6.5 Safe systems of work 87
6.6 Lone workers 90
6.7 Permits to work 90
6.8 Emergency procedures 94
6.9 First aid at work 95
6.10 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 6 98
Appendix 6.1 – Fire notice 99
Appendix 6.2 – Job safety analysis form 100
Appendix 6.3 – Example of a safety method statement form 101
Appendix 6.4 – Essential elements of a permit-to-work form 102
7 GENERAL SITE ISSUES – HAZARDS AND CONTROL 103
7.1 Introduction 103
7.2 General hazards and controls 104
7.3 Initial site assessment 106
7.4 Site controls 107
7.5 Provision of welfare facilities 110
7.6 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 7 111
Appendix 7.1 – A typical set of site rules 112
8 WORKING AT HEIGHT – HAZARDS AND CONTROL 115
8.1 Introduction 115
8.2 The Work at Height Regulations 2004 (WAHR) 115
8.3 Construction hazards and controls from working at height 117
8.4 Working above ground or where there is a risk of falling 121
8.5 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 8 135
Appendix 8.1 – Inspection report form 137
Appendix 8.2 – Checklist of typical scaffolding faults 139
Appendix 8.3 – A checklist for a safety inspection of scaffold 139
Appendix 8.4 – Examples of safe systems of work used in roof work 140
9 EXCAVATION WORK AND CONFINED SPACES – HAZARDS
AND CONTROL 141
9.1 Introduction 141
9.2 Excavations – hazards and control 141
9.3 Confined spaces 150
9.4 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 9 154
Appendix 9.1 – Inspection report for excavation 155
Appendix 9.2 – An example of safe digging practice 157
Appendix 9.3 – Typical excavation work risk assessment 158
Appendix 9.4 – Typical confined spaces risk assessment 159
10 DEMOLITION – HAZARDS AND CONTROL 161
10.1 Introduction 161
10.2 Principal hazards of demolition work 162
10.3 Pre-demolition investigation and survey 162
10.4 Demolition method statement 163
10.5 Management of the demolition and general controls 165
10.6 Specific issues 166
10.7 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 10 168
Appendix 10.1 – Checklist for a safe system of work 169
Contents
vii11 MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE AND VEHICLES – HAZARDS
AND CONTROL 171
11.1 Introduction 171
11.2 Hazards to pedestrians 171
11.3 Control strategies for pedestrian hazards 173
11.4 Hazards to the general public and the associated controls in
construction activities, including street works 176
11.5 Hazards in vehicle operations 178
11.6 Control strategies for safe vehicle operations 179
11.7 The management of vehicle movements 180
11.8 Hazards and controls of vehicles on construction sites 181
11.9 Managing occupational road safety 182
11.10 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 11 187
12 WORK EQUIPMENT HAZARDS AND CONTROL 189
12.1 Introduction 189
12.2 Suitability of work equipment and CE marking 189
12.3 Use and maintenance of equipment with specific risks 191
12.4 Information, instruction and training 191
12.5 Maintenance and inspection 192
12.6 Operation and working environment 193
12.7 Users’ and hirers’ responsibilities 194
12.8 Hand-held tools 195
12.9 Mechanical machinery hazards 197
12.10 Mobile work equipment 199
12.11 Non-mechanical machinery hazards 201
12.12 Examples of machinery hazards 201
12.13 Practical safeguards 203
12.14 Other safety devices 206
12.15 Application of safeguards to the range of machines 207
12.16 Guard construction 214
12.17 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 12 214
13 MANUAL AND MECHANICAL HANDLING HAZARDS AND CONTROL 215
13.1 Introduction 215
13.2 Manual handling hazards and injuries 215
13.3 Manual handling risk assessments 217
13.4 Types of mechanical handling and lifting equipment 220
13.5 Requirements for the statutory examination of lifting equipment 229
13.6 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 13 229
Appendix 13.1 – Manual handling of loads assessment checklist 231
Appendix 13.2 – A typical risk assessment for an excavator to be used for lifting 234
Appendix 13.3 – A typical risk assessment for the use of lifting equipment 235
14 ELECTRICAL HAZARDS AND CONTROL 237
14.1 Introduction 237
14.2 Principles of electricity and some definitions 237
14.3 Electrical hazards and injuries 239
14.4 General control measures for electrical hazards 244
14.5 The selection and suitability of equipment 245
14.6 Inspection and maintenance strategies 247
14.7 Portable electrical appliances testing 248
14.8 Protection against contact with live overhead power lines 251
14.9 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 14 252
Contents
viii15 FIRE HAZARDS AND CONTROL 253
15.1 Introduction 253
15.2 The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order (RRFSO) – Requirements 254
15.3 Basic principles of fire 256
15.4 Methods of extinction 257
15.5 Classification of fire 258
15.6 Principles of heat transmission and fire spread 258
15.7 Common causes of fire and consequences 260
15.8 Fire risk assessment 261
15.9 Fire detection and warning 267
15.10 Means of escape in case of fire 268
15.11 Principles of fire protection in buildings 270
15.12 Provision of fire-fighting equipment 271
15.13 Maintenance and testing of fire-fighting equipment 272
15.14 Planning for an emergency and training staff 273
15.15 Fire procedures and people with a disability 273
15.16 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 15 274
Appendix 15.1 – Fire risk assessment as recommended in Fire Safety Guides 275
Appendix 15.2 – Example form for recording significant findings as published in 2006 276
16 CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL HEALTH HAZARDS AND CONTROL 277
16.1 Introduction 277
16.2 Forms of chemical agent 277
16.3 Forms of biological agent 278
16.4 Classification of hazardous substances and their associated health risks 278
16.5 Routes of entry to the human body 279
16.6 Health hazards of specific agents 283
16.7 Requirements of the COSHH Regulations 286
16.8 Details of a COSHH assessment 287
16.9 The control measures required under the COSHH Regulations 291
16.10 Health surveillance and personal hygiene 297
16.11 Maintenance and emergency controls 297
16.12 Control of asbestos 298
16.13 Environmental considerations 300
16.14 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 16 302
17 PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH HAZARDS AND CONTROL 305
17.1 Introduction 305
17.2 Task and workstation design 305
17.3 Work environment issues 313
17.4 Noise 314
17.5 Heat and radiation hazards 320
17.6 The causes and prevention of workplace stress 323
17.7 The causes and prevention of workplace violence 325
17.8 The effects of alcohol and drugs 328
17.9 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 17 329
18 INCIDENT INVESTIGATION, RECORDING AND REPORTING 331
18.1 Introduction 331
18.2 Reasons for incident /accident investigation 332
18.3 Which incidents/accidents should be investigated? 333
18.4 Investigations and causes of incidents 334
Contents
ix18.5 Legal recording and reporting requirements 336
18.6 Typical examples of incidents within the construction industry 338
18.7 Internal systems for collecting and analysing incident data 338
18.8 Compensation and insurance issues 340
18.9 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 18 340
Appendix 18.1 – Injury report form 342
Appendix 18.2 – Information for insurance/compensation claims 344
19 MONITORING REVIEW AND AUDIT 347
19.1 Introduction 347
19.2 The traditional approach to measuring health and safety performance 347
19.3 Why measure performance? 348
19.4 What to measure 349
19.5 Measuring failure – reactive monitoring 350
19.6 Proactive monitoring – how to measure performance 350
19.7 Who should monitor performance? 353
19.8 Frequency of monitoring and inspections 353
19.9 Report writing 353
19.10 Review and audit 355
19.11 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 19 358
Appendix 19.1 – Workplace inspection exercises 359
Appendix 19.2 – Checklist of items to be covered in a
construction site inspection 360
20 SUMMARY OF THE MAIN LEGAL REQUIREMENTS 365
20.1 Introduction 365
20.2 The legal framework 365
20.3 List of Acts and Regulations summarized 366
20.4 Health and Safety at Work etc Act (HSW Act) 1974 368
20.5 Environmental Protection Act 1990 370
20.6 The New Roads and Street Works Act 1991 375
20.7 Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations 2002 378
20.8 Asbestos (Licensing) Regulations 1983 as amended in 1998 384
20.9 Draft Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006 386
20.10 Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply)
Regulations 2002 394
20.11 Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 397
20.12 Construction (Design and Management) (CDM) Regulations 1994 and
Amendment Regulations 2000 399
20.13 Draft Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2006 404
20.14 Construction (Head Protection) Regulations 1989 411
20.15 Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) (CHSW) Regulations 1996 411
20.16 Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations 1996 415
20.17 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 2002
and 2005 Amendment 416
20.18 Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres
Regulations (DSEAR) 2002 420
20.19 Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 423
20.20 Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 425
20.21 Employers’ Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969 and
Regulations 1998 427
20.22 Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 429
20.23 Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 437
Contents
x20.24 Health and Safety (Information for Employees) Regulations 1989 438
20.25 Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 438
20.26 Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002 440
20.27 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 442
20.28 Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 446
20.29 Manual Handling Operations Regulations (MHO) 1992 448
20.30 Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 451
20.31 Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 455
20.32 Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (except part IV) 457
20.33 The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences
Regulations 1995 462
20.34 Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations 1977 464
20.35 Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996 465
20.36 Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 1992 468
20.37 Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005 471
20.38 Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 473
20.39 Work at Height Regulations 2005 476
20.40 Other relevant regulations in brief 480
21 STUDY SKILLS 485
21.1 Introduction 485
21.2 Finding a place to study 485
21.3 Planning for study 485
21.4 Blocked thinking 486
21.5 Taking notes 486
21.6 Reading for study 486
21.7 Revision 486
21.8 Organizing information 487
21.9 How does memory work? 487
21.10 How to deal with exams 489
21.11 The examiners’ reports 490
21.12 Conclusion 491
21.13 References 491
INDEX 493
Contents
Index
3-pin wiring, 249
Above ground working, 121–35
Abrasion hazards, 198
Abrasive wheels, 191, 208–9
Absolute duty, 8
Absorption, skin, 280
ac see Alternating current
Access:
excavations, 149
security equipment, 327
site assessment, 107
working above ground, 121–2
Accidents:
asbestos regulations, 390–1
books, 336
categories, 72
construction industry, 338
definition, 3, 71
investigations, 334–6
Accidents triangle (F E Bird), 71
ACM see Asbestos containing materials
ACOP see Approved Code of Practice
Acts, 366
see also Civil law; Common law;
Criminal law; Regulations
Acute acoustic trauma, 315
Acute effects:
hazardous substances, 279
noise, 315
Adjustable guards, 205
Air cleaning devices, 291
Air monitoring for asbestos, 383,
392–3
Air pollution, 300–1
Air receivers, 193
Alarms, 327
Alcohol, 328–9
Allergic contact dermatitis, 283
Alpha particles, 321
Alternating current (ac), 237–8
Ammonia, 283
Amperes (amps), 238
Anemometers, 290
Answering questions on performance,
348–9
Anthropometry, 306
Appointed persons for first aid, 97
Approved Code of Practice (ACOP)
1974, 11
Asbestos:
air monitoring, 383, 392–3
control, 297–9
Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations
2002, 378–84
Draft Control of Asbestos Regulations
2006, 386–94
health hazards, 284
pre-demolition investigation, 163
regulations, 384–6
removal sign, 162
Asbestos containing materials (ACMs),
298
Asbestos (Licensing) Regulations 1983
(ASLIC), 384–6
Assemblies, emergency procedures, 95
Assessments for COSHH, 287–9, 301
ATEX (Potentially Explosive Atmospheres
Regulations 1996), 242
Attitude (personal factors), 56
Audits, 347–60
Avoiding Danger from Underground Services,
149
Bacteria, 278
BATNEEC see Best Available Techniques not
Entailing Excessive Cost
Battered sides for excavations, 147–8
Becquerel (Bq) unit, 321
Bench mounted circular saws, 202, 210
Bench top grinding machines, 202, 208
Best Available Techniques Not Entailing
Excessive Cost (BATNEEC), 371
Best Practicable Environmental Option
(BPEO), 371
Beta particles, 321
Biological agents, 278
Biological hazards and control, 277–304
F E Bird’s accident triangle, 71
Blue green algae, 278
Boatswain’s chair, 131
Boilers, 193
Bonfires, 262, 263
Boundary walls in excavations, 142
BPEO see Best Practicable Environmental
Option
Bradford City football ground fire, 253
Breakdown based maintenance, 192
Breathing apparatus, 294, 296
Bridging units, 116
Buildings protection (fires), 270–1
Burns, 239–40
Cable locators, 149
Cancer, 283
Capabilities:
fire safety duties, 255
injuries risk reduction, 219–20
manual handling risk assessments, 217–18
Carbon dioxide, 283
Carbon monoxide, 283
Carcinogenic substances, 279
Cardiovascular system, 281
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 306
Causes:
fire, 260–1
incidents/accidents, 335–6
CCT see Closed circuit television
CDM see Construction Design and
Management
CE marking, 189–91
CEMA see Civil Engineering Construction
Association
Cement dust, 284, 285
Cement/concrete mixers, 203, 212
Certificate of conformity, 190
Changing work methods/patterns, 83
Checklists:
hazards, 78
scaffolding faults, 139
supply chain health and safety
management, 49–50
Chemicals:
agents, 277–8
hazards and control, 277–304
reactions for extinguishing fires, 258
Chemicals (Hazard Information and
Packaging for Supply) Regulations
(CHIP) 2002, 394–7, 417
Child-resistant fastenings, 397
Children, hazards, 177
CHIP see Chemicals (Hazard Information and
Packaging for Supply) Regulations
2002
Chlorine, 283
Chronic effects:
hazardous substances, 279
noise, 315–16
CHSW see Construction (Health Safety and
Welfare) Regulations 1996 (CHSW)
493Circular saws, 202, 210
CIRIA see Construction Industry Research
and Information Association
Civil Engineering Construction Association
(CEMA), 357–8
Civil law, 4, 482
Civil liability, Draft Construction (Design and
Management) Regulations 2006, 409
Classification:
chemical and biological agents, 278–9
fire, 258
Cleaning, 172
Clients:
responsibilities, 40–1
site controls, 110
Closed circuit television (CCT), 325, 327
Closed sheeting in excavations, 148
Clothing, accommodation and changing, 111
Co-operation:
fire safety duties, 255
workforce, 45
Collection:
hoods, 291
incident data, 338–40
Collisions with moving vehicles, 172, 174–5
Colour codes for safety signs, 466–7
Combustibles, 262
Commercial premises refurbishment, 177–8
Commercial stakeholders, 67
Commitment of management, 60
Common law, 6, 7
Communications:
effective, 61–2
internal influences, 65
safe systems of work, 90
Company car drivers, 186–7
Compensation, 340, 344–5
Competence, 34, 61, 65
demolition, 168
drivers, 184–5
electrical persons, 239
Compressors, 193, 202–3
Concrete delivery, 184
Condition based maintenance, 192
Conduction of heat, 258–9
Conductors, 238
Confined spaces:
Confined Spaces Regulations 1997, 397–9
emergency arrangements, 153
hazards and control, 150–3
monitoring, 153
permits to work, 92
risk assessment, 151–2, 159–60
Conformity certificate, 190
CONIAC see Construction Industry Advisory
Committee
Construction:
accidents, 338
dangerous occurrences, 338
definition, 15
diseases, 338
hazards to general public, 176–8
health and safety forums, 357–8
legal instruments, 13–14
working at height, 117–21
Construction (Design and Management)
Regulations 1994 and Amendment
Regulations 2000 (CDM):
contractors, 38
definitions, 39–40
demolition, 161
Construction (Head Protection) Regulations
1989, 411
Construction (Health Safety and Welfare)
Regulations 1996 (CHSW), 408–9,
411–15
Construction Industry Advisory Committee
(CONIAC), 26
Construction Industry Research and
Information Association (CIRIA), 357
Construction sites:
checklist inspections checklist, 360–4
entrances, 179
lighting, 313–14
supply chain, 37
trespassers, 77
visitors, 77
Continuous noise level (Leq), 317
Contractors:
control, 42–3
organizing health and safety, 38–44
rules, 44
safety rules, 43–4
selection, 41–2
Control:
chemical and biological, 277–304
confined spaces, 150–3
contractors, 42–3
COSHH Regulations, 291–7
electricity, 237–52
excavations, 141–50
fire, 253–76
health risks, 85–7
manual handling, 215–36
mechanical handling, 215–36
organizing for health and safety, 32
pedestrian hazards, 173–6
physical health, 305–30
premises, 35
principles, 81–102
psychological health, 305–30
risk assessments, 74
safe vehicle operations, 179–80
site issues, 103–14
vehicles on construction sites, 181–2
work equipment, 189–214
Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations
2002, 277, 378–84
Control hierarchy, exposure to substances
hazardous to health, 86
Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002,
277, 440–2
Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986, 482
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
(COSHH) Regulations 2002 and 2005
amendment:
assessments, 286–9, 293
chemical and biological hazards, 277
control measures, 290–6
exposure limits, 287
legal requirements, 416–20
requirements, 286
role, 279
Control of Vibration at Work Regulations
2005, 309–11, 471–3
Controlled waste, 372
Convection, 258
Conveyors, 221
Cooling method for fire extinguishing, 257
Corrosive substances, 278–9
COSHH see Control of Substances
Hazardous to Health Regulations . . .
Courts, 4–5
Cradles, 130–1
Cranes, 225–9
Criminal law, 3–5
Crushing hazards, 197–8
Culture of health and safety, 51–67
Cutting hazards, 197–8
Dangerous occurrences:
construction industry, 338
definition, 3, 71–2
incidents/accidents, 337
Dangerous substance fire risk assessment,
265–6
Dangerous Substances and Explosive
Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR)
2002, 265, 420–3
dc see Direct current
Decibel (dB), 316
Decision making, health and safety
performance, 349
Definitions:
basic, 2–3
Construction Design and Management
Regulations, 39–40
health and safety culture, 51
Deliberate controlled collapse, 163
Demolition:
competence, 168
Draft Construction (Design and
Management) Regulations 2006, 409
dust, 167
environment, 168
explosives, 165
hazards and control, 105, 161–9
initial site assessment, 106–7
machinery, 167–8
management, 165–6
noise, 167
risk assessment, 163–4
training, 168
Dermatitis, 282–3
Dermis, 282
Dilution ventilation, 292
Direct burning, 259
Direct costs, 72
Direct current (dc), 237
Direct reading instruments, 290
Directives from European Union, 9
Directors’ responsibilities, 33–4
Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and 2005,
480
Index
494Disabled workers, 273–4
see also Workers with a disability
Diseases:
construction industry, 338
incidents/accidents, 337
Display screen equipment (DSE), 311–13
Document shredders, 201, 208
Doors for fire escapes, 268
Dose limits of radiation, 321
Double isolation, 247
Draft Construction (Design and Management)
Regulations 2006, 404–11
Draft Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006,
386–94
Drag boxes, 148
Drawing-in hazards, 198
Drills, pedestal, 202, 209
Drinking water, 110
Drivers:
competence, 184–5
ergonomics, 185–6
fitness and health, 185
health and safety rules, 186–7
safety, 201
training, 184–5
vehicle movements, 181
Drowning prevention, 105, 413
Drugs, 328–9
DSE see Display Screen Equipment
DSEAR see Dangerous Substances and
Explosive Atmospheres Regulations
2002
Dumper trucks, 224–5, 226
Dust:
chemical agents, 277
demolition, 167
observation lamps, 290
Duties:
see also Responsibilities
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order
2005, 254–5
Duty of care:
common law, 7
Environmental Protection Act 1990, 372
Duty holders’ responsibilities, 40–1
Ears:
earmuffs, 320
earplugs, 320
human, 315
protection zone sign, 318
sound waves, 315
Earthing, 238
Eating meals, 111
Economics, 66–7
Effective communication, 61–2
Electrical Safety on Construction, 245
Electrical (Safety) Regulations 1994, 480
Electricity:
arcing, 242
explosions, 241–2
fires, 241–2, 258
general hazards and controls, 106
hazards and control, 237–52
injuries, 239–44
power tools, 243
principles, 237–9
shocks, 239–40
systems on site, 245–6
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989, 244,
425–7
Elevators, 221
Emergencies:
checklist, 50
chemical and biological hazards, 297
confined spaces, 153
control principles, 94–5
general hazards and controls, 106
planning, fire hazards and control, 273
Employees:
carried on mobile work equipment, 199
fire safety duties, 256
Health and Safety at Work Regulations
1999, 13
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, 369
mechanical handling and lifting equipment,
221
organizational responsibilities, 48
representation (internal influences), 65
responsibilities, 32
Employers:
Health and Safety at Work Regulations
1999, 13
responsibilities, 32
Employers’ Liability (Compulsory Insurance)
Act 1969 and Regulations 1998, 427–9
Enabling Acts, 10
Enforcement:
external influences, 66
notices, 13
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order
2005, 256
Engineering controls, 83, 291
England and Wales legal system, 4–5
Entanglement hazards, 198
Environment Agency, 14–15
Environmental factors, 3
chemical and biological hazards, 299–302
demolition, 168
site controls, 109–10
working equipment, 193–4
Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1990,
301, 370–5
Equipment with specific risks maintenance,
191
Equipotential bonding, 238
Ergonomics, 185–6, 305–13
Escape routes from fire, 268–9
Escape times for fires, 269
EU see European Union
European Courts, 5–6
European Union (EU), 8–10
Evaluation:
fire risk assessment, 264–5
risk level, 73–4
road risks, 183–6
Examinations see Inspections
Excavations, 141–60
boundary walls, 142
Construction (Health Safety and Welfare)
Regulations 1996, 413
excavators risk assessment, 233–4
general hazards and controls, 105
hazards and control, 141–50
inspection reports, 155–6
planning, 143
precautions, 145–50
risk assessments, 143–5, 157–8
trenches, 422
wheeled excavators, 224
Exceptional violations, 59
Exhaust ducts, 292
Exhaust gas excavation, 149
Exhaust ventilation, 291
Expectant mothers, 76
Explosions, electrical, 241–2
Explosives:
Dangerous Substances and Explosive
Atmospheres Regulations 2002,
420–3
demolition, 165
manufacture and storage regulations,
482–3
Exposure:
health surveillance, 86–7
vibrations, 308
External agencies, 14–15
External influences, 65–7
External relationships, 35
External sparks, 257
Extinguishing of fires, 257–8, 272
Eye protection, 296
Eyesight, 424
Failure measurement, 350
Fall arrest equipment, 131–2
Falling object protection structures (FOPS),
200–1
Falling objects, 105, 172–3, 175
Falls:
from height, 172, 173–4
injuries, 117–18
protection, 104–6
same level, 171–2, 173
Fan scaffolds, 126
Fans, 292
Files for health and safety, 41
Filtering half masks, 294
Filters, 292
Financial arguments for health and safety,
16–19
Fines see Penalties
Fire:
assessments of risk, 261–7
basic principles, 256–7
compartmentation, 271
consequences, 260–1
detection, 267–8
disabled people, 273–4
drills, 95
electrical, 241–2
emergency procedures notices/routines,
94, 95
Index
495[Fire]
escapes, 268–9
extinguishers, 272
fighting, 255, 271–3
general hazards and controls, 106
hazards assessment, 261–2
hazards and control, 253–76
incident investigations, 331
loading, protection in buildings, 270
plans, fire risk assessment, 266–7
protection in buildings, 270–1
risk assessments, 261–7
safety duties, 255–6
signs, 99
spread, 258–60
triangle, 256–7
vehicle movements, 181
warning, 267–8
Fire Precautions Regulatory Reform
(Fire Safety) Order 2004, 429–37
Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations,
253
First aid, 95–8
Fitness and health of drivers, 185
Fixed guards, 204–5
Fixed objects, 173, 176
Fixed scaffolds, 124–33
Flames fire risk assessment, 261–2
Flammable liquids storage, 264
Flat roof edge protection, 119
Flooding in excavations, 149
Flying objects, 172–3, 175
Follow-up investigations, 336
FOPS see Falling object protection structures
Fork lift trucks, 222–5
Formal visual inspections of electrical
equipment, 249
Forms for investigations, 336
Fragile roofs, 105, 118–19
Frequency:
electrical inspections and testing, 249
inspections, 35, 249
monitoring, 353
Friction hazards, 198
Frozen shoulder, 306
Fuel in fires, 256–7
Fumes, 149, 278
Fungi, 278
Fuses, 246
Gamma rays, 321
Gas Appliances (Safety) Regulations 1992,
481
Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations
1998, 481
Gases, 257, 277–8
Gates for site access, 104
General public, hazards, 176–8
Genetic effects of radiation, 322
Global adverse events, 368–9
‘Goalposts’ (overhead power lines), 109, 251
Goals, 57
Goggles, 96
Grab sampling, 289
Graphic communications, 62
Ground consolidation equipment, 203,
212–13
Guards:
adjustable, 205
construction, 214
fixed, 204–5
interlocking, 205–6
self-adjusting, 205
Guide to the Asbestos (Licencing)
Regulations 1983, 386
Half masks, 294
Hand protection, 295
Hand signals for cranes, 228
Hand tools, 195
Hand–arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), 307,
308, 310
Hand-fed power planers, 202, 211
Hand-held power tools, 195–7
Harmful substances, 279
HAVS see Hand–arm vibration syndrome
Hazardous Waste (England and Wales)
Regulations 1998, 481–2
Hazards:
checklist, 49–50, 78
chemical and biological, 277–304
confined spaces, 150–3
construction sites vehicles, 181–2
definition, 3, 71
electricity, 237–52
excavations, 141–50
fire, 253–76
general public and construction activities,
176–8
hand-held power tools, 195–7
heights, 115–40
manual handling, 215–36
mechanical handling, 215–36
mobile work equipment, 199
non-mechanical machinery, 201
people, 171–88
physical health, 305–30
psychological health, 305–30
risk assessment, 73
site issues, 103–14
street works, 176–8
substances, 278–9
vehicles, 171–88
work equipment, 189–214
working at height, 117–21
Health:
asbestos regulations records, 383–4,
393
control of risks, 85–7
definition, 2
hazards, 106
noise, 315
risk assessments, 72, 287–93
surveillance, 86–7, 297
Health and safety:
advisers, 34–5
answering questions, 348–9
company car drivers rules, 186–7
(construction) forums, 357–8
culture, 51–67
decision making, 349
files, 41
management, 19–21
management systems, 348–9
measurement, 347–8, 349–50
method statements, 88
plans, 41
policy checklist, 27–9
problems, 15–16
standards promotion, 60–1
training, 62–4
Health and Safety at Work Act (HSW Act)
1974, 10–13, 23, 365, 368–70
Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999,
13
Health and Safety Commission (HSC), 10,
366, 369–70
Health and Safety (Consultation with
Employees) Regulations 1996, 45–6
Health and Safety (Display Screen
Equipment) Regulations 1992, 423–5
Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations
1981, 437–8
Health and Safety (Information for
Employees) Regulations 1989, 438
Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals)
Regulations 1996, 227, 465–8
Healthcare premises, 178
Heat:
fire risk assessment, 261–2
hazards, 320–32
transmission, 258–60
work environment issues, 313–14
Heights:
hazards and control, 115–40
regulations, 475–9
working above ground, 121
Heinrich’s accidents/incidents ratio, 53
Hierarchy of risk control, 75, 82–5
High level investigations, 333
High pressure fluid ejection hazards, 199
High voltage, 238, 240
Highway Code, 187
Hirers’ responsibilities, 194
Hoists see Lifts
Hold-to-run controls, 207
Hoods (collection), 291
Hook, safety, 228
Hot surfaces, 257
Hot work permits, 92
Housekeeping, 83
HSC see Health and Safety Commission
HSW Act see Health and Safety at Work
Act . . .
Human body, routes of entry, 279–83
Human ears, 315
Human errors, 57–61
Human factors in safety performance,
53–6
Human violations, 57–61
Hydraulic waling frames, 148
Hygiene, 297
Hygrometers, 290
Index
496Ignition sources of fire, 256–7
Ill-health effects, 306–9
Impact hazards, 198
Incidents:
data analysis, 338–40
data collection and analysis, 338–40
investigations, 331–45
recording and reporting, 331–45
Incidents/accidents:
compensation and insurance, 340
investigations, 332
Indirect costs risk assessment, 72
Induction training, 63
Industrial roof work safety nets, 118
Information:
fire safety duties, 255
hierarchy of risk control, 83–4
investigations, 336
review and audit, 355–6
work equipment, 191
Infra-red radiation, 323
Ingestion, 280
Inhalation, 279–80
Initial site assessment, 106–7
Injuries:
accidents, 333
electrical, 239–44
falls from height, 117–18
hand-arm vibration, 307
manual handling risk assessments, 216,
218–19
report forms, 342–3
Inspections:
construction site checklist, 360–4
electrical equipment, 248
electricity, 239
excavations, 150, 155–6
exercises, 359–60
frequency, 353
inspectors, 12, 369
lifting equipment, 229
proactive monitoring, 350–2
PUWER, 192–3
reports, 137–8, 155–6
standards, 352
work equipment, 192–3
working above ground, 134–5
Installation, electrical systems on site,
245–6
Insulation:
electrical systems, 238, 246
fire protection in buildings, 271
Insurance:
companies, 15, 66
costs, 11–12
incidents/accidents, 340, 344–5
Interlocking guards, 205–6
Internal influences, 64–5
Internal relationships, 35
Internal sparks, 257
International aspects of health and safety,
367–80
Interview techniques for investigations,
334–5
Introduction to Local Exhaust Ventilation, 292
Investigations:
immediate causes, 334–5
incidents, 331–45
interview techniques, 334–5
legal recording and reporting, 336
methods, 334
recipients of reports, 337
recommendations, 335–6
standards, 335
when and by whom, 334
Ionising radiation, 321–3, 438–40
Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999,
438–40
Irritant contact dermatitis, 283
Irritants, 278, 283
Isocyanates, 284
Isolation of electricity, 239, 246
Jib tower cranes, 227
Jobs:
design, 327
safety analysis forms, 100
safety performance, 55–6
specific training, 63
Joint occupation of premises, 44–5
Journeys of vehicles, 186
Judgements, review and audit, 356–7
Kerbstones, 220
Keyboards, 312
King’s Cross underground station fire, 253
Labels for products, 289
Ladders, 122–3
Lamps, dust observation, 290
Lane rental, 378
LAPC see Local Air Pollution Control
Lapses, 58
Lasers, 322–3
Lead:
health hazards, 284
pre-demolition investigation, 163
regulations, 440–2
Legal arguments for health and safety
management, 16–19
Legal aspects of risk assessment, 69–70
Legal considerations for contractors, 38–9
Legal framework, 3–4, 365–6
Legal instruments for construction work,
13–14
Legal reasons for incident/accident
investigations, 332
Legal recording and reporting of
investigations, 336
Legal requirements:
policy, 23–4
safe systems of work, 88
summary, 365–483
Legal system:
England and Wales, 4–5
Scotland, 5
Legislation, external influences, 66
Leptospira, 286
L
eq (continuous noise level), 317
Licences for waste management, 372–5
Lift trucks, 222–5
Lifting equipment, 220–9, 234–5
Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
Regulations 1998 (LOLER), 193, 215,
442–6
Lifts, 228
Lighting:
fire escapes, 269
fire risk assessment, 262
work environment, 313–14
Liquid petroleum gas (LPG) storage, 264
Liquids, 257, 264, 278
Loading platforms for fixed scaffolds, 127
Loads:
injuries risk reduction, 219
manual handling risk assessments, 217–18
mechanical handling and lifting equipment,
221
Local Air Pollution Control (LAPC), 301
Local exhaust ventilation, 291
Location:
fire risk assessment, 263
welfare facilities, 111
Logic for incidents/accidents investigations,
332
LOLER see Lifting Operations and Lifting
Equipment Regulations 1998
Lone workers:
risk assessment, 77
safe systems of work, 90
Long term exposure limit (LTEL), 288
Low level investigations, 333
Low voltage, 238
LPG see Liquid petroleum gas . . .
LTEL see Long term exposure limit
Lux (lx) unit, 314
Machinery:
demolition, 167–8
safety notices, 189
whole body vibration, 309
Mains voltage, 238
Maintenance:
chemical and biological hazards, 296–7
electrical equipment, 239, 247–8
equipment with specific risks, 191
fire-fighting equipment, 272–3
work equipment, 192–3
working above ground, 134–5
Major Contractors Group (MCG), 358
‘Man–machine’ interface, 305
Management:
commitment, 60, 64
demolition, 165–6
risk assessment, 72–3
vehicle movements, 180–1
Management of asbestos in non-domestic
premises, 379
Management of Health and Safety at Work
Regulations (MHSW) Regulations
1999, 13, 23, 81–2, 365, 446–8
Index
497Management systems, electrical hazards,
245
Managing Occupational Road Risk, 187
Manhole shores, 148
Manual handling:
assessment checklist, 231–3
hazards and control, 215–36
risk assessments, 217–20
Manual Handling Operations Regulations
(MHO) 1992, 448–51
Manufacture and Storage of Explosives
Regulations, 482
Manufacturers/suppliers duties, Health and
Safety at Work Act 1974, 366–7
Mast climbing platforms, 116
Mast cradles, 131
Materials deterioration when working at
heights, 120
Matrix for risk management, 74
MCG see Major Contractors Group
MDF (medium density fibreboard), 285
Mechanical assistance for injuries risk
reduction, 218–19
Mechanical handling equipment hazards and
control, 215–36
Mechanical machinery hazards, 197–9
Medical surveillance in asbestos use, 383–4,
393
Medium density fibreboard (MDF), 285
Medium level investigations, 333
Mesothelioma, 298
MEWPs see Mobile elevated work platforms
MHSW see Management of Health and
Safety at Work . . .
Microwaves, 323
Minimal level investigations, 333
Mists, 278
Mobile elevated work platforms (MEWPs),
129–30
Mobile phones, 327
Mobile scaffold towers, 128–9
Mobile work equipment, 199–201
Monitoring:
audits, 347–60
confined spaces, 153
failure measurement, 350
fire risk assessment, 265
frequency, 353
hierarchy of risk control, 84–5
performance, 353
reviews, 347–60
risk assessment, 75–6
safe systems of work, 90
Moral arguments, 16–19
Motivation (personal factors), 56
Moulds, 278
Movement of people and vehicles,
171–88
Moving objects, 172–3, 175
Moving vehicles, collisions, 172
Musculoskeletal problems, 312
Naked flames, 257
Near miss, definition, 3, 71
Negligence, 7
Nervous system, 281
New Roads and Street Works Act 1991, 145,
375–8
Noise, 314–20
action levels, 317–18
assessments, 316–18
attenuation, 319
control techniques, 318–19
demolition, 167
general hazards and controls, 106
health effects, 315–16
hearing loss, 315
Noise at Work Regulations 1989,
451–5
reduction at source, 319
risk assessment, 317
Non-ionising radiation, 322–3
Non-mechanical machinery hazards, 201
NRSWA see New Roads and Street Works
Act 1991
Nursing mothers, risk assessment, 76
Objectives, risk assessment, 72
Observation techniques, inspections, 352
Occupational exposure limits, COSHH
assessment, 288
Occupational exposure standards (OESs),
288
Occupational health, 305
Occupational ill-health, 3, 71
Occupational road safety, 182–7
Occupied premises, 177
Occupier of premises, 110
Occupiers Liability Acts 1957 and 1984,
482
OESs see Occupational exposure standards
Offences:
Fire Precautions Regulatory Reform (Fire
Safety) Order 2004, 437
Health and Safety at Work Act (HSW Act)
1974, 369–70
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order
2005, 258
Ohms, 238
Open sheeting for excavations, 148
Organic solvents, 283
Organization:
health and safety, 24–5, 31–50
responsibilities, 47–9
Over three-day lost time injury (legal
recording), 337
Overhead power lines, 149, 251–2
Owners/occupiers duties, Health and Safety
at Work Act 1974, 368
Oxygen, 256–7, 261–2
Pagers, 327
Passive sampling, 289
PAT see Portable appliance testing
PCBs, 163
Peak sound pressure, 316–17
Pedestal drills, 202, 209
Pedestrians:
collisions with moving vehicles, 174–5
hazards, 171–3
separation from work and traffic, 177
People:
inspections, 350
movement, 171–88
Perception (personal factors), 56–7
Performance:
health and safety, 347–8, 369–70
management assessments, 369–70
measurement, 348–9
monitoring, 353
review and audit, 357
Permanent threshold shift, 315
Permits to work:
control, 92
form, 102
safe systems of work, 90–3
Personal ear protection, 319–20
Personal factors, safety performance,
56–7
Personal hygiene, 297
Personal protective equipment, 83–4, 292–7,
483
Personal Protective Equipment at Work
Regulations 1992, 455
Personnel numbers for first aid, 97–8
Persons at risk assessments, 73, 263
Persons in control of premises, 35
Photocopiers, 201, 207–8
Physical health, 305–30
Piecemeal demolition, 163
Planning:
electrical systems on site, 245–6
excavations, 143
site controls, 107–8
supervisors, 40–1
Plans for health and safety, 41–2
Plant and substances inspections, 350
Plate compactors, 203
Pole ladders, 123
Policy, 23–9
Pollution control, 371–2
Portable appliance testing (PAT), 208
Portable electrical equipment, 243–4,
248–51
Portable heaters fire risk assessment, 262
Posters for electric shock, 240
Posture for office tasks, 312
Potentially Explosive Atmospheres
Regulations 1996 (ATEX), 242
Power:
electrical, 238, 251–2
hand-held tools, 195–7
planers, 211
Practicable, definition, 8
Pre-demolition investigation and survey,
162–3
Precautions:
confined spaces, 152–3
excavations, 145–50
Prefabricated mobile scaffold towers,
128–9
Premature collapse, demolition, 166
Index
498Premises:
control, 35
inspections, 350
joint occupation, 44–5
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order
2005, 254–5
Preparation (site controls), 108–9
Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000
(PSSR), 483
Preventative planned maintenance, 192
Prevention:
drowning, 105, 413
principles, 81–2
workplace violence, 325–8
Previous use, initial site assessment, 106
Prioritization of risk control, 75
Proactive monitoring of review and audit,
347, 350–3
Product labels, 288
Product safety data sheets, 288
Production/service demands, 64–5
Prolonged occupation, 377–8
Promotions,healthandsafetystandards,60–1
Protection:
against falling objects, 119, 166–7
COSHH requirements, 293–7
electrical systems, 246–7
falling materials during demolition, 167
falls, 104–6, 118
fire in buildings, 270–1
members of public, 134
radiation strategies, 323
respiratory equipment, 293–5
Provision and Use of Work Equipment
Regulations 1998 (PUWER) (except
part IV), 189–90, 192–3, 203, 457–61
PSSR (Pressure Systems Safety Regulations
2000), 483
Psychological health, 305–30
Public protection, 134
Puncture hazards, 198
PUWER see Provision and Use of Work
Equipment Regulations . . .
Qualitative monitoring, 290
Qualitative risk assessments, 70, 74
Quantitative risk assessments, 70, 74
Questions, health and safety performance,
348–9
Radiation:
dose limits, 321
hazards, 320–32
heat transmission, 259
ionising radiation, 321–3, 438–40
Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999, 438–9
protection strategies, 323
Radios, 327
RCDs see Residual current devices
Reaction times, fire escapes, 269–70
Reactive monitoring, 331, 347
Reasonably practicable, definition, 8
Recipients of reports, investigations, 337
Recommendations, investigations, 335–6
Recording and reporting:
electrical inspections and testing, 249–50
incidents, 331–45
reports, 352, 353–5
risk assessment, 75, 79–81
Reduced low voltage systems, 246–7
Reduced time exposure:
hierarchy of risk control, 83
noise, 318–19
Refurbishment, initial site assessment, 106–7
Regulations:
alphabetical list, 366–8
chronological list, 367–8
summary, 366–8
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005
(RRFSO), 253, 254–6
Relationships (external and internal), 35
Repetitive strain injury (RSI), 306
Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and
Dangerous Occurrences Regulations
1995 (RIDDOR), 71, 336–7, 462–4
Reports see Recording and reporting
Residential premises refurbishment, 177
Residual current devices (RCDs), 241, 247
Respirable dust, 277, 280
Respiratory protection equipment, 293–5
Respiratory protective equipment – a
practical guide for users, 295
Respiratory system, 280–1
Responsibilities:
duty holders, 40–1
health and safety, 33–4
permits to work, 93
Rest, welfare facilities, 111
Review and audit, 355–8
Reviews:
fire risk assessment, 265
health and safety policy, 25–7
hierarchy of risk control, 85
monitoring, 347–60
risk assessments, 75–6
‘Revitalising Health and Safety’ campaign,
1, 36
RIDDOR see Reporting of Injuries, Diseases
and Dangerous Occurrences
Regulations 1995
Risk assessments, 69–80
confined spaces, 151–2, 159–60
demolition, 163–4
evaluation, 73–4
excavators, 233–4
excavations, 143–5, 157–8
expectant and nursing mothers, 76
findings, 75
fire, 261–7
lone workers, 77
manual handling, 217–20
monitoring and review, 75–6
records, 79–81
workers with disability, 76
young persons, 76
Risk control:
health and safety performance
management, 349–50
hierarchy, 75, 82–5
measures, 74
prioritization, 75
Risks:
checklist, 49–50
definition, 3, 71
falling, 121–35
fire risk reduction, 263–5
injuries reduction, 218–19
Road making equipment, 203, 213–14
Road risks, 183–6
Road safety (occupational), 182–7
Roll call for emergency procedures, 95
Rolling over of mobile work equipment,
199
Rollover object protection structures (ROPS),
200–1
Roofs:
edge protection, 119
fragile, 118–19
general hazards and controls, 105
ladders, 132
safe systems, 140
trusses, 226
work, 133–4
ROPS see Rollover object protection
structures
Rough terrain counter balanced lift trucks,
223
Routes of entry to human body,
279–83
Routine violations, 59
RRFSO see Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety)
Order 2005
RSI see Repetitive strain injury
Rules:
contractors, 44
site safety, 42
Safe working load (SWL), 226
Safety:
contractors rules, 43–4
data sheets, 289
definition, 2
digging practice, 157–8
driving, 201
electrical hazards, 245
fire safety duties, 255
hand-held power tools, 196–7
hooks on cranes, 228
inspections, 352
machinery, 189
method statement forms, 101
nets, 118, 131–2
performance, 52–6
place of work, 104, 117
roof work, 140
safety performance culture, 52–3
sampling, 352–3
signs regulations, 465–7
systems/method statements, 88–90
vehicles, 179–80, 185
work equipment, 203–6, 207–14
work systems, 80, 87–90
Index
499Safety Representatives and Safety
Committees Regulations 1977, 45,
464–5
Sampling heads, 290
Sampling pumps, 290
Sanitary conveniences, 110
Scaffolds:
erectors, 127
faults checklist, 139
fixed, 124–33
hoists for fixed scaffolds, 127–8
unsafe, 333
Scheduling of vehicles, 186
Scottish Environment Protection Agency see
Environment Protection Agency
Scottish legal system, 5
Seating at work, 312, 314
Secondary hazards, electricity, 244
Security:
access, 325
equipment, 327
site controls, 109
Selection:
contractors, 41–2
electrical equipment, 245
Self-adjusting guards, 205
Self employed persons, 36
Self-propelled work equipment,
199–200
Senior managers responsibilities, 47–8
Separation of pedestrians from work and
traffic, 177
Service/production demands, 64–5
Shapes for safety signs, 466–7
Shear hazards, 197–8
Short circuits, 238
Short-term exposure limit (STEL), 288
Shredders, documents, 201, 208
Signs:
demolition in progress, 164
electricity, 237
fire escapes, 269
ionisation, 321
regulations, 465–7
safety regulations, 466–7
Silica, 163, 284–5
Sites:
access gates, 104
controls, 107–10
entrances to construction sites, 179
hazards and control issues, 103–14
initial assessments, 106–7
managers organizational responsibilities,
48
planning, 107–8
preparation, 108–9
rules, 112–13
safety rules, 42
security, 109
stairs to accommodation, 174
Siting machinery in demolition, 167–8
Situational violations, 59
Skin, 280, 282–3, 295–6
Slips, 58, 171–3
Sloping roof edge protection, 119
Smoke:
fire risk assessments, 261–2
spread in buildings, 259–60
tubes, 290
Smothering method for extinguishing fires,
257
Societal expectations, 65–6
Solids, fuel, 257
Solvents, organic, 283
Somatic effects of radiation, 322
Sound pressure levels (SPLs), 316
Sound waves, ears, 315
Sources of law (England and Wales), 6–7
Sparks, 257
Specialist training, 64
Spindle moulding machines, 202, 211–12
SPLs see Sound pressure levels
Spot sampling, 289
Stabbing hazards, 198
Staging of access equipment, 123–4
Stain tube detectors, 289
Stairs:
fire risk assessment, 266–7
site accommodation, 174
Standards:
inspections, 352
investigations, 335
promotion for health and safety, 60–1
Starving method for extinguishing fires, 258
Static electricity, 242–3, 257
Stationary objects, 173, 176
Statute law, 6
Statutory duty, 7–8
STEL see Short term exposure limit
Stepladders, 123–4
Street works, 176–8
Stress, 323–5
Structural fire risk assessment, 261–2, 266
Studying, 485–91
examinations, 489–90
examiners’ reports, 490–1
location, 485
memory, 487–8
organizing information, 487
planning, 485–6
reading, 486
revision, 486–7
Successful Health and Safety Management,
69
Suitability:
electrical equipment, 245
vehicles, 185
‘Suitable and sufficient’, 70
Supervision:
controls, 292
duties, 94–5
hierarchy of risk control, 84–5
management training, 63–4
supervisors responsibilities, 48
Supplementary bonding (electricity), 238
Supply chain, 36–8, 49–50
Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations
1992, 189, 468–71
Support for excavations, 146–7
Surface spread of fire, 270
Surroundings, initial site assessment, 107
Survey techniques for health risks, 289
SWL see Safe working load
Symbols:
hazardous substances, 279
safety signs, 466–8
Systems of work, 83–4
Tactile warnings, 397
Tasks:
design, 305–13
injuries risk reduction, 219
manual handling risk assessments, 217–18
Telescopic materials handlers, 178
Temperatures (work environment), 313–14
Temporary threshold shifts, noise, 315
Tenosynovitis, 306, 312
Testing:
electricity, 239
emergency procedures, 95
fire-fighting equipment, 272–3
Tetanus, 285–7
Thermometers, 313
Tied scaffolds, 125
Time, vehicles journeys, 186
Tinnitus, 315, 316
Tools, hand-held, 195–7
Topography (site assessment), 107
Tower cranes, 227
Tower scaffolds, 116, 129
Toxic substances, 279
Trade unions, 66
Traffic routes hazards and controls, 105–6
Training:
demolition, 168
drivers, 184–5
electrical hazards, 245
fire safety duties, 255
health and safety, 62–4
hierarchy of risk control, 83–4
investigations, 336
manual handling, 220
safe systems of work, 90
work equipment, 191
Transformers, 241
Travel distances for fire escapes, 269
Trenches:
boxes, 148
excavations, 142
Trespassers, construction site, 77
Trestles, 123–4
Trip devices, 206
Trips, 171–3
Two-handed control devices, 207
Ultraviolet radiation, 322
Underground services, 148–9
Uninsured costs, 11–12
Unsafe conditions in fire risk assessments,
262–3
Urinary system, 282
Users’ responsibilities for work equipment,
194
Index
500Vane anemometers, 290
Vapours, 278
Vehicles:
condition, 185
construction sites, 181–2
hazards and controls, 105–6
journeys, 186
movements, 171–88
operations, 178–9
safety equipment, 185
scheduling, 186
suitability, 185
time, 186
weather, 186
Ventilation:
COSHH regulations, 291–2
ducting, 292
electrical equipment, 242
work environment issues, 313
Very narrow aisle (VNA) trucks, 220
Vibration white finger (VWF), 308
Vibrations:
exposure values, 308
hand–arm, 307
ill-health, 308
regulations, 471–3
Violence, workplace, 325–8
Viruses, 278
Visitors, construction site, 77
Visual problems, 312–13
VNA see Very narrow aisle trucks
Volts, 238
VWF see vibration white finger
WAHR see Work at Height Regulations
(WAHR)
Waling frames, 148
Washing facilities, 110
Waste:
controlled, 372
disposal, 301–2
management licences, 372–5
regulations, 481–2
Water:
pollution, 301
working over, 120–1
WBV see whole-body vibration
Weather, vehicles, 186
Weather working at height, 120
Weil’s disease, 286
Welfare:
checklist, 50
definition, 2
facilities, 110–11
WELs see Workplace Exposure Limits
Wet cement, 285
Wheeled excavators, 224
Wheels, abrasive, 191
Whole-body vibration (WBV), 308–9,
310–11
Wood dust, 285
Work at Height Regulations
(WAHR) 2005, 115–18, 134,
475–9
Work environment, physical and
psychological hazards,
313–14
Work equipment:
hazards and control, 189–214
instructions, 191
self-propelled, 199–200
users’ responsibilities, 194
Work permits, 90–3
Work related ill-health, 3, 71
Work related upper limb
disorders (WRULDs), 216,
306–8, 312
Workers with a disability risk
assessment, 76
Workforce co-operation, 45
Working above ground, 121–35
Working environment:
injuries risk reduction, 219
manual handling risk assessments,
217–18
Working equipment:
environment, 193–4
operation, 193–4
Working over water, 120–1
Working Time Regulations 1998
as amended by 1999 Regulations,
483
Workplace:
inspection exercises, 359–60
lifting equipment, 221
mechanical handling equipment,
220–1
stress, 323–5
violence, 325–8
Workplace Exposure Limits (WELs), 87, 284,
287–8
Workplace (Health, Safety
and Welfare) Regulations
1992, 473–5
Workstations:
design, 305–13
seating, 314
Writing reports, 353–5
Written communications, 62
WRULDs see Work Related Upper Limb
Disorders
X-rays, 321
Young persons risk assessment, 76


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