كتاب Hollow Glass Microspheres for Plastics, Elastomers, and Adhesives Compounds
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 كتاب Hollow Glass Microspheres for Plastics, Elastomers, and Adhesives Compounds

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Hollow Glass Microspheres for Plastics, Elastomers, and Adhesives Compounds
Edited by
Stephen E. Amos , Baris Yalcin

كتاب Hollow Glass Microspheres for Plastics, Elastomers, and Adhesives Compounds  H_g_m_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Table of contents
1. Introduction
Early Application Examples
2. Characterization
Density
True Density Using Gas Pycnometer
Bulk Isostatic Compression of HGMs
Uniaxial Compression Testing of Individual HGMs
Thermal Characterization
Thermal Conductivity
Electrical Properties and Dielectric Properties
Microscopic Imaging of HGMs
3. Hollow Glass Microspheres in Thermoplastics
Introduction
Benefits of HGMs in Thermoplastics
Productivity Benefits of HGMs Through Faster Cooling Rates from the Melt
Dimensional Stability
Processing of HGMs
Pelletizing Effect on HGM Survival
Effect of Polymer Melt Viscosity on HGM Survival
Effect of Back Pressure on HGM Survival
Effect of HGM Loading on HGM Survival
HGMs in Polyolefins
HGMs in GF Filled PP
Case Study—Chemically Coupled GF Reinforced PP
HGMs in Talc Filled PP
HGMs in Unfilled Polyolefins
HGMs in PA
Comparative Review of other Thermoplastic Weight Reduction Methodologies and Combinations with HGMs
4. Hollow Glass Microspheres in Rubbers and Elastomers
Benefits of HGM Use in Rubber
Physical Property Changes
Incorporation of HGMs in Rubber
2-Roll Mills
Internal Mixers
Other Incorporation Methods
Rubber Additive Formulations and HGM Considerations
Application of HGM in Rubber; Example 1—Pneumatic Tires
Application of HGM in Rubber; Example 2—Shoe Soles
Application of HGM in Rubber; Example 3—Wire and Cable Compounds
5. Hollow Glass Microspheres in Sheet Molding Compounds
Sheet Molding Compound Basics
SMC Process
Hollow Glass Microspheres in SMCs
6. Hollow Glass Microspheres in Thermosets—Epoxy Syntactic Foams
Introduction
Application of Epoxy Syntactic Foams
Hollow Particle Properties
Fabrication of Syntactic Foams
Mechanical Properties
Compressive Properties
Tensile Properties
Electrical Properties
Thermal Properties
Multifunctional Syntactic Foams
Summary
List of Symbols
7. Hollow Glass Microspheres in Polyurethanes
Polyurethane Basics
HGMs in Thermoplastic PUs
HGMs in Thermoset PU
Syntactic PU Foams
Specialty PU Composites
PU Foams
8. Hollow Glass Microspheres in Plastisols
Background Information
HGM Use and Benefits for Plastisols
Plastisol Mixing and Preparation
9. Hollow Glass Microspheres in Repair Compounds
Auto Repair Compounds
Wall Repair (Spackle Compounds)
Tape Joint Compound
10. Handling of Hollow Glass Microspheres
Silos and Hoppers
Transfer of HGMs
11. Mixing and Dispersion of Hollow Glass Microsphere Products
Hollow Glass Microsphere Transport to Mixer
Fundamentals of Dispersion
Mixing and Dispersing Hollow Glass Microsphere Products
Mixing Dynamics and Dispersion Blade Placement
Mixer Design Options
Difficulty in Mixing of Hollow Glass Microsphere-Filled Products
The Science of Mixing and Dispersing
Rheological Effects on Dispersion
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f ” and “t” indicate figures and tables respectively.
A
Additives, 4e5, 54t, 175
inorganic additives, 12
low-profile additives, 127e128
in plastisols, 201
rubber additive formulations, 116, 117t
Aluminum trihydrate, 35, 135t
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM) Standard
bulk isostatic compression, 14
low-shrinkage phenolic molding
compound, 143, 144t
Aminosilane, 57, 182
Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO), 4
Apparent density. See Bulk density
Army Cardboard, 1
Auger, 258e259
helical, 211e212, 255, 258
multishaft dispersers, 255
side feeder auger system, 47e48
Auto repair compounds, 215e219, 215f,
217te219t
ingredients of, 216
metal patching compound, 216e217,
217t
performance with varying silica/talc
filler admixture, 217e219, 218t
silica/talc admixture and HGMs, 217,
217t
Axial pumper impeller, 246, 246f
B
Back pressure effect, on HGM survival,
49e52, 50f
Banbury mixer, 112, 114e115, 115f
Binders, 220e221
Bismaleimide, 148
Box-angle blade, 256
Bulk bag discharging, 235e237, 238f, 239f
Bulk density, 7e9, 8f
Bulk isostatic compression, 14, 15f
Buoyancy, 121e122
1,4-Butanediol (BDP), 176e177
C
Cable compounds, hollow glass
microsphere use in, 121e122
Cenospheres, 2e3
Cis-polyisoprene, 107, 107f
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE),
4e6, 57
of epoxy syntactic foams, 149
Compression
bulk isostatic, 14, 15f
of epoxy syntactic foams, 153e156,
154fe155f
set, 110, 111f
Compressive failure strain, 15
Compressive properties, 148e149,
153e156
methods of measuring, 14
strength and modulus, 154e156, 155f,
195, 196t
Compressive stresses, 49
Contact angles, in mixing process, 264,
264f
Conveying lines, 234
Cooling rate effect, 36e40, 38fe39f,
39t, 40f
Corporate Average Fuel Economy
(CAFE´ ), 4
Cothickeners, 221
Cyanate ester, 148
D
DCPD (Dicyclopentadiene) resins, 126
Deagglomeration, 243e244, 249,
251e253, 268
Density, 3e5, 5f, 7e9
bulk, 7e9, 8f
of cenospheres, 2e3
measurement of, 9e13, 10f
273Density (Continued)
modification, 1e3, 108
tap, 7
true, 7e13, 8f
Design options, mixer. See Mixer design
options
Dielectric constant
defined, 21
of HGMs, 22
Dielectric properties, 19e25, 22t, 23f
Differential thermal analysis (DTA), 16
Diluents, 203
Dimensional stability, 41e42, 42te43t,
44f, 45t, 46f
Direct injection molding method,
29, 30f
Dispersion
blade placement, mixing dynamics and,
252e254, 253fe254f
fundamentals of, 242e248
rheological effects on, 268e271,
268fe269f
Double diaphragm pneumatic pump
transfer of HGMs, 231e232,
232fe233f
Dow Chemical Company, 4
Dual-shaft dispersers, 244, 245f,
255e260
E
Electrical properties
of epoxy syntactic foams, 163e165,
164t, 165f
of hollow glass microspheres, 19e25,
25f
Elongation at break, 109e110, 110f
Elution alkalinity, light weight
unsaturated polyester compounds
effects on, 134e137, 138t
EP-diene rubber (EPDM), 54, 54t
Epoxy syntactic foams, hollow glass
microspheres in, 147e174
application of, 148e149
compressive properties, 153e156,
154fe155f
electrical properties, 163e165, 164t,
165f
fabrication, 152e153, 152f
flexural properties, 160e162, 162f
hollow particle properties, 149e152,
151f, 151t
mechanical properties, 153
multifunctional syntactic foams,
166e169, 168f
tensile properties, 156e162, 157f,
159f, 161f
thermal properties, 166, 167f
Ethyleneebutadiene (EB), 54, 54t
Ethyleneeoctene (EO), 54, 54t
Ethylene propylene rubber (EPR), 54
-diene rubber. See EP-diene rubber
(EPDM)
Extrusion, 49e50, 115e116
reactive extrusion, 178e179, 180t
F
Feet per minute (FPM), 247, 249
Fiber-reinforced flame retardant
polyurethane compositions, 193t
Fiber reinforcement, 123, 142e143
Fillers
inorganic, 222e225
synthetic inorganic, 221
Flame retardant polyurethane
compositions, 193t
fiber-reinforced, 193t
Flexural modulus, as function of density,
101, 103f
Flexural properties, of epoxy syntactic
foams, 160e162, 162f
Flow aids, 234, 235f
Fluoroelastomer, 109e110, 109fe111f,
115
Fly ash, 2e3
Foaming technology, 92
epoxy syntactic foams. See Epoxy
syntactic foams, hollow glass
microspheres in
MuCell injection molding technology,
87, 91f, 92e93, 93fe94f
multifunctional syntactic foams, hollow
glass microspheres in, 166e169,
168f
syntactic PU foams, hollow glass
microspheres in, 190e191
Focal plane merging, 31e32
274 INDEXG
Gas pycnometer, true density
measurement using, 9e13, 10f
Gate blade, 258
Glass fiber (GF)
filled polypropylene, hollow glass
microspheres in, 57e63, 58f,
59te60t
mechanical properties, 61e63, 62t,
64t
molded part formulas, 61, 61t
reinforced heat stabilized PA6, HGMSCF benefits in, 95e100, 95t, 96f,
96te97t, 98f, 99te100t
in sheet moulding compounds,
126e129, 132, 142e143
Glycerin, 14
Ground calcium carbonate (GCC), 202
H
Heat distortion temperature (HDT),
54, 63
Heat stabilizers, 203
Helical auger, 258. See also Auger
Helical sweep blade, 256
High density polyethylene (HDPE).
See also Polyethylene (PE)
wood composites, HGM two-step
compounding process in,
100e101, 101fe102f, 102t,
103f
High-shear dispersion blades, 251e252,
251f
Hollow glass microspheres (HGMs),
1e6, 5f
bulk isostatic compression of,
14, 15f
density of, 7e13
dielectric properties of, 19e25,
22t, 23f
electrical properties of, 19e25, 25f
in epoxy syntactic systems. See Epoxy
syntactic systems, hollow glass
microspheres in
flow issues with, 230f
handling of, 229e240
microscopic imaging of, 26e33,
26fe33f
in plastisols. See Plastisols
in polyurethanes, 183e188. See also
Thermoplastic polyurethanes
(TPUs)
reaction injection molding, 183e188,
187te189t
products, mixing and dispersion of,
241e272
in repair compound. See Repair
compound, hollow glass
microsphere in
in rubbers and elastomers, 107e122
in sheet moulding compounds. See
Sheet moulding compounds
(SMC)
thermal characterization, 16
thermal conductivity of, 16e19, 18f,
18t, 20t, 21f
in thermoplastics. See Thermoplastics,
hollow glass microspheres in
transfer of. See Transfer of HGMs
transport to mixer, 241e242
uniaxial compression testing of,
15e16
Hoppers, 229e231
asymmetric design, 231f
day and weigh combinations, 230f
Hoses, 234
I
In situ polymerization, 178e179
Ideal gas law, 9e10
Injection molding
direct injection molding method,
29, 30f
MuCell injection molding technology,
87, 91f, 92e93, 93fe94f
reaction injection molding, 183e188,
187te189t
Inorganic fillers, 222e225
Interference fringe analysis, 33
Interferometry-based technique, 31e32,
33f
Intermediate speed blades, 257e258
Isophthalic resins, 126
J
JELL-O, 112
INDEX 275K
Kanamite, 3
Kanium Corporation, 3
Kneading devices, 115e116
L
Lacquers, 244
Laser confocal method, 33
Limiting oxygen index (LOI), 192, 193t
Loading effect, on HGM survival,
51e53, 51f
Low-profile blade, 255e256
M
Melt flow index (MFI), 48fe49f, 49, 51f,
52, 65e72, 75
Melt flow rate (MFR), 50e51, 63,
92, 92f
4,40-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate
(MDI), 175e179
Microcellular foam (MuCell) injection
molding technology, 87, 91f,
92e93, 93fe94f
Microscopic imaging, of hollow glass
microspheres, 26e33, 26fe33f
Mixer design options, 254e260
dual-shaft dispersers, 255e260
single shaft dispersers, 255
tri-shaft dispersers, 255e260
Mixers
and dispersers. See Mixer design options
internal mixers, 114e115
multishaft mixers, 211
recommended mixers, 131
rotary mixers, 186
static mixers, 186
Mixing of hollow glass microspherefilled products, 241e272
design options. See Mixer design options
difficulties in, 260e262
additions, location of, 262, 263f
particle size and shape effect, on
dispersibility, 261e262
Multifunctional syntactic foams, hollow
glass microspheres in, 166e169,
168f
Multishaft mixer, blade configuration
of, 257f
N
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA),
148e149
Nylon. See Polyamide (PA)
O
Optical microscopy, 29e32,
29fe32f
Organosol, 201, 203
Orthophthalic resins, 126
P
Pelletizing effect, on HGM survival,
48e49, 48f
Perlite, 3, 3f
Phenol, 148
Philadelphia Quartz (PQ) Corporation, 2
Physical property changes, 109e111,
109fe111f
Pitched-angle blade, 256
Plasterboard, heavyweight versus
lightweight spackle in, 220,
220f
Plastic, 1. See also Thermoplastics,
hollow glass microspheres in
HGM versus CaCO3-filled laminated
plastic, 137, 142t
polyurethanes, 183e188. See also
Thermoplastic polyurethanes
(TPUs)
reasons to use HGMs in, 5e6
optical microscopy, 29
Plasticizers, 175, 201e202, 212,
225
Plastisols, 201e214
background information,
201e204
blocked polyisocyanurate-containing,
208f
HGM use and benefits for, 204e211,
207t, 208f, 208te211t
high- and low-density compositions,
207t
lightweight abrasion-resistant
composition, 211t
manufacturing of, 205f
mixing and preparation, 211e212
276 INDEXPMMA (para-Methoxymethamphetamine),
202e203
Pneumatic tires, hollow glass
microsphere use in, 117e119,
118f
Polyamide (PA)
cycle time analysis for, 42t
hollow glass microspheres in, 75e87,
82te84t, 86t, 88te89t, 90fe91f
Polyamide 6 (PA6)
composites, 38e39
GF reinforced heat stabilized, HGMSCF benefits in, 95e100, 95t, 96f,
96te97t, 98f, 99te100t
Polyaminoamides (PAA), 203
Polyethylene (PE)
high density. See High density
polyethylene (HDPE)
hollow glass microspheres in, 53
Polymeric isocyanate, 191
Polymer melt viscosity effect, on HGM
survival, 49, 49f
Polymer wood composites (PWC), 40,
100e101
drawback of, 101e103
Polyolefins, hollow glass microspheres
in, 53e57
unfilled, 65e75, 69te71t, 72f, 73t, 74f,
76te80t
Polypropylene (PP), 30f, 32f
glass fiber filled, hollow glass
microspheres in, 57e63, 58f,
59te60t
mechanical properties, 61e63, 62t,
64t
molded part formulas, 61, 61t
GF reinforced heat stabilized, HGMSCF benefits in, 98e100, 99te100t
peroxide visbreaking in, 92
talc filled, hollow glass microspheres in,
63e65, 66te68t
Polyurethanes (PUs)
flame retardant compositions, 193t
fiber-reinforced, 193t
foams, 194e195, 196te198t
hollow glass microspheres in,
175e200
specialty composites, 191e192
syntactic PU foams. See Syntactic PU
foams; hollow glass
microspheres in
thermoplastic. See Thermoplastic
polyurethanes (TPUs)
thermoset. See Thermoset
polyurethanes; hollow glass
microspheres in
two-step reaction, 176f
Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), 220e221,
226e227
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 220,
222e224
Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastisol,
201e202, 205f, 212
Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC),
202
Q
Quantification, 16
R
Radial pumper (super pumper),
249e251, 249f
Ram presses discharge high-viscosity
products, 212, 213f
Reaction injection molding (RIM),
183e188, 185f
Repair compound, hollow glass
microsphere in, 215e228
auto repair compound, 215e219, 215f,
217te219t. See also Auto repair
compounds
tape joint compound, 225e227, 226t
wall repair (spackle compounds),
220e225
binders, 220e221
cothickeners, 221
inorganic fillers, 222e225,
223te225t
synthetic inorganic fillers, 221
thickeners, 221
water, 222
Revolutions per minute (RPM), 247e248
Roll mills
2-roll mills, 112e114, 113f, 114t
three-roll mills, 242
Rotor blade selection, 115, 115f
INDEX 277Rubber, hollow glass microsphere use in,
107e122
additive formulations, 116, 117t
applications of, 117e122, 118f,
120t
benefits of, 108e109
incorporation of, 111e112, 115e116
internal mixers, 114e115, 115f
physical property changes, 109e111,
109fe111f
2-roll mills. See Roll mills
S
Sandability, 217e219
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
broken spheres, wall thickness planes of,
26e28, 27f
compositional mode of, 26, 26f
level of binding, 28f, 29
topography mode of, 26, 27f
Scotch tape, 29
Screw feeder, nonuniform and uniform
discharge using, 237f
Separation inhibitors, 203
Shear rate
dependent viscosity data, 49, 49f
effect on channel depth and screw speed,
44, 47f
viscosity behavior, 204
Sheet moulding compounds (SMC),
123e146
basics of, 123e128
categories of, 125e128, 128f
hollow glass microspheres in, 129e143,
132te135t, 137f, 138t, 140t, 141f,
142t, 144t
ingredients, 124t
low density-low profile, 132e133,
135t
low-density flame retardant, 132e133,
135t
sheet moulding compound process,
128e129, 129f
Shoe soles, hollow glass microsphere
use in, 119e121, 120t
Sight tubes, 235
Sight windows, 235
Silos, 229e231
Single shaft dispersers, 255
Spackling, 220
STRUKTOL TPW 104, 100e101
Styrene, 127f
Styreneeethyleneebutadieneestyrene
(SEBS), 54
Supercritical fluid (SCF) molding,
92e95
hollow glass microspheres with,
95e100
Surface tension, 263e264
Syntactic PU foams, hollow glass
microspheres in, 190e191
Synthetic inorganic fillers, 221
T
Talc filled polypropylene, hollow
glass microspheres in, 63e65,
66te68t
Tap density, 7
Tape joint compound, 225e227
low-shrinkage, 225e227, 226t
Tensile properties, of epoxy syntactic
foams, 156e162, 157f, 159f, 161f
Tensile strength, 110e111, 111f
Thermal characterization, 16
Thermal conductivity, 16e19, 18f, 18t,
20t, 21f, 104f
Thermal properties, of epoxy syntactic
foams, 166, 167f
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs),
107e108, 121e122
Thermoplastic olefin (TPO), 35e36,
53e58, 63
components and functions of, 54t
Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs),
176
hollow glass microspheres in, 178e182,
180te181t, 182f
changes in swelling ratios,
185f
mechanical properties, 182, 183t
surface treatment options, 184f
tensile strength, 184f
twin screw compounding
configuration, 179e182, 182f
volume loss percent due to HGM
breakage, 181t
278 INDEXThermoplastics, hollow glass
microspheres in, 35e106
back pressure effect, on HGM survival,
49e51, 50f
benefits of, 36
dimensional stability, 41e42,
42te43t, 44f, 45t, 46f
productivity benefits through faster
cooling rates from melt, 36e40,
38fe39f, 39t, 40f
GF filled polypropylene, 57e63, 58f,
59te60t
mechanical properties, 61e63, 62t,
64t
molded part formulas, 61, 61t
HGM loading effect on HGM survival,
51e53, 51f
pelletizing effect on HGM survival,
48e49, 48f
polyamide. See Polyamide (PA)
polymer melt viscosity effect on HGM
survival, 49, 49f
polyolefins. See Polyolefins; hollow
glass microspheres in
processing of, 42e48, 46fe47f
talc filled polypropylene, 63e65,
66te68t
weight reduction technologies,
comparative review, 87e103,
91fe92f
Thermoset polyurethanes, hollow glass
microspheres in, 183e188
reaction injection molding, 183e188,
187te189t
Thermosetting resin, 123, 142e143
3M Company, 1e2, 2f, 4, 38, 115, 121
Thickeners, 221
Tilt table, 235
Tolylenediisocyanate (TDI), 175e177
Transfer of HGMs, 231e239
bulk bag discharging, 235e237, 238f,
239f
conveying lines, 234
double diaphragm pneumatic pump
transfer, 231e232, 232fe233f
flow aids, 234, 235f
hoses, 234
tilt table, 235
vacuum transfer, 235e237, 236f
vacuum wand pickup, 233
Transportation, hollow glass microsphere
use in, 107e108, 121
Tri-shaft dispersers, 255e260
Tri-shaft mixer, 211e212, 212f, 259
True density, 7e9, 8f
measurement of, using gas pycnometer,
9e13, 10f
Turbine blades, 258
Twin screw extruder (TSE), 42e44, 47f,
100e101
U
Unfilled polyolefins, hollow glass
microspheres in, 65e75, 69te71t,
72f, 73t, 74f, 76te80t
Uniaxial compression testing,
15e16
Union Carbide Corporation, 2
Unsaturated polyester (UP), 123
Unsaturated polyester resin (UPR), 123,
126e128
raw materials for, 123e126, 125t
Urethane polymers. See Polyurethanes
(PUs)
USS Zumwalt, 148
V
Vacuum wand pickup, 233, 234f
van der Waals forces, 244
Vinyl ester (VE), 123, 148
Vinyl urethane, modified, 123
Viscosity, estimating effects on,
263e264, 267f
W
Wall repair (spackle compounds),
220e225
binders, 220e221
cothickeners, 221
inorganic fillers, 222e225,
223te225t
synthetic inorganic fillers, 221
thickeners, 221
water, 222
Water, 222
Wear resistance, 110
Wetting phenomena, 264
INDEX 279Wiper blades, 256e257
Wire compounds, hollow glass
microsphere use in, 121e122
X
Xylene, 192
Y
Yield stress, 267
YoungeDupre equation, 263
Z
Z-stacking, 31e32


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رابط من موقع عالم الكتب لتنزيل كتاب Hollow Glass Microspheres for Plastics, Elastomers, and Adhesives Compounds
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كتاب Hollow Glass Microspheres for Plastics, Elastomers, and Adhesives Compounds
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» كتاب Permeability Properties of Plastics and Elastomers
» كتاب The Effect of Sterilization on Plastics and Elastomers
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» كتاب The Effect of Temperature and Other Factors on Plastics and Elastomers
» كتاب The Effects of Sterilization Methods on Plastics and Elastomers

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