كتاب Risk Assessment - A Practical Guide to Assessing Operational Risks
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Risk Assessment - A Practical Guide to Assessing Operational Risks

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Risk Assessment - A Practical Guide to Assessing Operational Risks    كتاب Risk Assessment - A Practical Guide to Assessing Operational Risks  Emptyالسبت 21 أكتوبر 2023, 1:37 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Risk Assessment - A Practical Guide to Assessing Operational Risks
Edited by
Georgi Popov
Bruce K. Lyon
Bruce Hollcroft

كتاب Risk Assessment - A Practical Guide to Assessing Operational Risks  R_a_s_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :

CONTENTS
Preface xvii
Foreword xxi
List of Contributors xxiii
About the Companion Websites xxv
1 Risk Assessments: Their Significance and the Role of the Safety Professional 1
Fred A. Manuele
1.1 Objectives, 1
1.2 Introduction, 1
1.3 What is a Risk Assessment? 2
1.4 Activities at the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE), 2
1.5 An Example of a Guideline that gives Risk Assessment due Recognition, 3
1.6 ANSI/AIHA/ASSE Z10-2012: The Standard for Occupational Health and Safety
Management Systems, 4
1.7 ANSI/ASSE Z590.3-2011: Prevention through Design: Guidelines for Addressing
Occupational Hazards and Risks in Design and Redesign Processes, 4
1.8 THE ANSI/ASSE Z690-2011 Series, 6
1.9 ANSI B11.0-2015: Safety of Machinery. General Safety Requirements and Risk
Assessment – A Standard of Major Consequence, 7
1.10 European Union: Risk Assessment, 8
1.11 EN ISO 12100-2010: Safety of Machinery. General Principles for Design. Risk
Assessment, and Risk Reduction, 8
1.12 Additional European Influence, 9
1.13 MIL-STD-882E-2012. The US Department of Defense Standard Practice for System
Safety, 9
1.14 Certain Governmental Views, 11
1.14.1 Risk Reduction Program, 12
vii
F E Bviii CONTENTS
1.15 Canada, 12
1.16 Fire Protection, 13
1.17 Developments in Aviation Ground Safety, 13
1.18 OSHA Requirements, 14
1.19 EPA Requirements, 15
1.20 The Chemical Industry: The Extensive Body of Information, 16
1.21 Conclusion, 16
Review Questions, 16
References, 17
Appendix 1.A: A List of Standards, Guidelines, and Initiatives That Require or
Promote Making Risk Assessments: Commencing with Year 2005, 18
2 Risk Assessment Standards and Definitions 23
Bruce Hollcroft & Bruce K. Lyon
2.1 Objectives, 23
2.2 Introduction, 23
2.3 The Need for Risk Assessments, 24
2.4 Key Standards Requiring Risk Assessments, 24
2.5 OSHA Compliance and Risk Assessments, 24
2.5.1 1910.132, Personal Protective Equipment Standard, 25
2.5.2 1910.119, Process Safety Management Standard, 25
2.5.3 Other OSHA Standards, 26
2.6 Consensus Standards Requiring Risk Assessment, 27
2.7 ANSI/AIHA/ASSE Z10-2012, Occupational Health and Safety Management
Systems, 27
2.8 ISO 31000/ANSI/ASSE Z690 Risk Management Series, 28
2.9 ANSI/ASSE Z590.3-2011, Prevention through Design, 29
2.10 ANSI B11.0 Machine Safety, 30
2.11 NFPA 70E, 31
2.12 MIL-STD-882E, 11 May 2012, Department of Defense Standard Practice, System
Safety, 31
2.13 Key Terms and Definitions, 32
2.14 Summary, 46
Review Questions, 47
References, 47
3 Risk Assessment Fundamentals 49
Bruce Hollcroft & Bruce K. Lyon
3.1 Objectives, 49
3.2 Introduction, 49
3.3 Risk Assessment within the Risk Management Framework, 50
3.4 Risk Assessments and Operational Risk Management Systems, 51
3.5 The Purpose of Assessing Risk, 52
3.6 The Risk Assessment Process, 53
3.7 Selecting a Risk Assessment Matrix, 53
3.8 Establishing Context, 55
3.9 The Risk Assessment Team, 57
3.10 Hazard/Risk Identification, 58
F E BCONTENTS ix
3.11 Risk Analysis, 59
3.11.1 Consequence Analysis, 59
3.11.2 Likelihood Analysis, 59
3.11.3 Assessment of Controls, 60
3.12 Risk Evaluation, 60
3.13 Risk Treatment, 61
3.14 Communication, 61
3.15 Documentation, 62
3.16 Monitoring and Continuous Improvement, 63
3.17 Summary, 64
Review Questions, 64
References, 64
4 Defining Risk Assessment Criteria 67
Bruce K. Lyon & Bruce Hollcroft
4.1 Objectives, 67
4.2 Introduction, 67
4.3 Defining Risk Criteria, 68
4.4 Risk Scoring Systems, 69
4.5 Risk Assessment Matrices, 71
4.6 Defining Risk Values, 71
4.6.1 Qualitative Risk Models, 72
4.6.2 Semiquantitative Risk Models, 72
4.6.3 Quantitative Risk Models, 73
4.7 Risk Factors, 74
4.8 Risk Levels, 74
4.9 Risk Scoring, 75
4.10 Severity of Consequence, 76
4.11 Likelihood of Occurrence, 77
4.12 Exposure, 79
4.13 Risk Reduction and the Hierarchy of Controls, 79
4.13.1 Using a Protection Factor, 83
4.14 Acceptable and Unacceptable Risk Levels, 84
4.15 Documenting Risk, 85
4.16 Communicating Risk Criteria, 88
4.17 Summary, 88
Review Questions, 88
References, 89
Appendix 4.A, 90
5 Fundamental Techniques 91
Bruce K. Lyon
5.1 Objectives, 91
5.2 Introduction to Fundamental Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment, 91
5.3 Assessments Within an Operational Risk Management System, 93
5.4 Hazard Analysis Versus Risk Assessment, 94
5.5 The Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment Process, 96
5.6 Fundamental Methods, 99
F E Bx CONTENTS
5.7 Informal Methods, 100
5.8 Formal Methods, 103
5.8.1 Fundamental Hazard Analysis, 103
5.8.2 Pretask Hazard Analysis, 104
5.8.3 Job Hazard Analysis, 104
5.8.4 Fundamental Risk Assessment, 109
5.8.5 Job Risk Assessment, 110
5.9 Conclusion, 112
Review Questions, 112
References, 113
Appendix 5.A, 114
Appendix 5.B: Common Hazards and Descriptions, 115
Appendix 5.C: Personal Protective Equipment Hazard Assessment
Form Example, 118
Appendix 5.D: Job Hazard Analysis Form Example, 119
6 What-If Hazard Analysis 121
Bruce K. Lyon
6.1 Objectives, 121
6.2 Introduction, 121
6.3 Overview and Background, 121
6.4 Process Hazard Analysis, 122
6.5 Mandated Assessments, 123
6.6 What-If Analysis and Related Methods, 125
6.6.1 Brainstorming – Structured and Unstructured, 125
6.6.2 Checklist Analysis, 126
6.6.3 What-If Hazard Analysis, 127
6.6.4 What-If/Checklist, 130
6.6.5 Structured What-If Technique (SWIFT), 131
6.6.6 Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Study, 135
6.7 Risk Scoring and Ranking, 137
6.8 Application of “What-If”, 139
6.9 Conclusion, 143
Review Questions, 143
References, 144
7 Preliminary Hazard Analysis 145
Georgi Popov & Bruce K. Lyon
7.1 Objectives, 145
7.2 Introduction, 145
7.3 Preliminary Hazard List, 147
7.4 PHAs and their Application, 147
7.5 The Control of Hazardous Energy, 148
7.6 Fundamental System Safety Tenets, 149
7.7 Conducting a PHA, 150
7.8 Scoring Systems, 152
7.9 Practical Application, 153
7.10 Summary, 157
F E BCONTENTS xi
Review Questions, 157
References, 157
Practical Example, 161
8 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis 163
Georgi Popov & Bruce K. Lyon
8.1 Objectives, 163
8.2 Introduction, 163
8.3 Purpose and Use, 164
8.4 Defining Failure Modes, 166
8.5 Risk Description Considerations, 167
8.6 FMEA Process Steps, 172
8.7 Practical Application, 175
8.8 Summary, 176
Review Questions, 179
References, 179
Practical Example – Assignment #2 – FMEA, 179
9 Bow-Tie Risk Assessment Methodology 181
Georgi Popov & Bruce K. Lyon
9.1 Objectives, 181
9.2 Introduction, 181
9.3 History, 182
9.4 Overview, 182
9.5 Bow-Tie Methodology, 184
9.6 Practical Application, 186
9.6.1 Case Study #1: Spray Paint Operation, 186
9.6.2 Case Study #2: Bhopal Disaster, 193
9.7 Summary, 195
Review Questions, 195
References, 196
Appendix 9.A: QAP Corporation – Annual Report, 196
10 Design Safety Reviews 209
Bruce K. Lyon
10.1 Objectives, 209
10.2 Introduction, 209
10.3 Challenges and Obstacles to Overcome, 211
10.4 Standards Requiring Design Safety, 214
10.5 The Review of Designs, 215
10.6 Hazardous Energy Control, 216
10.7 Ergonomic Review of Designs, 217
10.8 Design Review Process, 218
10.9 Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment in Design, 220
10.10 Conclusion, 224
Review Questions, 225
References, 225
F E Bxii CONTENTS
11 Risk Assessment and the Prevention Through Design (PtD) Model 227
Georgi Popov, Bruce K. Lyon, & John N. Zey
11.1 Objectives, 227
11.2 Introduction, 227
11.3 The Concept of Prevention Through Design (PtD), 229
11.4 Risk Assessment Process and the PtD Model, 229
11.5 Case Study, 234
11.5.1 Methods, 234
11.5.2 Results, 234
11.5.3 Occupational Size-Selective Criteria and Particles Size Sampling, 237
11.6 PtD and the Business Process, 243
11.7 Summary, 244
Review Questions, 244
References, 244
12 Industrial Hygiene Risk Assessment 247
Georgi Popov, Steven Hicks, & Tsvetan Popov
12.1 Objectives, 247
12.2 Introduction, 247
12.3 Fundamental Concepts, 248
12.4 Anticipating and Identifying Occupational Health Risks, 249
12.5 Determining Occupational Health Risks, 250
12.5.1 Health Risk Rating Methodology, 250
12.5.2 Exposure Rating Methodologies, 251
12.5.3 Health Effect and Exposure Methodology, 251
12.5.4 COSHH Essentials Tool, 251
12.5.5 OSHA’s Calculation for Mixtures, 254
12.5.6 The ART Tool, 254
12.5.7 Stoffenmanager, 254
12.6 Health Risk Assessments and Prioritization, 255
12.7 Modified HRR/IH FMEA Methodology, 256
Sampling, 257
Results, 257
12.8 Control Banding Nanotool, 261
12.9 Dermal Risk Assessment, 261
12.10 Occupational Health Risk and PTD Process Alignment, 262
12.11 Summary, 264
Review Questions, 265
References, 265
13 Machine Risk Assessments 267
Bruce K. Lyon
13.1 Objectives, 267
13.2 Introduction, 267
13.3 Machine Safety Standards, 268
13.4 Machine Hazards, 270
13.5 Machine Safeguarding, 271
13.5.1 Machine Safety Control Systems, 273
F E BCONTENTS xiii
13.6 Selecting Machines for Assessment, 274
13.7 Risk Assessment of Machines, 274
13.8 Estimating Risk, 278
13.9 Case Study, 279
13.10 Assessment of Machine Maintenance and Service, 282
13.10.1 Risk Assessment Process, 284
13.10.2 Risk Reduction Process, 285
13.11 Summary, 285
Review Questions, 286
References, 286
Appendix 13.A: Machine Safeguards Methods, 287
14 Project-Oriented Risk Assessments 291
Bruce K. Lyon
14.1 Objectives, 291
14.2 Introduction, 291
14.3 Fatalities and Serious Incidents, 293
14.4 Error Traps in Nonroutine Tasks, 294
14.5 Management of Change, 294
14.6 Construction Project Work, 296
14.7 Construction Project Risk Assessment, 297
14.8 Safe Work Methods, 299
14.9 Pretask Hazard Analysis, 301
14.10 The Use of Checklists, 303
14.11 Maintenance and Service Work, 304
14.12 Operating Hazard Analysis, 305
14.13 Analyzing Specific Hazards, 308
14.14 Pre-Entry Hazard Analysis, 308
14.15 Fall Hazard Assessment, 311
14.16 Summary, 317
Review Questions, 317
References, 317
15 Food Processing Risk Assessments 319
Georgi Popov, Bruce K. Lyon, & Ying Zhen
15.1 Objectives, 319
15.2 Overview, 319
15.3 Introduction to Food Risk, 320
15.4 Risk Assessment Techniques in the Food Industry, 320
15.5 Food Safety-Related Hazards, 321
15.5.1 Biological Food Hazards, 321
15.5.2 Chemical Food Hazards, 322
15.5.3 Physical Food Hazards, 323
15.6 Techniques for Assessing Food Risk, 323
15.7 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, 324
15.8 Integration of Risk Assessment Methods, 325
15.9 PtD and HACCP Integration, 338
15.10 Conclusions, 339
F E Bxiv CONTENTS
Review Questions, 340
References, 340
16 Ergonomic Risk Assessment 343
Bruce K. Lyon & Georgi Popov
16.1 Objectives, 343
16.2 Introduction, 343
16.3 Ergonomics and Design, 344
16.4 Ergonomic Hazards, 345
16.5 Ergonomic Risk Factors, 346
16.6 Establishing an Ergonomics Assessment Process, 346
16.6.1 Scope and Context, 348
16.6.2 Goals and Objectives, 348
16.6.3 Responsibilities, 348
16.6.4 Training, 348
16.6.5 Ergonomics Team, 348
16.7 Assessing Ergonomic Risk, 349
16.8 Ergonomics Improvement Process, 350
16.8.1 Identify Jobs, 350
16.8.2 Assessment Tools, 351
16.8.3 Assessment Team, 352
16.8.4 Performing the Assessments, 352
16.8.5 Identifying Corrective Measures, 353
16.8.6 Implementing Measures, 353
16.8.7 Verify and Refine, 353
16.8.8 Communicate Results, 354
16.9 ERAT: A Practical Assessment Tool, 354
16.9.1 ERAT Example: Pork Processing Belly Grader, 356
16.10 Conclusion, 359
Review Questions, 360
References, 360
Appendix 16.A: Sample Ergonomic Responsibilities for Involved
Stakeholders, 361
Appendix 16.B: Sample Ergonomics Training for Involved Stakeholders, 363
Appendix 16.C: Ergonomic Risk Assessment Tool (ERAT) – Initial
Assessment, 365
Appendix 16.D: Ergonomic Risk Assessment Tool (ERAT) – Post-Control
Assessment, 366
Appendix 16.E: Hierarchy of Ergonomic Risk Controls, 367
17 Assessing Operational Risks at an Organizational Level 369
Bruce K. Lyon
17.1 Objectives, 369
17.2 Introduction, 369
17.3 Risks to an Organization, 370
17.4 Organizational Risk Management, 371
17.5 Key Definitions in Organizational Risk, 372
F E BCONTENTS xv
17.6 Assessing Organizational Risk, 373
17.7 Summary, 387
Review Questions, 387
References, 387
18 Risk Assessment Applications in Lean Six Sigma and Environmental Management
Systems 389
Georgi Popov
18.1 Objectives, 389
18.2 Introduction, 389
18.3 Environmental Management Systems (EMS), 390
18.4 ISO 14001 Implementation, 390
18.4.1 Environmental Policy and Planning, 392
18.4.2 Environmental Aspects, 393
18.4.3 Identify Environmental Aspects, 395
18.4.4 Identification Process, 395
18.4.5 Location, Department, Index, and Aspect, 396
18.4.6 Impacts to Environmental Properties, 397
18.4.7 Impact Subtotal and Polarity Adjustment, 397
18.4.8 Impact Severity, 398
18.4.9 Impact Probability, 398
18.4.10 Frequency, 400
18.4.11 Legal Risks, 400
18.4.12 Current Controls, 401
18.4.13 Significance Score for Significance Scores without Controls Section, 401
18.4.14 Personnel Risk, 401
18.4.15 Significance Scores with Controls Section, 403
18.4.16 Overall Significance Rating Chart, 403
18.5 EMS and Implementation of Lean Six Sigma Practices, 404
18.6 Conclusions, 407
Review Questions, 407
References, 408
19 Business Aspects of Operational Risk Assessment 409
Elyce Biddle
19.1 Objectives, 409
19.2 Introduction, 409
19.3 The Business Case Development Tool, 410
19.3.1 Steps of the Tool, 411
19.4 Business Case Examples, 412
19.4.1 Case Example One: Post Incident, 412
19.4.2 Case Example Two: Regulatory Requirement, 413
19.4.3 Case Example Three: Operational, 416
19.4.4 Case Example Four: Postoperational, 418
19.5 Conclusion, 424
Review Questions, 424
References, 424
F E Bxvi CONTENTS
20 Risk Assessment: Global Perspectives 427
Jim Whiting
20.1 Objectives, 427
20.2 Introduction, 427
20.3 Using ISO 31000 for Maturity Assurance and Conformity, 428
20.4 Global Uptake of ISO 31000: International Risk Management Standard, 431
20.5 Global Comparison of Risk Tolerance Criteria, 432
20.5.1 Individual Risk, 432
20.5.2 Societal Risk, 433
20.6 Tolerability Criterion for Individual Risk, 433
20.7 Tolerability Criteria for Planning New Operations, 435
20.8 Investment to Prevent a Fatality, 436
20.9 Shifting the Paradigm from Absolute Safety to Risk Management, 438
20.9.1 What Is Reasonably Practicable? 438
20.10 Moving Toward Risk-Based Language for more Effective Risk Conversations, 440
20.11 A Cautionary Concluding Note, 440
Review Questions, 440
References, 441
Appendix 20.A: Better Terminology and Language for Risk-Based Conversations, 442
Index 445
F E BINDEX
Acceptable risk, 5, 7, 20, 32, 60, 61, 84, 85, 146, 270, 277,
285, 383
Levels, 1, 4, 6–9, 11, 13, 47, 55–57, 59, 74, 84–85, 91,
93, 94, 99, 105, 110, 125, 149, 150, 174, 209, 214,
215, 218, 222, 224, 274, 276, 280, 295, 344, 379, 383
Accident, 8, 12, 25, 50, 58, 62, 76, 78, 107, 108, 123, 132,
135, 149, 169, 195, 267, 274, 276, 279, 285, 293, 297,
305, 333, 335, 370, 378, 432, 433
Adams, Paul, 210, 214
Administrative controls, 26, 40, 60, 62, 79–82, 89, 109, 124,
137, 149, 171, 194, 272, 277, 285, 313, 358, 367
ALARA. See As low as reasonably acceptable (ALARA)
ALARP. See As low as reasonably practicable (ALARP)
ALARP Model, 61
American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (ACGIH), 186, 352, 410
American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), 248,
250–252, 256–258, 261–262, 349, 350, 410
Ergonomics committee, 349–350
American Institute of Chemical Engineers’ (AIChE) Center
for Chemical Process Safety, 16, 123
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 4, 27, 28, 50,
122, 145, 164, 181, 209, 228, 263, 269, 323
American Petroleum Institute, 12
American Society of Safety Engineers, 2–3, 6, 28, 50, 105,
209, 222, 284
Designing for safety, 239
ANSI/AIHA/ASSE Z10, 4, 12, 18, 20–21, 27–28, 31, 51,
52, 62, 63, 70–72, 74, 77, 90, 93, 94, 99, 100, 172,
198–199, 204, 210, 214, 217, 220, 248–249, 255, 263,
283, 294, 344, 347, 372, 390, 428
Risk Assessment: A Practical Guide to Assessing Operational Risks, First Edition.
Edited by Georgi Popov, Bruce K. Lyon, and Bruce Hollcroft.
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ANSI/ASSE A10.1-2011, 301–302
ANSI/ASSE Z244.12003 (R2014), 269, 283–285
ANSI/ASSE Z590.3, 2, 4–6, 20, 27, 29–30, 53–55, 61–63,
70–71, 74–75, 80–82, 85, 92, 95–99, 114, 122, 145,
147, 150–152, 155, 164, 166–167, 169, 187, 190, 204,
209, 210, 214–215, 217, 218, 220–224, 229–234, 244,
248, 251, 256, 258, 263, 324, 325, 329–331, 339, 344,
348, 410, 412, 428
ANSI Z690.3 integration, 232, 233
Hazard identification and analysis, 231
ANSI/ASSE Z690.1-2011, 6, 28, 50, 67–68, 76, 95, 228
ANSI/ASSE Z690.2, 6, 28–29, 50, 61, 88, 91–92, 96,
228–230, 234, 243, 244, 319, 323, 325, 371, 428, 431
ANSI/ASSE Z690.3-2011, 2, 6–7, 28, 29, 52, 53, 56–60,
62, 63, 68–71, 73, 76, 80, 85, 91–93, 96–99, 104, 109,
114, 122, 125, 146, 147, 149, 164, 166, 181, 228, 230,
234, 248, 324, 327, 330, 339, 375, 412
ANSI B11.0, 7–8, 20, 27, 30–31, 69–71, 82–83, 215,
269–275, 277, 279
Risk assessment process, 275
ANSI B11.19, 30, 269, 271, 277
ANSI B11 standards, 269–270
ANSI B11.TR3-2000, 27, 31, 54, 269, 271, 278–280
Two-factor risk model (4×4), 290
ANSI B11.TR7-2007, 19
ANSI-ITAA GEIA-STD-0010-2009, 19
ANSI/PMMI B155.1-2011, 20
As low as reasonably acceptable (ALARA), 32
As low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), 32, 33, 60, 61,
64, 85, 98, 100, 109, 110, 139, 206, 330, 427,
438–440, 442
445446 INDEX
ASSE Risk Assessment Institute, 3, 71, 88, 212
Asset, 33, 46, 59, 76, 86, 94, 96, 122, 148, 150, 153, 155,
213, 217, 369, 371, 373–375, 377–381, 384, 385, 430
Audit, 33, 50, 96, 212, 392, 430
Australian Government, 18
Aviation ground safety, 13–14
Barrier, 33, 50, 62, 80, 82, 148, 157, 169, 181–186, 194,
195, 206, 212, 214, 217, 271–272, 280, 287–290, 312,
330, 420, 443
Benefits, 60, 200, 204, 224–225, 339, 390, 410, 412, 442
Financial, 203, 384, 436
Nonfinancial, 202, 418
Bhopal Disaster, 25, 184, 193–195, 438
Bow tie analysis, 7, 114, 152, 164, 181–195
Advantages and disadvantages, 183–184
Case studies, 186–196
Methodology, 182–185, 207, 220
Brainstorming, 6, 58, 97, 114, 122, 125–127, 129–132,
136, 139, 140, 142, 143, 147, 150, 157, 185, 186, 221,
234, 276, 297, 351, 353, 385
Advantages and disadvantages, 125–126
Methodology, 126
British Standards Institute (BSI), 9, 19, 27, 374
BSI IEC 61882:2001, 135–136
BS OHSAS 18001:2007, 9, 19, 52, 93, 295
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). 76
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 296
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs),
343
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and
Enforcement (BOEMRE), 12
Business case, 183, 203, 243, 409–410, 424
Cost/benefit data, 420
Development/tools, 410–412
Examples, 412–424
In occupational safety and health, 409–410
Business continuity, 122, 192, 373–375, 420
Business Continuity Institute (BCI), 374
Business impact analysis/assessment (BIA), 375–376
Business losses impact descriptions, 188
Business risk assessment matrix (BRAM), 188–189, 192,
205, 420
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
CSA Standard Z1000-2006, 12–13, 18, 21
Carlson, Carl S., 35, 164, 166
Cartesian coordinate system, 55, 71
Causal factor, 33, 97, 108, 109, 124, 147, 330
Cause identification, 185, 186
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 375
Checklist, 6, 15, 16, 26, 58, 96, 99, 101, 102, 108, 114, 122,
124–128, 130–132, 140, 147, 150, 185, 220, 221, 250,
276, 292, 296, 297, 302–304, 313, 352, 354, 355
Analysis method, 126–127
Advantages and disadvantages, 127
Process steps, 127
Christensen, Wayne C., 5, 210, 224, 229
Clemens, Patrick, 76, 146
Communication, 54, 58, 61–63, 70, 77, 81, 88, 94, 103,
194, 213–215, 220, 221, 229, 279, 292, 294, 325,
346, 351
Compliance, 24–25, 27, 28, 33, 50, 93, 139, 203, 210–213,
215–216, 221, 225, 237, 268–269, 311, 370, 393, 407,
440
Confined space entry, 24, 301, 308–311
Conformance, 33, 393, 430
Consequence, 2, 5, 7, 15, 26, 30, 33, 45, 46, 50, 51, 56,
59–61, 68, 79, 92, 96, 97, 102, 149, 181–184, 206,
222, 284, 312, 327, 375, 378, 411, 431
Analysis, 59
Identification, 136, 185
Severity of, 44–45, 54, 59, 60, 68, 69, 71–74,
76–77, 137–138, 167, 174, 188, 204, 280,
380, 381, 398
Construction, 25, 99, 101, 102, 104, 109, 291–292, 296,
297
Hazards, 301
Pre-project planning process, 297–298
Project risk assessment, 297–299
Risk factors, 297
Context
Establishing, 53, 55–57, 68–69
Purpose and scope, 56, 348
Continual improvement, 33, 51–52, 63–64, 93–94,
391–392
Contractor, 33
Control, 34
Assessment, 60, 80
Influences, 185
Reliability, 74
Selection, 188
Corrective action, 34
Cost-benefit analysis/data, 57, 85, 203, 213, 224, 353, 362,
380, 383–384, 390, 433
Covey, Stephen, 88
Critical Control Point (CCP) Decision Tree, 34, 168–170,
327–329
Current state risk, 34, 80, 84
Deepwater Horizon incident, 50
Definitions, 32–46
Dekker, Sydney, 294
Deming, W. Edwards, 52, 93–94
Design/redesign, 3, 4, 34, 40, 87, 209, 210, 214, 215, 221,
227, 229, 339
Design reviews, 51, 213–218, 224
Design safety
Challenges, 211–214
Standards, 214–215, 224–225
Design safety checklists, 210, 211
Design safety review, 34, 122, 148, 149, 209–210,
214–216, 218–224
Process, 218–220
Techniques, 221
Detection of failure, 74, 75, 81, 167
Documentation, 31, 62–63, 85–86, 100, 206, 277, 392,
410
Documenting risk, 85–86INDEX 447
Ebola epidemic, 375
EMS Lean Six Sigma (LSS), 389–390
Case study, 404–407
Implementation, 404
Energy release
Haddon’s theory, 148, 216–217
Energy types and hazards, 217
Engineering controls, 60, 80–82, 272, 277, 313, 358
EN ISO 12100-2010, 8–9
Enterprise risk management, 370, 430
Environmental aspects, 390–396, 398
Significant environmental aspect (SEA) decision-making
tree, 394–395
Environmental impact, 393–395
Environmental management system (EMS), 399–400
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 15, 41, 271, 400,
403, 414
Risk Management Plan (RMP), 15–16, 24, 123–125, 146
Ergonomic risk assessment tool (ERAT), 218, 339, 344, 349,
351–352, 365–366
Ergonomics, 34, 64, 353–355, 428–429
Assessment process, 336–338
Definition, 34, 344
Design, 344–345
Design review, 217–218
ERAT, 354–359
Hazards, 249, 271, 345–346
Hierarchy of controls, 358
Improvement process, 350–354
Risk assessment, 221, 349–350
Risk assessment techniques, 349
Risk factors, 346, 347, 355–356
Risks, 340
Escalating factors, 182, 185
European Directive 2002/44/EC, 234–235
European Union, 8, 19, 234
Hazard Statements (H Statements), 253
Risk Phrases (R-Phrases), 253
Event, 34
Event tree analysis, 59, 77, 182, 297
Exposure, 34–35, 68, 74, 79, 96, 97, 167, 169, 373, 378, 443
Action value, 235
Assessment, 35, 248
Frequency of, 74–75, 79
Limit value, 235
Rating methodologies, 251
Time duration of, 74, 79
ExxonMobil’s Operations Integrity Management System, 3,
19
Failure
Detection, 74, 75, 81, 167
Mode(s), 35, 97, 163, 166–167
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), 75, 78,
163–164, 185, 205
Application, 175–177
Process, 172–175
Purpose and use, 164–165
Failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA), 164
Fatality and Serious Incidents (FSI), 59, 62, 77, 293–294
Fault, 38, 59, 77, 146, 147, 149, 166, 182, 221, 283, 297,
304, 321, 330
Fault tree analysis, 59, 147, 182, 329–330
Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), 12,
Federal Transit Administration (FTA), 306
Field-level analysis, 101,
Financial benefits. See Benefits
Financial risk, 35
Fish bone diagram, 201, 325
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 12, 169, 320,
323–326, 434
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), 321, 323
Food processing
Biological hazards, 321–322
Chemical hazards, 322–323
Physical hazards, 323
Risk assessment techniques, 320–321
Risks, 319–320
Frequency, 35, 400–401, 443
Frequency of exposure, 35, 42, 68, 74, 75, 79, 97, 167,
169
Fundamental methods, 99–100, 109–110
Future state risk, 35, 80
Global perspectives, 427
Haddon, William, Jr., 148, 216–217
Hand and Arm Vibration Evaluation, 234–236
Harm, 35
Hayes, Fred, 273
Hazard, 36, 94, 210, 373
Hazard analysis, 36, 94–112, 182, 210
Formal methods, 103–112
Informal methods, 99–103
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP),
319–321, 324–325
Appropriate level of protection (ALOP), 321
Integration of PtD methods, 337–340
Integration of risk assessment methods, 325–337
Methodology, 324–325
Hazard analysis and risk assessment process, 53, 96–99,
220–224
Hazard and operability analysis (HAZOP), 122, 135–136,
185, 221, 297
Hazard area (zone), 36
Hazard-based efforts, 94–95
Hazard checklist, 108, 220, 296, 302
Hazard communication, 26, 94–95, 414
Hazard control, 75, 82, 83, 94, 167, 271, 272, 277, 282, 286,
301
Hazard control hierarchy, 82, 83, 271, 272, 286
Hazard descriptions, 115–117, 306
Hazard identification, 36, 58, 122, 146, 185, 186, 221
Hazard identification methods, 58
Hazardous, 37
Hazardous event/scenario, 37, 182
Hazard risk, 36
Hazard/risk avoidance, 36
Hazard/risk elimination, 37448 INDEX
Health and Safety Executive (HSE), 24, 49–50, 123,
235–236, 251, 253, 296
Likelihood levels, 299
Maintenance task analysis example, 304–305
Risk assessment matrix, 299
Severity levels, 298
Hierarchy of controls, 37, 60–63, 79–83, 209, 229, 353, 403
High level controls, 83
High-severity/low-probability events, 169
Howard, John, 213
Human error, 35, 107, 116, 138, 142, 146, 166, 221, 276,
294, 297, 306, 330, 346, 347, 373, 378, 443
Human factors, 37, 116, 146, 164, 221, 279, 344, 346, 373
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 344
Hunter, Thomas, 224
IEC/ISO 31010:2009. See ANSI/ASSE Z690.3-2011
Incident, 37
Incident investigation, 58, 103, 212, 293, 350
Individual risk, 432, 433, 438
Industrial hygiene (IH), 247–248
Industrial hygiene risk assessment, 247
Advanced REACH Tool (ART), 254
Case study, 256–260
Concept, 248–249
Control banding nanotool, 260
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH)
Essentials Tool, 251, 253
Dermal exposure, 260–261
Exposure Rating Categorization Scheme, 252
Exposure Rating Methodologies, 251
Health effect and exposure methodology, 261
Health risk prioritization, 255–256
Health risk rating matrix, 252
Health risk rating methodology, 250
Identifying health risks, 249–250
Modified HRR/IH FMEA method, 256, 259
OSHA’s calculation for mixtures, 254
PtD alignment, 261–264
Stoffenmanager, 254
Initial risk, 37, 80
The Institute, 370–371
International Ergonomics Association, 344
International Labor Office ILO-OSH 2001, 52
International Standards Organization (ISO), 228
International SEMATECH, 78–79, 139, 172–173
ISO 9001, 430–431
ISO 14001-2004, 52, 389–391, 430
Implementation, 390–404
ISO 22000, 321
ISO 22301:2012, 373
ISO 31000:2009, 228, 410, 427–432
Maturity conformance, 428–431
ISO 45001-2016, 28, 52, 93, 430, 431
ISO Guide 73:2009. See ANSI/ASSE Z690.1-2011
Job hazard analysis (JHA), 58, 93, 99, 104–109, 119, 153,
292, 301, 349
Job risk assessment, 93, 99, 100, 106, 109–110
Job safety analysis (JSA). See Job hazard analysis
Johnson, William G., 4, 122
Law of large numbers, 79
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), 261
Layers of protection analysis (LOPA), 114, 194, 206
Lean Six Sigma (LSS), 404, 407
Legal risks, 400–402
Level of risk, 2, 4, 14, 21, 32, 33, 38, 41, 56, 59, 60, 68, 83,
85, 95, 97, 249, 285, 324, 330
Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety-2013, 343
Life cycle, 38, 147, 210, 215–216, 224
Likelihood, 35, 38, 50, 77, 79, 86, 94, 96, 97
Likelihood analysis, 59
Likelihood of business loss descriptions, 188, 205
Likelihood of occurrence, 72–73, 77–78
Loss, 25, 35, 36, 39, 45, 52, 76, 77, 94, 147, 150, 188,
194, 204–206, 212, 220–222, 236, 249, 274,
312, 350, 369, 371–373, 375, 377, 380–382, 385,
411, 419, 433, 440
Loss analysis, 107–108, 212, 221
Lower-level controls, 84
Machine safety
Case study, 279–282
Consensus standards, 268, 276
Control systems, 273, 279
Estimating risk, 278–279
Hazards, 270–271
Hazard control hierarchy, 271–273
Maintenance and service, 282–284
OSHA standards, 268
Risk assessment, 274–278
Safeguarding, 271–273, 277–278
Selecting machines for assessment, 274
Main, Bruce W., 50, 68, 69, 71, 110, 137, 210, 213, 216,
273
Management of change (MOC), 13, 26, 27, 51, 214,
294–296
Standards requiring, 294–295
Management review, 46, 214, 392, 395
Mandated assessments, 123
Manual material handling, 211, 300
Manuele, Fred A., 23, 24, 36, 50, 60, 69, 71, 75, 76, 85,
96–100, 146, 167, 169, 209, 210, 214, 224, 228, 229,
293, 294
Michaels, David, 11
MIL-P-1629, 164
MIL-STD-882E, 9–11, 31, 33, 54, 74, 146, 149, 150, 152,
269, 305–308
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), 101–102
Mishap, 38
Mitigation Measure, 38, 192–193, 195
Monitoring, 63–64
National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 262, 263
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA),
12, 164, 320
Space Shuttle Columbia explosion, 62INDEX 449
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 13, 125, 216
NFPA 654, 125
NFPA 70E, 13, 31
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH), 29, 213, 229, 344
Noise, 236
Prevention through Design (PtD) Initiative, 213, 229, 244
Stress, 345–346
National Safety Council (NSC), 14, 29, 105, 107, 214, 229,
354
Institute for Safety through Design, 214, 229
Noise Measurements, 236–237
Non-routine activities, 101
Occupational exposure limits, 240
Occupational health and safety (OHS), 4, 9, 12, 13, 18–21,
27–28, 39, 51, 52, 64, 71, 93, 210, 213, 214, 217, 237,
248, 253, 263, 269, 294, 295, 344, 347, 372
Occupational health and safety management systems
(OHSMS), 27, 39, 51–52, 71, 93, 210, 214, 217, 248,
263, 295, 344, 347, 372,
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA),
11, 14–16, 24, 52, 93, 99, 104–106, 123–125, 131,
137–139, 146, 172, 216, 254, 259, 267–270, 293, 345,
412, 414, 428
Confined space, 311
Consensus standards referenced by, 276
Construction, 301
Control of Hazardous Energy, 268, 269, 283, 292
Ergonomics, 345
Machine safeguarding, 270–271, 273
Noise, 236
Particulate-total and respirable, 237
Reporting fatalities and multiple hospitalization incidents,
293
Occupational Size-Selective Criteria and Particles Size
Sampling, 237–238
Occupy Movement–Occupy Port of Oakland, 57
Operational risk, 39, 370–381
Business aspects, 409
Operational risk management system (ORMS), 39, 51–52,
61, 91–93, 371
Organization, 39, 371
Organizational culture, 68, 69, 85, 212, 214, 277, 294
Organizational risk, 369–372
Assessment, 369, 373–375
Assessment process, 376
Case study, 385–386
Definitions, 372–373
External sources, 370
Internal sources, 370
Management, 370–372
Management questions, 377
Maximum acceptable outage, 375
Recovery time objectives, 375
Risk categorization, 378–379
Risk matrix, 380
Risk profile, 379
Risk register, 386
OSHA Voluntary Protection Program (VPP), 52, 62, 93, 99
Perceived risk, 96, 274, 279, 351
Personal protective equipment (PPE), 80–81
OSHA 1910.132 standard, 25, 100
Hazard analysis, 99–100, 103, 118
Personal risk. See Individual risk
Plan, do, check, act (PDCA). See Continual improvement
Preliminary hazard analysis, 145, 147, 150–151, 153–155,
185–187, 189–191, 221, 292, 325
Application, 153–156
Preliminary hazard list (PHL), 147
Pre-operational, 212
Pre-startup safety review (PSSR), 26
Pre-task hazard analysis, 99, 101–102, 104–106, 292,
301–303
Prevention controls/measures, 192–193
Prevention effectiveness (PE), 74–75, 81, 167
Prevention through design (PtD), 4–5, 7, 39, 210, 212, 213,
229, 277, 319, 410
Business process, 243
Case study, 234–243
Concept, 229
Preventive action, 39
Probability, 39, 50, 97
Probability of occurrence, 74–75
Descriptions, 188
Process, 39
Process hazard analysis, 121–125, 146
Process life-cycle, 4, 35, 38, 97, 210
Process Safety Management (PSM), 14, 25–26, 123–125,
146, 172, 428
Procurement, 212
Project-oriented tasks, 291–293
Construction, 296
Error-traps, 294
Fall hazard analysis, 311–316
Maintenance and service, 304–315
Operating hazard analysis (OHA) method, 305–308
Pre-entry hazard analysis, 308–310
Safe work methods, 299–301
Protection controls, 79, 83, 84, 149, 183
Protection factor (PF), 83–84, 280
Protective device, 40
Protective measures, 40
EN ISO 12100-2010, 8–9
EPA, 15–16, 24
European Union, 8, 49
Federal Railroad Administration, 11
Fire protection, 13, 18, 19
ISO 14121-1, 19
Japan Government, 18
MIL-STD-882E-2012, 9–11, 31–32
NFPA 70E, 31
NIOSH, 18
OSHA, 11, 14–15, 19, 24, 100
Safety professionals, 1–17
Qualitative
risk assessment, 40, 72
Quantitative
risk assessment, 40, 73450 INDEX
Rausand, Marvin, 146
Raw risk, 40, 80
Reactive measures, 182–183
Reasonable foreseeable misuse, 40
Reason, James, 182, 294
Recordkeeping. See Documentation
Redundancy, 142
Reliability, 16, 42, 68, 74, 80, 81, 114, 163, 164, 172, 279,
285, 321, 370, 383, 427
Residual risk, 40, 60, 80, 240, 243, 277
RIMS, the Risk Management Society, 370–371
Risk, 41
Risk acceptance, 41
Risk actions, 70–71
Risk analysis, 41, 50, 59–60, 67–68
Risk assessment, 50, 94–96
Definition, 2, 41, 210, 230
Process, 42, 53, 96–99, 239–243
Provisions for, 4–16, 18–21, 24, 31–32, 49, 100,
227–238, 344
Purpose, 23–24, 52–53
Team, 57–58, 107, 352, 376
Techniques/methodologies, 6–7, 14–16, 114
Triggers, 50, 87–88
Risk assessment code (RAC), 74
Risk assessment matrix, 43, 53–55, 60, 71, 75, 90, 110, 185,
186, 281, 298–299, 308
Risk avoidance, 42, 61, 81
Risk-based decision making, 11
Risk-based efforts, 95–96
Risk-centric, 42
Risk control, 9, 29, 31, 53, 57, 61, 79, 81, 91, 94, 98, 103,
106, 107, 109, 147–149, 169, 190, 216, 222, 225, 285,
302, 304, 312–313, 355, 358, 367, 381, 383–385, 436,
438, 440, 442, 443
Risk criteria, 42, 54, 56–57, 67–69
Risk description, 42, 167–168
Risk elimination, 81
Risk evaluation, 42, 50, 60–61, 67–68
Risk factors, 42, 70–71, 74, 204–205
Risk financing, 61
Risk identification, 42, 50, 58
Risk index, 307
Risk indicators, 346
Risk level, 42, 54, 70, 74–75, 196
Risk management, 42
Risk management framework, 50
Risk management plan, 43
Risk management process, 92, 238–239, 323, 326, 372, 429
Risk matrix. See Risk assessment matrix
Risk perception, 440
Risk priority matrix, 138
Risk priority number, 43, 75, 167, 204, 240, 281–282, 327
Risk professional, 43
Risk profile, 43, 389
Risk rank, 43, 86, 98, 135, 146, 152, 164, 180, 190, 351
Risk reduction, 43, 79–84, 220, 240, 256
Risk reduction measures, 43, 259, 277, 280, 285, 295
Risk Reduction Program, 12
Risk register, 43, 86, 381, 384, 386
Risk retention, 43, 61
Risk score/scoring, 54–55, 74–75, 137–139
Risk scoring system, 68–71, 74–75, 152–153, 167
Three and four-factor systems, 69, 75, 167–172
Two-factor system, 68–69, 74, 167, 276–277
Variables, 70–71
Risk source, 43
Risk tolerance, 44
Risk treatment, 44, 61
Risk values, 70–72
Rostykus, Walt, 218
Rumsfeld, Donald, 247
Safe, 44, 210
Safeguard/Safeguarding, 44
Safety, 44
Safety design reviews, 209–225
Safety function, 44
Safety professionals, 44
Safety task analysis card (STAC), 104
Safety work procedures, 44
Semi-quantitative risk assessment, 72–73
Serious incidents (injuries), 50, 59, 62, 75, 77, 293–294, 378
Severity
Descriptions, 152, 171, 176, 187–188, 191, 193
Levels, 36, 54, 59, 75–77, 84, 152, 153, 171, 174, 187,
191, 204, 222, 256, 258–259, 276, 278, 280, 281,
298, 319, 327, 351
Severity of consequence, 30, 44–45, 74–77, 188, 380
Singapore Standard SS, 19
Six sigma, 233
Define, measure, analyze, improve, control (DMAIC)
logic, 233, 234
Societal risk, 433, 435
Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE), 13
Sony cyber-attack, 375
Stakeholder, 45
Standard, 45
Step back 5 x 5, 103
Stephans, Roger, 149
Stop, look, analyze, and manage (SLAM), 101–102
Strategic risk, 45
Structured what-if analysis (SWIFT), 131–133, 140–143
Substitution, 81
Supplier, 45, 212
Swiss Cheese Model of Defenses, 182
System, 45
System safety
Fundamental tenets, 149–150
Process, 9–11
Take 5 for safety, 102–103
Task, 45
Task hazard analysis, 292, 301–303, 305
Threat, 45–46, 373INDEX 451
Tolerable risk, 46
Triggers, 46
Unacceptable risk, 44, 61, 75, 84–85, 101, 167, 210, 285,
382
User, 46
Value of statistical life (VSL), 436, 437
Vulnerability, 46, 74, 373
Walline, Dave, 79, 88, 212
Warning, 46, 81
What-if analysis, 121–122, 125, 127–130, 139–140
Advantages and disadvantages, 128
Process steps, 125–136
What-if/checklist analysis, 130–131
Whiting, James, 106, 109
Whole system risk, 97
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), 343,
345–346
World Health Organization (WHO), 320
Worst credible consequence, 46, 76
Worst conceivable consequence, 46, 76


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