كتاب Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook - Processing and Materials
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook - Processing and Materials

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كتاب Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook - Processing and Materials  Empty
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Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook - Processing and Materials
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Contents
Preface vii
About the Editor ix
Contributors . xi
Introduction to the Plastics Industry .xv
Kirk M. Cantor and Patrick Watts
PART I: PLASTICS, ELASTOMERIC AND NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS .1
1 Plastics Materials .3
Kirk M. Cantor and Patrick Watts
2 Engineering Thermoplastics .7
George H. Melton, Edward N. Peters and Ruth K. Arisman
3 Polyolefins .23
Werner Posch
4 Introduction to Fluoropolymers .49
Sina Ebnesajjad
5 Poly(Vinyl Chloride) 61
William F. Carroll, Jr., Richard W. Johnson, Sylvia S. Moore and Robert A. Paradis
6 Thermoplastic Elastomers 77
Geoffrey Holden
7 Thermoset Elastomers .93
J.E. Mark
8 Nanocomposites: Preparation, Structure, and Properties 109
Jo´zsef Ha´ri and Be´la Puka´nszky
PART II: BIOBASED POLYMERS AND RECYCLING .143
9 Biodegradable and Biobased Polymers .145
Long Jiang and Jinwen Zhang
10 Polymeric Biomaterials .159
Wei He and Roberto Benson
11 Recycling of Plastics 177
Adrian Merrington
PART III: PLASTIC PROCESSING .193
12 Plastics Processing .195
Kirk M. Cantor and Patrick Watts
13 Injection Molding Technology 205
William G. Frizelle
14 Microcellular Injection Molding 215
Mark Berry
15 Extrusion Processes .227
Eldridge M. Mount, III
v16 Blow Molding .267
S.L. Belcher
17 Compression Molding 289
Robert A. Tatara
18 Rotational Molding 311
Paul Nugent
19 Thermoforming 333
Jim Throne
20 Process Monitoring and Process Control: An Overview 359
Mark Berry and Nick Schott
21 Polymer Stabilization 375
Pieter Gijsman
22 Chaotic Advection and Its Application to Extruding Micro- and Nanostructured Plastic Materials .401
David A. Zumbrunnen
PART IV: ADDITIVES, COLORANTS AND FILLERS 417
23 Plastics Additives .419
Ernest A. Coleman
24a Coating Plastics 429
Jamil Baghdachi
24b Colorants for Thermoplastic Polymers .435
Bruce Muller
25 Dispersants and Coupling Agents 441
Chris DeArmitt and Roger Rothon
26 Functional Fillers for Plastics .455
Chris DeArmitt
27 Flame Retardants .469
Ann Innes and Jim Innes
28 Plasticizers 487
Allen D. Godwin
29 Adhesion Promoters: Silane Coupling Agents 503
Peter G. Pape
30 Chemical Mechanical Polishing: Role of Polymeric Additives and Composite Particles in Slurries 519
Cecil A. Coutinho and Vinay K. Gupta
PART V: DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS 533
31 Design of Plastic Parts .535
David Kazmer
32 Plastics in Buildings and Construction 553
Sushant Agarwal and Rakesh K. Gupta
33 Infrastructure Applications of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites .565
Hota GangaRao
34 The Plastic Piping Industry In North America 585
Thomas Walsh
35 PET Use in Blow Molded Rigid Packaging 603
Dan Weissmann
Index 625
Index
A
1970’s statistical process controls, 359
1980’s digital controls, 359
1990’s process monitoring and controls,
360
abrasives/abrasion, 462, 521e8
ABS see acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
abutments, 565, 570
ACC see American Chemistry Council
accidents: die safety, 264e5
acid-functionalized polymers, 445,
453e4
acrylic plasticizers, 487, 498
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS):
engineering thermoplastics, 19e20
piping, 585, 588, 595, 601
polymer chemistry, 5
rotational molding, 314, 316
adapters and dies, 254, 258e9
additives, 419e28
adhesion promoters, 453, 503e17
antioxidants, 421e2
biocides, 427
chemical mechanical polishing, 519e32
coating plastics, 429e34
color/colorants, 423, 435e40
compression molding, 300, 301
coupling agents, 427, 441e54, 503e17
dispersants, 441e54
fillers, 423e5, 455e68
flame retardants, 422e3, 466, 469e85
functional fillers, 455e68
impact modifiers/modification,
426e7
injection molding, 210
mechanical polishing, 519e32
mold release agents, 428
nucleating agents, 420e1
plasticizers, 427e8, 487e501
polishing, 519e32
polymer stabilization, 386
polyvinyl chloride, 67e9, 72
primary antioxidants, 421
recycling plastics, 186e7
reinforcements, 425e6
secondary antioxidants, 421
silane adhesion/coupling agents,
503e17
stabilizers, 386, 419e20
surface modifiers, 427
thermal stabilizers, 419e20
wetting agents, 427
adhesion:
coupling agents, 453
mechanisms, 505e6
nanocomposites, 131
organotitanates, 516
organozirconates, 516
silane agents, 503e17
adhesives:
part design, 546
recycling plastics, 187
silane adhesion/coupling agents,
515e16
advection, 401e15
see also chaotic advection
airflow: rotational molding, 322e3
Air Force radar towers, 581
air release (tests), 72
Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, 566, 567
algorithms: process monitoring and
controls, 362e3
aliphatic polyesters, 152e4
alumina slurries, 522e3
aluminates, 451
American Chemistry Council (ACC), 177
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM), 177, 212e13
amino plastics, 298
ammonium perfluoro octanoate (APFO),
58
amorphous polymers, 3e4, 30e1, 459
anchoring, 441e4, 448e50
antioxidants, 378e85, 421e2
APFO see ammonium perfluoro octanoate
apparatus:
see also machinery; presses
compression molding, 296e7
polishing/planarization, 520e1
appearance issues: mold design, 320e1
appliance applications: polyolefins,
45, 46
aramids (aromatic polyamides), 8e9
ARM see atomic force microscopy
arm styles, 325
aromatic nucleophilic displacement,
11e12
aromatic polyamides, 8e9
aromatic polycarbonates, 10
aromatic polyketones, 17
artificial corneas, 162e3
artificial organs, 168
aspect ratios, 455, 457
assembly: part design, 545e6
ASTM see American Society for Testing
and Materials
atactic polypropylenes, 30e1, 31, 39,
459, 556
atomic force microscopy (AFM), 524
autoclaves, 24, 25, 26
automation, 326e7
automotive industry, 224
autooxidative degradation, 376e7
AZO crosslinking, 29e30, 593
B
balanced synthesis, 63
Barr barrier flight single screw extrusion,
228
barrel lengths, 210e11
barrels: twin screw extrusion, 252e4
barrier films, 557e8
barrier permeation, 605, 609e11
barrier properties, 285, 462e3
barrier screws, 244e5
basecoats, 433
beams: bridges, 565
bending: chaotic advection, 402e3
benzoate esters, 494
benzofuranones, 384, 385
biaxial extension, 99
biaxial rotation, 324e5
biocides, 427
biodegradable polymers, 145e58
aliphatic polyesters, 152e4
cellulose, 147e8
green composites, 147e8
natural polymers, 145e9
Locators in italics refer to Figures not adjacent to text.
625biodegradable polymers (Continued)
petroleum, 152e4
poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate),
153e4
poly(butylene succinate), 153
polycaprolactone, 152e3
polyhydroxyalkanoates, 150e2
polylactic acid, 149e50
renewable resources, 149e52
soy protein plastic, 148e9
starch, 146e7
thermoplastics, 146e7, 149e52
biomaterials, 159e75
artificial corneas, 162e3
artificial organs, 168
cardiovascular applications, 164e6
contact lens, 159e61
corneas, 162e3
extracorporeal artificial organs, 168
intraocular lens, 160, 161e2
medical applications, 159e75
nerve regeneration, 168e9
ophthalmology, 159e63
orthopedics, 163e4
plant oils, 145, 154e6
sutures, 166e8
thermoforming, 351e3
wound closure, 166e8
Bionolle, 153
bisphenol A (BPA), 10
black light: colorant terminology, 436
blast-resistant structures, 578e9
Blennerhassett Bridge, 569, 571
blow molding:
blow ratios, 272, 276, 285
clamp force, 276
continuous extrusion, 267e75
die swell, 276
extrusion blow molding, 200, 267e75,
281e2, 367e8
formulas, 276e9
heat extraction load, 277
injection blow molding, 200, 267,
281e4, 611e13, 618e19
intermittent extrusion, 267e75
large part production, 275
parisons, 267e74, 275
part design, 539e40, 541e2, 548e9
pinch-offs, 277
pin configurations, 272, 273, 274, 275
plastic processing, 200e1, 267e88
polyethylene terephthalate, 284e8,
603e23
commercial manufacturing
processes, 611e13
design, 613e18
development, 603e5
manufacturing, 605e7, 611e13
morphology, 605, 607e9
permeation, 605, 609e11
preform design, 613e18
processing, 618e23
rigid packaging, 603e23
process monitoring and controls, 369
programming parisons, 273e4, 275
resin characteristics, 274
Reynolds number, 276e7
rigid packaging, 603e23
shrinkage, 279
stretch blow molding, 267, 284e8,
611e13
tonnage, 276
troubleshooting, 280e8
wall distribution, 273e4
blow pressure curves, 619e20
blow ratios, 272, 276, 285
bonding/bond strengths, 441e4, 503e17
boron, 475
Borstar process, 41e3
bottles, 73, 603e23
bridges, 565e74
carbon fiber-reinforced composites, 569,
570
decks, 565, 566e74
defense applications, 570e1, 573
pavements, 565, 566e74
smart materials, 574, 576
substructures, 570, 573e4
superstructures, 566
brittleness, 598
brominated polystyrene, 476, 477
Brookfield viscometer, 72
bubble forming, 202, 333
building envelopes, 557e8
buildings and construction industry,
553e64
barrier films, 557e8
building envelopes, 557e8
cladding, 553e4
conduits, 558
decking, 553, 561e2
electrical wiring insulation, 558
fencing, 561e2
fiber-reinforced composites, 579e80
glazing, 558e60
green building design, 562
house wraps, 557e8
insulation, 553, 554e5, 558
piping, 560e1
railing, 553, 561e2
roofing, 555e7
siding forms, 553e4
weather-resistant barriers, 557e8
wiring insulation, 558
bulk density, 319
bulk molding components, 302e4
burns, 264
burst piping, 601
bushing configurations, 273, 274, 275
butene, 28
C
cable applications, 515
calcium carbonates, 46, 423e4, 442
calendering operations, 69, 71, 497, 556
cans, 621
capillary rheometer, 197
caps, 616e18
carbide processes, 64
carbon blacks, 422, 424
carbonecarbon double bonds, 23, 154,
155
carbon dioxide, 216e18, 220e2
carbon fiber-reinforced polymer
composites, 569, 570
carbon nanotubes (CNT):
applications, 134e6
dispersion, 118e20
flame retardants, 482e4
interactions, 124e6
orientation, 120
structure, 118e20
surface characteristics, 125e7
cardiovascular applications, 164e6
expanded polytetrafluoroethylene,
165e6
Gore-Tex, 165e6
polyethylene terephthalate, 165
polymeric biomaterials, 164e6
polyurethanes, 164e5
carousel style machines, 325e6
CAS numbers:
chlorotrifluoroethylene, 51
ethyleneeco-chlorotrifluoroethylene,
54
ethyleneeco-tetrafluoroethylene, 54
hexafluoropropylene, 51
perfluorinated ethyleneepropylene, 53
perfluoroalkoxy, 53
perfluoropropyl vinyl ether, 51
polychlorotrifluoroethylene, 54
polymer stabilization, 387e91
polytetrafluoroethylene, 53
polyvinyl fluoride, 54
polyvinylidene fluoride, 54
tetrafluoroethylene, 50
vinyl fluoride, 52
vinylidene fluoride, 51e2
626 INDEXcatalysts: polyolefin production, 23e4,
27, 35e43
cavities: rotational molding, 322
cavity dies, 261e3
cavity pressure, 219e20
cavity sensors, 370e1
cellulose:
additives, 419
biodegradable polymers, 147e8
plasticizers, 487, 498
cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW), 147,
148
cements, 425
ceramics, 99e100
ceria composites, 526, 527
CFA see chemical foaming agents
chain-length distributions, 98
chain scission, 187
challenges:
microcellular injection molding, 224
recycling plastics, 179, 186e9
chaotic advection, 401e6, 412
applicability, 401e3
bending, 402e3
composites, 408e11
control, 403e6
decoration, 412e13
dispersed nanomaterials, 411e12
ethylene propylene diene monomers,
407e8
ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers,
407e8
extrusion, 401e15
fundamentals, 401e3
low density polyethylene, 407e10
machinery, 403e6
microstructured materials, 401e15
mixtures, 411e12
nanocomposites, 408e11
nanodispersions, 411e12
nanostructured materials, 401e15
operating modes, 405e6
plastic processing, 401e15
polyethylene, 407e10
polymer blends, 408
polymeresolid composites, 408,
410e11
process control, 403e6
smart blenders, 401e6
stretching, 402e3
characteristics:
plasticizers, 495e7
thermoforming, 333e4
characterization: polyvinyl chloride,
64e76
charge: resins, 298, 299e300
Chartwell adhesion promoters, 453
chemical blowing agents, 317
chemical foaming agents (CFA), 215e16,
217e18
chemical mechanical polishing/
planarization (CMP), 519e32
abrasives, 521e8
composite abrasives, 524e8
inorganic abrasive particles, 521e2
organic additives, 522e4
chemical oxidation, 596
chemical resistance stabilizers, 386e7
chemical structure:
cellulose, 147
contact lens biomaterials, 159e61
intraocular lens biomaterials, 160,
161e2
polymer stabilization, 387e91
starch, 146
chemistry:
polymer chemistry, 4e5
silane, 503e5
China: recycling plastics, 188e9
chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC),
585, 586e7, 593, 595, 601
chlorine, 476, 477
chlorotrifluorethylene (CTFE), 51, 52
chroma, 436
chromium salts, 451
CIPP see cured-in-place-piping
citrate esters, 494
cladding, 553e4
clamping, 205, 206, 276, 322
clamp tonnage, 208e9
classification:
fluoropolymers, 49e50
nanocomposites, 109
plasticizers, 489e500
polyolefins, 24e35
thermoplastic elastomers, 77e81
clays, 410e11, 424, 482e4
clearcoats, 433
closed-loop controls, 361e3
closures: compression molding, 294e5,
300
CMP see chemical mechanical polishing/
planarization
CNT see carbon nanotubes
CNW see cellulose nanowhiskers
coatings, 429e34
basecoats, 433
clearcoats, 433
electron beam curing, 434
environmentally friendly materials,
433e4
extrusion, 263, 368
materials, 432e3
one-component systems, 432e3
powders, 433e4
primers, 433
recycling plastics, 187
silane adhesion/coupling agents,
515e16
substrates, 429e33
thermoplastics, 429
thermosets, 430e2
trends, 432e3
two-component systems, 432e3
ultraviolet curing, 434
codes: piping, 599
coefficient of thermal expansion, 461e2
coextrusion, 261e3
coiling bridges, 570, 575
cold forming, 305
color:
additives, 423
fillers, 463e4
matching, 435
polymer stabilization, 380e1, 384e5,
386, 387
terminology, 435e6
colorants, 423, 435e40
colorimeters, 436
commercial examples: microcellular
injection molding, 224
commercial manufacturing: polyethylene
terephthalate blow molding,
611e13
compatibility:
dispersants, 441, 444
plasticizers, 495e6
plastic resins, 184e6
recycling plastics, 184e6
resins, 184e6
components:
heterogenous polymers, 109e11
single screw extrusion, 227e8
twin screw extrusion, 252e4
composites:
see also nanocomposites; reinforced
composites
abrasives, 524e8
biodegradable polymers, 147e8
buildings and construction industry, 553
carbon fiber-reinforced polymers, 569,
570
chaotic advection, 408e11
chemical mechanical polishing, 519e32
fabrication, 203
fiber-reinforced polymers, 565e84
fillers, 45e7, 110e11
infrastructure applications, 565e84
INDEX 627composites: (Continued)
matrix composites, 553
mineral filler properties, 513e14
piping, 585, 589e90, 595, 598, 602
polyolefins, 45e7
slurries, 519e32
composition: nanocomposites, 111
compounded color, 440
compounds:
dough molding compounds, 302
flame retardants, 473
polyvinyl chloride, 67e74
trivalent phosphorous, 380e1
compression molding:
additives, 300, 301
basics, 289e90
closures, 294e5, 300
curing, 299
cycle times, 300
engineered fiber-reinforcements, 302e4
fiber-reinforcements, 300, 301e4
fillers, 300, 301
fluid dynamics, 305e8
forces, 290e1
granule processing parameters, 299
heat transfer, 305e8
injection molding, 304e5
instrumentation, 296e7
metering, 295e6
molding forces, 290e1
molding times, 300
molds, 294e7
operating procedures, 293e4
part quality, 308e9
plastic processing, 197e8, 289e309
powder processing parameters, 299
preform processing parameters, 299
presses, 290e3
pressure, 290e1, 295e6
procedures, 293e4
quality, 308e9
reinforcement fibers, 300, 301e4
resins, 297e302
software packages, 305e8
solidification, 299
temperature issues, 296e7, 300
thermoset resins, 289, 297e301
time issues, 300
tooling, 294e7
transfer molding, 304e5
compression ratios, 214
computer monitoring and controls, 360
concentrates: colorant forms, 438e40
concentration: fillers, 455, 456
condensation, 7e8
conductivity, 460e1
conduits, 558
conical configurations: twin screw
extrusion, 247, 254
construction industry see buildings and
construction industry
contact lens, 159e61
contact thermoforming, 336, 338
containers: polyethylene terephthalate
blow molding, 603e23
contamination: recycling plastics, 188
continuous extrusion, 267e75
continuous stirred tank reactors, 40
control:
algorithms, 362e3
chaotic advection, 403e6
extrusion, 359e73
injection molding, 359e73
process controls, extrusion, 359e73
conventional plastics vs. thermoplastic
elastomers, 77
conveying solids: screw extrusion, 228,
230e3, 253e8
cooling:
blow molding, 272e3
extrusion, 249, 252e4, 263e4
part design, 537e8
polyethylene terephthalate blow
molding, 618e19, 620e1
rotational molding, 312
twin screw extrusion, 249, 252e4
copolymers, 32e4
core-back technology, 215
core-shell morphologies, 78, 81
corneas, 162e3
corners: thermoforming, 355e6
co-rotation, 245e8, 251e2
correlation technology, 372
costs:
bridges, 566, 568
fiber-reinforced polymer composites,
566, 568
process monitoring and controls, 360
counter-rotation, 245e8, 251e2, 254
coupled extrusionethermoforming, 345
coupling agents, 441e54
additives, 427
adhesion promoters, 503e17
anchoring, 448e50
dispersants, 447e8, 454
historical overviews, 448
inclusion anchoring, 448e50
in-situ treatments, 450
pre-coatings, 450
principles, 448
silane adhesion agents, 503e17
surface coverage, 450e1
terminology, 447
types, 451e4
usage considerations, 450e1
covalent bond strengths, 442
CPVC see chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
cracking, 23e4
creep, 35, 36, 460
critical design areas: polyethylene
terephthalate blow molding,
615e18
crosslinking, 28e30, 508, 585, 587,
593e5
cryogenic grinding, 318
crystalline hard segments, 88e9
crystalline plastics, 211e12
crystalline polypropylenes, 30
crystallinity:
polyethylene terephthalate blow
molding, 607e9
polypropylenes, 31e2
crystallization behavior, 34e5, 36
crystal melting temperatures, 83e4
CTFE see chlorotrifluorethylene
cured-in-place-piping (CIPP), 590e1
curing, 299
cycle times:
compression molding, 300
microcellular injection molding, 223
cyclohexanoate esters, 494
cycloolefins, 351, 352
D
data acquisition (DAQ) systems, 365
dead drag, 362
decabromodiphenyl ethane, 476
decabromodiphenyl oxide, 475e6
decks/decking, 553, 561e2, 565e74,
580e1
decoration: chaotic advection, 412e13
defense bridges, 570e1, 573, 576
deformations: thermoset elastomers,
97e9
deformed piping, 591
degradation chemistry, 375e8
Demag’s ErgoCell system, 221e2
dense materials: fillers, 467
density, 183, 319
design:
of experiments, 371e3
green buildings, 562
molds, 319e21, 349
parts, 535e51
piping, 598e9
plastic parts, 535e51
polyethylene terephthalate blow
molding, 613e18
628 INDEXrotational molding, 319e21, 328e32
single screw extrusion, 242e5
thermoforming, 355
development:
fluoropolymers, 50
injection molding, 371e3
polyethylene terephthalate blow
molding, 603e5
dibasic acid esters, 493
dies:
coextrusion, 261e3
die swell, 276
drawing, 260e1
extrusion, 254, 258e9, 260e5
safety, 264e5
shaping, 260e1
twin screw extrusion, 254, 258e9
di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, 489, 490,
492e500
di-2-ethylhexylphthalate, 487e8,
489e500
digital controls, 359
diisononyl phthalate, 489, 490, 492e500
dimensional tolerances: thermoforming,
356
dioxins, 75
dipping, 72
di-2-propylheptyl phthalate, 489, 490,
492e500
Directives: recycling plastics, 188
discoloration, 187e8, 380e1, 384e7
dispersion:
anchoring, 441e4
bond strengths, 441e4
carbon nanotubes, 118e20
colorant terminology, 436, 440
compatibility, 441, 444
coupling agents, 447e8, 454
dispersants, 441e54
fillers, 441e4, 455
impact resistance, 445e6, 447
inclusion coupling, 441e2
in-situ treatments, 444
nanomaterials, 411e12
pre-coatings, 444
principles, 441
property effects, 445e6, 447
resin, 71e3
screw extrusion, 243e5, 249, 256e7
solubility, 441, 444
surface coverage, 445
tail lengths, 441, 444
terminology, 441
types, 445
usage considerations, 444e5
distance velocity drag, 362
distribution:
colorant terminology, 436
fillers, 455, 457
plasticizers, 499
distributive mixing, 243, 244, 249, 256
dodecachlorododecahydrodi
methanodibenzocyclooctene,
476, 477
door glazings, 558e60
dosability: polymer stabilization, 387
double blow processes, 621
dough molding compounds, 302
dowel bars, 565, 569e70, 572
downstream feeding, 257e8
draft angles, 330e1, 355
drag flow, 195, 240, 241
drainage systems: bridges, 565
drape forming, 202, 333, 334e5
draw boxes, 335
drawing: extrusion, 260e1
draw ratios, 608
drop boxes, 322e3
dry color, 438
dry flow, 318e19
drying, 264, 618e19
ductile-to-brittle transitions, 598
durability: fiber-reinforced polymer
composites, 581e2
dyes, 423, 437
E
economics:
fluoropolymers, 58
process monitoring and controls, 360
recycling plastics, 189
thermoplastic elastomers, 86e7, 88, 89,
90
ECTFE see ethyleneeco
chlorotrifluoroethylene
efficiency:
energy efficiency, 74, 228e9, 235e7,
579e80
melting, 235e7
plasticizers, 495
elastic modulus, 535e7
elastomer-modified ceramics, 99e100
elastomers:
plasticizers, 498
thermoplastic elastomers, 77e91
thermoset elastomers, 93e107
electrical properties, 460e2, 537
electrical shock, 264
electrical wiring insulation, 558
electric-hydraulic presses, 292
electric plate heaters, 346
electric rod heaters, 346
electron beam curing, 434
electrostatic separation, 183e4
elongation to break, 459
elongation to failure, 314
emulsion polymerization, 64
energy balance, 235
energy efficiency, 74, 228e9, 235e7,
579e80
Engel process, 29e30
engineered fiber-reinforcements, 302e4
engineering thermoplastics, 7e21
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene,
19e20
aramids (aromatic polyamides), 8e9
aromatic polyketones, 17
liquid crystalline polymers, 14, 15
4,40-oxydianiline, 15e16
polyacetals, 9e10
polyamide imides, 16e17, 19, 20
polyamides, 7e9
polyarylates, 17e18
polybiphenyldisulfones, 12e13
poly(butanediol) terephthalate, 13e14,
19e20
polycarbonates, 10e11, 19e20
polyesters, 13e14
polyetheretherketone, 17
polyetherimides, 15
polyethylene terephthalate, 13e14
polyimides, 15e17
polyphenylene, 18e19
poly(phenylene ether), 11
poly(phenylene sulfide), 14e15
polypropylene, 20
polystyrene, 18, 19
polysulfones, 11e13
semiaromatic polyamides, 9
syndiotatic polystyrene, 18
trends, 19e20
enthalpy: thermoforming, 353, 354
environmentally friendly coating
materials, 433e4
environmental stress crack resistance
(ESCR), 314
EPDM see ethylene propylene diene
monomers
epoxidized soybean oil, 492, 494e5
epoxies:
compression molding, 298
piping, 585
plasticizers, 498
spray coat liners, 591e2
ePTFE see expanded
polytetrafluoroethylene
equipment see machinery
ErgoCell system, 221e2
INDEX 629ESCR see environmental stress crack
resistance
esters:
see also polyesters
plant oils, 154e7, 494e5
plasticizers, 487, 492e5, 499e500
ETFE see ethyleneetetrafluoroethylene
copolymers
ethylene: olefin polymerization, 39
ethylene bis(tetrabromophthalimide),
476, 477
ethyleneeco chlorotrifluoroethylene
(ECTFE), 54, 57
ethylene propylene diene monomers
(EPDM), 407e8, 556, 592
ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR), 32e4
ethyleneetetrafluoroethylene copolymers
(ETFE), 49e50, 54, 56e7
ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers
(EVOH), 407e8
Europe: recycling plastics, 188
EVOH see ethylene vinyl alcohol
copolymers
exfoliation, 115e16, 133
expandable microspheres, 467
expanded polytetrafluoroethylene
(ePTFE), 165e6
experimental details: thermoset
elastomers, 95e6
extensibility: thermoset elastomers,
97e8
extracorporeal artificial organs, 168
extrusion:
advection, 401e15
blow molding, 200, 267e75, 281e2,
367e8
chaotic advection, 401e15
coatings, 263, 368
coextrusion, 261e3
control, 359e73
cooling, 249, 252e4, 263e4
drawing, 260e1
drying, 264
hazards, 264e5
laminating, 263, 368
microcellular extrusion, 215, 218e19
microstructured materials, 401e15
monitoring, 359e73
nanostructured materials, 401e15
operator safety, 264e5
part design, 538e9, 541e2, 548e9
plastic processing, 198e200, 227e66,
359e73, 401e15
polyvinyl chloride compounds, 70e1
process controls/monitoring, 359e73
safety, 264e5
screw extrusion, 198e200, 227e59,
264e5, 267, 367
shaping, 260e1
solidification, 263e4
thermoforming, 345
F
fabrication:
fluoropolymers, 57
reinforced composites, 203
failure mechanisms: piping, 595e7
falls: extrusion die safety, 264e5
fastening: part design, 546e8
fast-fusing plasticizers, 492
feeding mechanisms: screw extrusion,
228, 230e3, 251, 253e8
feed rate control, 366
fencing materials, 561e2
FEP see fluorinated ethyleneepropylene
polymers
fiberglass:
piping, 589e90
polyolefins, 46
printed circuit boards, 511
silane adhesion/coupling agents,
510e11
surface treatments, 510e11
fiberglass reinforced pipes (FRP), 585,
589e90, 595, 598, 602
fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)
composites:
blast-resistant structures, 578e9
bridges, 565e74
buildings, 579e80
decks, 565, 566e74, 580e1
durability, 581e2
energy efficient buildings, 579e80
fire-resistant structures, 578e9
highway structural components, 565e74
infrastructure applications, 565e84
pavements, 565, 566e74
pipes, 575e7
poles, 574e5, 577
products, 565e81
towers, 581
turbine blades, 577e8
fiber-reinforcements: compression
molding, 300, 301e4
fibers:
piping, 585, 589e90, 595, 598, 602
reinforcement additives, 425e6
filament winding, 203
filled plastics: thermoforming, 353
fillers:
abrasion, 462
additives, 423e5, 455e68
amorphous polymers, 459
aspect ratios, 455, 457
barrier properties, 462e3
coefficient of thermal expansion, 461e2
color, 463e4
composite polyolefins, 45e7
compression molding, 300, 301
concentration, 455, 456
conductivity, 460e1
creep, 460
dispersants, 441e4
distribution, 455, 457
electrical properties, 460e2
elongation to break, 459
flame retardants, 466
foams, 465
friction, 462
gloss, 464
hardness, 462
heat distortion temperature, 458e9
impact resistance, 459e60
interphase, 465
materials, 466e7
mechanical properties, 457
minerals, 425, 512e15
modulus, 458
nanocomposites, 110e11
natural materials, 467
nucleation, 465
opacity, 463
optical properties, 463e4
particle size, 455, 456e7
permeability, 462e3
phase effects, 465e6
plastic processing, 464e5
popular materials, 466
principles, 455e60
processing, 464e5
reinforced elastomers, 99e100
renewable materials, 467
scratch resistance, 462
semi-crystalline polymers, 459
shape aspects, 455, 457
silane adhesion/coupling agents,
512e14
size distribution, 455, 456e7
specialty materials, 466e7
specific heat capacity, 461
temperature properties, 458e9
thermal properties, 458e9, 460e2
thermoforming, 353
transcrystallinity, 465
transparency, 463
Vicat temperature, 458e9
voids, 465
wear, 462
630 INDEXweld lines, 464e5
yield strengths, 458
filleted corners, 543
filtration, 259
finance, 360:
see also costs; economics
finishing, 53e4, 616e18
finite element analysis, 305e6
FIPL see formed-in-place-liners
fire:
resistance, 496, 578e9
statistics, 469e70
triangles, 473e4
fittings and piping, 585e602
manufacturing processes, 592e5
materials, 586e90, 592e5
thermoplastics, 586e90, 592e5
flame retardants, 469e85
additives, 422e3, 466, 469e85
applications, 470e1
compounds, 473
definitions, 469
effectiveness, 473
fillers, 466
fire statistics, 469e70
flammability standards and tests, 471e2
limiting oxygen index, 471
major technologies, 473e5
markets, 473
materials, 473e81
metal hydrates, 474e5, 478e9
nanotechnology, 475, 481e4
phosphorous, 475, 479e80
REACH, 478
smoke measurements, 472
smoke suppressants, 475, 481
standards, 471e2
Steiner Tunnel test, 471e2
technologies, 473e5
tests, 471e2
UL94 test, 471
usage considerations, 469e71
vertical tray cable test, 472
flammability standards and tests, 471e2
flash: compression molding, 295
flatness: rotational molding, 331e2
flexible polyvinyl chloride, 74, 495e7
flexural modulus, 47
flexural strength, 314, 507e8
floating bridges, 570
flotation, 184
flow:
dispersants, 445
historical overviews, 359
plastic processing, 195
rate control, 366
fluid dynamics, 305e8
fluid mechanics, 401e15
fluorinated ethyleneepropylene polymers
(FEP), 49e50, 53e4, 56
fluoroplastic plasticizers, 487
fluoropolymers, 49e60
ammonium perfluoro octanoate, 58
applications, 58
classification, 49e50
development history, 50
economy, 58
fabrication, 57
finishing, 53e4
monomer properties, 52e3
monomer synthesis, 50e2
piping, 585, 586, 588e9, 595
polymerization, 53e4
polymer properties, 55e7
properties, 52e3, 54e7
rotational molding, 314, 316
safety, 58
structureeproperty relationships, 54e5
fly ash, 424
foamed materials, 316e17, 353
foam insulation, 554e5
foam processing, 217e18
foams:
fillers, 465
microcellular injection molding, 215e26
fold and form systems, 591
folding bridges, 570
food contact approvals, 387
forces:
compression molding, 290e1
single screw extrusion, 232
form complexity, 320
formed-in-place-liners (FIPL), 591
forms: colorants, 438e40
formulas: blow molding, 276e9
foundation foam insulation, 554e5
framing: rotational molding, 321
free-flowing physical properties, 314
free-radical reaction mechanisms, 26e7
free volume, 250e1, 488
friction, 462
froth flotation, 184
FRP see fiberglass reinforced pipes; fiberreinforced polymer composites
fuel: flame retardants, 473e4
functional fillers, 455e68
functionalization: triglycerides, 154, 155
fusion: polyvinyl chloride, 72
future trends:
microcellular injection molding, 225
plasticizers, 499e500
thermoset elastomers, 100
G
gallery structure, 113e15
gas combustion heaters, 346e7
gas phase reactors, 40e3
gauging, 368e9
gelation, 72
gel theory, 488
general purpose classification:
plasticizers, 489e500
geometrical meshing, 305e6
geometry:
screw extrusion, 238
screw injection molding, 213
glass:
adhesion, 507
filler additives, 424e5
glass fibers see fiberglass
glass mat thermoplastics, 302e4
glass transition temperatures, 83e4,
605
glazing, 558e60
globalization: process monitoring and
controls, 360
global production: fluoropolymers,
49e50
‘Gloss 60’, 47
gloss, 446, 464
glycerolysis, 154e5
Gore-Tex, 165e6
graft copolymers, 77, 80
granule processing parameters, 299
graphite, 475, 481
green building design, 562
green composites, 147e8
grinding, 317e18
H
halogen flame retardants, 423
effectiveness, 473
REACH, 478
selected products, 475e7
synergists, 477e8
technologies, 474
halogen free flame retardants, 422e3
HALS see hindered amine light
stabilizers
handling: rotational molding, 322
hardness: fillers, 462
hard phase: thermoplastic elastomers, 84
hard polymers:
thermoplastic elastomers, 77,
79e80
applications, 89e90
production, 83
structureeproperty relationships, 84,
85, 86e7
INDEX 631hard/soft phase ratio, 85e7
hazards: extrusion, 264e5
HDPE see high-density polyethylene
HDT-A diagrams, 47
health:
see also safety
plasticizers, 499
polyvinyl chloride, 74e5
vinyl chloride monomers, 74e5
heat:
control, 24
distortion temperature, 458e9
extraction load, 277
flame retardants, 473e4
part design, 537
resistance, 554e5
stability, 384e5
transfer, 249, 305e8
heaters/heating:
rotational molding, 312
thermoforming, 346e7, 354e5
twin screw extrusion, 249, 252e4
helix angles, 213
hematite, 525
heterogenous polymers, 109e11, 127
hexabromocyclododecane, 476e7
hexafluoropropylene (HFP), 51, 52
hexene, 28, 29
HFP see hexafluoropropylene
high-density polyethylene (HDPE):
biodegradable polymers, 153
piping, 585, 597e8
polyolefin production, 24, 27e8
recycling plastics, 178, 180e1
thermal stabilizers, 420
highway structural components, 565e74
hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS):
antioxidant additives, 421e2
polymer stabilization, 378, 381e2, 385,
386e7
hinges: rotational molding, 322e3
historical overviews:
coupling agents, 448
microcellular injection molding,
216e17
process control/monitoring, 359e60
thermoset elastomers, 93e4
homogenization: carbon nanotubes,
119e20
homogenous dispersion, 112
homopolymers, 30e2
Hoop ratio, 284, 285
horizontal directional drilling, 601
hot-fill bottles, 620e1
house wraps, 557e8
hue, 435
human health aspects, 499
hybrid particles: polishing/planarization,
526
hydraulic presses, 290e3
hydraulics: injection molding, 210e11
hydrogen effect, 39
hydrolysis, 377
hydrostatic strength, 597
hydrostatic stress rupture curves, 595e6
hydroxybenzophenones, 382e3
hydroxyphenylbenzotriazoles, 382e3
hydroxytriazines, 382e3
I
IKV’s ProFoam system, 222e3
impact copolymers, 32e4
impact modifiers/modification, 69, 426e7
impact resistance, 445e6, 447, 459e60
impact strength, 314, 537
inclusion anchoring, 448e50
inclusion coupling, 441e2
independent-arm configuration, 326
industry:
blow molding, 284e8, 603e23
buildings and construction industry,
553e64
composite infrastructures, 565e84
fiber-reinforced polymer composite
infrastructures, 565e84
olefin polymerization, 23e4, 39e43
organizations, recycling plastics, 189
parts design, 535e51
piping, 585e602
plastic parts design, 535e51
polyethylene terephthalate blow
molding, 284e8, 603e23
polymer composite infrastructures,
565e84
polyolefin production, 23e4, 39e43
reactors, 23e6, 39e43
recycling plastics, 189
silane adhesion/coupling agents,
510e16
infrared (IR):
heaters, 346e7
sensors, 363e4
transmission spectra, 353e5
infrastructure applications: fiberreinforced polymer composites,
565e84
injection blow molding, 200, 267, 281e4,
611e13, 618e19
injection molding:
see also microcellular injection
molding
barrel lengths, 210e11
cavity sensors, 370e1
compression molding, 304e5
control, 359e73
crystalline plastics, 211e12
design of experiments, 371e3
development tools, 371e3
hydraulics, 210e11
injection blow molding, 200, 267,
281e4, 611e13, 618e19
machine sizing, 207e10
markets, 45, 46
melt indexing, 211e13
molecular orientation, 211
monitoring, 359e73
part design, 540, 541e2, 548e9
physical actions, 206e7
plastic processing, 197, 198, 205e14,
304e5, 359e73
polyvinyl chloride compounds, 71
pressure, 209e10, 370
process controls, 359e73
process development tools, 371e3
process monitoring, 359e73
shrinkage, 369
sizing issues, 207e10
statistical process controls, 371e2
stretch blow molding, 611e13
temperature control, 371
velocity control, 370
viscosity, 210e11, 212e13
inks: silane agents, 515e16
inorganic abrasive particles, 521e2
inorganic flame retardant systems, 422
inorganic pigments, 436e7
inorganic substrate bonding, 505e6
inserts: rotational molding, 322
in-situ polymerization, 120, 127e8
in-situ treatments:
coupling agents, 450
dispersants, 444
installation: piping, 601e2
instrumentation:
compression molding, 296e7
polishing/planarization, 520e1
insulation:
buildings and construction industry, 553,
554e5, 558
fiberglass, 511
rotational molding, 322e3
interactions:
carbon nanotubes, 123, 124e6
layered silicate nanocomposites, 121e4
nanocomposites, 123e7
nanofillers, 123e7
interfacial interactions, 121e7, 131
intermeshing configurations, 247e9
632 INDEXintermittent extrusion, 267e75
internal cooling, 620e1
internal joint sealing, 592
interphase:
fillers, 465
nanocomposites, 127
silane adhesion/coupling agents, 505
intraocular lens (IOL), 160, 161e2
ionic bond strengths, 442
ionomers, 78, 81
N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)
microgels, 525e6, 528
isotactic polypropylenes, 30, 31
J
jars, 621
joining: piping, 599
joint sealing, 592
K
Kanmonkyo Bridge, 566, 567
kinetics: olefin polymerization, 39
Kleine Emme bridge, 569, 570
kneading blocks, 253e4, 256e7
L
lactones, 422
laminates/lamination:
extrusion, 263, 368
fabrication, 203
silane adhesion/coupling agents,
507e8
large part production: blow molding, 275
lateral supports, 544
Laurel Lick Bridge, 570, 574
layered double hydroxide flame
retardants, 482e4
layered silicate nanocomposites:
applications, 134e6
exfoliation, 115e16
gallery structure, 113e15
interactions, 121e4
networks, 117e18
particle structure, 112e13
silicate networks, 117e18
structure, 112e18
surfactants, 114e15
LDPE see low-density polyethylene
length-to-diameter ratios, 213
limiting oxygen index (LOI), 471
linear coefficient of thermal expansion,
279
linear low-density polyethylene
(LLDPE), 24, 28, 29, 585
lining systems, 591e2
liquid color/concentrates, 439e40
liquid crystalline polymers (LCP), 14, 15
LLDPE see linear low-density
polyethylene
loading: rotational molding, 312
logic devices, 519
LOI see limiting oxygen index
long-chain molecules, 3e4
long fiber thermoplastics, 302e4
long-term heat stability, 384e5
long-term strength tests: piping, 595e7,
598
low-density polyethylene (LDPE):
biodegradable polymers, 153
chaotic advection, 407e10
piping, 585, 597e8
polyolefin production, 24e7
recycling plastics, 178, 180e1
lubricants, 68e9
M
machinery:
see also presses
chaotic advection, 403e6
injection molding, 207e10
microcellular injection molding, 221
rotational molding, 324e8
thermoforming, 337e45, 357
mandrel configurations, 273, 274
manual presses, 291e2
manual separation: recycling plastic
resins, 182e3
manufacture:
fittings and piping, 592e5
part design, 538e42, 545e6
polyethylene terephthalate blow
molding, 605e7, 611e13
silane, 516e17
markets:
bridges, 565e6
fillers, 455
flame retardants, 473
plasticizers, 487
polyvinyl chloride, 61, 62
rotational molding, 311
thermoforming, 333
Market Street Bridge, 567, 568
mass balance, 234
mass polymerization, 65
masterbatches, 438e9
matched die molding see compression
molding
matched mold thermoforming, 335, 337,
345e6
material flow diagrams, 61, 62
materials:
coating plastics, 432e3
fillers, 466e7
fittings and piping, 586e90, 592e5
flame retardants, 473e81
part design, 535
piping, 586e90, 592e5
plasticizers, 489e500
rotational molding, 314e19, 329
thermal characteristics, 353e5
thermoforming, 347e8, 350e5
validation, piping, 597
matrix characteristics, 109e10
matrix composites, 553
matrix modifiers, 300e2
maximum extensibility, 97e8
MDPE see medium-density polyethylene
mechanical fasteners, 546
mechanical performance: polyolefin
composite fillers, 46e7
mechanical polishing see chemical
mechanical polishing/
planarization
mechanical properties:
fillers, 457
nanocomposites, 110
part design, 535e7
polybutene-1, 45
polyethylenes, 44
polypropylenes, 33, 44
thermoset elastomers, 95
mechanical thermoforming, 202, 333, 336
mechanisms:
adhesion promotion, 505e6
plasticizers, 487e9
silane adhesion/coupling agents, 505e6
single screw extrusion, 229e41
mechanisms of action: polymer
stabilization, 378e83
medical applications, 159e75, 369
medium-density polyethylene (MDPE),
585
melamines, 480, 481
melt:
compounding, 129e30
flow properties, 46
indexers, 196e7, 211e13, 537e8
mixing, 119e20
polybutene-1, 35, 36
pumping, 229, 230, 237e41, 249,
255e6
single screw extrusion, 228e9, 230
temperature, 244, 245
melting: screw extrusion, 228e9, 230,
233e7, 254e6
melting points, 38e9
metal hydrates, 474e5, 478e9
metallocene catalysts, 38e9
metamerism/metameric, 436
INDEX 633metering:
compression molding, 295e6
single screw extrusion, 237e41
mica, 424
microcellular extrusion, 215, 218e19
microcellular injection molding:
applications, 224
automotive industry, 224
carbon dioxide, 216e18, 220e2
challenges, 224
chemical foaming agents, 215e16,
217e18
commercial examples, 224
equipment requirements, 221
examples, 224
foam processing, 217e18
future trends, 225
historical overviews, 216e17
limitations, 224
MIT, 215e16, 221, 222, 225
nitrogen, 216, 217e18
objectives, 223e4
patents, 216, 225e6
physical blowing agents, 215e16, 218
plastic processing, 215e26
pressure, 219e20, 224
process control/monitoring, 219e20
supercritical fluids, 216e17, 220e2
target applications, 224
temperature, 220
microspheres: fillers, 467
microstructured materials:
advection, 401e15
chaotic advection, 401e15
extrusion, 401e15
microsuspension polymerization, 64
minerals:
bonding, 512
fillers, 425, 512e15
surface treatments, 512e14
MIT: microcellular injection molding,
215e16, 221, 222, 225
mixed plastics: recycling plastics, 182e4
mixing:
polyvinyl chloride compounds, 70
screw extrusion, 243e5, 249, 253e4,
256e7
mixtures: chaotic advection, 411e12
modeling/models:
fluid dynamics, 305e8
heat transfer, 305e8
single screw extrusion, 241e2
modified vegetable/plant oil esters, 494e5
modular panels: bridges, 570, 572
modulus: fillers, 458
molded-in stress, 223
molding:
see also blow molding; compression
molding; injection molding;
rotational molding
bulk molding components, 302e4
forces, 290e1
plastic processing, 197e8
times, 300
molds:
compression molding, 294e7
design, 319e21, 349
elements, 321e3
features, 321e3
release systems, 323e4, 428
rotational molding, 319e24
thermoforming, 347e9, 350, 357
molecular materials: fillers, 467
molecular orientation, 195, 211
molecular structure: polyethylenes, 29
molecular weights, 28, 39, 65e6
monitoring:
extrusion, 359e73
injection molding, 359e73
monomeric materials: plasticizers, 489
monomer properties, 52e3
monomer synthesis, 50e2
montmorillonite clay, 482e4
morphology:
polyethylene terephthalate, 605, 607e9
polypropylenes, 31e3
polyvinyl chloride, 66e7
thermoplastic elastomers, 77e81
mounting plates, 321
movable bridges, 570, 575
MPS see 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl
methacrylate
MSW see municipal solid waste
MuCell process, 215, 216, 221, 222
multiblock copolymers:
thermoplastic elastomers, 77, 78e9
applications, 88e9
production, 82e3
structureeproperty relationships, 84,
85, 87
trade names, 88
multilayer materials, 353, 585, 589, 602
multi-modal chain-length distributions,
98
multivariate analysis, 372
municipal solid waste (MSW), 177
N
nanoclays: chaotic advection, 410e11
nanocomposites, 109e42
see also layered silicate
nanocomposites
applications, 134e6
carbon nanotubes, 118e20, 124e6,
134e6, 482e4
chaotic advection, 408e11
classification, 109
composition, 111
exfoliation, 115e16, 133
fillers, 110e11, 123e7, 467
heterogenous polymers, 109e11, 127
in situ polymerization, 120, 127e8
interactions, 123e7
interfacial interactions, 121e7, 131
interphase properties, 127
interphase structure, 127
melt compounding, 129e30
particle interactions, 111e12
POSS cages, 126e7
preparation, 109, 127e30
properties, 109e11, 127, 130e4
reinforcement, 131e3
solution mixing, 128e9
stiffness, 130e1
strength, 131e3
strong interactions, 123e7
structure, 109, 112e21, 127
surface characteristics, 121e3, 125e7
nanodispersions, 411e12
nanofillers, 110e11, 123e7, 467
nanoparticles: polishing/planarization,
526
nanostructured materials:
advection, 401e15
chaotic advection, 401e15
extrusion, 401e15
fillers, 110e11, 123e7, 467
nanotechnology: flame retardants, 475,
481e4
National Association for PET Container
Resources (NAPCOR), 177
natural filler materials, 467
natural polymers:
biodegradable polymers, 145e9
orthopedics, 164
nerve regeneration, 168e9
networks:
layered silicate nanocomposites,
117e18
thermoset elastomers, 94, 96e8
N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)
microgels, 525e6, 528
nitrogen, 216, 217e18, 475
non-Gaussian effects, 97
non-intermeshing configurations, 247
North American piping industry,
585e602
nucleation, 420e1, 465
634 INDEXnutshells, 424
nylon see polyamides
O
octene, 28, 29
olefins:
see also polyolefins
polymerization, 27, 35e9
source, 23e4
thermoforming, 351, 352
one-component coating systems, 432e3
one-stage blow molding, 200e1
opacity: fillers, 463
open-cut installation, 601
open-flame machines, 325
open-loop controls, 360e1
operational aspects:
chaotic advection, 405e6
compression molding, 293e4
olefin polymerization, 39
safety, 264e5
thermoforming, 356e7
ophthalmology, 159e63
optical properties, 95, 463e4
optical separation, 183
Optifoam process, 221, 222
optimization: silane adhesion/coupling
agents, 506e8
organic additives, 522e4
organic pigments, 437
organic polymer bonding, 506
organo-metallics: coupling agents, 451e3
organosilanes, 445, 451e2, 509
organotitanates, 516
organozirconates, 516
organs:
artificial, 168
extracorporeal artificial, 168
orientation:
carbon nanotubes, 120
injection molding, 211
plastic processing, 195
polyethylene terephthalate blow
molding, 607e9
orthopedic materials, 163e4
output rates: twin screw extrusion, 249
ovens: thermoforming, 338e9, 343
oxidative degradation, 376e8
4,40-oxydianiline (ODA), 15e16
oxygen, 473e4, 610e11
P
PA see polyamides
packaging, 73e4, 603e23
paints: silane adhesion/coupling agents,
515e16
parallel intermeshing: twin screw
extrusion, 246e7, 254
parisons, 267e74, 275, 592, 593
part design, 535e51
assembly, 545e6
blow molding, 539e40, 541e2, 548e9
elastic modulus, 535e7
electrical properties, 537
extrusion, 538e9, 541e2, 548e9
fastening, 546e8
injection molding, 540, 541e2, 548e9
manufacturing, 538e42, 545e6
material selection, 535
mechanical properties, 535e7
processing properties, 537e8
process selection, 538e42
risk mitigation, 549e50
stiffness, 536e7, 542e3
strength, 543e5
structural design, 542e50
thermal properties, 537, 538
thermoforming, 540e2, 548e9
tolerances, 541e2, 548e9
yield stress, 535e7
partial intermeshing, 248
particle interactions: nanocomposites,
111e12
particle internal morphology, 66e7
particle paths: single screw extrusion,
240, 241
particle shape:
fillers, 455, 457
rotational molding, 318
particle size:
fillers, 455, 456e7
polyvinyl chloride, 69e73
rotational molding, 318
particle structure: layered silicate
nanocomposites, 112e13
particleesubstrate interactions, 523, 524
particulate-filled polymers, 111
parting lines, 322
part quality: compression molding,
308e9
paste dispersion, 440
patents: microcellular injection molding,
216, 225e6
PAVE see perfluoralkyl vinyl ethers
pavements: bridges, 565, 566e74
PBA see physical blowing agents
PBAT see poly(butylene adipateco-terephalate)
PBS see poly(butylene succinate)
PBT see poly(butanediol) terephthalate
PCL see polycaprolactone
PCTFE see polychlorotrifluoretyhlene
pedestrian movable bridges, 570, 575
pelletization: polyvinyl chloride
compounds, 70
perfluoralkyl vinyl ethers (PAVE), 51, 52
perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) polymers:
classification, 49e50
piping, 585
polymerization and finishing, 53
properties, 56
performance:
flexible polyvinyl chloride, 495e7
polymer stabilization, 383e5
silane adhesion/coupling agents, 506e8
permeability/permeation, 462e3, 605,
609e11
peroxide crosslinking, 29e30, 593e4
PES see polyethersulfone
PET see polyethylene terephthalate
petroleum biodegradable polymers,
152e4
PFA see perfluoroalkoxy polymers
PHA see polyhydroxyalkanoates
phase effects, 465e6
phase separation, 83e7
PHB see poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)
PHBV see poly(3-hydroxybutyrateco-3-hydroxyvalerate)
phenolics:
antioxidants, 378e9, 383, 384, 385, 421
compression molding, 297e8
phenyltrimethoxysilane blends, 507, 508
Phillips catalysts, 37e8
phosphate esters, 494
phosphites, 380e1, 383, 384, 421
phosphorous flame retardants, 475,
479e80
photolysis, 377
photooxidation, 377
photostabilizers, 421e2
phthalate ester plasticizers, 487, 492e4,
499e500
physical blowing agents (PBA), 215e16,
218
physical factors:
injection molding, 206e7
polymer stabilization, 386
stabilizers, 386
physical properties:
polybutene-1, 45
polyethylenes, 43
polypropylenes, 44
PI see proportional and integral control
PID see proportional, integral and
derivative loop controllers
piers, 565, 570
piezoelectric sensors, 364
INDEX 635pigments, 423, 435, 436e7, 440
piling: bridges, 570, 574
pinch-offs, 277
pin configurations, 272, 273, 274, 275
pipes/piping:
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, 585,
588, 595, 601
AZO crosslinking, 593
brittleness, 598
buildings and construction industry,
560e1
bursts, 601
chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, 585,
586e7, 593, 595, 601
codes, 599
composites, 585, 589e90, 595, 598, 602
crosslinked polyethylene, 585, 587,
593e5
cured-in-place-piping, 590e1
design, 598e9
ductile-to-brittle transitions, 598
epoxy spray coat liners, 591e2
extrusion, 368e9
failure mechanisms, 595e7
fiber-reinforced polymer composites,
570, 575e7, 576
fibers, 585, 589e90, 595, 598, 602
fittings, 585e602
fluoropolymers, 585, 586, 588e9, 595
fold and form systems, 591
formed-in-place-liners, 591
high-density polyethylene, 585, 597e8
horizontal directional drilling, 601
hydrostatic strength, 597
industry applications, 585e602
installation, 601e2
internal joint sealing, 592
joining, 599
joint sealing, 592
lining systems, 591e2
long-term strength tests, 595e7, 598
low-density polyethylene, 585, 597e8
manufacturing processes, 592e5
materials, 586e90, 592e5, 597
multilayer materials, 585, 589, 602
nylons, 585, 588
open-cut installation, 601
peroxide crosslinking, 593e4
pipe bursting, 601
pipeline rehabilitation technologies,
591e2
polybutylene, 585, 588
polyethylenes, 585, 586, 587, 593e5,
597e8, 601
polymer composites, 585, 589e90, 595,
598, 602
poly(phenylene sulfide), 585, 586, 589
polypropylene, 585, 587e8, 601
polysulfones, 585, 586, 589
polyvinyl chloride, 585, 586, 593, 595,
600e1
polyvinylidene fluoride, 585, 601
Popelar shift functions, 597e8
product standards, 599
radiation crosslinking, 594e5
rehabilitation, 591e2
reinforced composites, 585, 589e90,
595, 598, 602
sealing, 592
shift functions, 597e8
silane crosslinking, 594
sliplining, 591
specifications, 599
spray coat liners, 591e2
standards, 599
strength tests, 595e7, 598
stress-rupture tests, 595e6, 597
testing, 595e7, 598, 599
thermoplastics, 585e90, 592e8
thermosets, 585, 590, 598
tight fit systems, 591
PLA see polylactic acid
planarization, 519e32
see also chemical mechanical
polishing/planarization
plant oils, 145, 154e7, 494e5
plasticizers, 487e501
acrylics, 487, 498
additives, 427e8
benzoate esters, 494
characteristics, 495e7
citrate esters, 494
classification, 489e500
cyclohexanoate esters, 494
dibasic acid esters, 493
epoxidized soybean oil, 492, 494e5
esters, 487, 492e5, 499e500
flexible polyvinyl chloride performance,
495e7
future directions, 499e500
general purpose classification, 489e500
health aspects, 499
materials, 489e500
mechanisms, 487e9
modified vegetable/plant oil esters,
494e5
performance, 495e7
phosphate esters, 494
phthalate esters, 487, 492e4,
499e500
plant oil esters, 494e5
polyesters, 495
polyvinyl chloride, 67e8, 71, 487e9,
494e500
safety, 499
selection, 497e8
single screw extrusion, 229e30
specialist application selection, 497e8
terephthalate esters, 493e4
trimellitate esters, 493
twin screw extrusion, 254e5
types, 489e92
vegetable/plant oil esters, 494e5
plastic parts design see part design
plastic processing:
advection, 401e15
blow molding, 200e1, 267e88
bubble forming, 202, 333
chaotic advection, 401e15
coextrusion, 261e3
compression molding, 197e8,
289e309
contact thermoforming, 336, 338
drag flow, 240, 241
drape forming, 202, 333, 334e5
extrusion, 198e200, 227e66, 359e73,
401e15
blow molding, 200, 267e75, 281e2
chaotic advection, 401e15
microstructured materials, 401e15
nanostructured materials, 401e15
process controls/monitoring, 359e73
fabrication, 57, 203
fillers, 464e5
flow, 195
injection blow molding, 200, 267,
281e4
injection molding, 197, 198, 205e14,
304e5, 359e73
laminar composites fabrication, 203
matched mold thermoforming, 335, 337,
345e6
measuring viscosity, 196e7
mechanical thermoforming, 202, 333,
336
microcellular extrusion, 215, 218e19
microcellular injection molding,
215e26
molding, 197e8
molecular orientation, 211
one-stage blow molding, 200e1
orientation, 195, 211
overview, 195e203
plug-assist forming, 202, 335, 336
polymer processing, 197e203
pressure forming, 202, 333
process control/monitoring, 219e20,
327e8, 359e73
636 INDEXreciprocating screw injection molding,
205e11
reinforced composites fabrication, 203
rejection injection molding, 198
resin transfer molding, 198
rotational molding, 202e3, 311e32
screw extrusion, 198e200, 227e59,
264e5, 267
screw injection molding, 205e14
shear, 195e6
sheet forming, 201e2, 333e58
single screw extrusion, 198e9, 227e45
sintering, 198, 305
snap-back vacuum forming, 202
straight vacuum forming, 202
stretch blow molding, 267, 284e8,
611e13
thermoforming, 201e2, 333e58
transfer molding, 198, 304e5
tubing extrusion lines, 198e9
twin screw extrusion, 199e200, 227,
245e59
twin sheet forming, 333, 335e6, 337
two-stage blow molding, 201
vacuum forming, 202, 333, 334e6,
348e9
viscosity, 196e7, 210e11, 236e7
plastics materials, 3e5
platforms: fiber-reinforced polymer
composites, 580e1
plug-assist forming, 202, 335, 336, 350
plug materials, 350
PMMA see polymethyl methacrylate
polar parts: plasticizers, 488
poles: fiber-reinforced polymer
composites, 574e5, 577
polishing see chemical mechanical
polishing/planarization
political issues: recycling plastics,
188e9
poly(3-hydroxybutyrateco-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV),
146e8, 151e2
poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), 151e2
polyacetals, 9e10
polyacrylates, 163e4
polyamide imides (PAI), 16e17, 19, 20
polyamides (PA):
chaotic advection, 408, 410e11
engineering thermoplastics, 7e9
piping, 585, 588
plasticizers, 487, 498
polymer chemistry, 5
rotational molding, 314, 315
stabilization, 376, 378, 384
synthesis, 7e9
polyarylates (PAR), 17e18
polybiphenyldisulfones, 12e13
poly(butanediol) terephthalate (PBT),
13e14, 19e20, 376
polybutene-1 (PB-1), 34e5, 36, 45
poly(butylene adipate-co-terephalate)
(PBAT), 153e4
polybutylene (PB), 585, 588
poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), 153
polycaprolactone (PCL), 152e3
polycarbonates (PC), 5, 10e11, 19e20,
314, 316, 383
polychlorotrifluoretyhlene (PCTFE),
49e50, 54, 56
polyesters:
see also polyethylene terephthalate
compression molding, 298
engineering thermoplastics, 13e14
liquid crystalline polymers, 14
piping, 585
plasticizers, 495
synthesis, 13e14
polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 17
polyetherimides (PEI), 15
polyethersulfone (PES), 12, 224, 375,
376e7, 383
polyethylenes (PE):
see also high density polyethylenes;
linear low-density
polyethylenes;
low-density polyethylenes
chaotic advection, 407e10
chemistry, 4
comonomers, 28, 29
orthopedics, 163
piping, 585, 586, 587, 593e5, 597e8,
601
polyolefin production, 24e30, 43e4
properties, 43e4, 54e5
propertyestructure relationships, 54e5
recycling plastics, 178, 180e1
rotational molding, 311, 314, 315
stabilization, 384
structureeproperty relationships, 54e5
thermoforming, 350, 351, 352, 354e5
ultrahigh-molecular-weight, 163
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 351
barrier permeation, 605, 609e11
blow molding, 284e8, 603e23
blow pressure curves, 619e20
cans, 621
caps, 616e18
cooling, 618e19, 620e1
critical design areas, 615e18
development, 603e5
double blow processes, 621
finishes, 616e18
hot-fill bottles, 620e1
jars, 621
packaging, 603e23
profiling preforms, 614e15
recycling, 621e3
regulatory issues, 622
rigid packaging, 603e23
sustainability, 621e2
wide mouth containers, 621
blow pressure curves, 619e20
cans, 621
cardiovascular applications, 165
commercial manufacturing processes,
611e13
cooling, 618e19, 620e1
critical design areas, 615e18
crystallinity, 607e9
design, 613e18
engineering thermoplastics, 13e14
injection blow molding, 611e13,
618e19
manufacturing, 605e7, 611e13
morphology, 605, 607e9
orientation, 607e9
packaging, 603e23
permeation, 605, 609e11
polymer chemistry, 5
polymerization, 606e7
preform design, 613e18
processing, 618e23
properties, 605
recycling, 177, 178, 180, 621e3
regulatory issues, 622
reheat stretch blow molding, 611e13
rigid packaging, 73e4, 603e23
stretch blow molding, 267, 284e8,
611e13
structure, 605e7
sustainability, 621e2
synthesis, 13e14
wide mouth containers, 621
polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), 150e2
polyhydroxybutyrate, 352
polyhydroxyvalerate, 352
polyimides, 15e17
polyketones, 17
polylactic acid (PLA), 149e50, 351e2
polymer blends, 408
polymer chemistry, 4e5
polymer composites:
infrastructure applications, 565e84
matrices, 553
piping applications, 585, 589e90, 595,
598, 602
polymeresolids, 408, 410e11
INDEX 637polymeric additives, 519e32
polymeric biomaterials, 159e75
artificial cornea, 162e3
artificial organs, 168
cardiovascular applications, 164e6
contact lens, 159e61
extracorporeal artificial organs, 168
intraocular lens, 160, 161e2
medical applications, 159e75
nerve regeneration, 168e9
ophthalmology, 159e63
orthopedics, 163e4
sutures, 166e8
wound closure, 166e8
polymeric materials, 3e4
long-chain molecules, 3e4
plasticizers, 489
polymerization:
catalysts, 23e4, 27, 35e43
fluoropolymers, 53e4
polyethylene terephthalate, 606e7
polymer chemistry, 4e5
polyolefin production, 23e4, 27, 35e43
polyvinyl chloride synthesis, 64e5
polymer-matrix composites, 553
polymer processing: plastic processing,
197e203
polymer properties:
fluoropolymers, 55e7
polytetrafluoroethylene, 54e6
polymeresolid composites, 408, 410e11
polymer stabilization, 375e99
additives, 386
antioxidants, 378e81, 382
CAS numbers, 387e91
chemical resistance stabilizers, 386e7
chemical structure, 387e91
color, 380e1, 384e5, 386, 387
degradation chemistry, 375e8
discoloration, 380e1, 384e5, 386, 387
dosability, 387
food contact approvals, 387
hindered amine light stabilizers, 378,
381e2, 385, 386e7
mechanisms of action, 378e83
performance, 383e5
physical factors, 386
polyvinyl chloride, 376, 384
primary antioxidants, 378e80, 383, 384,
385
quenchers, 378, 383
secondary antioxidants, 378, 380e1,
382
structure, 387e91
toxicity, 387
trade names, 387e91
ultraviolet light stabilizers, 378, 381e3
polymer transitions, 77
polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA),
163e4, 383
poly(m-phenyleneisophthalamide), 8
polyolefins, 23e48
appliance applications, 45, 46
applications, 45, 46
classes, 24e35
composites, 45e7
fillers, 45e7
industrial processes, 23e4, 39e43
industrial reactors, 23e6, 39e43
injection molding markets, 45, 46
low-density polyethylenes, 24e7
piping, 596
plasticizers, 487
polybutene-1, 34e5
polyethylenes, 24e30, 43e4
polypropylenes, 30e4, 41e3
production
catalysts, 23e4, 27, 35e43
comonomers, 28, 29
cracking, 23e4
cross-linked polyethylene, 28e30
free-radical reaction mechanisms,
26e7
gas phase reactors, 40e3
heat control, 24
high density polyethylene, 24, 27e8
industrial processes, 23e4
industrial reactors, 23e6, 39e43
linear low-density polyethylenes, 24,
28, 29
low-density polyethylenes, 24e7
metallocene catalysts, 38e9
Phillips catalysts, 37e8
polybutene-1, 34e5
polyethylenes, 24e30, 43e4
polymerization catalysts, 23e4, 27,
35e43
polypropylenes, 30e4, 41e3
reactors, 23e6, 39e43
slurry reactors, 40, 41e3
steam cracking, 23e4
tubular reactors, 24e6
ZeiglereNatta catalyst systems, 27,
35e7, 38
properties, 43e5
stabilization, 380, 384
talc, 45
thermal stabilizers, 420
polyoxymethylenes (POM), 9e10, 420
polyphenylene, 18e19
poly(phenylene ether) (PPE), 11
poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS):
engineering thermoplastics, 14e15
piping applications, 585, 586, 589
synthesis, 14e15
polyphenylenesulfone (PPSU), 12, 586
poly(p-phenyleneterephthalamide)
(PPTA), 8e9
polypropylenes (PP):
biodegradable polymers, 153
Borstar process, 41e3
chaotic advection, 407e10, 409
copolymers, 32e4
crystallinity, 31e2
engineering thermoplastics, 20
homopolymers, 30e2
impact copolymers, 32e4
industrial production, 41e3
mechanical properties, 33, 44
morphology, 31e3
piping applications, 585, 587e8, 601
polymer chemistry, 4
polyolefin production, 30e4, 41e3
properties, 44
random copolymers, 32
recycling plastics, 178, 181e2
rotational molding, 314, 315
Spheripol process, 42, 43
Spherizone process, 42, 43
stabilization, 377, 384
thermal stabilizers, 420
thermoforming, 350, 351, 352, 353
poly(pyromellitimide-1,4-diphenyl ether)
(PDMAeODA), 15e16
polystyrenes (PS):
see also styrenics
chaotic advection, 408
engineering thermoplastics, 18, 19
polymer chemistry, 4e5
recycling plastics, 178, 182
syndiotatic polystyrene, 18
thermoforming, 350e1, 354e5
polysulfones (PSF), 11e13, 585, 586, 589
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE):
classification, 49e50
development history, 50
fabrication, 57
piping, 585
polymerization and finishing, 53
polymer properties, 54e6
structureeproperty relationships, 54e5
polyurethanes (PU), 164e5, 316e17,
487, 498, 585
polyvinyl acetate emulsion polymers, 498
polyvinyl butyral (PVB), 487, 498
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 61e76
additives, 67e9, 72
bottle recycling, 73
638 INDEXcharacterization, 64e76
compound applications/processing,
67e74
dioxins, 75
dispersion resin, 71e3
energy efficiency, 74
health, 74e5
packaging recycling, 73e4
particle internal morphology, 66e7
particle size, 69e73
piping, 585, 586, 593, 595, 600e1
plasticizers, 67e8, 71, 487e9,
494e500
polymer chemistry, 5
polymerization, 64e5
recycling, 73e4, 178, 181
rotational molding, 73, 311, 314,
315e16
stabilization/stabilizers, 68, 376,
383e4
sustainability, 74
synthesis, 63e7
thermal stabilizers, 420
thermoforming, 350, 351, 352, 354e5
polyvinyl fluoride (PVF):
classification, 49e50
fabrication, 57
polymerization and finishing, 54
properties, 57
poly(vinylidene chloride), 487
polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF):
classification, 49e50
piping, 585, 601
polymerization and finishing, 54
properties, 57
POM see polyoxymethylenes
Popelar shift functions, 597e8
position transducers, 364
POSS cages, 126e7
posts: bridges, 565
potassium flame retardants, 480
powders:
coating plastics, 433e4
processing parameters, 299
rotational molding, 318e19
PP see polypropylenes
PPS see poly(phenylene sulfide)
PPSU see polyphenylenesulfone
pre-coatings, 444, 450
precolor, 440
preform design, 613e18
preform processing parameters, 299
preparation:
nanocomposites, 109, 127e30
rotational molding, 317e19
press capacity, 290e1
presses:
see also machinery
compression molding, 290e3
thermoforming, 339, 342e4
pressure:
compression molding, 290e1, 295e6
control, 365e6
flow, 195
forming, 202, 333
injection molding, 209e10, 370
microcellular injection molding,
219e20, 224
single screw extrusion, 239e40
transducers, 364, 366e7
twin screw extrusion, 247
prices/pricing, 85, 298e9, 360
primary antioxidants


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