كتاب Make - The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science Laboratory
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


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 كتاب Make - The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science Laboratory

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كتاب Make - The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science Laboratory  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Make - The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science Laboratory    كتاب Make - The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science Laboratory  Emptyالثلاثاء 10 أكتوبر 2023, 3:38 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Make - The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science Laboratory
Raymond Barrett and Windell Oskay

كتاب Make - The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science Laboratory  M_t_a_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Foreword xi
Getting Started . xv
Original Preface xxi
Original Introduction xxiii
PART I. Chemistry
1. General Laboratory Equipment 3
Science Laboratory Workbench 3
Gravity Wash Bottle . 4
Light Bulb Chemistry Flask 5
Cutting Glass Tubing 6
Bending Glass Tubing . 6
Graduated Cylinder and Chemistry Flask . 7
Alcohol Burner 8
Broad Flame Alcohol Burner . 9
Pipette 10
Mouth Pipette . 10
Blowtorch Type of Alcohol Burner 11
Large Pipette-Glass Blowing 12
Burette Clamp and Test Tube Holder . 12
Mason Jar Chemistry Flask . 13
Funnel 13
String Filter 14
Plant Pot Filter . 14
Tripod and Adjustable Rings . 14
Support Stand . 16
Ring Support for Support Stand and Test Tube Holder 16
Bottle Etcher . 17
Glass Cutter . 17
vBottle Cutter . 18
Salt Water Rheostat 19
Carbon Arc Furnace 21
Adjustable Glass Bottle Etcher 22
Test Tubes . 23
Test Tube Racks 23
Retort and Liebig Condenser . 23
Distillation Condenser . 24
Clothes Hanger Chemistry Stands—Filter Paper 25
Graduated Beaker . 26
Stirring Rod 26
Petri Dish 27
Measuring Spoon 27
Acid Bottle 27
Wash Bottle . 28
Asbestos Board 28
Drilling Glass 28
Litmus Paper 30
Sensitive Gram Scale . 30
Metric Weights 31
Soda Straw Chemical Balance 32
Bridge for Pneumatic Trough . 32
Thistle Tube . 33
Hydrogen Generator . 34
Oxygen Generator . 34
Chemical Source of Hydrogen 35
Safety Gas Generator . 36
X Connector . 37
T Tube . 37
Adjustable Clamp 37
Crystal Coal Garden 38
Growing Crystal Candy . 39
Growing Gem Crystals . 40
Recipes for Growing Crystals . 44
Polarimeter 46
Hydrometer . 47
Cartesian Diver 48
Problems to Investigate in the Study of Chemistry 49
PART II. Physics
2. Astronomy and Light . 65
Star Chart 65
Refracting Telescope . 67
Spectroscope 68
Astrolabe 69
vi Make: The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science LaboratoryDip Circle Meter . 70
Universal Sundial 71
Planetarium Model of the Solar System . 73
Umbrella Planetarium 73
Planetarium Projector 74
Foucault Pendulum 75
Sunspot Viewer 76
Moon Range Finder 77
Water Faucet Vacuum Pump . 78
Vacuum Jar Pressure Gauge 78
Vacuum Pump . 80
Vacuum Jar—Bell Jar . 81
Solar Furnace 81
Solar Distillation Apparatus 83
Constellarium . 84
Problems to Investigate in the Study of Astronomy and Light . 85
3. Atomic Energy . 99
Radiometric Dating 99
Spinthariscope . 100
Dosimeter 101
Diffusion Cloud Chamber . 103
4. Electricity and Magnetism 107
Making a Magnet (or Recharging a Magnet) . 107
Magnetometer . 108
Needle Compass . 109
Watch Spring Compass . 110
Columbus Compass 110
Iron Filings . 110
Electroscope . 111
Pith Ball Electroscope . 112
Electronic Electroscope . 113
Electrophorus 115
Leyden Jar . 116
Solenoid . 118
Lemon Battery 118
Blotting Paper Battery 119
Electric Cell . 119
Galvanoscope 120
Storage Battery . 121
Mercury Switch . 121
Safety Pin Switch . 122
Rheostat . 123
Push Button 123
Pencil Rheostat . 123
Table of Contents viiCurrent Reverser 124
Conductivity Tester . 125
AC or DC Power Supply . 126
Variable Load . 129
Lamp Bank Rectifier and Battery Charger 130
Carbon Rods—Carbon Electrodes . 131
Electrolysis Tank 132
Test Tube Electric Motor 133
Bolt and Nut Motor . 134
Doorbell . 135
Electric Buzzer 135
Telegraph Key 136
Telegraph Sounder . 136
Telegraph Solenoid Sounder 136
International Code 137
Current Flow Indicator 137
Analog Computer 139
Digital Computer . 141
Problems to Investigate in the Study of Electricity and Magnetism . 142
5. Force, Measurement, and Motion 153
Spring Scale 153
Rubber Band Weighing Scales 153
Meter Stick . 154
Optical Micrometer . 155
Centrifugal Force Indicator 155
Hand Stroboscope 157
Motorized Stroboscope . 158
Water Hourglass 158
Stop Clock 159
Harmonograph . 160
6. Geology . 163
General Equipment Needed for Geology 163
Rock and Mineral Worksheet 164
Specific Gravity Test 166
Bead Test . 167
Special Properties 168
Seismograph . 169
Volcano 172
7. Meteorology (Weather) . 175
Anemometer . 175
Rain Gauge . 176
Wind Vane . 177
Nephoscope . 178
viii Make: The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science LaboratoryBeaufort Wind Scale 179
Wind Chill Table 179
Balloon Barometer 180
Aneroid Barometer . 181
Hair Hygrometer 182
Wet- and Dry-bulb Hygrometer . 183
What Determines Weather 184
Mercury Barometer . 184
Chemical Weather Glass 187
Air Current Detector 188
Air Thermometer . 189
Cloud Jar . 190
Air Barometer 191
Convection Current Box 192
Sunshine Recorder . 193
Radiometer . 194
Weather Balloon 195
Problems to Investigate in the Study of Meteorology (Weather) 197
PART III. Biology
8. General Biology Equipment . 209
Light Source for a Microscope . 209
Water Drop Magnifying Glass . 210
Eyedropper . 210
Low-Power Microscope . 210
Leeuwenhoek-type Microscope . 211
Bacteria Garden 212
Micrograph . 214
Polarized Light Filters . 215
Microbiology Cultures 217
Growing Brine Shrimp 218
Microscope Slide Making . 221
Microtome . 223
Precision Microtome 224
Animal Maze . 225
Insect Net 226
Killing Jar . 227
Insect Mounting Box 227
Quick Freeze Chamber 227
Chest Cavity 229
Metabolism Chamber . 230
Aquarium 230
Terrarium 231
Dissecting Needle 232
Dissecting Pins . 233
Table of Contents ixDissecting Knife 233
Animal Cage 233
Problems to Investigate in the Study of Biology 234
PART IV. Appendix
Appendix A. Sourcing Chemicals and Materials . 263
Appendix B. Weights and Measures . 273
Appendix C. Temperature Conversion Table 275
Appendix D. Table of the Elements . 277
Appendix E. Extended Notes . 279
Index 297
Index
Symbols
50 Dangerous Things (you should
let your children do) (book), xiii
A
absolute zero, 275
AC/DC power supply, 126
acid bottle, 28
acid test (geology), 166
acid, working with, 284
adjustable bottle etcher, 22
adjustable clamp, 37
adjustable rings, 14
air barometer, 191
air current
convection current box, 192
detector, 188
air pressure measurement
air barometer, 191
aneroid barometer, 181
balloon barometer, 180
mercury barometer, 184
air thermometer, 189
albumin, 61
alcohol burner, 8
blowtorch type, 11
broad flame, 9
alcohol thermometer, 91
alcohol, usage guidelines for, 281
Alpha particle, 105
alum, 42, 55, 58
ammonia, 52, 55
ammonium aluminum sulfate
crystals, 58
ammonium sulfate, 42
Amoeba, 219
amphoteric substance, 54
analog computer, 139
anemometer, 175
aneroid barometer, 181
animal cage, 233
animal maze, 225
animal(s), guidelines for
experimentation with, 279
aquarium, 230
arc furnace, 21-22
asbestos board, 28
astrolabe, 69
astronomy and light, 65-84
astrolabe, 69
constellarium, 84
dip circle meter, 70
Foucault pendulum, 75
moon range finder, 77
planetarium, 73
planetarium projector, 74
refracting telescope, 67
spectroscope, 68
star chart, 65
sunspot viewer, 76
umbrella planetarium, 73
universal sundial, 71
vacuum jar pressure gauge, 78
vacuum jar — Bell jar, 81
vacuum pump, 80
water faucet vacuum pump, 78
atomic clock, 99
atomic energy, 99-105
diffusion cloud chamber,
103-105
dosimeter, 101-103
radiometric dating, 99
spinthariscope, 100
B
baby bottles, 281
bacilli, 213
bacteria, 89
garden, 212
Petri dish, 27
baking soda, 42
balloon
barometer, 180
weather, 195, 295
barometer
air, 191
aneroid, 181
balloon, 180
mercury, 184
water, 293
Barrett, Raymond E., xii
battery
blotting paper, 119
297electric cell, 119
lamp bank rectifier/battery
charger, 130
lemon, 118
No. 6 dry cell, 288
storage, 121
usage guide for, 282
zinc-carbon, 282
bead test (geology), 167
beaker, graduated, 26
Beaufort Wind Scale, 179
Bell jar, 81
bell, electric, 135
bending glass tubing, 6
Berkeley, Edmund C., 291
beta particles, 105
Big Dipper, 70
biology, 209-234
animal cage, 233
animal maze, 225
aquarium, 230
bacteria garden, 212
brine shrimp, 218
chest cavity model, 229
dissecting knife, 233
dissecting needle, 232
dissecting pins, 233
eyedropper, 210
insect mounting box, 227
insect net, 226
killing jar, 227
Leeuwenhoek-type
microscope, 211
light source for microscope,
209
low-power microscope, 210
metabolism chamber, 230
microbiology cultures, 217
micrograph, 214
Petri dish, 27
polarized light filters, 215
quick freeze chamber, 227
terrarium, 231
vacuum pump, 80
water drop magnifying glass,
210
bituminous coal, 59
black lights, 96
bleach, 52
blotting paper battery, 119
blowtorch-type alcohol burner, 11
boiling chips, 39
boiling point, 91
bolt and nut motor, 134
borax, 57
boric acid, 42, 57
bottle cutter, 18
bottle etcher, 17, 22
bottle(s)
for acid, 28
wash, 28
BRAINIAC, 291
bridge rectifier, 290
bridge, pneumatic trough, 32
brine shrimp, growing, 218
broad flame alcohol burner, 9
Brownian motion, 90
buoyancy, cartesian diver and, 48
burette clamp and test tube
holder, 12
burner, alcohol, 8
blowtorch type, 11
broad flame, 9
burning metal, 58
buzzer, electric, 135
C
cage, animal, 233
Campbell–Stokes recorder, 193
candles, 49, 56
candy, crystal, 39
capacitor, 118
carbon, 60
carbon arc furnace, 282
carbon arc, safety guidelines for,
282
carbon dating, 99
carbon dioxide, 37, 50, 51
carbon rods, 21
carbon rods/electrodes, 131
carbon tetrachloride, 285
cartesian diver, 48
cell, electric, 119
Celsius temperature scale, 275
centrifugal force, 292
centrifugal force indicator, 155
centripetal force, 292
chemical balance, 32
chemical tests (geology), 169
chemical weather glass, 187, 294
chemicals, working safely with,
284
chemistry equipment, 3-49
acid bottle, 28
adjustable clamp, 37
adjustable glass bottle etcher,
22
alcohol burner, 8
alternative load for carbon arc
furnace, 282
asbestos board, 28
blowtorch-type alcohol burner,
11
bottle cutter, 18
bottle etcher, 17
bridge for pneumatic trough,
32
broad flame alcohol burner, 9
burette clamp and test tube
holder, 12
carbon arc furnace, 21-22
cartesian diver, 48
chemistry stands, 25
distillation condenser, 24
drilling glass, 28
filter paper, 26
flask, Mason jar, 13
funnel, 13
general laboratory equipment,
3-49
glass cutter, 17
glass tubing, 6
graduated beaker, 26
graduated cylinder/chemistry
flask, 7
gravity wash bottle, 4
hydrogen generator, 34
hydrometer, 47
light bulb chemistry flask, 5
litmus paper, 30
measuring spoon, 27
metric weights, 31
mouth pipette, 10
oxygen generator, 34
Petri dish, 27
298 Indexpipette, 10
pipette, large (glass blowing),
12
plant pot filter, 14
polarimeter, 46
retort and Liebig condenser, 23
ring support for support stand
and test tube holder, 16
safety gas generator, 36
salt water rheostat, 19
science laboratory workbench,
3
sensitive gram scale, 30
soda straw chemical balance,
32
spectroscope, 68
stirring rod, 26
string filter, 14
support stand, 16
T tube, 37
test tube racks, 23
test tubes, 23
thistle tube, 33
tripod and adjustable rings, 14
wash bottle, 28
X connector, 37
chemistry experiments, 49-62
crystal candy, 39
crystal coal garden, 38
crystal recipes, 44-46
gem crystals, 40-42
chemistry stands, 25
chest cavity, model of, 229
chlorine, 52
chrome alum, 44
chromium potassium sulfate, 42
clamp
adjustable, 37
burette, 12
clock
radiometric dating, 99
stop, 159, 293
universal sundial, 71
water hourglass, 158
clothes hanger chemistry stands,
25
cloud chamber, 103-105, 287
cloud jar, 190
cloud motion, nephoscope and,
178
coal, 59
coal, crystal garden, 38
coat hangars, 25
coat hangers, 16
cobalt chloride, 42
Cocci, 213
coefficient of linear expansion, 92
coin weights, 31, 283
colloids, 61
color test (geology), 165
Columbus compass, 110
compass
Columbus, 110
needle, 109
watch spring, 110
compounds vs. mixtures, 50
computer
analog, 139
digital, 141, 291
condenser
distillation, 24
Liebig, 23
conductivity tester, 125
constellarium, 84
constellation, 65
convection current box, 192
convex lenses, 67
copper sulfate, 42, 59
crystal(s)
candy, 39
coal garden, 38
gem, 40-42
handedness of, 43
polarimeter and, 46
recipes for, 44-46
cultures, microbiology, 217
current flow indicator, 137, 290
current reverser, 124
cutting glass tubing, 6
D
Daphnia, 219
dating, radiometric, 99
DC power supply, 126
density measurements, 58
density, specific gravity vs., 285
desalination, solar distillation
apparatus for, 83
diffraction gratings, 286
diffusion cloud chamber, 103-105,
287
digital computer, 141, 291
dip circle meter, 70
dissecting knife, 233
dissecting needle, 232
dissecting pins, 233
dissection, 295
distillation
condenser, 24
retort and Liebig condenser, 23
solar apparatus, 83
ditto fluid, usage guidelines for,
281
doorbell, 135
dosimeter, 101-103
drag effect, 86
drilling glass, 28
dry cell, No. 6, 288
dry ice, 25
dry ice, safety guidelines for, 283
E
Earth, rotation of, 72, 75
earthquakes, seismograph for
detecting/measuring, 169, 171
electric buzzer, 135
electric cell, 119
electric motor
bolt and nut, 134
test tube, 133
electrical current
current flow indicator, 137, 290
current reverser, 124
doorbell, 135
galvanoscope, 120
electricity and magnetism,
107-142
AC/DC power supply, 126
alternative load for carbon arc
furnace, 282
analog computer, 139
Index 299battery charger/lamp bank
rectifier, 130
blotting paper battery, 119
bolt and nut motor, 134
carbon rods/electrodes, 131
Columbus compass, 110
conductivity tester, 125
current flow indicator, 137, 290
current reverser, 124
digital computer, 141, 291
doorbell, 135
electric buzzer, 135
electric cell, 119
electrolysis tank, 132
electronic electroscope, 113,
288
electrophorus, 115
electroscope, 111
galvanoscope, 120
iron filings, 110
lamp bank rectifier/battery
charger, 130
lemon battery, 118
Leyden jar, 116
light source for microscope,
209
magnet, making/recharging,
107
magnetometer, 108
mercury switch, 121, 289
modern bridge rectifier, 290
needle compass, 109
oscilloscope, 291
pencil rheostat, 123
pith ball electroscope, 112
push button switch, 123
rheostat, 123
safety guidelines for exposed
wiring, 281
safety pin switch, 122
salt water rheostat, 19
solenoid, 118
storage battery, 121
telegraph key, 136
telegraph solenoid sounder,
136
telegraph sounder, 136
test tube electric motor, 133
variable load, 129
watch spring compass, 110
electrodes, carbon, 131
electrolysis, 50
electrolysis tank
building, 132
carbon rods/electrodes in, 131
electronic electroscope, 113, 288
electrophorus, 115
electroscope, 102, 111
electronic, 113, 288
pith ball, 112
Epsom salts, 42, 55
Euglena, 219
evaporation, 55, 86
exposed wiring, safety guidelines
for, 281
eyedropper, 210
F
fabrics, 61
Fahrenheit scale, 91
Fahrenheit temperature scale, 275
fats, 61
feel, of minerals, 168
ferrous sulfate, 42
filament transformer, 290
filter
plant pot, 14
string, 14
filter paper, 26
fire extinguisher, 51
fire/flame, safety guidelines for,
280
FitzRoy, Robert, 294
flask, chemistry
from Mason jar, 13
graduated cylinder, 7
light bulb, 5
support stands for, 16
fluorescent bulbs, 5
Foote, Jonathan, 290
force, measurement, and motion,
153-161
centrifugal force indicator, 155
hand stroboscope, 157
harmonograph, 160
meter stick, 154
motorized stroboscope, 158,
292
optical micrometer, 155
rubber band weighing scales,
153
spring scale, 153
stop clock, 159, 293
water hourglass, 158
Foucault pendulum, 75, 86
freezing point, 91
funnel, 13
furnace, carbon arc, 21-22
furnace, solar, 81
fusibility test (geology), 166
fusing point, 94
G
Galilean thermometer, 49
Galilei, Galileo, 68, 89
Galileo thermometer, 90
galvanoscope, 120
gamma rays, 105
gas generator(s)
hydrogen, 34
oxygen, 34
safety gas generator, 36
gases
bridge for pneumatic trough,
32
hydrogen, chemical source of,
35
gelatin, 59
gelatin slide, 222
gem crystals, 40-42
GENIAC, 291
geology, 163
bead test, 167
rock and mineral worksheet,
164
seismograph, 169-173, 171
special properties of minerals,
168
specific gravity test, 166
volcano model, 172
glass
drilling, 28
safety guidelines, 279, 280
300 Indexglass cutters, 17, 22
glass tubing
bending, 6
cutting, 6
glucose, 60
Goethe barometer, 293
graduated beaker, 26
graduated cylinder/flask, 7
gram scale, 30
graphite, 124
gravity wash bottle, 4
gyrocompass, 87
H
hair hygrometer, 182
hand stroboscope, 157
handedness of crystals, 43
hardness of water, 57
hardness test (geology), 164
harmonograph, 160
heat content, 90
heat of fusion, 94
heat of vaporization, 95
helium, 91
hot glass, safety guidelines for,
280
hourglass, water, 158
humidity, 59, 85, 103
humidity measurement
hair hygrometer, 182
wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
183
Hydra, 219
hydrated lime, 51
hydrochloric acid, 52, 55, 57
hydrogen, 51, 91
chemical source of, 35
generator, 34
hydrogen peroxide, 33, 34
hydrogen sulfide, 56
hydrometer, 47
hygrometer
hair, 182
wet- and dry-bulb, 183
hypo, 42, 56
I
insect net, 226
insect(s)
killing jar for, 227
mounting box for, 227
iodine, 38, 55, 56, 61
iron chloride, 53
iron filings, 50, 110
J
Jupiter, 66
moons of, 85
K
Kelvin temperature scale, 275
Kepler’s Law, 85
ketchup, 49
killing jar, 227
kinetic energy, 90
known weights, listed, 31
L
laboratory workbench, 3
lamp bank rectifier, 130
laser cutters, xvii
latitude, dip circle meter for
determining, 70
laundry bluing, 38
lead-lead dating, 99
Leeuwenhoek-type microscope,
211
lemon battery, 118
length measurement, meter stick
for, 154
lenses, 95, 286
Leyden jar, 116
lichens, 89
Liebig condenser, 23
light
polarimeter, 46
polarized light filters, 215
solar distillation apparatus, 83
solar furnace, 81
spectroscope, 68
light bulb chemistry flask, 5
light source, microscope, 209
lime water, 50, 51
linear expansion coefficient, 92
litmus paper, 30, 53
making, 54
lizards, 232
load
transformer vs., 289
variable, 129
low-power microscope, 210
luster test (geology), 165
lye, 54, 58
M
magnesium, 58
magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt),
42
magnet wire, 133
magnet(s)
making/recharging, 107
solenoid, 118
magnetic lines of force, iron filings
for detecting, 110
magnetism test (geology), 168
magnetometer, 108
magnifying glass, water drop, 210
magnitude of stars, 84
manganese dioxide, 33, 34, 55
manganese sulfate, 42
Mars, 66, 81
Mason jar chemistry flask, 13
Mason jar(s), usage guidelines for,
281
maze, animal, 225
measuring spoon, 27
melting points, 90
Mercurochrome, 38
Mercurochrome, alternatives to,
285
mercury barometer, 184
mercury pressure gauge, 78, 286
mercury switch, 121, 289
mercury thermometer, 91
metabolism chamber, 230
metals
Index 301plating, 59
replacement series for, 59
meteorites, 85
meteorology (weather), 175-196
air barometer, 191
air current detector, 188
air thermometer, 189
anemometer, 175
aneroid barometer, 181
balloon barometer, 180
chemical weather glass, 187,
294
cloud jar, 190
convection current box, 192
hair hygrometer, 182
mercury barometer, 184
nephoscope, 178
radiometer, 194
rain gauge, 176
sunshine recorder, 193
water barometer, 293
weather balloon, 195, 295
wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
183
wind chill table, 179
wind vane, 177
meter stick, 154
methane, 60
metric weights, 31
microbiology cultures, 217
micrograph, 214
micrometer, optical, 155
microscope
Leeuwenhoek-type, 211
light source for, 209
low-power, 210
micrograph, 214
microtomes for, 223
polarized light filters, 215
precision microtome for, 224
slide making for, 221-223
microscope slide making, 221-223
microscopes, 43, 56
microtome, 223, 224
mineral fluorescence, 96
mixtures vs. compounds, 50
moisture measurement
hair hygrometer, 182
wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
183
molecular size, 58
Moon, 70, 87-89
moon range finder, 77
moth balls, 285
motor oil, 48
motor, electric
bolt and nut motor, 134
test tube, 133
motorized stroboscope, 158, 292
mouth pipette, 10
mustard, 57
N
naphthalene, 60
Nauplius, 219
navigation, astrolabe for, 69
needle compass, 109
nephoscope, 178
net, insect, 226
Newton, Isaac, 68
nichrome wire, 18, 57
nickel sulfate, 42
nitrogen, 52
No. 6 dry cell, 288
North Magnetic Pole, 71
North Star, 70
northern lights, 77
nuclear physics, 99-105
O
odor test (geology), 168
OMSI (Oregon Museum of Science
and Industry), xii
optical micrometer, 155
oscilloscope, 291
oxygen, 51
generator, 34
metabolism chamber and, 230
P
parachutes, 86
paramecia, 27
Paramecium, 219
Pasteur, Louis, 237
pencil rheostat, 123
pendulum clock, 92
Petri dish, 27
phenolphthalein, 54, 55
physics
astronomy and light, 65-84
atomic energy, 99-105
electricity and magnetism,
107-142
force, measurement, and
motion, 153-161
geology, 163
meteorology, 175-196
piezo-electrical effect, 43
pinhole camera, 85
pipette, 10
large (glass blowing), 12
mouth, 10
pith ball electroscope, 112
Planaria, 219
planetarium
constellarium, 84
model, 73
projector, 74
umbrella projector, 73
planets, model of, 73
planisphere, 285
plant pot filter, 14
plantarium software, 286
plating, 59
Plato crater, 89
pneumatic trough, bridge for, 32
polarimeter, 46
polarized light, 56
polarized light filters, 43, 46, 215
polarizing filters, 56
Polaroid filter, 46
potassium aluminum sulfate
crystals, 44, 58
potassium chromate, 42
potassium chromium sulfate
crystals, 44
potassium dichromate, 42
potassium ferricyanide crystals, 46
potassium iodide, 55, 56
potassium nitrate, 57
potassium permanganate, 42, 58
302 Indexpotassium sodium tartarate
crystals, 45
potential energy, 90
power supply
AC/DC, 126
modern bridge rectifier, 290
precision microtome, 224
pressure gauge
mercury and, 286
vacuum jar, 78
pressure measurements, 8
printers, 3D, xvii
problems to investigate
biology, 234-259
black lights, 96
chemistry, 49-62
color, 89-95
electricity, 142-152
heat, 89-95
lenses, 95
light, 89-95
magnetism, 142-152
Moon, 87-89
space, 85-87
weather, 197-205
propane torch, 6
protozoa, 52, 218
push button switch, 123
Q
quick freeze chamber, 227
R
radiation, dosimeter
measurement of, 101-103
radioactive material, household
sources of, 287
radiometer, 194
radiometric dating, 99
radium, 104
rain gauge, 176
range finder, moon, 77
rayon, 62
rectifier
AC/DC power supply, 126
bridge, 290
lamp bank, 130
refracting telescope, 67
refraction, 68
refractive index, 68, 96
replacement series, 59
retort, 23
rheostat, 123
pencil, 123
salt water, 19
rings, adjustable, 14
rochelle salt, 45
rock and mineral worksheet, 164
rock candy, 39
rotation of Earth, 72, 75
Rotifer, 219
rubber band weighing scales, 153
rust, 59
S
safety
overview, xvii
safety gas generator, 36
safety guidelines, 279-295
burning metal, 58
chemicals, 284
dry ice, 283
electricity, 281
glass, 279
hot glass, 280
intense light, 282
open flames, 280
radioactive materials, 287
wiring, 281
safety pin switch, 122
salamanders, 232
saliva, 61
salt, 42
salt water rheostat, 19
salt water, freezing point, 91
saltpeter, 57
saltwater aquarium, 231
saturated solution, 54
Saturn, 66
scale
gram, 30
rubber band, 153
spring, 153
science laboratory workbench, 3
scotch tape slide, 221
seed crystals, 40, 43
preparing, 41
seismograph, 169-173, 171
selenium rectifier, 290
silicon garden, 57
silver, 59
silver bromide, 59
SkySafari, 286
slide, microscope
making, 221-223
microtomes for, 223
snakes, 232
soap, 61
soda straw chemical balance, 32
sodium bisulfate, 53, 55
sodium bromate crystals, 45
sodium carbonate, 60
sodium chlorate crystals, 45
sodium hydroxide, 58
sodium nitrate crystals, 46
sodium silicate, 57
sodium thiosulfate, 42, 56
solar distillation apparatus, 83
solar furnace, 81
solar system
planetarium model of, 73
planetarium projector, 74
umbrella planetarium, 73
soldering, 293
solenoid, 118
telegraph solenoid sounder,
136
solenoid coils, 71
solubility test (geology), 168
sonic boom, 86
specific gravity
density vs., 285
hydrometer for measuring, 47
specific gravity test (geology), 166
spectroscope, 68
Spiegler, Julie, xiii
spinthariscope, 100
Spirilla, 213
spring scale, 153
star chart, 65, 285
starch, 56, 61
Starry Night, 286
Index 303stars
classification of, 85
magnitude of, 84
static electricity
electrophorus, 115
electroscope, 111, 112, 113, 288
Leyden jar, 116
steel wool, 53
Stellarium, 286
Stentor, 219
stirring rod, 26
stop clock, 159, 293
storage battery, 121
streak test (geology), 165
string filter, 14
stroboscope
hand, 157
motorized, 158, 292
subatomic particles, diffusion
cloud chamber for, 103-105,
287
sublimation, 60, 95
sugar, 42, 60
sugar crystals, 39
sulfur, 50, 56
sulfuric acid, 35, 56
sunburn, 85
sundial, universal, 71
sungazing, 282
sunlight, radiometer for
measuring, 194
sunshine recorder, 193
sunspots, 67, 85
viewer, 76
supersaturated solution, 40, 55
support stand, 16
switch
mercury, 121, 289
push button, 123
safety pin, 122
T
T tube/connector, 37
tadpoles, 232
tarnish, 59
telegraph key, 136
telegraph solenoid sounder, 136
telegraph sounder, 136
telescope, 89
inexpensive options, 287
refracting, 67
temperature conversion table, 275
temperature measurement
air thermometer, 189
wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
183
terrarium, 231
test tube electric motor, 133
test tube holder
and burette clamp, 12
ring support for, 16
test tube rack, xvii
test tube racks, 23
test tube(s)
home-made, 23
support stand for, 16
thermal expansion, 91, 92
thermometer, 72, 90, 91
air, 189
wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
183
thermoplastics, 62
thermosetting plastics, 62
thermostat, 92
thistle tube, 33
thunderstorms, electronic
electroscope and, 113
tides, 87, 88
time measurement
radiometric dating, 99
stop clock, 159, 293
universal sundial, 71
water hourglass, 158
tin cans
soldering, 293
usage guidelines for, 281
titration, 55
Tomlinson, Charles, 295
transformer
filament, 290
in AC/DC power supply, 126
load vs., 289
tripod, with adjustable rings, 14
trough, pneumatic, 32
Tulley, Gever, xiii
turmeric, 57
turpentine, 28, 60
TYNIAC, 291
U
umbrella, 81
umbrella planetarium, 73
universal sundial, 71
uranium, 99
V
vacuum jar pressure gauge, 78
vacuum jar — Bell jar, 81
vacuum pump
tire pump, 80
water faucet, 78
van Leeuwenhoek, Anton, 237
variable load, 129
vaseline slide, 221
Venus, 66
volcano, model, 172
voltage, variable load and, 129
volume measurements, 7
Volvox, 219
Vorticella, 219
W
wash bottle, 28
wash bottle, gravity-operated, 4
washing soda, 42, 60
water barometer, 293
water cycle, 50
water drop magnifying glass, 210
water drop slide, 221
water faucet vacuum pump, 78
water hourglass, 158
water, hardness of, 57
weather balloon, 195, 295
weather glass
chemical, 187, 294
water, 293
weights, metric, 31
well slide, 222
wind chill table, 179
wind direction, wind vane for, 177
304 Indexwind speed, anemometer for, 175
wind vane, 177
wiring, exposed, safety guidelines
for, 281
workbench, science laboratory, 3
worksheet, rock and mineral, 164
X
X connector, 37
XKCD, 292
Y
yardsticks, 30
Yates, Alan, 288
Z
zinc sulfate, 4electric cell, 119
lamp bank rectifier/battery
charger, 130
lemon, 118
No. 6 dry cell, 288
storage, 121
usage guide for, 282
zinc-carbon, 282
bead test (geology), 167
beaker, graduated, 26
Beaufort Wind Scale, 179
Bell jar, 81
bell, electric, 135
bending glass tubing, 6
Berkeley, Edmund C., 291
beta particles, 105
Big Dipper, 70
biology, 209-234
animal cage, 233
animal maze, 225
aquarium, 230
bacteria garden, 212
brine shrimp, 218
chest cavity model, 229
dissecting knife, 233
dissecting needle, 232
dissecting pins, 233
eyedropper, 210
insect mounting box, 227
insect net, 226
killing jar, 227
Leeuwenhoek-type
microscope, 211
light source for microscope,
209
low-power microscope, 210
metabolism chamber, 230
microbiology cultures, 217
micrograph, 214
Petri dish, 27
polarized light filters, 215
quick freeze chamber, 227
terrarium, 231
vacuum pump, 80
water drop magnifying glass,
210
bituminous coal, 59
black lights, 96
bleach, 52
blotting paper battery, 119
blowtorch-type alcohol burner, 11
boiling chips, 39
boiling point, 91
bolt and nut motor, 134
borax, 57
boric acid, 42, 57
bottle cutter, 18
bottle etcher, 17, 22
bottle(s)
for acid, 28
wash, 28
BRAINIAC, 291
bridge rectifier, 290
bridge, pneumatic trough, 32
brine shrimp, growing, 218
broad flame alcohol burner, 9
Brownian motion, 90
buoyancy, cartesian diver and, 48
burette clamp and test tube
holder, 12
burner, alcohol, 8
blowtorch type, 11
broad flame, 9
burning metal, 58
buzzer, electric, 135
C
cage, animal, 233
Campbell–Stokes recorder, 193
candles, 49, 56
candy, crystal, 39
capacitor, 118
carbon, 60
carbon arc furnace, 282
carbon arc, safety guidelines for,
282
carbon dating, 99
carbon dioxide, 37, 50, 51
carbon rods, 21
carbon rods/electrodes, 131
carbon tetrachloride, 285
cartesian diver, 48
cell, electric, 119
Celsius temperature scale, 275
centrifugal force, 292
centrifugal force indicator, 155
centripetal force, 292
chemical balance, 32
chemical tests (geology), 169
chemical weather glass, 187, 294
chemicals, working safely with,
284
chemistry equipment, 3-49
acid bottle, 28
adjustable clamp, 37
adjustable glass bottle etcher,
22
alcohol burner, 8
alternative load for carbon arc
furnace, 282
asbestos board, 28
blowtorch-type alcohol burner,
11
bottle cutter, 18
bottle etcher, 17
bridge for pneumatic trough,
32
broad flame alcohol burner, 9
burette clamp and test tube
holder, 12
carbon arc furnace, 21-22
cartesian diver, 48
chemistry stands, 25
distillation condenser, 24
drilling glass, 28
filter paper, 26
flask, Mason jar, 13
funnel, 13
general laboratory equipment,
3-49
glass cutter, 17
glass tubing, 6
graduated beaker, 26
graduated cylinder/chemistry
flask, 7
gravity wash bottle, 4
hydrogen generator, 34
hydrometer, 47
light bulb chemistry flask, 5
litmus paper, 30
measuring spoon, 27
metric weights, 31
mouth pipette, 10
oxygen generator, 34
Petri dish, 27
298 Indexpipette, 10
pipette, large (glass blowing),
12
plant pot filter, 14
polarimeter, 46
retort and Liebig condenser, 23
ring support for support stand
and test tube holder, 16
safety gas generator, 36
salt water rheostat, 19
science laboratory workbench,
3
sensitive gram scale, 30
soda straw chemical balance,
32
spectroscope, 68
stirring rod, 26
string filter, 14
support stand, 16
T tube, 37
test tube racks, 23
test tubes, 23
thistle tube, 33
tripod and adjustable rings, 14
wash bottle, 28
X connector, 37
chemistry experiments, 49-62
crystal candy, 39
crystal coal garden, 38
crystal recipes, 44-46
gem crystals, 40-42
chemistry stands, 25
chest cavity, model of, 229
chlorine, 52
chrome alum, 44
chromium potassium sulfate, 42
clamp
adjustable, 37
burette, 12
clock
radiometric dating, 99
stop, 159, 293
universal sundial, 71
water hourglass, 158
clothes hanger chemistry stands,
25
cloud chamber, 103-105, 287
cloud jar, 190
cloud motion, nephoscope and,
178
coal, 59
coal, crystal garden, 38
coat hangars, 25
coat hangers, 16
cobalt chloride, 42
Cocci, 213
coefficient of linear expansion, 92
coin weights, 31, 283
colloids, 61
color test (geology), 165
Columbus compass, 110
compass
Columbus, 110
needle, 109
watch spring, 110
compounds vs. mixtures, 50
computer
analog, 139
digital, 141, 291
condenser
distillation, 24
Liebig, 23
conductivity tester, 125
constellarium, 84
constellation, 65
convection current box, 192
convex lenses, 67
copper sulfate, 42, 59
crystal(s)
candy, 39
coal garden, 38
gem, 40-42
handedness of, 43
polarimeter and, 46
recipes for, 44-46
cultures, microbiology, 217
current flow indicator, 137, 290
current reverser, 124
cutting glass tubing, 6
D
Daphnia, 219
dating, radiometric, 99
DC power supply, 126
density measurements, 58
density, specific gravity vs., 285
desalination, solar distillation
apparatus for, 83
diffraction gratings, 286
diffusion cloud chamber, 103-105,
287
digital computer, 141, 291
dip circle meter, 70
dissecting knife, 233
dissecting needle, 232
dissecting pins, 233
dissection, 295
distillation
condenser, 24
retort and Liebig condenser, 23
solar apparatus, 83
ditto fluid, usage guidelines for,
281
doorbell, 135
dosimeter, 101-103
drag effect, 86
drilling glass, 28
dry cell, No. 6, 288
dry ice, 25
dry ice, safety guidelines for, 283
E
Earth, rotation of, 72, 75
earthquakes, seismograph for
detecting/measuring, 169, 171
electric buzzer, 135
electric cell, 119
electric motor
bolt and nut, 134
test tube, 133
electrical current
current flow indicator, 137, 290
current reverser, 124
doorbell, 135
galvanoscope, 120
electricity and magnetism,
107-142
AC/DC power supply, 126
alternative load for carbon arc
furnace, 282
analog computer, 139
Index 299battery charger/lamp bank
rectifier, 130
blotting paper battery, 119
bolt and nut motor, 134
carbon rods/electrodes, 131
Columbus compass, 110
conductivity tester, 125
current flow indicator, 137, 290
current reverser, 124
digital computer, 141, 291
doorbell, 135
electric buzzer, 135
electric cell, 119
electrolysis tank, 132
electronic electroscope, 113,
288
electrophorus, 115
electroscope, 111
galvanoscope, 120
iron filings, 110
lamp bank rectifier/battery
charger, 130
lemon battery, 118
Leyden jar, 116
light source for microscope,
209
magnet, making/recharging,
107
magnetometer, 108
mercury switch, 121, 289
modern bridge rectifier, 290
needle compass, 109
oscilloscope, 291
pencil rheostat, 123
pith ball electroscope, 112
push button switch, 123
rheostat, 123
safety guidelines for exposed
wiring, 281
safety pin switch, 122
salt water rheostat, 19
solenoid, 118
storage battery, 121
telegraph key, 136
telegraph solenoid sounder,
136
telegraph sounder, 136
test tube electric motor, 133
variable load, 129
watch spring compass, 110
electrodes, carbon, 131
electrolysis, 50
electrolysis tank
building, 132
carbon rods/electrodes in, 131
electronic electroscope, 113, 288
electrophorus, 115
electroscope, 102, 111
electronic, 113, 288
pith ball, 112
Epsom salts, 42, 55
Euglena, 219
evaporation, 55, 86
exposed wiring, safety guidelines
for, 281
eyedropper, 210
F
fabrics, 61
Fahrenheit scale, 91
Fahrenheit temperature scale, 275
fats, 61
feel, of minerals, 168
ferrous sulfate, 42
filament transformer, 290
filter
plant pot, 14
string, 14
filter paper, 26
fire extinguisher, 51
fire/flame, safety guidelines for,
280
FitzRoy, Robert, 294
flask, chemistry
from Mason jar, 13
graduated cylinder, 7
light bulb, 5
support stands for, 16
fluorescent bulbs, 5
Foote, Jonathan, 290
force, measurement, and motion,
153-161
centrifugal force indicator, 155
hand stroboscope, 157
harmonograph, 160
meter stick, 154
motorized stroboscope, 158,
292
optical micrometer, 155
rubber band weighing scales,
153
spring scale, 153
stop clock, 159, 293
water hourglass, 158
Foucault pendulum, 75, 86
freezing point, 91
funnel, 13
furnace, carbon arc, 21-22
furnace, solar, 81
fusibility test (geology), 166
fusing point, 94
G
Galilean thermometer, 49
Galilei, Galileo, 68, 89
Galileo thermometer, 90
galvanoscope, 120
gamma rays, 105
gas generator(s)
hydrogen, 34
oxygen, 34
safety gas generator, 36
gases
bridge for pneumatic trough,
32
hydrogen, chemical source of,
35
gelatin, 59
gelatin slide, 222
gem crystals, 40-42
GENIAC, 291
geology, 163
bead test, 167
rock and mineral worksheet,
164
seismograph, 169-173, 171
special properties of minerals,
168
specific gravity test, 166
volcano model, 172
glass
drilling, 28
safety guidelines, 279, 280
300 Indexglass cutters, 17, 22
glass tubing
bending, 6
cutting, 6
glucose, 60
Goethe barometer, 293
graduated beaker, 26
graduated cylinder/flask, 7
gram scale, 30
graphite, 124
gravity wash bottle, 4
gyrocompass, 87
H
hair hygrometer, 182
hand stroboscope, 157
handedness of crystals, 43
hardness of water, 57
hardness test (geology), 164
harmonograph, 160
heat content, 90
heat of fusion, 94
heat of vaporization, 95
helium, 91
hot glass, safety guidelines for,
280
hourglass, water, 158
humidity, 59, 85, 103
humidity measurement
hair hygrometer, 182
wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
183
Hydra, 219
hydrated lime, 51
hydrochloric acid, 52, 55, 57
hydrogen, 51, 91
chemical source of, 35
generator, 34
hydrogen peroxide, 33, 34
hydrogen sulfide, 56
hydrometer, 47
hygrometer
hair, 182
wet- and dry-bulb, 183
hypo, 42, 56
I
insect net, 226
insect(s)
killing jar for, 227
mounting box for, 227
iodine, 38, 55, 56, 61
iron chloride, 53
iron filings, 50, 110
J
Jupiter, 66
moons of, 85
K
Kelvin temperature scale, 275
Kepler’s Law, 85
ketchup, 49
killing jar, 227
kinetic energy, 90
known weights, listed, 31
L
laboratory workbench, 3
lamp bank rectifier, 130
laser cutters, xvii
latitude, dip circle meter for
determining, 70
laundry bluing, 38
lead-lead dating, 99
Leeuwenhoek-type microscope,
211
lemon battery, 118
length measurement, meter stick
for, 154
lenses, 95, 286
Leyden jar, 116
lichens, 89
Liebig condenser, 23
light
polarimeter, 46
polarized light filters, 215
solar distillation apparatus, 83
solar furnace, 81
spectroscope, 68
light bulb chemistry flask, 5
light source, microscope, 209
lime water, 50, 51
linear expansion coefficient, 92
litmus paper, 30, 53
making, 54
lizards, 232
load
transformer vs., 289
variable, 129
low-power microscope, 210
luster test (geology), 165
lye, 54, 58
M
magnesium, 58
magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt),
42
magnet wire, 133
magnet(s)
making/recharging, 107
solenoid, 118
magnetic lines of force, iron filings
for detecting, 110
magnetism test (geology), 168
magnetometer, 108
magnifying glass, water drop, 210
magnitude of stars, 84
manganese dioxide, 33, 34, 55
manganese sulfate, 42
Mars, 66, 81
Mason jar chemistry flask, 13
Mason jar(s), usage guidelines for,
281
maze, animal, 225
measuring spoon, 27
melting points, 90
Mercurochrome, 38
Mercurochrome, alternatives to,
285
mercury barometer, 184
mercury pressure gauge, 78, 286
mercury switch, 121, 289
mercury thermometer, 91
metabolism chamber, 230
metals
Index 301plating, 59
replacement series for, 59
meteorites, 85
meteorology (weather), 175-196
air barometer, 191
air current detector, 188
air thermometer, 189
anemometer, 175
aneroid barometer, 181
balloon barometer, 180
chemical weather glass, 187,
294
cloud jar, 190
convection current box, 192
hair hygrometer, 182
mercury barometer, 184
nephoscope, 178
radiometer, 194
rain gauge, 176
sunshine recorder, 193
water barometer, 293
weather balloon, 195, 295
wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
183
wind chill table, 179
wind vane, 177
meter stick, 154
methane, 60
metric weights, 31
microbiology cultures, 217
micrograph, 214
micrometer, optical, 155
microscope
Leeuwenhoek-type, 211
light source for, 209
low-power, 210
micrograph, 214
microtomes for, 223
polarized light filters, 215
precision microtome for, 224
slide making for, 221-223
microscope slide making, 221-223
microscopes, 43, 56
microtome, 223, 224
mineral fluorescence, 96
mixtures vs. compounds, 50
moisture measurement
hair hygrometer, 182
wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
183
molecular size, 58
Moon, 70, 87-89
moon range finder, 77
moth balls, 285
motor oil, 48
motor, electric
bolt and nut motor, 134
test tube, 133
motorized stroboscope, 158, 292
mouth pipette, 10
mustard, 57
N
naphthalene, 60
Nauplius, 219
navigation, astrolabe for, 69
needle compass, 109
nephoscope, 178
net, insect, 226
Newton, Isaac, 68
nichrome wire, 18, 57
nickel sulfate, 42
nitrogen, 52
No. 6 dry cell, 288
North Magnetic Pole, 71
North Star, 70
northern lights, 77
nuclear physics, 99-105
O
odor test (geology), 168
OMSI (Oregon Museum of Science
and Industry), xii
optical micrometer, 155
oscilloscope, 291
oxygen, 51
generator, 34
metabolism chamber and, 230
P
parachutes, 86
paramecia, 27
Paramecium, 219
Pasteur, Louis, 237
pencil rheostat, 123
pendulum clock, 92
Petri dish, 27
phenolphthalein, 54, 55
physics
astronomy and light, 65-84
atomic energy, 99-105
electricity and magnetism,
107-142
force, measurement, and
motion, 153-161
geology, 163
meteorology, 175-196
piezo-electrical effect, 43
pinhole camera, 85
pipette, 10
large (glass blowing), 12
mouth, 10
pith ball electroscope, 112
Planaria, 219
planetarium
constellarium, 84
model, 73
projector, 74
umbrella projector, 73
planets, model of, 73
planisphere, 285
plant pot filter, 14
plantarium software, 286
plating, 59
Plato crater, 89
pneumatic trough, bridge for, 32
polarimeter, 46
polarized light, 56
polarized light filters, 43, 46, 215
polarizing filters, 56
Polaroid filter, 46
potassium aluminum sulfate
crystals, 44, 58
potassium chromate, 42
potassium chromium sulfate
crystals, 44
potassium dichromate, 42
potassium ferricyanide crystals, 46
potassium iodide, 55, 56
potassium nitrate, 57
potassium permanganate, 42, 58
302 Indexpotassium sodium tartarate
crystals, 45
potential energy, 90
power supply
AC/DC, 126
modern bridge rectifier, 290
precision microtome, 224
pressure gauge
mercury and, 286
vacuum jar, 78
pressure measurements, 8
printers, 3D, xvii
problems to investigate
biology, 234-259
black lights, 96
chemistry, 49-62
color, 89-95
electricity, 142-152
heat, 89-95
lenses, 95
light, 89-95
magnetism, 142-152
Moon, 87-89
space, 85-87
weather, 197-205
propane torch, 6
protozoa, 52, 218
push button switch, 123
Q
quick freeze chamber, 227
R
radiation, dosimeter
measurement of, 101-103
radioactive material, household
sources of, 287
radiometer, 194
radiometric dating, 99
radium, 104
rain gauge, 176
range finder, moon, 77
rayon, 62
rectifier
AC/DC power supply, 126
bridge, 290
lamp bank, 130
refracting telescope, 67
refraction, 68
refractive index, 68, 96
replacement series, 59
retort, 23
rheostat, 123
pencil, 123
salt water, 19
rings, adjustable, 14
rochelle salt, 45
rock and mineral worksheet, 164
rock candy, 39
rotation of Earth, 72, 75
Rotifer, 219
rubber band weighing scales, 153
rust, 59
S
safety
overview, xvii
safety gas generator, 36
safety guidelines, 279-295
burning metal, 58
chemicals, 284
dry ice, 283
electricity, 281
glass, 279
hot glass, 280
intense light, 282
open flames, 280
radioactive materials, 287
wiring, 281
safety pin switch, 122
salamanders, 232
saliva, 61
salt, 42
salt water rheostat, 19
salt water, freezing point, 91
saltpeter, 57
saltwater aquarium, 231
saturated solution, 54
Saturn, 66
scale
gram, 30
rubber band, 153
spring, 153
science laboratory workbench, 3
scotch tape slide, 221
seed crystals, 40, 43
preparing, 41
seismograph, 169-173, 171
selenium rectifier, 290
silicon garden, 57
silver, 59
silver bromide, 59
SkySafari, 286
slide, microscope
making, 221-223
microtomes for, 223
snakes, 232
soap, 61
soda straw chemical balance, 32
sodium bisulfate, 53, 55
sodium bromate crystals, 45
sodium carbonate, 60
sodium chlorate crystals, 45
sodium hydroxide, 58
sodium nitrate crystals, 46
sodium silicate, 57
sodium thiosulfate, 42, 56
solar distillation apparatus, 83
solar furnace, 81
solar system
planetarium model of, 73
planetarium projector, 74
umbrella planetarium, 73
soldering, 293
solenoid, 118
telegraph solenoid sounder,
136
solenoid coils, 71
solubility test (geology), 168
sonic boom, 86
specific gravity
density vs., 285
hydrometer for measuring, 47
specific gravity test (geology), 166
spectroscope, 68
Spiegler, Julie, xiii
spinthariscope, 100
Spirilla, 213
spring scale, 153
star chart, 65, 285
starch, 56, 61
Starry Night, 286
Index 303stars
classification of, 85
magnitude of, 84
static electricity
electrophorus, 115
electroscope, 111, 112, 113, 288
Leyden jar, 116
steel wool, 53
Stellarium, 286
Stentor, 219
stirring rod, 26
stop clock, 159, 293
storage battery, 121
streak test (geology), 165
string filter, 14
stroboscope
hand, 157
motorized, 158, 292
subatomic particles, diffusion
cloud chamber for, 103-105,
287
sublimation, 60, 95
sugar, 42, 60
sugar crystals, 39
sulfur, 50, 56
sulfuric acid, 35, 56
sunburn, 85
sundial, universal, 71
sungazing, 282
sunlight, radiometer for
measuring, 194
sunshine recorder, 193
sunspots, 67, 85
viewer, 76
supersaturated solution, 40, 55
support stand, 16
switch
mercury, 121, 289
push button, 123
safety pin, 122
T
T tube/connector, 37
tadpoles, 232
tarnish, 59
telegraph key, 136
telegraph solenoid sounder, 136
telegraph sounder, 136
telescope, 89
inexpensive options, 287
refracting, 67
temperature conversion table, 275
temperature measurement
air thermometer, 189
wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
183
terrarium, 231
test tube electric motor, 133
test tube holder
and burette clamp, 12
ring support for, 16
test tube rack, xvii
test tube racks, 23
test tube(s)
home-made, 23
support stand for, 16
thermal expansion, 91, 92
thermometer, 72, 90, 91
air, 189
wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
183
thermoplastics, 62
thermosetting plastics, 62
thermostat, 92
thistle tube, 33
thunderstorms, electronic
electroscope and, 113
tides, 87, 88
time measurement
radiometric dating, 99
stop clock, 159, 293
universal sundial, 71
water hourglass, 158
tin cans
soldering, 293
usage guidelines for, 281
titration, 55
Tomlinson, Charles, 295
transformer
filament, 290
in AC/DC power supply, 126
load vs., 289
tripod, with adjustable rings, 14
trough, pneumatic, 32
Tulley, Gever, xiii
turmeric, 57
turpentine, 28, 60
TYNIAC, 291
U
umbrella, 81
umbrella planetarium, 73
universal sundial, 71
uranium, 99
V
vacuum jar pressure gauge, 78
vacuum jar — Bell jar, 81
vacuum pump
tire pump, 80
water faucet, 78
van Leeuwenhoek, Anton, 237
variable load, 129
vaseline slide, 221
Venus, 66
volcano, model, 172
voltage, variable load and, 129
volume measurements, 7
Volvox, 219
Vorticella, 219
W
wash bottle, 28
wash bottle, gravity-operated, 4
washing soda, 42, 60
water barometer, 293
water cycle, 50
water drop magnifying glass, 210
water drop slide, 221
water faucet vacuum pump, 78
water hourglass, 158
water, hardness of, 57
weather balloon, 195, 295
weather glass
chemical, 187, 294
water, 293
weights, metric, 31
well slide, 222
wind chill table, 179
wind direction, wind vane for, 177
304 Indexwind speed, anemometer for, 175
wind vane, 177
wiring, exposed, safety guidelines
for, 281
workbench, science laboratory, 3
worksheet, rock and mineral, 164
X
X connector, 37
XKCD, 292
Y
yardsticks, 30
Yates, Alan, 288
Z
zinc sulfate, 42


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