كتاب Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics - Properties, Processing and Applications
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics - Properties, Processing and Applications

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics - Properties, Processing and Applications    كتاب Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics - Properties, Processing and Applications  Emptyالثلاثاء 03 أكتوبر 2023, 2:30 am

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Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics - Properties, Processing and Applications
Edited By
Sina Ebnesajjad

كتاب Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics - Properties, Processing and Applications  H_b_o_30
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Contents
Preface vii
1 Overview of Plant Polymers: Resources, Demands, and Sustainability . 1
Xiuzhi Susan Sun
2 Overview of Poly(lactic Acid) . 11
Lee Tin Sin, Abdul R. Rahmat and Wan A. W. A. Rahman
3 Applications of Poly(lactic Acid) 55
Lee Tin Sin, Abdul R. Rahmat and Wan A. W. A. Rahman
4 The State of the Art of Polymers from Renewable Resources . 71
Alessandro Gandini and Mohamed Naceur Belgacem
5 Polymeric Biomaterials . 87
Wei He and Roberto Benson
6 Biodegradable Polymers and Polymer Blends . 109
Long Jiang and Jinwen Zhang
7 Starch: Major Sources, Properties and Applications as Thermoplastic Materials . 129
Antonio J. F. Carvalho
8 Cellulose-Based Composites and Nanocomposites . 153
Alain Dufresne
9 Synthesis, Properties, Environmental and Biomedical Applications of
Polylactic Acid . 171
Luc Ave´rous
10 Compostable Polymer Materials: Definitions, Structures, and Methods
of Preparation 189
Ewa Rudnik
11 Biodegradability Testing of Compostable Polymer Materials 213
Ewa Rudnik
v12 Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives, Elastomers, and Coatings from Plant Oil . 265
Richard P. Wool
13 Biopolymer Films and Composite Coatings . 295
Amos Nussinovitch
14 Biopolymers in Controlled-Release Delivery Systems . 329
Kunal Pal, Allan T. Paulson and De´rick Rousseau
15 Hydrocolloids and Medicinal Chemistry Applications 365
Liam M. Grover and Alan M. Smith
16 Natural Polymers in Tissue Engineering Applications . 385
Manuela Gomes, Helena Azevedo, Patrı ´cia Malafaya, Simone Silva, Joaquim Oliveira,
Gabriela Silva, Rui Sousa, Joa˜o Mano and Rui Reis
17 Fabrication of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds 427
Adam Kramschuster and Lih-Sheng Turng
Index . 447
INDEX
Index Terms Links
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” indicate figures and “t” indicate tables.
0–9
1,3-propanediol (PDO) 124 204 244
in aliphatic polyester synthesis 243
biotechnological route to 206
1,4-butanediol diacrylate (BDDA) 271
2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFEMA) 88 89
2-EHA co-MMA 271
2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) 88 89f
hybrid polymeric hydrogels 347
soft contact lenses 88
2-phenylethyl methacrylate (PEM) 89
A
ABB (socket casing) 64t
Abbott (Lupron Depot® for palliative treatment) 68
abietic acid 78 79
abiotic degradation:
hydrolytic 181
thermal 181
Acetobacter xylinum 397
acetylation 3 161
acetyltributylcitrate 237
Acronal® A220 271
acrylated methyl oleate (AMO) 267 270
acrylated oleic methyl ester (AOME) 279
elastomers, stress–strain behavior of 280 281
acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) 269
Actinomyces 235
in Biopol degradation 235
f
f
f
fIndex Terms Links
actinomycetes 233 234
thermophilic 244
Activated sludge (ISO 14851) 213
Activated vermiculite (ISO 14855-1) 213
adhesives 4
polycondensation reactions 4
triglycerides:
functionalization 4
reduction 4
aerobic biodegradation technique, see Sturm test
AFM, see atomic force microscopy
agarose 99 376 390t
agricultural application, PLA in 64t 67
agricultural by-products, cellulose pulps 201
agricultural fibers 5
agricultural plastics, biodegradable 225
agricultural residues, combustion 48
agricultural sources, renewable:
PLA from 45
water in 48
agro-polymers 171 172f
Ahlstrom (tea bag) 56t
Airvol 208
Alamar Blue assay 286
Alcaligenes eutrophus 195 197
Alcaligenes faecalis 250
Alcaligenes latus 195 197
see also Cupriavidus necator
see also Ralstonia eutropha
Alcaligenes sp.:
as PHA destructor 250
in PLA degradation 235
PVA degradation 248
aldopentoses 81f
algae 81
see also marine algae
in cellulose production 347
alginate from 389Index Terms Links
alginate fibers 388
alginates 298 348 367 376 389 390t
cross-linked with Ca 392
in diffusion-controlled delivery systems 349
egg-box model of 392f
encapsulating agents 350
in liver tissue engineering 393
in situ gelling agents 350
ophthalmic delivery systems 351
oral delivery systems 350
sol–gel transition 367
structure of 392f
wound-healing materials 351
alginate-based coatings 304
α-chymotrypsin 335
in PLA degradation 234
α-d-glucose units 398
in cellulose 112
aliphatic copolyesters 171
see also poly(butylene succinate)
(PBS), see also poly(butylenes
succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA)
aliphatic polyesters 204 203 205 241
blends 253
see poly(lactic acid) (PLA), see also
polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)
see also poly(butylene succinate)
(PBS) see also poly(butylenes
succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA)
American Society for Testing
and Materials (ASTM) 189 189 215
amino acid monomers 2
AMO, see acrylated methyl oleate (AMO)
AMO-co-MMA 271
Amycolatopsis, enzymatic degradation of PLA 234
amylodextrin 165
amylopectin 390t
and amylose 198Index Terms Links
amylopectin (Cont.)
crystallinity 190
macromolecular component of 79 80f
model 133f
structure of 130 131f 195f 198 399f
amylose 390t
content 130 131t
molecular weights 132
macromolecular component of 79 80f
structure of 130 131f 199f 198 198
V-complexes 133
animal resources:
cellulose whiskers 83
chitin 82 82f
chitosan 82 82f
nanofibrils 83
proteins 82
AOME, see acrylated oleic methyl
ester (AOME)
apheresis therapy 98
apparel, PLA application in 56t
Apple Store (iTunes) 56t
apples:
antibrowning in 301
edible puree films 302
ethylene concentration in 307
arabinogalactan 390t
arginine–glycine–aspartic acid
(RGD) sequence 373 374f
aromatic copolyesters 204
biodegradation of 244
and polyesters, blends of 253
commercially available 204 206
PTT 204 204f 207f
structure 204 205f
aromatic polyesters 204 244
biodegradation of 244
and copolyesters, blends of 253Index Terms Links
ascorbic acid 301
and calcium chloride 308
and pea protein 334
Aspergillus 235
in Biopol degradation 235
Aspergillus fumigates 243 255
Aspergillus oryzae 244
Aspergillus versicolor 242
Association for Organics Recycling (UK) 21t
ASTM D-3363 Film Hardness by Pencil Test 291
AstraZeneca UK Limited (Zoladex®) 68
Australia Bioplastics Association (Australia) 21t
atomic force microscopy (AFM) 298
automotives, PLA application in 64t
Avianca (inflight cold drink cups) 56t
Avocado, gelatin–starch coatings 307
Azotobacter vinelandii 195 197
B
Bacillus sp. 238 242
from compost 242
in PVA degradation 248
Bacillus pumilus 252
Bacillus subtilis 252
bacterial cellulose (BC) 397
morphology of 83f
thermoplastic polyesters poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHAs) 237
bakelite 11 158
bamboo fiber (BF) composites 112
bamboo pulp fiber (BPF) composites 111
bananas 130 130t
BASF (Ecoflex® mulch film) 64t
bast fiber 154 155t
or stem fibers 154
beeswax 311
Benincasa hispida Cogn. 300Index Terms Links
Benzene, gel fraction 291
benzoic acid (C7H6O2) 302
bio-based coatings 287
design of 289
latex binders 288
nano coating 290
organic coatings 288
polymeric binder 288
properties 290
varnishes 287
bio-based elastomers 278
elastomer biodegradability and biosynthesis:
biocompatibility 271
biodegradability 271
cytotoxicity assays 271
elastomer biocompatibility 271
elastomer molecular design 269
elastomer reinforced with nanoclays 270
elastomer synthesis and properties 269
bio-based polyethylene production 20
Bioceta 201
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
(ISO 14851) 213 224
biocompatibility 271
and degradation 432
of elastomers 271
poly(lactic acid) 55
biocycle 198
biodegradable plastic, definition:
ASTM 190
BPS 190
ISO and CEN 190 190
Biodegradable Plastics Society (BPS) of Japan 215
biodegradable polyester family 17f
biodegradable polymers 11
see also polymers
polyhydroxyalkanoates 118
general structure of 118fIndex Terms Links
biodegradable polymers (Cont.)
poly(lactic acid) 55
synthesis of 215
tissue engineering scaffolds:
poly(lactide-co-glycolide) 431
polyanhydride 431
polycaprolactone 431
polyglycolide 430
polylactide 430
biodegradable polymers, from petroleum 120
classification of 171 172f
poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) 120
synthesis and structure of 121f
polycaprolactone (PCL) 120
properties with different
molecular weight 120
synthesis and structure of 120f
polylactic acid, see polylactic acid (PLA)
biodegradable polymers and PLA
market potential of 18
cellulose-based polymers 20
Biodegradable Products Institute (USA) 21t
Biodegradation, definition 190
biodegradation evaluation method:
based on ISO 14855-1 231f
based on ISO/DIS 14855-2 231f
Biodegradation phase (ISO 14855 part 2) 214
biodegradation testing:
aliphatic polyesters 241
aromatic polyesters 244
blends 251
chitosan 240
composting:
ASTM standards 218
EN standards 217t
ISO standards 216t 217
copolyesters 241 244
definitions 213Index Terms Links
biodegradation testing: (Cont.)
in different polymers 225 226
renewable resources 231
lag phase 240
maximum level 217
plateau phase 214
poly(esteramide)s 247
poly(vinyl alcohol) 248
polycaprolactone 245
proteins 240
Bioflex (PLA blends) 208
Bio-Flex®, see Ingeo™
BioFoam® 29
Biofront 195
BIOFRONT™ 23
Biograde (cellulose blends) 208
Biogreen 198
biological oxygen demand (BOD) 224
biomass 213
biodegradability comparison 17
fossil fuel dependence, reduction 48
in synthetic polymers 11
and wind power scenario 49f
biomaterials:
applications 87
cardiovascular:
application 93
expanded PTFE 95
polyethylene terephthalate 94
polyurethanes 94
classification 87
extracorporeal artificial organs:
cellulosic membranes 98
mass-transfer operations 98
synthetic membranes 98
nerve regeneration 99
ophthalmology:
application in 87Index Terms Links
biomaterials: (Cont.)
artificial cornea 90
ceramics and metals 87
contact lens 88
intraocular lens 90
orthopedics:
natural polymers 93
polyacrylates 92
polyethylene 92
significance 87
surgical wound closure 96
Biomax® PTT 1100 18
biomedical application:
of PLA 43t 67
PLA and copolymers for 37
Biomer 198
Bionolle™ 17
Biopar 200
biopharmaceuticals, development of 371
Bioplast TPS 200
Biopol® 120 198 235
biopolyesters 171 172f
biopolymer films:
cross-linking 297
formations 295
milk films 297
peel testing 299
proteins 296
soybeans 296
specific applications 299
stages and methods 298
well-matched coating 297
wheat gluten films 296
biopolymers 365
alginates 348
biopharmaceuticals, developments of 371
cellulose 347
chitin 345Index Terms Links
biopolymers (Cont.)
chitosan 345
collagen 340
controlled-release delivery systems 329 330t
cross-linked polymers 335
approaches 337
genipin 338
glutaraldehyde 337
drug loading and release 331
Flory–Rehner theory 335
future horizons 380
gelatin 342
Higuchian model 333
modeling diffusion 332
Fick’s law 333
mucoadhesion 370
ocular delivery 369
oral delivery 366
alternative system 368
gastrointestinal tract 366
oral liquids 367
pharmaceutical capsules 367
polyelectrolyte cross-linking and complexes 339
polymer–drug interactions 340
swelling 334
tablets 366
temperature-sensitive hydrogels 335
“biorefuse,” 235
Bioserie (iPod and iPad covers) 56t
biotic degradation 182 182
blends 251
see Ecovio®
aliphatic–aromatic copolyesters 253
biodegradation of 251
of aliphatic–aromatic copolyesters 253
of PCL 252
of PHA 251
of PLA 251Index Terms Links
blends (Cont.)
of PVA 253
of starch 251
compostable polymer 208
PHAs 119
PLA 117 118
of plastic–polymer, in plastic waste problem 11
poly(hydroxyalkanoates) 251
polycaprolactone 120 252
polylactic acid 252 251
SP plastics 114 115
starch 111 251
of starch–polymer 20 22
sugar beet pulp 111
thermoplastic starch (TPS) 111 112
see thermoplastic starch (TPS)
Bombyx mori silk fibroin 409
bottles, PLA application in 56t
bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) 404
building materials, PLA application in 64t
Bureau de normalisation du Québec (Canada) 21t
C
Candida cylindracea lipase 243
CAPA 15t
Capronor®, PCL-based implantable
biodegradable contraceptive 14
Capsugel V-Caps® 367
carbohydrate 1
see also starch
lignin moieties 76f
starch 398
see also amylose, see also
amylopectin
carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) 308
cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) 98
cards for transactions, PLA application in 56tIndex Terms Links
Cargill Dow Polymer LLC 13
Cargo (lipstick case) 56t
carrageenan coatings 304
carrageenan-based coating 311
carrageenans 390t
Carrefour (Belgium grocery bags) 56t
casein 408
cassava 130
C-type starches 131
cell adhesion 370
hydrogels 370
noncell adhesive hydrogels 376
mechanical-conditioning induced
structural changes 378
cell migration 378
cell morphology 378
cell transplantation 429
cell wall 153 156
Cellidor 201
cell-loaded scaffold implantation 429
cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) 239
cellulose 75f 75f 347 390t 394
chemical structure 348f
classification 154
compostable polymers 201 201f 201t
crystallites 113
derivative 113
esters 348
fibers 112
microfibrils 155
nanoparticles 166
natural fibers 154
reinforcements 160
renewable bioploymer 112
structure of 397f
thermo-sensitive polymer 347
vegetable resources 74 74f 75f
whiskers 166Index Terms Links
cellulose acetate 14 15t
cellulose esters 348
cellulose fiber, components of 75f
cellulose propionates (CP) 239
cellulose whiskers 142
and nanofibrils 83
central nervous system (CNS) 99
cereal grains 79
composition of 3t
Cereplast 208
Certiquality/CIC (Italy) 21t
Cevol 208
chemical hydrolysis 3
see also hydrolysis
chitin 345 388
biologically active agents 346
cardiovascular delivery systems 347
chemical structure of 345f
compostable polymers 201 201
as delivery system 346
cardiovascular 347
ocular 347
drug delivery 346
as in situ gelling agent 347
ocular delivery systems 347
particles 346
stimuli-responsive delivery systems 346
chitosan 305 345 370 375 393 408
barrier, for microbes 314
biodegradation 240
biologically active agents 346
cardiovascular delivery systems 347
chemical structure of 345f
chitosan-based scaffolds 395t
compostable polymers 201 201 201
drug delivery 346
as delivery system 346
cardiovascular 347Index Terms Links
chitosan (Cont.)
ocular 347
in situ gelling agent 347
ocular delivery systems 347
particles 346
stimuli-responsive delivery systems 346
structure of 393f
units of 82f
chitosan-coated alginate–polyvinyl alcohol 313
chondrocytes adhesion 410
Chromobacterium viscosum 235
citric acid 434
as antibrowning agent 301
and calcium chloride 308
in PCL degradation 245
pH-responsive collagen gels 341
Clarifoil 312
Clarisol 312
Clarosip® 369
clay-filled elastomers, loading and
unloading curves of 284f
CO2
as foaming agent 112
during composting of yard waste
compost/PLA mixtures 232f
emission 246
evolution 223
biodegradation evaluation method 231f
and respirometric method measures 226
coated white-brined cheese 311f
coating 297 310
alginate 304
carboxymethylcellulose 308
coating technology 314
for fried products 309
fruits and vegetables 308
nanocomposites 314
nanoparticles 314Index Terms Links
coating (Cont.)
nonfood gum coating 313
novel products 312
reduced respiration and transpiration 307
stability 314
surface roughness 298
Coca-Cola (lining of paper hot cups) 56t
Codiceasbarre (shirts) 56t
collagen 340 374 387 403
antioxidants, for meat 304
in controlled drug delivery 341
CPK model 404f
gene and hormone growth factor
delivery systems 341
in ophthalmic drug delivery 341
in oral delivery systems 342
matrix/scaffold, for drug delivery 342
mechanical properties 375t
scaffolds, application of 405t
collagen films 297
“collagen fold” configuration 297
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides 307
composite resins 5
composites 115
“green,” 112
materials 153
processing:
drying 158
extrusion 158
fabrication techniques 158
injection-moulding 158
resin 153
short-fibre, properties of:
dispersion 161
fiber aspect ratio 153 161
fiber volume fraction 158 159f
fiber–matrix adhesion 163f 164f
length distribution 161 162Index Terms Links
composites (Cont.)
orientation 163
sisal fiber 111
of TPS 142t 144
winceyette fiber 111
compost:
bags 14 20
materials, certification of 21t
compostable plastic:
classification 189 191
definition:
ASTM D6400 189 190t
ISO 17088 189 190 190t
renewable resources, see renewable resources
compostable polymer materials:
activated vermiculite 223
aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials 215
primary effect 217
principle 215
scope 215
biodegradability testing of 213
ASTM standards 218
EN standards 217
international standards 215 216
laboratory-scale test 219
degradation 232
film and powder shape 223
international standard bodies 215
poly(lactic acid) 232
polyhydroxyalkanoates 236
variation of microbial population 223
computer aided design (CAD) 435
conglycinin 407
controlled delivery systems, polymers used for 330t
copolyesters:
aliphatic 203
biodegradation of 241
and aromatic blends 253Index Terms Links
copolyesters: (Cont.)
commercially available 205
aromatic 204
biodegradation of 244
and aliphatic blends 253
commercially available 206
co-polymer adhesives 287
corn zein protein 2
cornea:
artificial 91
damages 90
IPN, advantages of 91
role 90
tissue 91
Corterra® 207
cotton fiber 74
coupling agents:
on bamboo fiber (BF) composites 112
chain coupling agents, role of 174
maleic anhydride 111
and polyurethane (PU) 94
cross-link density 281t
cross-linking, approaches to 337
of GA with hydroxyl and amino groups 338f
of genipin 338f
and hydrogel formation 340f
of quinine amino group 339f
cross-linking agents 296
collagen films 297
crystallinity:
PLA property 177 179
starch granules 131
thermoplastic starch 137
X-ray diffraction 137
Cupriavidus necator 197
see also Ralstonia eutropha
see also Alcaligenes eutrophus
cups and food service ware, PLA application in 56tIndex Terms Links
Cytodex 392
cytotoxicity assays 285
of elastomers 285
D
decorations, of edible films 312
denaturation modifications 2
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 385
encapsulation with alginate matrix 350
of gelatin nanoparticle delivery system 344
depolymerization:
in cyclic dimer production 192
in extrusion cooking 137
of barley starch 138
in lactide production 174 192
in lignin isolation 74
in PLA production 192f
in thermal degradation 181
dermal substitute fabrication, schematic 377f
Descente (sportswear) 56t
Desch Plantpak B.V. (D-Grade®
Biothermoformed flower pot
trays and packs) 64t
dextran 389 392f
for controlled delivery system 190
hydrogels 392
from microbes 390t
structure of 392f
dextrins 313
dialdehyde starch (DAS) 408
di-catechol nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) 341
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) 133 177
in PLA biodegradation 233
differential thermal analysis (DTA) 133
Digested sludge (ISO 14853) 214
dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) 204
DIN Certco (Germany) 21tIndex Terms Links
disaccharides 81
disposable thermoplastics 5
uses and distributions 6f
Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)(ISO 14852) 214
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (ISO 14851) 214
d-lactide stereocomplex 55 55f
drug carrier:
PLA application in 68
PLA as 67
drug delivery 365
drug release, schematic of 332f
“dry process,” 295
DuPont 71
DuraSolve 368
Durect Lactel®, absorbable polymer 47t
dynamic light scattering, emulsion
particle diameter 289f
Dyne-a-pak Inc. (Dyne-a-pak Nature™
meat foam tray) 56t
E
Eastar Bio® 17
Eco-centric (cushion) 56t
Ecodear™ 31
Ecoflex® (blends of Ecoflex and PLA) 208
aliphatic–aromatic copolyester
(AAC) product 17
Ecofoam 208
“eco-friendly” plastics 12
Ecostar 208
Ecovio®, polyester and PLA blend 17 20
edible coating 295
edible films 295
formations 295
mechanism 295
next generation 314
intercalation 314Index Terms Links
edible films (Cont.)
proteins 296
soybeans 296
wheat gluten films 296
edible protective film 300
fish coating 303
food additives 301
fruit and vegetables 306
human consumptions 300
meat 303
seafood 303
edible zein coatings 302
elastase, in degradation of PLA 234
elastin 406
scaffolds, application of 408t
soy-based materials, application of 409t
structure of 407f
elastomers 278
biocompatability 285
biodegradability 284
cytotoxicity assays 285
molecular design 279
reinforced with nanoclays 282
synthesis and properties 280
electrical and electronics, PLA application in 64t
electrochemical impedance spectroscopy 227
electrospinning 439
electrostatic fiber spinning 439
see also electrospinning
Elements Naturals® (baby wipes) 56t
Elvanol 208
emulsion freeze drying (EFD) 434
emulsion polymers:
conventional, lowest tack energy 271
film formation of 288
EN ISO 14851:2004 219
endoglucanases (EGs) 239
engineering materials, PLA application in 64tIndex Terms Links
EnmatTM 198
entanglement sink probability (ESP) model 276
Enteric Softgel capsules 367
Entericare 367
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) statistics 5
epoxidized methyl oleate (EMO) 270
epoxy curing agents:
rosin-based 123
commercial 124
conventional 124
ε-caprolactone (CL) 37 97
ring opening copolymerization 173 193 248
Erkol 208
Escherichia coli 307
genetically engineered 204
in PCL blend biodegradation 252
esterification 134 144
in PBS synthesis 120
in starch modification 134
Ethicon (Vicryl suture and Vicryl mesh) 68
ethyl acrylate (EA) 89f
ethyl methacrylate (EM) 89f
ethylcellulose 368
ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) 280
ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) 111
ethylene/n-butyl acrylate/glycidyl
methacrylate terpolymer rubber
(EBA-GMA) 118
European Committee for Standardization (CEN) 218
European Organization for Standardization (EN) 189
European Patent Office (EPO) 14f
EverCorn 200
Excellospora japonica 243
Excellospora viridilutea 243
expanded PTFE (ePTFE) 95
Explotab® 366
extracorporeal artificial organs 98Index Terms Links
extruders:
single-screw 139 144
starch process 135
twin-screw 161
extrusion:
processing technology 158
single-screw 438
F
Fabri-Kal (cold drink cups and lids) 56t
Fasal (cellulose based) 208
fatty acid methyl ester 266
fermentation 387
of glucose 81
of PDO 204
in PHA production 12
steps in 196
ferulic acid 305
fibrin 375
mechanical properties 375t
fibrous scaffolds:
confocal microscopy images of 388
in tissue engineering 405t
Fick’s first law 333
Fick’s second law 333
film-forming materials 295
films, PLA application in 56t
fir fiber 74
Firmicutes, in aliphatic polyester degradation 234
fish coating 303
FKuR Kunststoff GmbH (Bio-Flex mulch film) 64t
PLA specification 38t
FLASHDOSE® 368
Flory–Huggins theory 134
Flory–Rehner theory 335
equilibrium swelling and 335
foam trays, PLA application in 56tIndex Terms Links
food additives 301
food packaging, PLA application in 56t
fossil resources 71 72
Frito-Lay (SunChip) 56t
fruit and vegetable 306
FT-IR 227
fucose 370
Fujikura (conductor cable coating) 64t
Fungal strain WF-6 243
Fusarium solani 243
fused deposition modeling (FDM) process 436 436f
Futerro 195
PLA specification 41t
Futerro® polylactide 32
G
galactomannan-coated glipizide microspheres 314
galactose 370 390t
γ-carrageenan 298
Gardenia jasminoides 338
garlic:
alginate coated versus non-coated 307f
gum adhesion, and skin 307
gas foaming (GF) technique 433
and particulate leaching 433
Gattinoni (wedding dresses) 56t
Gaviscon® 367
GC 227
GC/MS 227
gel permeation chromatography (GPC)
in PLA biodegradation 233
gelatin 342 367
implanted delivery systems 343
microparticles 344
nanoparticles 344
in peptide delivery 342
myocardial infarctions 345Index Terms Links
gelatin (Cont.)
stimuli-responsive delivery system 344
in wound healing 343
gelatin microparticles, as delivery system 344
gelatin microspheres (GMS) 343
gelatin nanoparticles, as delivery system 344
“gelatinization,” 398
gel-forming ability 3
gellan 298 367
sol–gel transition 367
gellan gum 390t
genipin 338
molecular structure of 338f
gentamicin 92
German Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) 215
Gibbs free energy 335
glass transition temperature:
polylactic acid 116
starch 111
glucose monomers 4
glutaraldehyde (GA) 337
gluten 202
glycans, see polysaccharides
glycerol 311
glycerol monostearate, water barriers 310
glyceryl methacrylate (GMA) 88
glycinin 407
glycolide (GA) 176
glycosaminoglycan (GAG) 387
Gohsenol 208
Gore-Tex® 95
GPC 227
Gracilibacillus sp. 238
graft copolymerization 177 178f
grafting, starch 136
grains and legumes, biorefinery process 7f
grasses and reeds 154
gravimetry 136Index Terms Links
green fluorescent protein (GFP)-
encoding plasmid 388
green tea leaf extract powder 304
greenhouse gases 48
fossil energy usage 46
in agricultural residue combustion 48
during aquatic eutrophication
and acidification 52
in organic wastewater management 19
in polymer production 12
GroVia (diapers) 56t
gum acacia, water barriers 310
H
Hapol 208
heat 2
Helicobactor pylori 367
hemicelluloses 5 75
annual plants 80 81f
structure 77f
wood 77f
hemodialysis 98
Henkel (correction roller and stationery) 56t
heteropolysaccharides 388
Hevea brasiliensis 11
hexafluoroisopropyl methacrylate (HFIM) 88 89f
hexafluoropropylene (HFP) 97
high performance size-exclusion
chromatography (HPSEC) 138
high temperature short-time (HTST) 137
high-density polyethylene (HDPE) 111
Higuchian model 333
Hisun Biomaterial, PLA specification 40t
home textiles, PLA application in 56t
homopolysaccharides 388
horizontal diffusion cell 332f
HU4 gelatin 342Index Terms Links
human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) 388
human epithelial kidney (HEK293) cells 388
hyaluronan 400
applications of 402t
structure of 401f
hyaluronan receptor CD44 401
hyaluronic acid (HA) 390t
see also hyaluronan
hybrid blends 253
Hycail 195
hydrocolloids 298 365
alternative oral delivery systems 368
biopolymer-derived hydrogels 380
drug delivery 365
tissues 372
hydrogels 330
degradable matrices 331
microengineering of 379
microfluidic scaffolds 379
microgels 379
preparation 331
releasing mechanisms 331
suitability of 330
hydrolysis 3, see also chemical hydrolysis
hydroxyapatite (HA) 92 435
hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) 366
hydroxyvalerate (HV) 236
I
implantable delivery system, gelatin in 343
in situ gelation 369
in vitro enzymatic processes 387
“indestructible” packages 135
Ingeo™ 23
ecological aspects, comparison of 52t
ring-opening polymerization 55
NatureWorks PLA grades:Index Terms Links
Ingeo™ (Cont.)
for fiber application 35t
for films and bottles 34t
for thermoform and injection molding 33t
properties of 32
Unitika–Terramac® PLA grades:
for emulsion 37t
for extrusion, blow, and foam sheet 37t
for injection molding 36t
injection molding 440
processing technology 158
InnoWare Plastics (thermoform container) 56t
Inorganic carbon (IC) (ISO 14853) 214
integrins 374 377
International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) 189
interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) 91 279
intraocular lens (IOLs) 90 90t
examples of biomaterials for 90t
Ireland, plastic bag levy in 20
ISO 14851:1999/Cor 1:2005 219
ISO 14852:1999 221
ISO 14853:2005 215
ISO 14855-1:2005 215
ISO 14855-2 219
ISO 15985:2004 221
ISO 17556:2003 222
ISO 20200:2004 219
J
Jätelaito-syhdistys (Finland) 21t
Janssen Pharmaceuticals (Risperdal® Consta®) 68
Japan BioPlastics Association (Japan) 21t
Japanese Patent Office (JPO) 14f
Japanese Standards Association (JIS) 189
jellyfish collagen 404Index Terms Links
K
kaolin 144
к-carrageenan 298
keratinocytes, histological section 377f
keratoprostheses 90
Keurmerkinstituut (the Netherlands) 21t
Kibdelosporangium, enzymatic degradation
of PLA 234
kidney substitute 98
Kuraray Poval 208
Kyoto Accord 287
L
l,d-lactide 55
laboratory composting system 225f 226f
Lacea 195
lactic acid 55
condensation and coupling 174
as PLA precursor 173
PLA synthesis:
azeotropic condensation polymerization 175
condensation 174
coupling 174
lactide 192
definition 55
as PLA precursor 174
PLA synthesis 174 174f
ROP of 175
Lactobacilli species 175
Lactobacillus plantarum 312
Lacty 195
Lag phase (ISO 14855 part 2) 214
land use and distribution 2f
“landfill crisis,” 109
latex binders 288Index Terms Links
latex polymers 288
film formation process of 288f
leaf or hard fibers 154
Lentzea, enzymatic degradation of PLA 234
Leuconostoc mesenteroides
in dextran production 389
LG Hausys (laminated flooring and
wallpapers) 64t
lignin-based monomers 292
lignins 71 5 387
main moieties in 76f
lignocellulosic fibers 154
advantages of 157
Lindar (thermoform container) 56t
lintners 165
Lipase Asahi, in PBSA and PCL degradation 234
Lipase F, in PBSA and PCL degradation 234
Listeria monocytogenes 305
Listerine PocketPaks® 312
l-lactic acid 55
l-lactide 55
low-density polyethylene (LDPE) 111 135
low-methoxy pectin (LMP) 298
lung substitute and assist 98
lysozyme 342
M
macroemulsion polymerization 267
maize 130
A-type starches 131
MALDI-TOF 227
maleic anhydride (MA) 111
malic acid (MA) 302 333
marine algae:
alginate from 389 390t
agarose 390t
carrageenans 390tIndex Terms Links
Mater-Bi 208 195 198
matrix 153
for biologically active agents:
chitin 346
chitosan 346
gelatin 345
collagen, for drug delivery 342
drug delivery systems 342
and fiber adhesion 162
matrix-type diffusion 331
Maximum level of biodegradation
(ISO 14855 part 2) 214
meat coatings 303
melt spinning 439
meth-acrylic acid (MAA) 88 89f
methacryloxypropyl tris(trimethylsiloxy
silane) (TRIS) 88 89f
methyl methacrylate (MMA) 88 89f
methylcellulose (MC) 99
composite coatings of 308
lipid migration barriers 311
methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) 114
Microbial Oxidative Degradation
Analyser (MODA) 228
Microbispora rosea 243
microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) 368
microfibrillar angle 156 156f
microfibrils 155
microorganism-derived biodegradable polymers 12
milk films 296
Mill Direct Apparel 56t
miniemulsion polymerization 268
minimum film-forming temperature (MFFT) 288
Mirel™ 14
MIRS 227
moisture barriers:
gum 300
gum acacia 310
glycerol monostearate 310Index Terms Links
monoglycerides 4
monomers:
in contact and intracular lens 88 89f
role 72
units:
chitosan 82 82f
tannins 78
monosaccharides 81
montmorillonite (MMT) 314
Mowiol 208
mucoadhesion 369
N
N-acetylgalactosamine 370
N-acetylglucosamine 370
“nägeli,” 165
nano coatings 290
nano-biocomposites 184
nanoclays 282
slastomers reinforced with 282
nanocomposites:
cellulose:
colloidal aqueous suspension
preparation of 164
derived nanocomposites 163
morphology 165 165f
semicrystalline structure 163 165f
whiskers 164
starch nanocrystals:
aqueous suspensions preparation 165
dispersions level 165
morphological structure 165 166f
structure of 283f
of TPS 144 142
nanofibrils 83
National Development Reform Commission
for PLA project expansion 31Index Terms Links
natural extracellular matrix (natural ECM):
and natural polymers 386
in tissue engineering 392
natural fibers:
cellulose 154
chemical composition 155 156t
cost 154
growth 154
lignocellulosics 154
physical properties 156 157t
quality 155
source 155
structure 165 155
Natural Living® (mattress topper) 56t
natural polymers 93
classes of 387
in gene delivery 388
in tissue engineering 385 388
natural rubber 76 11
poly(1,4-isoprene) in 77f
Naturally Iowa (EarthFirst® shrink sleeve label) 56t
Natureflex 201
NatureWorks 195
first generation PLA, energy
requirements for 48 48f
largest PLA producer 32
PLA grades:
for fiber application 35t
for films and bottles 34t
for thermoform and injection molding 33t
N-deacetylation 393
NEC, see Nucycle desktop computer (NEC)
neodermal tissue synthesis 387
nerve regeneration, polymeric materials in 99
network perfection 285t
NIRS 227
NMR 227
Nodax® 198Index Terms Links
nonbiodegradable polymers 111
nonfood gum coating 313
nonwoven products, PLA application in 56t
Novartis 312
novel edible-coating products 312
nucleic acids 387
Nucycle desktop computer (NEC) 56t
N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) 88 89f
nylon 71
Nylon-6 96
O
‘Oblate,’ 310f
ocular delivery 369
liquid formulation 370
polymer interactions 370
polysaccharides relies 371
oil seeds, composition of 3t
oils 1
see also plant oils
vegetable 79
oleic methyl ester (OME) 267 276f
oligomeric lactic acid (OLA) 183
omega-3 fatty acid 305
Ophiodon elongates 305
Ophiodon elongates 305
ophthalmic drug delivery systems 341
ophthalmology, organic polymers in 87
artificial cornea 90
contact lens 88
intraocular lens 90
oral drug delivery systems 342
orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) 368
OraSolve 368
organic coatings 288
oxo-biodegradable plastics 12Index Terms Links
oxygen barriers:
alginate-based film 304
chitosan films 304
hydrocolloid films 299
P
paper 313
PaperMate® 14
particle size distribution (PSD) 269
emulsion composition and properties 268t
pectin 115
peel test 272
PEI-DNA nanoparticles, confocal
microscopy images of 388
Penicillum 242
Penicillium simplicissimum 255
peptide delivery:
gelatin in 342
peripheral nervous system (PNS) 99
peritoneal dialysis 98
PermaStat 207
petrochemical polymers and PLA:
fossil energy requirements for 49f
in global climatic change 49f
gross water used in production of 49f
petrochemistry 72
petroleum-derived biodegradable polymers 12
in nondegradable waste reduction 19
pharmaceutical capsules 268
pharmaceutical fields: PLA, application of 55
Pharmaceutical Handbook of Excipients 365
phenols 339
phosphorylation 3
pH-sensitive hydrogels 335
Phytagel® 112
pilocarpine 351
pine fiber 74Index Terms Links
PLA 195
see poly(lactic acid) (PLA)
environmental impact: postconsumer stage 50
production, route 55f
PLA resin:
biodegradation test of 233f
gel permeation chromatograms of 233f
Placcel 207
Placorn 200
plant fibers 155
plant oils 3
see also oils
bio-based polymer 121
modification of 122
structure of 221 122f
triglyceride compounds 122 123f
plant polymers, market potential for 5
plant proteins 2
see also proteins
plant starch 4
modification methods 4
Plantic 200
plasma separation 98
Plastic Card Shop®, The (gift card) 56
plastic cups 50
eco-indicator values for 51f 52
plasticization 183
plasticizers 237
thermoplastic starch 136
plastics manufacturing 18
in world 18f
Plateau phase (ISO 14855 part 2) 214
Plexiglas® 88
PLLA and fossil-based derived polymers
ecological factors involved
in production of 50f
Polenghi LAS (lemon juice bottle) 56tIndex Terms Links
Polish Packaging Research and Development
Centre (Poland) 21t
poly(1,4-isoprene) 75 75
poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOX) 114
poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) 88
poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) 118
poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-
hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBH) 196
poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-
hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)
biodegradable polymer 111
fibres 120
thermal and mechanical properties 118 118t
poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) 109 203
poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) 109
poly(butyleneadipate-co-pterephthalate)
(PBAT) 109 121
chemical structure of 121f
poly(butylenes succinate) (PBSu) 241
poly(caprolactone)PCL:
application 206
commercially available 207
route 205 205
structure 205 205
poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) 89f 91
poly(Dl-lactide) (PDLLA) 116
poly(esteramide)-PEA 206 208 208t
poly(esteramide)s 247
biodegradation of 247
poly(ethylene succinate) (PESu) 241
poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) 177
poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (EAA) 135 135
poly(hydroxyalkanoates) 83 83f
poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate)
(PHBHH) 410
poly(lactic acid) (PLA) 4 12
applications:
biomedical 67Index Terms Links
poly(lactic acid) (PLA) (Cont.)
domestic 67
electronics and electrical 67 67t
engineering and agricultural 67 64t
biodegradable polymer 55
blending of 193
blends 251
clear zone method 234
commercial lipases 235
commercially available 195 195
and copolymer delivery carriers 45t
copolymerization 193
and copolymers, in biomedical application 37 43t
corn 234
degradation in compost 232
degradation mechanism 231
for domestic application 32
eco-profile of, in mass production 46
environmental profile of 45
enzymatic catalysis 193
enzymatic or non-enzymatic hydrolysis 234
kinetics 234
lactic acid:
Cargill route 193 193f
comonomers, repeating units 193
polycondensation route 193
preparation 192 193
stereoforms 192 192f
lactide 192
long-term degradation/disintegration
behavior 235
manufacturing route 192f 193
microbial and enzymatic degradation of 234
Mitsui process 193 193f
NatureWorks and Purac 55
and petrochemical polymers, energy
requirements 49f
product application 24tIndex Terms Links
poly(lactic acid) (PLA) (Cont.)
properties 55
reference test material 233
research publication about 13f
resin producers 31t
route of 55
structure 192 201
synthesis of 55
uses 55 69
poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) 431
tissue engineering scaffolds 431
poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) 430
poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) 88
poly(N-isopropyl-acrylamide) (PNIPAAm) 346
poly(propylene succinate) (PPSu) 241
poly(St-co-BuA) matrix 166
poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) 91
poly(tetramethylene adipatecoterephthalate) (PTAT) 114
poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol
terephthalate (PTMG) 97
poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) 204 204
poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA):
producers 208 208t
production 208 207
structure 207 207f
poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) 12
biodegradation of 248
poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) 237
poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) 14 15t
polyacrylates 92
polyacrylic acid 313
polyamides 387
polyanhydride (PA) 95
tissue engineering scaffolds 431
polyanhydrides (polyphosphate) 387
poly-β-hydroxybutyrate/valerate copolymer
(Biopol) 236Index Terms Links
polybutylene adipate/terephthalate (PBAT) 18
polycaprolactone (PCL) 13 15t 431
biodegradation of 245
blends 252
tissue engineering scaffolds 431
polydextrose 368
polydioxanone (PDO) 14 15t
polyelectrolyte cross-linking and complexes 339
polyesters 81
polyethylene 92
polyethylene terephthalate (PET) 18 94
polyethylene–vinyl alcohol (EVOH) 135
polyethylmethacrylate (PEMA) 93
polyglycolic acid (PGA) 14 15t 97
tissue engineering scaffolds 430
polyglycolide (PGA), see polyglycolic
acid (PGA)
polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) 12
commercially available 193 198
copolymers 196 197 198
family 196 196f
PHB, repeating units of 200 200f
production:
bacteria 195
cost 197
fermentation technology 196
industrial 197
substrates 197
structure 195
synthesis of 197 197f
polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) 410
biodegradable polymer, see polymers
blends of 251
degradation, in compost 236
effects of, temperature 236
degradation mechanism 235
physical and mechanical properties 236
structure of 410f
thermoplastic starch 238Index Terms Links
polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) 13 15t
polyisoprenoids 387
polylactic acid (PLA), see poly(lactic acid)
(PLA)
abiotic degradation 172
aliphatic polyesters 172
applications:
biomedical 184
packaging 185
biodegradable 172
biodegradable polymer, see polymers
degradation:
abiotic, see abiotic degradation
biotic 182 182f
lactic acid, copolymers based on:
graft copolymerization 177 178f
high radiation/peroxide, modification by 176
ring-opening copolymerization 176
processing:
biocomposites 184
blends and compatibilization 183
multilayers 184
nano-biocomposites 184
plasticization 183
production 171
properties:
barrier 180
crystallinity and thermal 177 179
molten behavior 178f 181
solid state 180
solubility 180
surface energy 180
synthesis of:
lactic acid 173 173f
lactide 174 174f
polymerization, see polymerization
routes 174 173Index Terms Links
polylactide (PLA) 430
see also poly(lactic acid) (PLA)
tissue engineering scaffolds 430
polymaltodextrins 368
polymer characterization 268
storage modulus 271
polymer consumption, in world 19t
polymer development, trends in 12f
polymer properties 269
dynamic mechanical analysis 269
polymer–clay nanocomposites 282
morphology 282
polymer–drug interactions 340
polymeric binder 288
polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate
(pMDI) 115
polymeric membrane: schematic
representation of 387
polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate
(pMDI) 114
polymerization 92
PLA:
azeotropic dehydration 175
condensation 175
coupling 174
lactic acid condensation 174
lactide, ROP of 175
polymers:
bacterial:
cellulose 83 83f
poly(hydroxyalkanoates) 83 83f
biomaterial, see biomaterials
natural:
cellulose, see cellulose
SBP and composites 115
soy protein plastic 113
starch, see starchIndex Terms Links
polymers: (Cont.)
petroleum:
poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) 121 121f
poly(butylene succinate) 120 121f
polycaprolactone 120 120f 120t
plant oils:
bio-based polymer 121
modification of 122
structure 121 122f
triglyceride compounds 122 123f
polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs):
applications 119
bacterial metabolism 118
blends 119
degradation 118
PHB 118
properties 119
structure 118 118f
uses 120
polylactic acid (PLA):
biocompatibility and biodegradability 116
blending 117
degradation 116
and EBA-GMA 118
properties 116
synthesis of 116 116f
toughening 117
processing techniques:
electrospinning 439
extrusion 438
injection molding 440 440
melt spinning 439
renewable resources, see renewable
resources
polyolefins 157
polyoxoesters (polyhydroxyalkanoic acids) 387
poly-p-dioxanone (PDS) 98
polypropylene (PP) 157Index Terms Links
polysaccharide nanocrystals:
aqueous suspensions 164
low-cost materials 167
macroscopic behavior 166
polysaccharides 1 387
alginate 389
structure of 392f
biological functions of 389
cellulose 394
structure of 397f
chitosan 393
structure of 393f
classification of 390t
dextran 389
structure of 392f
general structure 389f
hyaluronan 400
structure of 401f
starch 398
amylopectin, structure of 399f
amylose, structure of 399f
polytetramethylene adiphate/ terephthalate
(PTMAT) 18
polythioesters 387
polyurethane (PU) 94
structure of 283f
sugar-based 82f
polyvinol 208t
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 135
poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) 97
poly-β-(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) 236
poly-β-(hydroxybutyrate-co-β-valerate)
(PHBV) 236
poly-ε-caprolactone 135
posterior capsular opacification (PCO) 90
potatoes 130
B-type starches 131Index Terms Links
pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) 266
cytocompatibility 286
peel test 272
performance 271
polymer–solid adhesion modification 274
shear rest 272
tack 271
Primary anaerobic biodegradation (ISO 14853) 214
priming effect 217 223
Primojel® 366
proteinase K, degradation of PLA 234
proteins 1 387 402
see also plant proteins:
biodegradation 240
chemical modification methods 3
collagen 403
compostable polymers 202 202f
denaturation modifications 2
edible coating 296
elastin 406
structure of 407f
interlinkage 295
physical modification methods 2
polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) 410
structure of 410f
primary structure of 403
silk fibroin 409
structure of 409f
silk-based materials, application of 409t
soybean 407
soy-based materials, application of 409t
structure of 409f
structure of 403
CPK model 404f
Proteobacteria, in aliphatic polyester
degradation 214
Protomonas extorquens 195
Protomonas oleovorans 195Index Terms Links
PSA samples:
composition of 285t
cytocompatibility 286
Pseudomanas 235
in Biopol degradation 235
Pseudomonas oleovorans 196
Pseudonocardiaceae, enzymatic degradation
of PLA 234
pullulan 308 390t
Purac Purasorb® :
PLA for medical devices 46t
PLA for drug delivery 47t
PURAC 195t
lactic acid producer 23
in PLA production 30
PURALACT™ 23
pure Cloisite Na+ 290
purified terephthalic acid (PTA) 204
PVA blends 253
Q
Quaker Oats 71
quaternary structure of protein 403
quinones 339
cross-lining of amino group, schematic 339f
catechol into 339f
R
radio labeling 227t
Ralstonia eutropha 195 197f
see Cupriavidus necator: PHB
synthesis in, see also
Alcaligenes latus
Raman spectroscopy 163
ramie fibres 154 163
rate equation 334Index Terms Links
rate of mass transfer 334
receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility
(RHAMM) 401
recombinant human collagen (rhC) 404
recycling:
agro-fiber-based products 155
lignocellulosics 154
“regenerated cellulose,” 116
reinforcement:
properties 153
tensile strength and water uptake 143f 144
release kinetics equations 334t
Renesas (computer network device casing) 64t
renewable biodegradable plastics:
world production 22f
renewable biodegradable polymers:
PLA 20
world production 22f
renewable bioresources, polymers, see polymers
Renewable Fiber LLC (shopping bags) 56t
renewable resources:
animal, see animal resources
biodegradable polymers:
poly(lactic acid), see poly(lactic acid)
(PLA)
polyhydroxyalkanoates, see
polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)
thermoplastic starch, see starch
compostable polymers:
cellulose 201 201f
chitin and chitosan 201 202f 202t
proteins 202
context 71
definition 173
humanity material, role in 171
petrochemicals:
aliphatic polyesters and copolyesters 203 204f 205t
aromatic polyesters and copolyesters 204 205f 206f 207f 206tIndex Terms Links
renewable resources: (Cont.)
blends 208 209t
poly(caprolactone) 205 207f 207t
poly(esteramide) 208f 206 208t
poly(vinyl alcohol) 207 207 208f 208t
preparation 191
principles 191
vegetable, see vegetable resources
reservoir-type diffusion 331
resin transfer moulding (RTM) 158
resins 4 153
polycondensation reactions 4
triglycerides:
functionalization 4
reduction 4
wood 78f 178
respirometry 227
rheology, melt rheology 198
Rhizopus delemar lipase 241 243
Rhizopus niveus, in PBSA and PCL
degradation 235
Rhizopus orizae, in PBSA and PCL
degradation 235
ribonucleic acid (RNA) 385
rice 130t
rigid consumer goods, PLA application in 56t
rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lens 88
ring-opening copolymerization 176
ring-opening polymerization (ROP) 173 192
S
saccharin 237
Saint Maclou (carpets) 64t
Salmonella typhimurium 304
Sant’Anna (mineral water bottles) 56t
scaffold-guided regeneration 429
scaffolding, for drug delivery systems 342Index Terms Links
scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 227
seafood coatings 303
Sealed Air (Cryovac® NatureTRAY food tray) 56t
SEC, see size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)
second generation Ingeo™ (PLA6) 50
secondary structure of protein 403
seed and fruit hairs 154
selected grains and legumes, production of 2t
selective laser sintering (SLS) 436 436
SEM 227
see scanning electron
microscopy (SEM)
semicrystalline cellulose fiber 163 165f
Sephadex 392
shear rest 272
shear stress, inferfacial 161
Shionogi Quali-V® 367
Shiseido-Urara (shampoo bottles) 56t
sialic acid 370
silicone 387
silk fibroin 409
silk-based materials, application of 409t
structure of 409f
silver-zeolite 314
Singoshu (Lactboard® for draining plate) 64t
size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) 227
Sloviol 208t
small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) 134
small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) 134
Soageena 311
sodium alginate 306
sodium chloride (NaCl) 433
soil carbon balance 7
Solanum lycopersicon Mill. 306
Solanyl 200t
solid freeform fabrication (SFF) techniques 435
advantages 435
CAD 435Index Terms Links
solid freeform fabrication (SFF)
techniques (Cont.)
fused deposition modeling 436 436f
selective laser sintering 436 437f
stereolithography 435 435f
three-dimensional printing 437 437f
solid-state biodegradation processes 224
Sommer Needlepunch (Eco2punch_ carpets) 64t
sorbitol 311
sorghum 130t
Sorona™ 207t
soy oil 3
soy protein plastic 113
soybean 407
specific amide bond hydrolysis 3
spreadability 298
StalkMarket (cutlery sets) 56t
Staphylococcus aureus 304
starch 368 390t 398
amylopectin, structure of 399f
amylose, structure of 399f
as raw material:
chemicals, production of 134
for plastic production 135
carbohydrate 129
commercially available 200 200t
destructurization 200
disruption:
diffusion 133
extrusion process 134
gelatinization 133
formulation developments 200
gelatinization process 110
granule structure 131 132f
amylopectin 130 131f 133
amylose 130 131f 132
classification 131Index Terms Links
starch (Cont.)
crystallinity 131
molecular structure 131
morphology of 130
semicrystalline 130 131
shape and size 130 131t
granules 110
diameter and gelatinization temperature 199 199t
morphological structure 199 199f
macromolecular components of 80f
nonfood applications 129
processing of 200
sources 130 130t
starch based polymers 400t
structure 110 110f 198 202
thermoplastic 199
blends 139
composites and nanocomposites 144 142
crystallinity 137
definition 136
degradation 137 138f
extrusion-cooking 137
macromolecular scission 137
plasticizers 136
properties 136
reactive extrusion, chemical
modification by 144
thermoplastic starch, see thermoplastic
starch (TSP)
vegetable resources 79 80f
starch modification methods 4
starch nanocrystals:
aqueous suspension, preparation of 165
properties of 167
structure 165 165
stereolithography (SLA) system 435 435f
stereolithography apparatus 435Index Terms Links
stimuli-responsive delivery system:
chitin in 346
chitosan in 346
gelatin in 344
straw 153
straw fibers 154
Streptoalloteichus, enzymatic degradation
of PLA 234
Streptococcus, in dextran production 389
Streptomyces 235
in Biopol degradation 235
Sturm test 225
PBS 241
poly(ethylene adipate) (PEA) 241
styrene-based latex, uses and distributions 6t
suberin 76 78t
schematic structure of 78f
subtilisin, degradation of PLA 234
succinylation 3
sugar beet pulp (SBP) plastics 115
sugarcane, in lactic acid production 48
Sulzer (Sysorb® screw) 68
surface hydrolysis 227
surgical implants, PLA application in 68
sustainable agriculture industry 6
research and development 8
sutures:
classification 96
nonabsorbable material 96 96t
PET and PBT 97
polyamide 96
PTFE and PVDF 97
synthetic absorbable 97
swelling 334
synthetic biodegradable polymers: physical
properties of 42t
synthetic cellulose acetate (SCA) 400Index Terms Links
synthetic poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol)
of corn starch (SEVA-C) 400
synthetic poly(ε-caprolactone) (SPCL) 400
synthetic polylactic acid (SPLA) 400
synthetic polymer 11
T
tannins 77 78f
monomer units in 78f
Taxol® 346
tear fluid, ionic content 369t
Telles™ 14
TEM 227
temperature-sensitive hydrogels 335
pH-sensitive hydrogels 335
Tenite 201t
tensile strength, TPS/kaolin composites 144 144f
Teramac® resin 31
terpenes 144f 78
Terramac®, see Ingeo™
tertiary structure of protein 403
tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) 408
theoretical amount of biogas 214
Theoretical amount of evolved biogas
(Thbio-gas) (ISO 14853) 214
Theoretical amount of evolved carbon
dioxide (ThCO2) (ISO 17088
ISO 14855 part 2) 214
Theoretical amount of evolved methane
(ThCH4) (ISO 14853) 214
Theoretical oxygen demand (ThOD)
(ISO 14851) 214
Theraflu® 312
thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) 434 434f
thermogravimetry analysis, in PLA
biodegradation 233
Thermonospora fusca 214 244Index Terms Links
thermoplastic resin 5
uses and distributions 6t
thermoplastic starch (TPS) 398
advantage and disadvantage 111
blending:
components compatibility 140
in liquid nitrogen 140f 141
mechanical performances 139
melting processing 139
plastics, replacement of 140
polymers 139 139t
renewable resources 139
solution/dispersion processing 139
water resistance 139
zein protein 141 141f
composites and nanocomposites 142t 144
corn flour–based material 238
crystallinity 137
definition 136
degradation 137
extrusion-cooking 137
macromolecular scission 137
mechanical properties 111
plasticizers 136
properties 136
reactive extrusion, chemical
modification by 144
thermoplastic dialdehyde starch (TPDAS) 139
time-dependent property 111
thermoplastics:
lignocellulosic fibers 157
natural fiber reinforced 156
short-fiber, properties of 158
Thermopolyspora 242
thermoset composites, fabrication techniques 158
Thin Strips™ 312
three-dimensional printing (3DP) process 437 437fIndex Terms Links
tissue engineering (TE) 387
natural polymers in 385
tissue engineering scaffolds:
clinical therapies 428
functions 430
manufacturing methods:
emulsion freeze drying 434
gas foaming 433
gas foaming/particulate leaching 433
solid freeform fabrication techniques
see solid freeform fabrication
techniques
solvent casting/particulate leaching 433
thermally induced phase separation 434 434f
polymer processing technique
see polymers
requirements:
biocompatibility 432
characteristics 431
cost-effective fashion 432
degradation 432
interconnectivity 432
mechanical properties 432
pore size 432
porosity 431
surface chemistry 432
research areas 428 429f
strategies 429
synthetic biodegradable polymer 431
poly(lactide-co-glycolide) 431
polyanhydride 431
polycaprolactone 431
polyglycolide 430
polylactide 430
types 430
tissue engineering 372
cell adhesion 373
cell-adhesive hydrogels 373Index Terms Links
tissue engineering (Cont.)
collagen 374
fibrin 375
chitosan 375
mechanical conditioning 378
cell morphology 378
cell migration 378
microengineering hydrogels 379
microfluidic scaffolds 379
microgels 379
noncell-adhesive hydrogels 376
tone 207t
Toray (fiber for car mat) 64t
Total dry solids (ISO 17088; ISO 14855 part 2) 214
Total organic carbon (TOC) (ISO 14851) 214
Toyobo, PLA specification 40t
Toyota (floor mat of Toyota Prius
and spare tire cover) 64t
transmission electron microscopy (TEM) 282
of clay-filled elastomer 284f
triacetin 237
Triaminic® 312
tributyrin 237
triglyceride molecule 266f
triglycerides 121
structure 80f 79
trimethylene carbonate (TMC) 117
Tritirachium album, degradation of PLA 234
trypsin inhibitor 342
trypsin, degradation of PLA 234
U
Ultimate aerobic biodegradation (ISO 14853) 214
Ultimate aerobic biodegradation (ISO 17088;
ISO 14855 part 2) 214
ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene
(UHMWPE) 92Index Terms Links
United Kingdom Patent Office (UKPO) 14f
United States Patent Office (USPO) 14f
Unitika Poval 208
Unitika–Terramac®, PLA grades:
for emulsion 37t
for extrusion, blow, and foam sheet 37t
for injection molding 36t
V
valerolactone 176
varnishes 287
vegetable resources:
algae 81
annual plants:
definition 79
disaccharides 81 81f
hemicelluloses 80 81f
monosaccharides 81 81f 82f
starch 79 80f
vegetable oils 79 80f
wood:
cellulose 74 74f 75f
hemicellulose 75 77f
lignins 74 76f
natural rubber 75 77f
resins 78
suberin 76 78f
tannins 77 78f
terpenes 78 79f
vermiculite 213 217
formula 223
vertical diffusion cell 332f
Vincotte (Belgium) 21t
“vinegar syndrome,” 14
visual inspection, in PLA biodegradation 233
Volatile solids (ISO 17088) 215
volume-swelling ratio 337Index Terms Links
W
water vapor barriers 301
lipid films 299 302
water-soluble gums 295
“waxy” starch 110
chemical structure of 110
“wet process,” 295
wheat 1
wheat gluten 408
wheat gluten films 296
wheat straw 5
whey proteins 311
wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) 134
wood fibers 5 154
morphology 73 73f
wood:
composites 153
cellulose 74
starch 79
natural fibers 155
vegetable resources, see vegetable resources
World Intellectual Property Organization
(WIPO) 14f
wound healing 377
gelatin in 343
materials 351
WOWTAB 368
X
Xanthan 366
Xanthomonas campestris bacterium 313
X-ray diffraction (XRD) 282
for different clay ratio 283f
starch crystallinity 131Index Terms Links
Y
yams 130
Z
zein 296
Zimmer (Bio-Statak® suture anchor
and bone cement plug) 68
Zydis 368


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