كتاب Blake’s Design of Mechanical Joints
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Blake’s Design of Mechanical Joints

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Blake’s Design of Mechanical Joints
Second Edition
Harold Josephs and Ronald L. Huston

كتاب Blake’s Design of Mechanical Joints  B_d_o_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface .xi
Authors . xiii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Historical Review 1
1.2 An Overview of Mechanical Joints .3
References 9
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Fasteners . 11
2.1 Introduction . 11
2.1.1 Adhesive Bonding 11
2.1.2 Brazing and Soldering 11
2.1.3 Rivets . 11
2.1.4 Threaded Fasteners 11
2.1.5 Welded Joints 13
2.2 Design with Rivets . 14
2.3 Design with Bolts 18
2.4 Selection of Bolt Materials 19
2.5 Stress and Strain of Bolted Joints 23
2.6 Torque Equations and Friction 31
2.7 Strength and Design Criteria .34
2.8 Control of Torque and Preload 35
2.9 Selection of Working Loads 38
2.10 Current View of Bolt Preload 39
2.11 Summary of Design Considerations 40
References 41
Symbols 41
Chapter 3 Concepts of Strength and Failure . 43
3.1 Preliminary Considerations . 43
3.2 Effect of Lateral Forces .44
3.3 Statically Indeterminate Beams 45
3.4 Cross-Section Geometry .46
3.4.1 Example 47
3.4.2 Approach 48
3.5 Combined Stress Criteria 51
3.6 Response in Shear . 53
3.7 Torsion .54
3.8 Deflection Analyses . 55
3.9 Buckling of Columns and Plates .56
3.10 Bending of Plates .59
3.11 Design of Curved Elements . 61
3.12 Strength and Stability of Vessels .66
3.13 Early Experience with Stress and Fracture . 71vi Contents
3.14 Griffith Theory of Fracture .73
3.15 Behavior of Cracks 73
3.16 Detection of Crack Size . 75
3.17 Ductile to Brittle Transition . 76
3.18 Limitations and Implications of Fracture Control .79
3.19 Summary . 81
References 82
Symbols and Acronyms 83
Chapter 4 Quality Measurement and Statistics .85
4.1 Introduction .85
4.2 Theory of Measurements .86
4.3 Statistical Analysis 88
4.4 Known Normal Distribution 93
4.5 Distribution Not Known to Be Normal .94
4.6 t-Statistic or the Student’s Statistic 96
4.7 Hypothesis Testing 98
4.8 Design Studies .99
4.8.1 Design Study 4.1 .99
4.8.1.1 Solution .99
4.8.2 Design Study 4.2 102
4.8.2.1 Solution . 102
4.8.3 Design Study 4.3 103
4.8.4 Design Study 4.4 104
4.8.4.1 Solution . 104
4.8.5 Design Study 4.5 106
4.8.5.1 Solution . 106
4.8.6 Design Study 4.6 107
4.8.7 Design Study 4.7 . 109
4.8.8 Design Study 4.8 110
4.9 Hypothesis Testing Based on a Two-Population Distribution . 111
4.9.1 Large Sample Sizes 112
4.9.2 Small Sample Sizes 112
4.10 Summary Table of Tests Concerning Means 113
4.11 Design Studies of Two Population Means . 113
4.11.1 Design Study 4.9 114
4.11.2 Design Study 4.10 . 115
4.11.3 Design Study 4.11 . 116
4.11.4 Design Study 4.12 . 117
4.12 Testing Variances from One Population: Use of the Chi-Square (χ2)
Distribution 118
4.13 Testing Variances from Two Populations: Use of the F-Distribution . 119
4.14 Design Studies of Variances 120
4.14.1 Design Study 4.13 .120
4.14.2 Design Study 4.14 .126
4.14.3 Design Study 4.15 . 127
4.14.4 Design Study 4.16 . 127
4.15 Control Charts . 129
4.16 Design Study for Control Charts . 132
4.16.1 Design Study 4.17 . 132Contents vii
References 133
Symbols 133
Chapter 5 Riveted and Bolted Joints . 135
5.1 Basic Formulas for Rivets . 135
5.2 Formulas for Eccentric Shear 136
5.3 Performance of Riveted Joints . 139
5.4 Rigid Bolted Connections 140
5.5 Gasket Effects 141
5.6 Stiffness of a Flange in Compression 142
5.7 Conventional Diagram for the Bolt Preload 143
5.8 Theories of Joint Preload . 144
5.9 Evaluation of Spring Constants . 145
5.10 Symmetrical Splice Connection 146
5.11 Slip Coefficients 147
5.12 Load Transfer between Bearing and Shear . 148
5.13 Determination of the Net Area of a Plate Subjected to Tension . 150
5.14 Plate Edge Effects 151
5.15 Allowable Shear in Spliced Connections 152
5.16 Fatigue and Shear Lag Effects . 153
5.17 Eccentric Joints 154
5.18 Prediction of Shear Loads . 156
5.19 Prying Action on Bolts 158
5.20 Control of Joint Separation 159
5.21 Fastening of Plastics 162
5.22 Summary . 162
5.23 Design Analyses 163
References 174
Symbols 175
Chapter 6 Flanges and Stiffeners 177
6.1 Introduction . 177
6.2 Gasket Effects 177
6.3 Tightness Criterion 179
6.4 Spacing of Bolts . 180
6.5 Mechanics of Flange Rotation . 182
6.6 Design of Straight Flanges 185
6.7 Design of Ribbed Flanges . 188
6.8 Stiffeners 193
6.9 Compact Flanges . 197
6.10 Summary . 199
6.11 Design Analyses 201
References 243
Symbols 244
Chapter 7 Clamps and Pipe Joints 247
7.1 Introduction .247
7.2 Interfaces, or Shrink, Fits 247viii Contents
7.3 Split Hub Criteria .250
7.4 The Single-Pin Clevis Joint . 253
7.5 A Rigid Clamp Application .254
7.6 Design of a C-Clamp . 255
7.7 Vessel and Pipe Supports 257
7.8 Tubular Joints 262
7.9 Summary .264
7.10 Design Analyses 265
References 268
Symbols 268
Chapter 8 Joint Connections: Pins, Couplings, and Other Joint Fittings 271
8.1 Introduction . 271
8.2 Design of Cotter Pin Joints 271
8.3 Key Connections . 275
8.4 Splines . 281
8.5 Pipe Couplings . 281
8.6 Abutment Failure .285
8.7 Eyebar or Knuckle Joints .288
8.8 Structural .292
8.9 Chain Drives and Coupling Links .293
8.10 Wire Rope Fittings 295
8.11 High-Pressure Threaded Configurations .298
8.12 Summary .302
8.13 Design Analyses 303
References 310
Symbols 310
Chapter 9 Design of Welded Joints . 313
9.1 Introduction . 313
9.2 Typical Welded Joints 314
9.3 Allowable Weld Stresses . 316
9.4 Crack Initiation and Fatigue 316
9.5 Design Assumptions 320
9.6 Analysis of Fillet Welds . 322
9.7 Weld Line Formulas for Design 323
9.8 Welded Lap Joints . 326
9.9 Beam Seat Connections . 328
9.10 Column Base Plate Design 331
9.11 Welded Joints in Plate Girders 332
9.12 Special Welded Joints 333
9.13 Summary . 335
9.14 Design Analyses 336
References 338
Symbols 338
Chapter 10 Membrane Joints 341
10.1 Introduction . 341
10.2 Vacuum Barrier Technology 341Contents ix
10.3 Design of a Circular Membrane 341
10.4 Behavior of Mylar Barriers 345
10.5 Metallic Diaphragm Experiment . 347
10.6 Plastic Correction in Diaphragm Design .349
10.7 Spherical Cap Barriers 350
10.8 Rolling Diaphragm Interface . 353
10.9 Summary . 355
10.10 Design Analyses 355
References 359
Symbols 359
Chapter 11 Design for Adhesion . 361
11.1 Introduction . 361
11.2 Characteristics of Solid Surfaces . 361
11.3 The Mechanics of Adhesion 362
11.4 Setting and Flow of Adhesives 363
11.5 The Concept of Stress 364
11.6 Stresses in Butt Adhesive Joints 370
11.7 Design of Lap Joints 372
11.8 Design of Scarf Joints 378
11.9 Peeling . 382
11.10 Special Applications 384
11.11 Materials 386
11.12 Guide for Designers .388
11.13 A Current View of Adhesive Technology .390
11.14 Summary . 391
11.15 Design Analyses 393
References 396
Symbols 396
Glossary 399
Index 407
Index
A
Abutment failure, 285–288
Accuracy, 38, 70, 87
Acrylic adhesives, 391
Actual bonded length, 4
Adhesive, 3
advantages/disadvantages of, 12
applications of, 384–386
bonding, 11, 12
butt adhesive joint, 370–371
coatings, 127
design analyses, 393–396
fastener, 104
guide for designers, 388–390, 392
joints, 13, 27
lap joint, 372–378
manufacturer of, 120
materials, 386–388
mechanics of, 362–363
peeling, 382–384
scarf joints, 378–382
setting and flow of, 363–364
solid surfaces characterization, 361–362
stress concept, 364–369
technology, 390–391
thread coating, 127
AISC, see American Institute of Steel Construction
Aluminum, 363
Aluminum catastrophic fractures, 77
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), 316, 327,
332, 333
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard,
21
American Railway Engineering Association, 1
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 1
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
boiler code, 181
American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM),
19, 20
American Standards Association, 361
American Welding Society (AWS), 313, 316, 317, 320, 326,
336
ANSI standard, see American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) standard
ASCE, see American Society of Civil Engineers
(ASCE)
ASME boiler code, see American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME) boiler
code
ASTM, see American Society of Testing and Materials
(ASTM)
Auto-frettage, 250, 264
Auxiliary functions, 378–380
AWS, see American Welding Society (AWS)
Axial frictional resistance, 252
Axial tension, 29, 140, 187, 262
B
Beam bending, 214, 273, 379
loading, 262
plates, 59–61
stress, 43, 44, 60, 61, 292, 293, 296
theory of, 44, 366
Bearing
friction, 33
pressure, 282, 286, 331
and shear, 148–150
strength, 135, 162
type joint, 148, 152
type splice, 163
Beeswax, 3
Bickford’s theory, 160
Bilinear stress, 350
Boiler plate joint, 67, 68
Bolt
clamping plastic plates, 266
deformations, 148
lubricant
statistical, 102
viscosity, 103
materials (Fastener joints)
elasticity of several, modulus of, 23
selection of, 19–23
yield strength of, 28, 29, 201
thread adhesive, 120
Bolted joints
additional load in, 141, 158
advantages/disadvantages of, 13
characteristics of, 145
circular flanges and, 177
classical diagrams, 162
conventional diagram, 143–144
design analyses, 163–174
development of, 40
eccentric joints, 154–156
fatigue and shear lag effects, 153–154
gasket effects, 141–142, 168, 170, 171, 177–179
grip length of, 166
history of, 1–2
materials, 19–23
plate edge effects, 151–152
preload theories, 144–145
principal forces of interest, 140
prying action on, 158–159
shear load on, 156–158
spacing of, 180–182
spring constants evaluation, 145–146
spring stiffness parameters, 145
stress
and strain of, 23–31
trajectories in, 25
thread category of, 21–22
types of, 142408 Index
Boundary conditions, 56, 57, 59, 258, 344
Bracket
conditions, 150–151
joint, 155
pipe supporting testing, 265
piping design, 265
with reinforcing web, 240
rivet supporting, 221, 224, 225, 227, 232, 236
rotation curve versus force, 163
shelf cross-section, 231
stretched rivets and rotated, 237
support dimensions, 239
thickness of, 330
web supporting, 229
welded, 324, 326
Brazing joints, 11
Brittle fracture, 73
Brittle material, 38, 52, 72, 355
Buckling stress, 56–58
Built-up joint, 154
Bull nose configuration, 291
Burst factors, 70
Burst test, for adhesion, 389
Butt adhesive joint, 370–371
Buttress thread designs, 282
Butt welds, 319, 320
C
Cantilever beam, 44
Castigliano’s principle, 46, 62, 63
CAT, see Crack Arrest Transition
C-clamp design, 255–257, 265
CDM, see Cosine distribution model
Central limit theorem, 93, 108
Centroid notations, 138
Chain drives, 293–295
Chain-link joint, 303, 305
Chance variations, 86
Charpy V-notch (CVN) test, 80
Chi-square distribution, 118–119
Circular cross-section, 56
Circular membrane, 341–345
Circular ring, 64, 65
Circumferential joints, 67
Circumferential stiffeners, 70, 177, 195, 200
Clamps and pipe joints
C-clamp design, 255–257, 265
design analyses, 265–268
rigid clamp application, 254–255
shrink-fit process, 247–250
single-pin clevis joint, 253–254
split hub criteria, 250–253
tubular joints, 262–264
vessel and pipe supports, 257–262
Classical beam theory, 253
Classical theory of flexure, 274
Cleansing, 363
Clevis joint, 253–254
Cold-driven rivets, 139
Collar/pin coupling joint, 306
Column base plate, welded joints, 331–332
Combined stress criteria, 51–53
Complementary shear, 53
Complex mechanical joint, 43, 260
Compression-type shear tests, 156
Compressive stress, 288, 292
Confidence interval, 98, 99, 102
Control charts, quality measurement, 129–131
Conventional curved elements, 62
Conventional friction factor, 297
Conventional joints, 142, 160
Conventional rivet components, 135
Cosine distribution model (CDM), 261
Cosine model, 289
Cottered fastenings, 272
Cotter pin joint, 271–275
characteristics of, 271
cottered fastenings, 272
cylindrical pin applications, 275
design, 302
load diagram for, 274
socket edges, 273
Coupling links, 293–295, 302
Crack Arrest Transition (CAT), 76, 77
Cracks behavior, 73–75
Crack size detection, 75–76
Cross-sectional dimensions, 56
Cross-section geometry, 46–51, 54
Curvature expression, 55
Curved elements design, 61–66
Customary machine design approach, 292
Cylindrical butt joint, 370, 377
Cylindrical pins, 275
Cylindrical vessel, 70
D
Damaging loading, 74
Deep-section curved beam, 259
Defective bolted joint, 86
Defense contractor, 117
Deflection analyses, 55–56
Deflection curve, 60
Degrees of freedom (DOF), 92, 96
Design stress for aluminum, 77, 79
Design theory, 31, 302, 333, 345
Detachable joint, 11, 12, 247
Diaphragm
cylindrical, 353, 355
metallic, 347–349
in plastic correction, 349–350
rolling, 353–355
stresses, 342, 344
Dispersion measures, 92–93
DOF, see Degrees of freedom
Double-lap joint, 372, 374
Double-riveted butt joint, 67
Double-shear case, 67
Ductile material, 9, 52, 55
Ductile-to-brittle transition, 76–79, 289
DuPont (polyester), 341
Dynamic tear (DT) test, 80, 81
E
Eccentric joints, 138, 154–157, 162
Eccentric shear, 136–138, 155Index 409
Effective eccentricity, 156
“8-ACME” thread, 282, 283
Elastic equations, 158
Elasticity, 22, 59, 72, 247
Elastic theory, 41, 59
Elementary frictional force, 280
Elementary theory, 44
Elongation, of abutment plate, 286, 287
External bending moment, 263
External socket diameter, 273
External support system, 257
Eyebar joints, 288–292
F
Fastener
bolt, 149
design, 18–19, 41
in double shear, 29
materials, 19–23
in mechanical joint, 24
preload, 39–40
standard configurations, 34
stress and strain of, 23–31
design considerations, 40–41
higher strength, 34
permanent/detachable, examples of, 11, 12
of plastics, 162
preload/torque control, 35–38
primary joining approaches, 11–12
rivets, 14–18, 40
strength and design, 34–35
tensile strength of, 21
threaded, 11–13
torque, 31–38
working loads, 38–39
Fatigue, 2, 39, 41, 139, 153–154, 162, 163
causing loads, 179
and crack initiation, 316–320
lifes of, 336, 384
and shear lag effects, 153–154
weld cracking problems, 327
welded component, 336
F-distribution, 119–125
FEMs, see Finite element methods/modeling (FEMs)
Fillet welds, 315, 320, 321, 333, 336
analysis of, 322–323
theoretical throat of, 321
Finite discontinuity, 72
Finite element methods/modeling (FEMs), 3, 177, 197,
261
Flange(s)
in compression, 142–143
design analyses, 201–243
gasket effects, 177–179
pipe, 177, 247, 257
ribbed, 188–192
ring, 183, 186–188, 190
rotation, mechanics of, 182–185
spacing of bolts, 180–182
straight, 185–188
tightness criterion, 179–180
Flat ring-type gasket, 178
Flexible joints, 141, 162
Flexural stress, 43
Foregoing design formulas, 68
Foregoing trigonometric functions, 298
Fracture control
aluminum catastrophic, 77
application, 73
early experience with, 71–73
Griffith theory of, 73
limitations and implications, 79–81
plane-strain, 75
program, 75
for steel, 74, 78
Fracture energy, 72
Frayed-out wire joint, 5
Friction
adhesion, 295, 297
characteristics of, 272
couple resisting, 250
effects of, 275
elementary frictional force, 280
forces, 149
resistance, 30, 146, 148, 149, 153, 163, 297
torque, 31–34, 250–252, 251, 252
type joint, 146, 163
G
Galvanized steel wire, 295
Gasche resilient thread, 300, 301, 303
Gasket
bolted joint with, 168
creep, 39
effects, 141–142
flanges and stiffeners, 177–181
joint, 169–171, 200
plates/flanges, 146
riveted and bolted joints, 141–142
Gauss Error Curve, 88
Gaussian distribution, 37
Geometry factor for thick cylinders, 69
Gradual yielding, 74
Griffith theory, 73
H
Heat affected zone (HAZ), 3, 313, 316, 336
Hemispherical vessels, 71
High-pressure threaded configurations,
298–301
High-strength steel (HSS), 126
Hinge-connected chain links, 293
Hooke’s law, 143, 255
Hypothesis testing, 98–99, 111–113
I
Indeterminate beams, 45–46
Industrial Fastener Institute, 255
Inglis formula, 72
Inglis’s stress concentration, 73
Interfaces, 247–250
Intermediate boundary conditions, 57
Internal strain energy, 73
Isotropic plates, 59410 Index
J
Joint connections
abutment failure, 285–288
chain drives and coupling links, 293–295
cotter pin, see Cotter pin joint
design analyses, 303–309
eyebar/knuckle joints, 288–292
high-pressure threaded configurations, 298–301
key joints, 275–280
pipe couplings, 281–285
splines, 281
structural pins, 292–293
wire rope fittings, 295–298
Joint make-up techniques, 285
Joint separation control, 159–161
Joint stiffnesses, 142–143, 145, 146
K
Key joint connections, 275–280
Knuckle joints, 288–292, 302
L
Lap joint
in actual stress, 392
cylindrical, 380, 388
design of, 372–378
in rivet, 16
with stress concentration, 4
tubular, 367–369
welded, 326–328, 336
Large sample sizes, 112
Lateral forces, 44–45
Leak-resistant pipe joint, 284, 285
Linear elastic equations, 158
Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), 73, 78,
79, 82
Linear force-deformation relation, 143
Linear thermal gradient, 61
Load bar, 259, 260
Load distribution, 149, 150, 301
Load-rotation diagram, 155, 156
Longitudinal joints, 67
Lower-bound nominal stress, 77
Lug plate, 285
M
Material processing flaws, 75
Mathematical reasoning, 142
Mean distribution, 93
Mechanical joints, 54, 66
bilinear stress, 350
history of, 1–3
integrity, 341
overview of, 3–9
strength of, 255
Mechanism of dislocation, 72
Membrane joints
circular, 341–345
design analyses, 355–359
mylar barriers, 345–347
rolling diaphragm interface, 353–354
spherical cap barriers, 350–353
vacuum barrier, 341, 355
Metallic diaphragm, 347–349
Metallurgical transformations, 77
Metal plates, 59
Metal-to-metal contact, 140
Mitigating joint separation, 161
Mohr’s circle of stress, 51–52
Molecular cohesion, 365, 392
Multi-rivet joint, 154
Mylar, 341, 345–349
N
Naval Research Laboratory, 76
Nil Ductility Transition (NDT), 77, 80
“No-gasket” design, 145
Noncircular cross-sections, 54
Nondestructive testing, 75, 76
Normal distribution, 89–90
Normal stress, 44, 51, 52
Null hypothesis, 119
O
Out-of-plane bending, 63, 64, 264, 265
P
Parallel axis theorem, 47, 49, 50
Parts per million (PPM), 351
Peeling test, 382–384
Pin coupling joint, 306
Pin-type shackle, 295
Pipe couplings, 281–285
Pipe flanges, 177, 247, 257; see also Flange(s)
Pipe joints
C-clamp design, 255–257, 265
design analyses, 265–268
rigid clamp application, 254–255
shrink-fit process, 247–250
single-pin clevis joint, 253–254
split hub criteria, 250–253
tubular joints, 262–264
vessel and pipe supports, 257–262
Plane-strain fracture, 75
Plastic deformation, 73
Plastic materials, 162
Plate bending theory, 59–61
Plate edge effects, 151–152
Plate failure, 150–151
Plate girders, welded joints in, 332–333
Poisson’s ratio, 51, 60, 61, 75, 247
Polyester, 341, 388, 392
Polymers, 4, 162, 341, 389, 390
Polyvinyl butyral adhesive, 364
PPM, see Parts per million (PPM)
Prestressed joint, 302
Propped cantilever beam, 45, 46
Prying action on bolts, 158–159
Purchasing department, 106, 109, 114Index 411
Q
Quality joint, 85
Quality measurement
chi-square distribution, 118–119
control charts, 129–133
design studies
for control charts, 132–133
mechanical joint design-studies, 99–111
of two population means, 113–118
of variances, 120–129
F-distribution, 119–125
hypothesis testing, 98–99
normal distribution, 93–95
statistical analysis, 88–93
student’s t-statistic, 96–97
tests concerning means, 113
theory, 86–88
two population means, 113–118
R
Radial clearance, 290
Radial dilation, 258
Radius of curvature, 26, 30, 55, 61, 256, 366, 370
Random errors, 86, 88
Random sampling, 89, 127
Rapid crack propagation, 74
Real-world mechanical systems, 43
Relevant joint configuration, 277
Residual stresses, 274
Resisting dilatation, 257
Reversible key-joint design, 277
Rigid clamp application, 254–255, 264
Rigid joint
bolted connections, 140
preload diagram for, 145
Ring loading, 258
Ring-stiffened cylinders, 70, 71
Riveted joints, 6, 11, 173
advantages/disadvantages of, 12, 13
behavior of, 154
design efficiencies, 14–18, 139
in double shear, 136
eccentric shear formulas, 136–138
formulas for, 135–136
performance of, 139–140
shear forces on, 137
Robust joint, 85
Robust mechanical systems, 43
Rolling diaphragm, 353–355
Rounding off mechanisms, 72
“Rule of thumb” approach, 3, 31, 236, 272, 320, 392
S
Scarf joints, 3, 378–382
Sealing, 282
Seam welding, 333–335
Shackle, 295, 296
Shaft
coupling pin, 307
cross-section, 54
hub interaction, 249
Shank
bolt, 30, 144, 195
diameter, 103, 104
non-threaded, 28
and pin channel, 272
Shear, 148–150
distribution factor, 255
forces, 44, 81, 307, 308
lag effects, 153–154
load, prediction of, 156–158
in spliced connections, 152–153
stress, 51, 248, 273, 293
for cylindrical geometry, 54
equilibrium, 53, 55
normal and, 51
Short-term relaxation, 40
Shrink fit joint, 282
Shrink-fit pressure, 247–250
Single-bolt fitting, 285
Single-pin clevis joint, 253–254, 264
Slender beams, 51
Slip coefficients, 147–148
Slip-resistant joint, 146, 148, 152, 163
Soft joint, 141
Soldering joints, 11
Solid surface characterization, 361–362
Solid-to-solid adhesion, 391
Solid-to-solid adhesive, 362
Sophisticated analytical methods, 261
Sophisticated pulling equipment, 295
Spherical cap barriers, 350–353
Spliced joint, 163
Splines, 281, 302
Split hub design, 250–253, 256, 258
Spring constants evaluation, 145–146
Stainless steels, 21
Standard deviation, 92–93
of lubricant, 102
mean and, 111
Standard experimental techniques, 147
Standard normal distribution, 90, 91, 92
Statically indeterminant beam, 45–46
Static equilibrium, 45
Statistical analysis, quality measurement and, 88–93
Statistical process control charts, 129
Steel rivets, 139
Steel rod, 22
Stiffeners, 78, 193–197
circumferential, 70, 177, 200
fillet weld, 320
general problem of, 197
radial and, 200
ring/corner, 196
Strained-key joint design, 277, 278
Stress analysis
combined stress criteria, 51–53
concentrations, 2, 139
in bolt, 19, 41
geometrical, 365
mitigate, 384, 390
in threaded joint, 27
cross-section geometry, 46–51, 54
distribution, 7, 9, 12, 24, 25, 177, 194, 261, 378
calculation of dynamic, 74412 Index
Stress analysis (cont.)
description of, 281
nature of, 54
poisson’s ratio appears, 61
shear, 321
symmetrical, 366, 367
uniform load and, 300
elementary theory, 44
lateral forces, 44–45
small deflections of, 55
statically indeterminant beam, 45–46
theory, 366
Strictly uniaxial stress, 51
Student t-test, 96–97
Swaged socket, 295
Symmetrical splice connection, 146–147
Systematic errors, 86, 87
T
Tangential key design, 277
Tangent modulus, 57
Tapered joint, 298
Taper-wedge theories, 282
t-distribution, 129
Tear-out shear, abutment plate, 286, 287
Teflon rings, 282
Tensile joint, 295
Tensile load, 136, 254
Tensile strength, 17, 18, 31, 40, 51, 319; see also Ultimate
tensile strength
of bolt, 31
coarse threads, 22
fine threads, 22
of lap and butt-type joints, 162
notch, 383, 384, 392
of plate material, 163
of shank, 302
of threaded fasteners, 21, 22
Thick cylinders
burst factors for, 69
geometry factor for, 69
Thick-ring theory, 289
Thin-sheet plane-stress problem, 77
Thin-walled piping, 261
Threaded fastener joints, 1, 11–14, 86; see also Fastener
in automobile assembly, 93–94
design criteria for, 19
development of quality, 86
materials for externally, 40
tensile strength of, 21
Thread-locking adhesives, 385
Three-dimensional photoelastic model, 281
Three-dimensional theory, 59
Tightening torque, 31, 32, 143, 250
T-joint, 263
Tolerance limits/intervals, 98
Torque
coefficient, 36
complementary pair of, 54
in design study, 99–101
equations and preload control, 35–38
fasteners, 117, 127, 132
friction, 31–34
make-up, 281
shearing, 385
tightening, 143, 250, 251
turn-of-nut method, 37, 38, 40, 41
Torsion, 54–55, 63
Transverse normal stress, 75
Transverse shear stress, 293
Tubular coupling, 282
Tubular joints, 262–264
Tubular lap joint, 367
Tubular scarf joint, 380, 381
Turn-of-nut method, 37, 38, 40, 41
Two-dimensional stress systems, 51, 52, 53
Two-population distribution, hypothesis testing on,
111–113
U
Ultimate tensile strength, 18, 34, 136
Unbuttoning, 148
Uniaxial stress, 53
V
Vacuum barrier technology, 341, 345, 350
Variances
design studies of, 120–129
F-distribution, 119–125
of normal distributions, 118–119
Vertical shearing stress, 53
Vessel
and pipe supports, 257–262
strength and stability, 66–71
W
Weld cracking, 259
Welded joints, 13–14, 258
beam seat connections, 328–331
butt and fillet, 320–322
crack initiation/fatigue, 316–320
design analyses, 336–337
factors of, 335
lap configuration, 326–328
line formulas, 323–326
overview of, 313–314
plate girders, 332–333
seam welding, 333–335
stresses, 316, 317
types of, 314–316
Window joint, 8
Wire rope fittings, 295–298
Woodruff key, 277, 278
Y
Y-joint, 263
Yoke beam, 259, 260
Young’s modulus, of adherends, 370, 373
Z
Zero shearing stress, 54
Z-score, 93


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