كتاب Form, Structure and Mechanism
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Form, Structure and Mechanism

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Form, Structure and Mechanism    كتاب Form, Structure and Mechanism  Emptyالأحد 24 سبتمبر 2023, 2:44 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Form, Structure and Mechanism
MICHAEL FRENCH
Professor of Engineering Design
Lancaster University

كتاب Form, Structure and Mechanism  F_s_a_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Introduction: the Use of this Book ix
Acknowledgements xi
1 Preliminaries 1
1.1 The scope of this book 1
1.2 The anatomy of design 1
1.3 The conceptual stage 4
1.4 General aids to design 4
1.5 Combinative methods: tables of options 11
1.6 Repechage and reviews 13
1.7 Recurrent problems in design 14
1.8 Combination and separation of functions 18
1.9 Summary 22
2 Structures 23
2.1 Introduction 23
2.2 Structural elements: rods, ties and struts 25
2.3 Beams 26
2.4 Plates 31
2.5 Torsion 31
2.6 Thin-walled pressure vessels 33
2.7 Contact stresses 34
2.8 An example: bathroom scales 38
2.9 Bathroom scales: refinements and details 41
2.10 Springs 44
2.11 Structures, springs, energy and stiffness: pertinacity 48
vvi CONTENTS
3 Abutments and Joints 52
3.1 Introduction 52
3.2 The form of abutments 52
3.3 Screwed fastenings 56
3.4 Joints 60
3.5 Stator blade fixing 62
3.6 Joint efficiency 64
3.7 Offset bolted joints: lugs 68
3.8 General principles applied to joint design 71
3.9 Register in joints: intersection problems 73
3.10 Alternating loads on bolted joints 75
3.11 Sealing 77
4 Freedom and Constraints: Bearings 79
4.1 Degrees of freedom 79
4.2 Shafts and bearings 81
4.3 The principle of least constraint: kinematic design 83
4.4 Epicyclic gears 84
4.5 Bearings 86
4.6 Hydrostatic bearings 87
4.7 Hydrodynamic bearings: squeeze action 91
4.8 Hydrodynamic bearings: wedge action 94
4.9 Rolling-element bearings 96
5 Various Principles 100
5.1 Insight and abstraction 100
5.2 Biasing 101
5.3 Force paths 102
5.4 A cylinder head joint 104
5.5 Bevel gear mounting 107
5.6 Gear pump 107
5.7 Nesting and stacking 110
5.8 Guiding principles for choosing nesting orders 112
5.9 Other aspects of nesting 114
5.10 Summary of guiding principles for nesting orders 118
5.11 Flexural elements 118
5.12 Easements 121
6 Materials and Manufacturing Methods 123
6.1 Introduction 123
6.2 Materials, manufacture and design philosophies 125
6.3 The effect of density 128
6.4 Choice of material 129
6.5 Figures of merit 131CONTENTS vii
6.6 The relation between form and manufacturing method 137
6.7 New materials and processes 141
6.8 Aids to material selection 142
7 Pneumatic Quarter-turn Actuators 144
7.1 Introduction 144
7.2 Fundamental considerations 145
7.3 Aspect ratio 148
7.4 Table of options 149
7.5 Studying a combination 152
7.6 Two good designs 156
7.7 Summary 159
8 Epicyclic Gears 160
8.1 The function of the planet carrier 160
8.2 Increasing the stiffness by asymmetry 163
8.3 Local form design 164
8.4 Joint location and design 167
8.5 'Alexandrian' solutions 167
8.6 The choice of embodiment 169
8.7 Another solution 171
8.8 Other aspects of epicyclic gearing 173
9 Hydraulic Pumps 175
9.1 The swash-plate pump 175
9.2 Valve plate design 176
9.3 Eliminating the valve plate 179
9.4 Virtues and limitations of the swash-plate pump 179
9.5 The bent-axis pump 180
9.6 An elegant bent-axis pump 182
9.7 Combining the virtues of swash-plate and bent-axis 185
10 Miscellaneous Examples 191
10.1 Connecting rods 191
10.2 A suitcase handle and a suspension arm 195
10.3 A window stay 198
10.4 The Challenger disaster 203
II The Principles of Design 208
11.1 An emerging discipline 208
11.2 Least constraint and kinematic design 209
11.3 Separation and combination of functions 210
11.4 Design mating surfaces or abutments 211
11.5 Clarity of function 211viii CONTENTS
11.6 Short direct force-paths 213
11.7 Matching and disposition 214
11.8 Nesting order and related principles 216
11.9 Avoiding arbitrary decisions: combining good features 217
Bibliography 220
Index 222
Index
Abstraction 100, 140
increasing level of 8-11
Abutment 52-6, 211
Actuator, quarter-turn 144-59
aspect ratio 148
calculations 146-8
crank and slider 147-8
disposition 152-5
examples 156-9
fail safe 158
guidance 149, 151-2
Miti-l 157-9
Norbro 156-8
rack and pinion 151, 153, 154
swept volume 145-6
types of 144-5
Alexandrian solutions 163, 167-8
Alternator 214-16
Aluminium alloy 123-4, 127, 128-9,
142, 150--1
extrusion 149, 199
Arbitrary decision 7, 192, 217-18
Ashby, M.F. 142
Asymmetry in design 154, 163-4,212
Backlash 101
Balancing of forces 85, 109, 144, 174,
177, 178, 209
Ball-joint 80, 183
Bathroom scales 38-44
Beam 26-31
curvature 30
deflections of 30--1
human 72
rationale of 28
ring 29
Bearing
ball 36-8
ball and roller 81-2, 107
film 86-96
foil 195
hybrid 96
hydrodynamic 86, 91-6
hydrostatic 86-91
location 82
power consumption 88-9
requirements 111-12
roller 96
rolling element 96-9
squeeze action 91--4
taper roller 83
thrust 95-6
tilting pad 95
wedge action 94-6
Bending of beam 28,30, 129
in carrier 163-4
in window stay 199, 200--1
inefficiency of 103-4
Bent-axis pump 180--5
kinematics 182
Bevel gear 107
Biasing 101-2
in pinion teeth 173
of diaphragm 170--1
222INDEX 223
Bicycle
tyre 102
wheel 101
Big end
joint in 59-62,75-7, 105
Bird-in-cage toy 9-10
Bolt 56-9, 65-6, 68-9
choice of size of 70
function of 59
stretch in 76-7
Calculations, rough 94
Cassette, camera 15-16
Cast iron 124, 141
Casting 124, 125, 141, 142
Catapult 102
Centering 5-8
Ceramic 138, 141-2
Chain, roller 104
Challenger shuttle 203-7
seal failure 203
Chamfer 54
Clarity of function 28-9,42, 76, 168,
179, 195, 211, 212
Clerk, R.C. 188-9
Closure, principle of local 74, 205,
213
Combination 11-12
of virtues 185, 219
studying a 150--6
Combinative methods 11-13
Comparator 120-1
Configurations of actuator 144-5
Connecting rod 135, 191-5
Constraints 80-1, 107
principle of least 83-4, 85
Coupling, face 74
Crank and slider 147-8, 188
Cryogenic tank 134-5
Curvature
of beam 30
principal radii of 34
relative radii of 36
Cut-out 162, 200-1
Cutting tool 138
Cylinder head joint 29, 104-6
Cylinder liner 190
Decision, arbitrary 7, 110
Decomposition 139, 145
Deflection
of beam 30-1, 38-44
of springs 41, 44-5
Degrees of freedom 43, 79-81, 84-6,
115, 117, 186-9, 198,200,202, 209
Density 128-9
Design 1, 100
anatomy of 1
brief 3
conceptual 4
diversification in 5
elastic 209
embodiment 4
kinematic 84-6,179,190,209
stepwise 5-8
Designer 51
Diaphragm 7, 168-71
Differential 209
Disposition, problems of 14-16,
89-90, 119, 152-5, 214-16
Diversification of approach 5
Dowel 73-4
Drive, transfer of 114-18
'Drop-together' construction 179
Ears on can 155-6
Easements 121-2, 184
Efficiency
of actuator 146
of joint 64-8
of use of material 45-6, 130
Electronics 43-4
Ellipsoid 34-6
Embodiment 3
Energy
in flywheel 48
in spring 41, 44-6, 133
in structure 51
Engine
internal combustion 10-11, 29
steam 9-10
Wankel 11
Epicyclic gears 84, 160-74, 186
freedoms in 84-6
planet carrier 84, 160-7
structure 160-7
Essence, seizing the 7, 100
Failure, seriousness of 24
Fatigue 25, 137
Fibre reinforcement 124, 127, 130,
141
Fillet 53
Fir-tree root 66-8224 INDEX
Flange 61
bend in 166
of beam 28-30
of bolted joint 68-71
Flexural elements 118-22, 137, 207,
209
pivot 121
Flywheel 50
Force path 102-4
Form, relation to manufacture 137
Freedom see Degrees of freedom
Functions 11-13, 14--15, 149-50, 215
combination and separation
of 18-22, 210
separation of 109, 140, 179, 206,
209
Furniture 15
Gas turbine 63, 139
Gasket 29, 77-8, 105
Gear (see also Epicyclic gears)
reduction 209, 210
sun, planet etc. 84, 160--1
teeth in actuator 148
Hydraulic diameter 90
Incubation 100
Insight 4, 59, 100, 195
Intersection 1~18, 75, 161
Jaguar 217
Joint
bolted 68-71, 75-7
clamp (pipes) 212-13
clevis 203
constant velocity 11~17
cylinder head 104--6
discrete 212-13
efficiency 64--8
general principles of 71-5
Hooke's 116, 187, 198
in rotor 72-4
location of 167, 172, 187
moving 86
offset bolted 68-71, 206
scarf 65
screwed 64--6
Kettle 117
Kinematic design 84--6, 95
Lathe 112-13
Leaking and bursting 22, 108-9, 190,
205,206,210
Little end 93-4
Load
alleviation 42
capacity of bearings 99
distribution 85--6, 169, 195
in window stay 199
sharing in gears 209
Lug 68-71, 155--6
Machining 52, 55, 139, 178
Manufacture 52,55,63,123-7,211
design philosophy of 126
gears 138
generative 125-7
hard materials 138
marginal cost of 125
'near net form' 126
of shaft 8
relation to design 124
replicative 125-7
Matching 16, 46, 66, 147, 205--6, 214
Materials 123-4
and manufacture pairs 137
charts 142-3
choice of 129-31, 142-3
cost of 131-22, 139
density 128-9
figures of merit for 131-7, 142-3
in actuator 142, 154
new 141
of ship 9
specific stiffness of 128
specific strength of 128
stiffness of 133
Mating surfaces 52-5, 173, 179,211
in big end 60--2, 191-2
Maxwell, structural lemma 48-9
Moment, bending 27-31
Moulding 124
torsion in 141
Nature 139
Nesting and stacking 110--12, 114,
118
O-ring 77-8, 109, 150, 157, 178,203,
207
Pertinacity 48-51
Plates 31INDEX
Polymer 127, 151
fibre-reinforced 124, 127, 130, 141
Pressure vessels, thin-walled 33-4,
48-9, 155, 204
Prestressing 101
Princess and the pea 195
Principles 208-19 (see also under
individual names)
elastic design 209
force paths 102-4, 205, 212,
213-14
functions, separation of, etc. 18-22
kinematic design 209
least constraint 83-4, 85, 169, 187,
208, 209
local closure 74, 205
nesting order 118, 216--17
'never make two faces' 192
uniformity 212
Procrustes 149
Production see Manufacture
Pump
bent-axis 180-5
Clerk Tri-link 188-90
gear 107-8
swash-plate 175-80, 185
Quill-shaft 209
Radius of gyration, k 27-8, 63, 100
Reactor, Advanced Gas-cooled
(AGR) 22
Redundancy 80-1
Register 59,61, 73-4
Relief 54-5, 60-1, 114, 211
Repechage 14
Repertoire (of means) 24,25,86,
187
Restrictor 87-8, w=.1
Reynold's number, Re 90-1
Rolling mills 174
Rotor 71-2, 214-16
Rule, inverse loss 67,216
Scantling 23-4, 123
Scheme 4
Screw, differential 59
Screwed fastenings 56--9, 62-3
Sealing 29, 70, 77-8, 108-9, 145, 177
kinds of 77
Section 27-8
in torsion 32
modulus of 27-8
open and closed 32-3
second moment of 27-8
Self-alignment
of pinions 168-73
Shaft 81-3
Sharing benefits etc. 42, 216
Shear
flow 29-30,.33
in beam 28-30
Ship, materials of 123
Sintering 138
Specification 3, 146
Spigot 73-4
Spring 44-8, 51, 133, 137
in scales 38-44, 45, 130-1
in suspension 46--7
in window stay 203
Stability 25-6,88, 132-3, 168
Statement of problem 3
Stator blade fixing 62-4
Steam engine 9-10
Watt and 21-2
Steam turbine 140
Steel 123, 124, 128-9, 130, 199
austenitic 139
stainless 134, 145, 150
Steering 111, 115-17
'Sticky drawer' effect 113-14, 152
Stiffness 7, 8, 47, 142-3
in bolted joints 75-7, 105
of bearing 91
of handle 196
of planet carrier 162
of structure 51, 113
specific 141-2
torsional 32-3
Stool analogy 163, 167-8
Strain gauges 43-4
Strength 24
specific 128, 141-2
Stress
allowable 24
alternating 25
contact 34-8, 188
design 24-5,51, 131
equivalent 24-5
hoop 33
longitudinal 33
shear 24,30, 31-2
torsional 31-3
Structure 23-4, 71
efficient 51
of planet carrier 160-7
225226
Strut 25-6, 128, 135
Suitcase handle 195-7
Surface 53-5
Surface table 86
Suspension ~7, ill, 114-17, 120
arm 197-8
BMW front 16--18
independence of 18-19
rear 18-21, 137
Suspension bridge 119
Swash-plate pump 175-80, 185
side thrust in 179-80
Swingletree 169
Table
kernel 13, 149-50
morphological 11
of options 11-13, 149
surface 86
Tap, domestic 5
Telescope 86, 118
Tent 26
Thermal expansion 63, 139
Tie 25-6, 134
in torsion 135
Tin-opener 11-13
Torque
constraint 187
in actuator 146
in bolt 57-9
in carrier 160
thread-climbing 58
Torroja, E. 100, 169
INDEX
Torsion 31-3
moulded forms for 141
Tresca criterion 24, 136
Tri-link pump 188-90
Turbine, wind 16
Typewriter 110-11
Valve
internal combustion engine 10
steam engine 10
variable timing of 217
Valve-plate, hydraulic pump 176
freedoms of 176--7
Vierendeel truss 119-20
Volvo bent-axis pump 182-5
ball-retention in 183-4
casing 184-5
piston 184
Wasa 192-5
Washer 58
conical 63-4
Web 28, 166
Werkspoor 191
Window stay 198-203
ergonomics of 201-2
secure 202-3
Wind-up in pinion 173
Wood 128
Zinc-based alloy 127
Zwicky, F. 11


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