كتاب Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


-----------------------------------
-Warning-

This website uses cookies
We inform you that this site uses own, technical and third parties cookies to make sure our web page is user-friendly and to guarantee a high functionality of the webpage.
By continuing to browse this website, you declare to accept the use of cookies.
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


-----------------------------------
-Warning-

This website uses cookies
We inform you that this site uses own, technical and third parties cookies to make sure our web page is user-friendly and to guarantee a high functionality of the webpage.
By continuing to browse this website, you declare to accept the use of cookies.



 
الرئيسيةالبوابةأحدث الصورالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

شاطر
 

 كتاب Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى
Admin

عدد المساهمات : 18805
التقييم : 34939
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO    كتاب Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO  Emptyالخميس 21 سبتمبر 2023, 2:18 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO
Michael Tolinski

كتاب Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO  A_f_p_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Preface to the Second Edition
Section I: Overview of Polyolefins and Additives
1. Introduction
1.1 Importance of Polyolefins
1.2 Importance of Polyolefin Additives
1.3 Recent Issues in Using Additives
2. Trends in Polyolefin and Additives Use
2.1 Polyolefin Market Trends
2.2 Overall Trends in Additives Production and Use
2.3 Trends in Resin Compounding
2.4 Trends in Specific Polyolefin Applications
Section II: Environmental Resistance
3. Antioxidants and Heat Stabilization
3.1 Importance of AOs and Stabilizers for Polyolefins
3.2 Primary and Secondary AOs
3.3 Factors Determining AO Selection
4. Ultraviolet Light Protection and Stabilization
4.1 UV Degradation of Polyolefins
4.2 UV Blockers, Screeners, and Absorbers
4.3 Quenchers and Peroxide Decomposers
4.4 HALS: Free-Radical Scavengers
4.5 Factors Determining Stabilizer Selection
5. Flame-Retarding Additives
5.1 Overview: The Need for FR Formulations
5.2 Halogen-Based FRs
5.3 Mineral-Based FRs
5.4 Intumescent and Phosphorous-Based FRs
5.5 Factors Determining the Selection of FR Additives
6. Additives for Modifying Electrical Properties
6.1 Antistatic and ESD Additives
6.2 EMI Shielding
6.3 Choosing Antistat/ESD/EMI Additives
Section III: Mechanical Property Enhancement
7. Overview of Fillers and Fibers
7.1 Importance of Fillers and Fibers for Polyolefins
7.2 Common Inorganic Fillers
7.3 Nanofillers
7.4 Impact Modifiers and TPOs
7.5 Fiber Reinforcement
8. Factors Determining the Selection of Fillers and Fibers
8.1 Cutting Costs and Improving Properties with Fillers
8.2 Impact Modification: Balancing Stiffness with Toughness
8.3 Mechanical Reinforcement: Properties Create Opportunities
8.4 Processing Pitfalls and Hidden Costs
8.5 Questions When Choosing Fillers and Fibers
Section IV: Appearance Enhancement
9. Colorants
9.1 Coloring Strategies
9.2 Colorant Delivery and Processing
9.3 Factors That Affect the Choice of Colorant
10. Nucleation and Clarity
10.1 Nucleating Agents: Overview
10.2 Factors in Choosing Nucleating/Clarifying Agents
Section V: Processing Aids
11. Processing Aids for Molding
11.1 Melt Flow Modification and Mold Release
11.2 Special Cases for Processing Aids in Molding
12. Processing Aids for Extrusion
12.1 Requirements of Extrusion-Based Processes
12.2 Slip Agents
12.3 Antiblocking Agents
12.4 Additives for Reducing Melt Fracture and Die Buildup
12.5 Processing Aids for Specific Extrusion Situations
Section VI: Other Modifications of Form and Function
13. Reducing Density: Polyolefin Foams
13.1 Blowing Foams: Chemical Agents Versus Physical Agents
13.2 Product Sectors Requiring CFAs
13.3 Factors in Blowing Better Foams
14. Coupling and Compatibilizing
14.1 Coupling Fillers and Fibers with the Polyolefin Matrix
14.2 Compatibilizers for Integrating Regrind and Recycled Materials
15. Cross-Linking
15.1 Cross-Linked PE: Advantages and Applications
15.2 Cross-Linking Agents
15.3 Factors in Choosing Cross-Linking Agents
16. Sterilization and Radiation Resistance
16.1 Sterilization Effects on Polyolefin Products
16.2 Additive Solutions for Sterilization-Resistant Polyolefins
17. Aesthetics Enhancement and Surface Modification
17.1 Antiscratch Additives
17.2 Antifogging Agents
17.3 Antimicrobials and Biocides
17.4 Odor-Modifying Additives
18. Gas Barrier Properties Enhancement
18.1 Polyolefin Additives as Barriers to Water Vapor Transmission
18.2 Oxygen Transmission and the Scavenging Effects of Additives
18.3 Additives for Controlling Other Gases
Section VII: Conclusion: Incorporating Additives
19. Adding Additives to Resin
19.1 Handling Additives
19.2 Mixing and Dispersing Additives into Resin
19.3 Blending and Feeding Additives
19.4 Choosing the Best Form of an Additive
20. Choosing Additives for Sustainability
20.1 Factors That Make Polyolefins Sustainable
20.2 Characteristics of Sustainable Polyolefin Additives
20.3 Examples of “Green” Uses of Additives in Polyolefin Materials
20.4 Additives for Promoting Polyolefin Biodegradability: Questions and Concerns
20.5 Lessons to Learn for Choosing Sustainable Additives for Polyolefins
References
Index
PREFACE . xiii.
Sectio.n I: Overview of Polyoleftns and Additives
CHAPTER 1 Introduction . 3
1.J Importance,or .POs . 3
1.2 ImpoltElllce ,I;)[1'0 additives , ", .4
1.3 Rocant lssuQS In uslng ad.ditl'i'es ." 5
1.3.'1 Matching property requirements with acldjtive
tvpc and amount .6
I . 2. DQinll mQre with le!>5 mateIial ", . (;>
1.3.3 New properties for new mlllket.s ." 7
1.3.4, Unintended add i.tive inte actions 7
1.3.6 Faster procQssmg . B
CHAPTER 2 Trends in Polyolefin and Additiv US!!l 9
2.1 PO market trend5 " .n 9
2.1.1 Growth \IS. volatility 10
;!.1.2 Futllre reain [JrQwttJ aue! price- " 10
2.2 OVfirall trends in additi.'lils production and use. 11
2.3 Trends in re [11 QOllllJQunding " J2
2.4 Tr nds in s]:)ec:\llc PO applleations . 13
2.4.1 P2.4.2 AIltQmotiv9 trends tor POs ." .16
2.4.3 ConattucttQI1 end nrraatTUctu re appLicatio)1
ronds " . 18
vTab)e of Cooteots
Section n: Environmental Resistance
CHAPTER 3 Antioxidants and Heat Stabilization 25
3.1 Impartan08 of AO" and "l.abiliz"IE rOt POs 26
3.2 Prunary and secondary AOs . 29
3.2.1 Primary AOs (radical scavengers) __ __ . 29
3.2.2 Socondary AOs (p()roKide d oomposllrs) 31
3.3 FaCI.OIB determining AO selection __ 33
3.3.1 TIlerrnaland color requjrements in melt
J)roce.ss'ng and In "eNlc.L . 36
3.3.2 AO selection by PO type and finlshed p roduct
form . 37
3.3.3 AO physical forms and handling . 38
3.3.4 S)'tlergies and antagonLatic interactions .38
3. 3.5 Cost 40
3.3.1) EIIV'irolimen cal, !ood·oontac1, and heaml and
safet:y QO/JIjide[EltioTIs " 4 1
CHAPTER 4 Ultraviolet Light PIOtectiOIl and Stabili<:atiQIl . 45
4.1 UV degradation ot POs . " .__ __ 47
4.::;l UV b lockera, !jiCreeners, and ab80rbers __ "'" ., __ 48
4.2.1 UV·blockinq and ·absorbing- fillers and pigments 48
4.2.2 O anic UV ab:oorben> . 50
4.3 Quellcbors and IJ(}roKide·deoomposers .__ __ .__ . 51
4.4 HALS: Free-radical scavengers __ .__ __ .__ . 51
4.4.1 Ovm:vlcw ot HALS 51
Vl.2 IllteracttonE or HALS and other additive!! __ __ .53
4.5 Factors determining stabilizer setection .55
4. 6.1 Clenef l fal;ltors __ 56
4.5.2 Light stabiliZers for sp cifie PO applications . 56
CHAPTER 5 Flame-Retarding Additives .m __ . 61
5.1 Overview: 'The need tor name·r tardant (oDllulations 61
5. t .1 Trends in liIame'retalding additives 61
5.1.2 Mechanisms 01humlng .__ .__ .__ .__ .__ . 62
5.2 Halogen-based flame retartiIIDPl 63
5.2.1 Composition 01 ll·PIls .__ .__ .__ .__ __ .__ 6
S.2.:iI CQnC"m abOllt h5.3 MlnGral·baSBd tlame riwrrdants __ . 68
5.3.1 ATH and MDH . 6S
5.3.2 OthElf mineraI nllars' F'Rett9Cls . __ 69'fable of Contents
5.4 Intumcscont and pbosphorolls·bas!)d !lam!) rct8IdllIl.l:S .70
5.4 1 Mechanisms of phosphorous FRs ., 70
5.4.2 Issues in imlJ[Q11ing- phosphoroll!J FRs 71
5.5 Factors daLermlnlng lila seLection or FR ad.d1tlvBs 72
5. 5.1 COS" risk, and verfClrmance .74
5. 5.2 Property effects BnDoo-addjtive n! era'Cttons .75
5.5.3 FR density and tOIm . ' 76
5.5.4 HBlog8"n·r.llla benefits (and cOsts) 77
CHAPTER 6 Ad ditilffls for Mollifying Kl ctJ:ical Properties . 79
6.1 Antwtatic and ESD addiuvcs " '".'" 79
6.l .1 Mig!rating chemica! anLista,is .' . , . 81
6.1 2 Nonmigrating- polymers as permanellt
ELnt istatLClESD addttives , ._ __ 85
6.1.3 CClnductive fillers as,anlistatidESD additives 86
6.2 EMI slLleldlng . 88
6.2. 1 Conductive fillers for EM! sruolding 68
6.2.2 Conductive,ftbers for EM'! shJeJdiIlQ . 89
6.3 Choosin(J antistatlESDIEMl additives .89
6.3.1 Amlstat electIon factors .89
6.3.2 Desi!pl oOTIsicleratioll5 (or EMlshielding 90
SenUo,1Ii m: Mechanical Property Enhancemen
CHAPTER 7 Overview of Fllffirs and Fibers , 95
'7.] bnpottance 01 Illl.ars and Ilh,,-rs for POs . , . 96
7.2 Common inorganIc fillers 96
7.:2.1 Calalum carbonate _ . 97
7.2.2 Talc ., , 9a
7.2.3 Wollasl.Onite _ 99
7.2.4 Mica 100
7.2.5 Slllea ., 101
7.2.6 Glass flour !Illd sphe[e'S . lQ1
7.2.7 Other micrQruJ9l'S 102
7.3 Nafi1;lflJlers ., . 103
7.3.1 Potomtlai ofnanoIlli9IS 103
7.3.2 Platy mmoc!ays . 104,
7.3.3 N'anotuhes _ . 'lOS
7.3-4 POSS' mmi)m7.4 Impact modiftClIS and TPOs " . . 107
7 4.1 Impact madifl,oation rO [ thick products .108
7.4.2 ImpactrnodJficatioll fo[ film audshe.et 109Table of Contents
7,5 Flbor roinforCOill(ffit." , ." , " ,. u , . " , " , " , , , 1! 0
7.5.t Stmrt glass !lberB . 111
?.5,2 LOJlg glass Jlli.ers " , ", ,,, " , , it2
7.5.3 FlallL-ilElsed Ilbe.rs . 115
7.5,4 Other kinds of fl])er reinforcement." , " ,. , 116
CHAP"I'ER 8 Factors Detsnnining the Selection of Fi1'lers
and Fibers , . , ."., .,, , , ,.,"', ,"''', , ,'' '' 121
B.l CUILihg caslaal1d ImpiOVing properties w ith
tillers ." , ., " , " , " ,.,', ,' "' " ' " 122
8-2 Impact mOtilncaUOJt: Ba]andn,(l atlUnes;; with
toughness , " , , " . , , , .124
,s.3 MechBhi,cal reiniarCE!J'l1ent : Propettie8 create
opportunities , " ., "." , , " . 126
B.B.G Questions when choosing Jillers ami fibers " . " . 132
Section IV! Appearance Enhancement
CHAPTER 9 Colorants .,, . 139
9.1 OOlotlng stxalBgills 139
'9.1,t Whlto colorants , , ." . . 140
9.1.2 BlqcK oolarantB '", , . 14t
9.1,3 Full·spectrum oolorants . 141
9.1.4 Meta.1lic colorants . 145
9.1:5 Pearlescent coloran amI ooIor enhancmg
addh lves 14"
(1,2 Colorant delivery lind. moceS:llllg " 146
9.2.1 Ga!cmml delivE!ry , . 148
'9.2.2 Processing issues with oolorants ." 150
9.3 Fa.cton; Uiat alle(;1 !:he ch.oloe of oo\{}rant, __ . 151
9,.3.1 General factors 151
9.3.2 Add.H:lvelcolorant lntlaract.ions . 155
ij.3.3 E ternB l tiDg8 Vii, iI1temlll col.or8J]tB 156
CHAP'l'ER 10 NuclEtation and Clarity ____ 157
10.1 Nuclea.tillg a.gents: Overview , , 157
10.].1 :Nuclootlng a(lent effects em prOCBJlii11'1 and
prqperties, . , , . , . 156
10.1.2 CJarlfying nUc!Ba!ing ageDls , .16210.2 Factors In chooslng nud03tlnglclarifylng agents" 164
10.2.1 ApplicatIons Bn d resins 1&1
10,2.2 Practiclll US!} iactors , , ,. 166
Section V: PtOGessing Aids
CHAPTER 11 Pr s:inq Aidl! fOT Molding 171
11,1 Meltcfl\)w IOOdifIcot[Qll and mold release, , , , 171
11.1.1 Melt.f.low·enhanciJ.'lg lU.l:nicams anll
modJ:llc-rs . , , , , ., . , , , , , 172
11.1.2 Mold- Blease addil yes .175
11,2 Special cases lor vrQCessing aids in molding , ,,, 177
11.2.1 AJds ror mo!dlng hlghlv Illl.e/l oompounds 171
11.2.2 Aids for ISBM .17a
11.2.3 AIds tor rota anal mClldlng _ .179
CHAPTER 12 Processing Aids for Extrusion 18i
12,1 Requirements ofextrusioll-based prQOesses , , 1Bl
12.2 SlIp agents ._ .182
1"2 ,3 AIl blocKin!;l agenlS , , , . , .184
12,3.1 Inorganic antlblocks , , ._., , ., _ 184
12,3.2 Organic'antibl()ci!s " 186
12.:3.3 ClarlL'lISliP anliblooks ._ . 188
12 ,q, .Abulldup .,, , . , . _." . , , " 1B9
12.'U PllloJopolymer pmaeBB llg aids ., , , . 19C1
12,4.2. Reducing die and scrcen·pa.ek fQuI1ng .,, . ' w . 191
12,5 Processing aids for sped.flc extrusion siruations " 191
12.5.1 Hlgh·tlrroughput extruslOD . , .191
12.5.2 LLDPE blown·f!lm stability . 19l
12,5.3 Oliantcd PP slit tapa Ilblillation "._., ." . ,.192
12.5.4 Thin PP fibers . , .193
12,5.5 Hlgllly filled mast rbllt{;h production , , 193
12,6.6 Wood;>lru;tic "QIIlp;I i'eSecUon VI: Otber ModUicatio:ns of F-orm and FUnction
CHAPTER 13 Re dUCing Density: Polyolefin .Foams ."." _. " 197
13.1 Blowing (Dams: Ii:xteTIlBI agQJlts ,., ,.u., ' d' I_ I .__., ._ ., ,,._n ."., .,,.d, . ,.19"
13.1.1 Physical blowing .agents . 198
13,1.2 Chemi.C'lIJ blowing agents 19(1
'fable of Content s'Fable of Contents
13.2 Product soctms roqulrlng chclWeal
bloWing a\Jen1.8 200
13,2.1 Molded packaging and oonsumer products." ,. 200
13.2.2 Automotive lnOlclings _ _ . 2111
13,2.3 EKtruded construction products . , ." , 202
13.2." Foamlng in .otatlon.al melding . ,_ 202
13.3. Factors in blowing better foams , ",. " , ", 203·
CHAPTER 14 Coupling, Compatibilizing, Recycling, and
Biodegradallility,." , ,'" . , " ,. ,., .' 205
14.1 Coupling Mllrs ancUlb1ll'S with thQ PO mam . 20!;
14.,1.1 Tra14,1.2 Alternative ooup]jng aQ!onts .,",. . 20'7
14.2 ColIl):>illlbili;oots for inlegla.ling regrInd a):Imaterials, , ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,' , ,, ,' , ,, ,m., , " , , , ,, 209
14.3 Addjti1/es tbat promote PO biodegradability 2 12
CRAP'TER 15 Crosslinl!ing . , 215
10.1 Crosslinked PR: advantages and applications" .,, .,, 2l 5
15.2 Gf15.2.1 Pe.roxlde·JJased agents ., ., , ,. 2t7
l 5.2.2 Sila!1e·base<:l agents , .21S
15,2.3 Radiauon·inducederosslinking ". " 219
15.3 Fac lors ih cho[)Sing crosalinklng agents .2 t 9
CHAPTER 16 Stertli2a.ti-on and RadIation Resistance "'''" . 221
HLt S:tQIjJjzallon effects on PO products ." 221
16.1.1 Effects of wadia tiOtl sterilization :n
16.1.2 Effocts of EtO sl eril128tion .,, ,, , ." ., ., 223
1Il.1.3 Effects of ltigh·remperatme stenllZatlon 223
16.2 Additive solutiolls for sterilization-resistant POs " ,. ,',. 223.
CRAFTBR 17 AesthetiCS Enhancement anet Surface
Modillcation ., . 225
17.1 Anti-!lCIatcb additives ,' .,,. ,, . ' , , . ' ., ," . , 226
17.1.1 Conventional ani:i-)!;CtB.lcil approaehes 225
t 7.1.2 Evaluating- anti-scratch adcbtlvGs, ." 227
17,1.J Alt17.2 Antitogging agents .,, ., ., ,'" , . , ." . 229
17.3 AT\timictoblaJs ahd bioCidea , 229
17.4 Odor-fl)odifying additives" ., , ." .,',. , 231Table ·of Contents
Section VB:Conclusion: Incorporating Additives
CHAPTER 18 Adding Additives to Resin 235
18.1 HalldUng a,d!:litiyeB , ., ., .2:35
18,1.'1 Practical handling: issues ." , 236
18. 1.2 l:Iealtll and sa[ety issues . 236
18 ,2 Mlxmg and dispersmg additives into resin ." 237
11l.2.1 Screw-proceBsing developments , , ., . 2·37
18,2.2 ".Lean" compounding, ., , .,. ,., ., 238
18.3 lliending and reeding' additives . 238
18,4, Choosing the best form of an additive , , , , 239
REJ'ERENCES . , , , ," , .,' " . 2(13
INDEX . '-' " ."'" . u . I I n "'-' 'nn . n -. " n , ' .,.,- . 275
275
A
Acid scavengers and neutralizers, 30,
38, 167, 191
hydrotalcite antacids, 30, 40, 167
Additive interactions, 7, 38–40,
53–5, 75–6, 90, 132,
134–5, 167
Additives for plastics:
growth of, 11–12
handling of, 235–6
health and safety issues see Health,
safety, and the environment
mixing and feeding of see Tooling
and equipment, process
physical forms of, 235–6, 239–42
prices of, 12
Antiblocking additives, 99
blocking force, measuring, 184
clarity/slip antiblocks, 188
organic antiblocks, 186
silica, 185
diatomaceous earth, 185
(see also Silica)
talc, 99, 185
(see also Talc)
Antifogging agents, 228–9
evaluating effectiveness of, 229
Antimicrobial agents, 229–31
growth and use of, 230
Antioxidants (AOs), 25–43
factors determining selection of,
33–43
primary (radical scavengers),
29–31
hindered phenols, 29–31
hydroxylamines, 31
lactones (benzofuranones), 31
phenol-free AOs, 30–31
vitamin E (-tocopherol), 30,
43
secondary (hydroxide
decomposers), 29, 31–2
phosphite-based, 31–2
thioester-based (thiosynergists),
32
tris nonylphenyl phosphite
(TNPP), 32
Antistatic additives, 79–90
external agents, 81
factors for selecting, 89–91
food-use restrictions for, 90
migrating, 81–6, 89–90
amides (lauric diethanolamide;
LDA), 83–4
amines, ethoxylated (EA), 83–4,
90
glycerol esters, 83–4
glycerol monostearate (GMS),
83–4
polyglycerol esters (PGE), 83–4,
90
nonmigrating (permanent), 85–8
conductive fillers, 86–8
inherently conductive polymers
(ICPs), 86
inherently dissipating polymers
(IDPs), 85–6
Autoxidation, 26–32
B
Barium sulfate (barytes, blanc fixe),
103, 140
Biocides see Antimicrobial agents
Biodegradability additives, 212–13
C
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), 12,
69–70, 97–9
coatings on, 97
combined with other fillers,
69–70, 99
as nucleating agent, 161–2
Carbon black, 28, 39, 48, 58, 86–7
Chain scission, 26–7
Clarifiers see Nucleating agents and
clarifiers
Colorants, 139–156
black pigments, 141
carbon black, 141
(see also Carbon black)
delivery and form of, 148–9
dyes, 142, 144–5
factors in selecting, 151–6
external vs. internal colorants,
156
gloss, 153–4
metamerism, 152
interactions, 155
pigment attributes, 152–3
regulatory issues, 154–5
weatherability, 153–4
inorganic pigments, 142, 145
metallic colorants, 145–7
organic pigments, 142–5
pearlescent colorants, 147
mica flakes, 147
(see also Mica)
processing of, 150–1
special-effects colorants, 147–8
testing of color, 151–2
white pigments, 140–1
barium sulfate, 140
Index276 Index
Colorants (continued)
(see also Barium sulfate)
titanium dioxide, 140–1
(see also Titanium dioxide)
zinc sulfide, 140–1
Compatibilizers, 209–12
copolymers as, 211
coupling agents as, 211–12
see also Coupling agents
Compounding, 5–7, 33, 69, 96,
108–10, 115, 125–31, 133,
150, 193
“Lean” compounding, 238
trends, 12–13
see also Direct extrusion and
compounding
Coupling agents, 132, 205–9
acrylic acid, 111
for glass fibers, 111, 207
maleic anhydride-grafted
copolymer agents, 97, 111,
116–17, 206–8, 211
for nanocomposites, 208–9
for plant-based fibers, 116–17, 208
silane-based agents, 69, 98, 100,
111, 206–7
titanates and zirconates, 69,
88–9, 111, 178, 203, 207–9,
211–12
Crosslinking, 26–7, 39, 215–20
factors in processing, 219–20
mechanism for, 217
peroxide-based, 217–18
properties of XLPE, 216
radiation-induced, 219
silane-based, 218–19
D
Design of experiments (DoE), 6, 132,
189
Diatomaceous earth (see Silica)
Direct extrusion and compounding:
of long glass fibers, 115, 131
of wood fiber and flour, 117
E
Electromagnetic interference (EMI),
79–81, 88–91
additives for, 88–9
carbon black, 88
conductive fibers, 89
coupling agents, 88–9
metal fillers, 88
factors for selecting, 89–91
Electrostatic discharge (ESD), 79–91
additives for see Antistatic additives
Environmental issues (see Health,
safety, and the environment)
see also Recycling issues
F
Fiber reinforcement:
carbon, 89, 118–19
coupling agents for, 111, 116–17,
207
factors for selecting, 126–134
glass fiber, 12, 17, 110–15
direct extrusion (inline
compounding) of see Direct
extrusion
glass-mat thermoplastic (GMT),
114
long fiber, 112–15
molding of, 111, 114–15
orientation of fibers, 111–12, 114
short fiber, 111–12
plant-based, 6, 115–18
see also Wood-plastic
composites
polymer-based, 118–19
stainless steel, 89, 118
Fillers:
barium sulfate (see Barium sulfate)
calcium carbonate (see Calcium
carbonate)
carbon black (see Carbon black)
conductive, 86–8
see also Antistatic additives
factors for selecting, 121–134
flame-retarding, 12, 68–70, 75–6
glass flour and spheres (see Glass)
metal oxides, 103
see also Titanium dioxide
metallic, 102
see also Colorants
mica see Mica
nanofillers, 12, 15, 55, 76–7,
103–7, 127–8
graphenes, 87
health and safety questions, 104,
130, 237
nanoclays, 103–5
handling and forms of, 105
use with titanium dioxide,
133
effects on foaming, 204
exfoliation and dispersion of,
104–5, 127
stabilization for, 133
nanotubes, 87, 105–6
POSS, 106–7
silica see Silica
talc see Talc
wollastonite see Wollastonite
Flame retardants, 61–78
antimony oxide, 66, 77
ATH (aluminum trihydrate), 12,
68–70, 75–6
chlorinated paraffin, 66
concerns about, 62, 66–8
deca-BDE (decabromodiphenyl
ether), 65–7
EDAP (ethyl diamine phosphate),
71
factors determining selection of,
72–8
halogen alternatives, 66–8, 71–4,
77–8
halogen-based, 63–8
interactions with, 54, 75–6
intumescent, 70–2
markets and growth of, 62
MDH (magnesium (di-)
hydroxide), 68–70, 75–6
mechanisms of, 62–4, 68, 70
mineral-based, 68–70, 75–6
phosphorous-based, 70–2
smoke suppression, 74–5
testing for, 63
Foams and foaming agents, 197–204
azodicarbonamide (ADCA), 199,
203–4
blowing agents, 197–203
chemical (internal) blowing
agents, 199–203
inorganic endothermic agents,
199–200
microcapsule foams, 200
organic exothermic agents,
199
physical blowing agents, 198–9
expanded polypropylene, 202
factors in foaming, 203–4Index 277
nanoclay effects, 204
sodium bicarbonate, 199–200
structural foam, 201
G
Gas fading, 29, 37
Glass additives:
fiber see Fiber reinforcement
flour, 101
spheres, 101–2
H
HALS (hindered amine light
stabilizers), 30, 51–9
see also Ultraviolet light
stabilization
Health, safety, and the environment,
7–8, 236–7, 241
antimicrobial issues, 230
antioxidant issues, 41, 43
antistat issues, 90
colorant issues, 142, 154–6
flame retardant issues, 66–8,
72–4
nanofiller issues, 104, 130, 237
UV light stabilizer issues, 56, 60
Hydrotalcite antacids see Acid
scavengers
I
Impact modifiers, 107–10, 124–6
EPDM rubber, 108–9
ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR),
108–9
for film and sheet, 109–10, 125
plastomers, metallocene
(polyolefin elastomers),
108–9
styrenic copolymers, 110, 125
for TPO, 107–9, 125–6
TPVs (thermoplastic vulcanizates),
109
Inline compounding see Direct
extrusion
Insect and rodent repelling agents,
231
L
Lambert-Beer equation see Ultraviolet
light stabilization
“Lightweighting”, 6, 197, 201–3
Long-term heat aging (LTHA), 27–8,
68
Lubricants, 69
M
Masterbatches, use of, 5–6, 12–13,
129, 193, 236, 239–41
Mica, 100, 147
N
Nanocomposites see Fillers
Nano-scale additives see Fillers
“No dust blends” (NDBs), 38, 60,
236
Nucleating agents and clarifiers,
157–68
-phase nucleators, 161
clarifying nucleating agents
non-sorbitol, 162–4
sorbitol-based, 162
effects of, 158–64
on clarity, 162–4
on crystallization, 158, 161–2
on organoleptics, 162, 167
on physical properties, 158–62
factors in selecting, 164–8
evaluation of, 165
fillers as nucleators, 161–2
interactions with, 167–8
mechanism of, 157–8
melt sensitive vs. melt insensitive,
158
phosphate esters, 161–2
sodium benzoate, 158
trisamide, 161
O
Odor-modifying agents, 231–2
P
Plant-based additives, 6
see also Fiber reinforcement
Polyolefins (polyethylene,
polypropylene, TPO):
applications for, 13–21
agricultural films, 19, 60
automotive, 16–18, 57–8,
107–10, 112, 126, 131,
201–2, 226
blow molding, 14, 151, 165,
178–9
blown film, 90, 151–2, 166–7,
181, 189–92
construction, 18–19, 116, 202
extrusion, general, 14, 165–6,
191–2
fibers and tapes, 14, 37, 56–7,
192–3
film and sheet, 13, 59–60, 133,
151, 166
injection molding, 13, 151, 160,
165, 174–8, 200
packaging, 14–16, 123, 200
pipe, 18, 58, 77, 123, 216, 219
rotational moldings, 13, 60, 151,
179, 202, 219
wire & cable, 18–19, 39, 216
feedstocks for, 6, 10–11
growth of, 4, 10–11, 108
prices of, 10–12
volumes used, 3–4
Processing aids, 171–194
antiblocks see Antiblocking agents
die buildup, reducing, 191
for extrusion processes, 181–94
for filled compounds, 174, 177–8
for injection molding, 174, 175–8
for injection-stretch blow molding,
178–9
for masterbatch production, 193
for rotational molding, 179
for wood-plastic composites,
193–4
fluoropolymer-based aids, 190–1
interactions with, 54
lubricants, internal, 172–78
melt fracture, preventing, 189–91
mold release, 174, 175–7
nucleators, 179–80
see also Nucleating agents and
clarifiers
peroxide, 175
rheology, controlled, 175
silicone-based, 174–5, 178
slip agents see Slip agents
R
Radiation resistance in sterilization
treatments see Sterilization
resistance
Recycling issues, 6–7, 16, 17, 110,
119, 134, 168, 209–12278 Index
Resistivity, 80, 84
Rubber modifiers see Impact
modifiers
S
Safety issues see Health, safety, and
the environment
Scratch resistance additives, 226–8
effect of talc, 226–8
scratch tests, 227
silicone lubricants, 226–7
slip agents, 226–8
see also Slip agents
Screws see Tooling and equipment,
process
Silica, 101
diatomaceous earth, 101
see also Antiblocking agents
Slip agents:
as anti-scratch additives, 226–7
as film processing aids, 182–4
migrating, 182–4
nonmigrating, 184
Static decay time, 80, 84, 85
Stearates, metal (calcium and zinc),
167, 211, 236
as acid scavenger, 30, 38
as coating for calcium carbonate,
97–8
as processing lubricant, 173–4,
177–8, 191, 194
see also Acid scavengers
see also Processing aids
Sterilization treatment resistance,
221–4
additive formulations for, 223
effects on polyolefins, 221–3
retortable packaging, 223–4
role of stabilizers, 223–4
T
Talc, 12, 69–70, 98–9, 100, 122–4
combined with other fillers,
69–70, 99
as nucleating agent, 161–2
“ultrafine”, 99, 123
Thiosynergists (thioesters) see
Antioxidants, secondary
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), 12, 134,
177, 193, 207
interactions with antioxidants, 40
interactions with nanofillers, 133
as a pigment, 140–1, 147, 153,
155
in UV stabilization, 48–50, 53–4
TNPP (tris nonylphenyl phosphite)
see Antioxidants, secondary
Tooling and equipment, process,
241–2
abrasive wear of, 100, 111, 129
blending and feeding, 238–9
extruders, compounding, 237–8
lubrication of surfaces, 190–1
screw:
design, 237–8
torque reduction, 172–5, 191–2
U
Ultraviolet (UV) light stabilization,
45–60
chromophores, 47–8
degradation cycle, 47–8
factors determining selection of
stabilizer, 55–60
HALS (hindered amine light
stabilizers), 51–60
interactions of, 53–5
mechanism of, 52
NOR-based, 52, 58
varieties of, 52–60
Lambert-Beer equation, 51
UV absorbers (UVAs), 48–51
benzoates, 51
benzophenones (UVA-1), 50
benzotriazoles (UVA-2 and -3),
51
triazines (UVA-4), 51
UV blockers and screeners, 48–50
carbon black, 48
inorganic oxides, 48, 50, 53–4
UV quenchers, 51, 60
Vitamin E see Antioxidants
W
Weatherability, testing of, 56
Wollastonite, 99–100
combined with glass fiber, 100
Wood-plastic composites, 18–19, 59,
115–17, 193–4, 202, 240
direct extrusion (inline
compounding) of see Direct
extrusion


كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net
أتمنى أن تستفيدوا من محتوى الموضوع وأن ينال إعجابكم

رابط من موقع عالم الكتب لتنزيل كتاب Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO
رابط مباشر لتنزيل كتاب Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
كتاب Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 2 من اصل 1
 مواضيع مماثلة
-
» كتاب Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO
» كتاب Polypropylene - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook
» كتاب Fluoropolymer Additives
» كتاب The UHMWPE Handbook - Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene in Total Joint Replacement
» كتاب Plastics Additives - An Industry Guide - Volume I

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى :: المنتديات الهندسية :: منتدى الكتب والمحاضرات الهندسية :: منتدى الكتب والمحاضرات الهندسية الأجنبية-
انتقل الى: