كتاب Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery - Best Practices and Reliability
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery - Best Practices and Reliability

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery - Best Practices and Reliability    كتاب Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery - Best Practices and Reliability  Emptyالثلاثاء 19 سبتمبر 2023, 3:08 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery - Best Practices and Reliability
Edited by
Robert M. Gresham
George E. Totten

كتاب Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery - Best Practices and Reliability  L_a_m_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
1 Full Circle Reliability
Mark Castle . 1-1
2 The Degradation of Lubricants in Service Use
Malcolm F. Fox 2-1
3 Lubricant Properties and Test Methods
Larry A. Toms and Allison M. Toms . 3-1
4 Contamination Control and Failure Analysis
Jacek Stecki 4-1
5 Environmental Implications and Sustainability Concepts for Lubricants
Malcolm F. Fox 5-1
6 Lubrication Program Development and Scheduling
Mike Johnson 6-1
7 Lubricant Storage, Handling, and Dispensing
Mark Barnes 7-1
8 Conservation of Lubricants and Energy
Robert L. Johnson and James C. Fitch 8-1
9 Centralized Lubrication Systems — Theory and Practice
Paul Conley and Ayzik Grach 9-1
10 Used Oil Recycling and Environmental Considerations
Dennis W. Brinkman and Barbara J. Parry . 10-1
Index . I-1
Index
A
Abrasive wear, 4-23–26
Acidity and base reserve, 2-18–28
base number measurement, 2-18–25
sources and effects of acidity and, 2-25–26
sources of acidity-induced degradation and, 2-18–19
Acid number, 3-9–10
color indicator and, 2-26
conductimetric determination of, 2-27–28
determination, 2-26–27
sampling and analytical error determination of, 2-27
Activity sequencing, 6-25–27
Additives, 2-4
bearings and, 6-8
depletion, antiwear, 8-7
friction, 5-17
metals in unused, 3-2
production, 5-12–13
storage stability, 7-3
Adhesion of solid film lubricants, 3-28
Adhesive wear, 4-20–22
Air entrapment control, 6-21
Alkalis, 2-19–20
Aniline point, 3-2–3
Antioxidant reserve, 2-4, 2-5
Antiwear additive depletion, 8-7
Application method, lubricant, 6-15
Arrested pitting, 4-23
Ash. See also Particulates
content, 2-16–17
defined, 2-13
Asphalt, 10-6
Atomic emission spectroscopy, 3-30
B
Balance, contamination, 4-32–44
Dynamic Contamination Control (DCC), 4-38–44
OSU model, 4-35–38
Barrels, storage, 7-5–6
Base number, 3-9–10. See also Acidity and base reserve
color indicator determination of, 2-22
conductimetric determination of, 2-22–24
determination precision, 2-24–25
hydrochloric acid determination of, 2-20–22
measurement, 2-19–20, 2-25
perchloric acid determination of, 2–22
Batch process data collection, 6-3, 6-4
“Bath-tub” curve, 2-5–6
Bearings, 6-7–15
Benzene, 10-5
Best practices, 6-1
Bingham pycnometer, 3-5
Biodegradability of lubricants, 5-27
Bituminous materials, 2-29–30
Blackbox power model, 4-8
Bleed, oil, 3-25
Blotter tests, 2-6–7
Boilers, commercial, 10-5
Boundary film-strength properties, 8-6
Brookfield rotary viscometer, 3-17–18
Built-in contaminants, 4-28
Bulk
modulus, 8-6
tanks, 7-4–5, 7-9
Burners, industrial, 10-5
C
Carbon residue, 3-4
Carrying capacity, 5-1
Case studies of degraded lubricants, 2-34–38
Catalytic cracking feedstock, 10-6
Catastrophic failure, 4-12
Causes of failures, 4-13–14
Cavitation wear, 4-28
Centralized grease lubrication systems, series progressive
system, 9-5–12
Chains, 6-17
Chlorine content, 3-4
Chromatography, 2-33
Cleanliness, fluid, 3-31–32, 4-3, 7-1–2
Cloud and pour point, 3-12–13
Color
ASTM test, 3-3–4
indicator
I-1I-2 Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery: Best Practices and Reliability
acid number by, 2-26
base number by, 2-22
Combustion efficiency losses, 8-7, 8-8
Commercial boilers, 10-5
Computerized maintenance management systems
(CMMS), 6-3
Conductimetric titration, 2-22–24, 2-27–28
Cone penetration test, 3-21
Conservation of energy, 5-14, 8-4
energy-conserving fluid properties and, 8-5–6
environmental stewardship and, 8-9
particle contamination and, 8-6–7, 8-8
role of lubrication practices in, 8-8
role of machine design in, 8-9
wear and, 8-6
Conservation of lubricants. See also Consumption
of lubricants
improved manufacturing and formulation for, 8-1–2
lubricant utilization types and, 8-3–4
through packaging and handling, 8-2–3
trends in, 8-1
Consumption of lubricants, 5-13–17, 10-3.
See also Recycling
Contamination
balance, 4-32–44
built-in, 4-28
conservation and, 8-2–3
grease, 7-7–8
ingested, 4-28
internally generated, 4-29
maintenance generated, 4-29
OSU model, 4-35–38
particle, 8-6–7, 8-8
recycling and, 10-4–5
simulation, 4-43–44
storage stability and, 7-3–4
water, 7-3, 7-14
Contamination control
definitions in, 4-1–2
failure and criticality analysis in, 4-5–6
functions of engineering system and, 4-6–11
importance of, 4-2–4
monitoring procedures, 4-44–54
relubrication programs and, 6-18–22
training, 4-53–54
tribological analysis in, 4-14–28
types of mechanical failures and, 4-11–12
Continental level sustainable development, 5-2–3
Continuous process data collection, 6-3, 6-4
Copper corrosion resistance, 3-4–5, 3-21–22
Corrosion, 2-25, 2-33
copper, 3-4–5, 3-21–22
fretting, 4-28
of solid film lubricants, 3-28
wear, 4-27–28
Costs of recycling, 5-29
Counting, particle, 3-31–32
Couplings, 6-17
Criticality
failure analysis and, 4-5–6
operating environment and, 6-2–3
Crossporting, 9-7, 9-11, 9-20
Cutting wear, 4-26, 4-26
D
Data collection
criteria, 6-5–6
strategies, 6-3–4
Dead-end lubrication systems, 9-29
“Dean and Stark” method, 2-29–30
Delamination, 4-27
Delivery, lubricant, 7-1–4
Demulsibility, 2-33, 3-5–6
Density, 2-31–32, 3-5
Design
machine, 8-9
progressive system, 9-11
single line system, 9-20
storeroom, 7-8
two-line system, 9-30
Detection procedures, 4-47, 4-49–50, 4-51
Deterioration of lubricants
acidity and base reserve, 2-18–28
“bath-tub” curve, 2-5–6, 10-11
case studies of, 2-34–38
controlled, 1-7, 2-2
effects of, 1-7–9, 2-2–4
field tests for, 2-6–8
flash point, 2-32
laboratory tests for, 2-8–31
minor methods of investigating, 2-31–34
physical causes of, 2-3
system corrosion with, 2-33
Detroit Diesel Soot Test, 2-13
Diagnosis procedures, 4-47, 4-51–52
Diesel engines
fuel sulfur content, 5-3–4
heavy-duty, 2-34–35
Direct observation of lubricant condition, 2–6
Discharge, electrical, 4-28
Dispensing lubricants, 7-8–11
Dispersancy measurements, 2-7
Dispersive qualities of fluid, 4-49
Distillation
sequential, 10-7, 10-8
water determination by, 2-29–30
Divider valves, 9-7
Downtime dependent tasks, 6-25
Dropping point of grease, 3-22–23
Dual-line lubrication systems, 9-22–27
Dynamic Contamination Control (DCC), 4-38–44
multi-path systems, 4-41–43
simulation, 4-43–44
single path model, 4-39–41
E
“Earth Summit,” 5-2
Ecosystems, 5-1Index I-3
Effects of lubricant deterioration, 1-7–9, 2-2–4
Elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) condition, 6-9
Electrical discharge, 4-28
Electric reversing 4-way valves, 9-27
Electro-corrosive wear, 4-28
Element bearings, 6-7–15
Emulsibility, 3-5–6, 5-26
End-of-line systems, 9-28–29
Energy conservation, 5-14, 8-4
energy-conserving fluid properties and, 8-5–6
environmental stewardship and, 8-9
fluid properties and, 8-5–6
particle contamination and, 8-6–7, 8-8
role of lubrication practices in, 8-8
role of machine design in, 8-9
wear and, 8-6
Engineering system functions, 4-6–11
Engines
gas-fueled, 2-36
grease, 2-35–36
heavy-duty diesel, 2-34–35
Environment, the
benefits of lubricant and hydraulic formulations
for, 5-13–17
environmental drivers and, 5-1–9, 5-10
Environmental Management Systems (EMS)
and, 5-4–7
future of, 5-27–29
implications of lubricants and hydraulic fluids for,
5-10–13
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and, 5-4, 5-7–9, 5-10
lubricant and hydraulic fluids as wastes and, 5-18–26
pollution by used lubricants, 5-26–27
regulations and recycling, 10-10–11
stewardship of, 8-9
sustainability and sustainable development and, 5-1–4
Environmental Management Systems (EMS), 5-4–7
Erosive wear, 4-26–27
Ethylene glycol, 10-5
European Union (EU), 5-2–4, 5-18–20
Evaporation, oil, 3-25
Extended life lubricants, 8-3
External causes of lubricant degradation, 2-3
Extreme-pressure properties
of grease, 3-23
of oil(s), 3-6–7
F
Failure mode analysis (FMA), 4-5
Failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA),
4-5
Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), 4-5–6
Failures
causes of, 4-13–14
and criticality analysis, 4-5–6
hydraulic and lubrication, 4-30–32
mechanical, 4-11–12, 4-29–32
phases of, 4-12
Falex device, 3-6, 3-20, 3-27
Falling ball viscometer, 7-13–14
Fatigue, surface, 4-22–23
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), 4-10–11
Field tests for lubricant deterioration, 2-6–8
Film lubricants, solid, 3-28
Filtration
contamination control, 6-21–22
efficiency, 4-48
location of filters, 4-49
ratio, 4-40–41
systems, 4-3
Fire point. See Flash and fire points
Flash and fire points, 2-32, 3-7–8
Fluids. See Hydraulic fluids
Foaming of lubricants, 2-32, 3-8
Follower plates, 9-32–33
Formulation, lubricant, 5-11–13, 8-1–2
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 2-25,
2-30–31, 2-33, 3-30–31
Frequency, lubricant application, 6-15
Fretting corrosion, 4-28
Friction, 1-1, 5-17
losses, 8-7
Fuels
diesel, 5-3–4
economy and particle contamination, 8-6–7, 8-8
gas, 2-36, 5-15–17
used/waste lubricants as, 5-24
Functional fluids, 8-3
Functional units, 5-8
Function Analysis System Technique (FAST), 4-9
Functions of engineering systems, 4-6–11
G
Gas chromatography, 2-33
Gas-fueled engines, 2-36, 5-15–17
Gas turbines, 2-27
Gears
fatigue wear, 4-23, 4-24, 4-25
lubricant test slates, 6-23
relubrication, 6-17
tests, 3-20
Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), 2-33
Global level sustainable development, 5-2
Gravity, 2-31–32
Grease. See also Lubricants
centralized lubrication systems, 9-5–30
-channeling properties, 8-6
conservation, 8-3
consistency, 8-6
contamination, 7-7–8
lubricated bearings, 6-13–15
pumping of viscous materials and, 9-31–36
semisolid, 3-20–28
cone penetration test, 3-21
copper corrosion resistance, 3-21–22
dropping point of, 3-22–23
extreme-pressure properties of, 3-23I-4 Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery: Best Practices and Reliability
leakage tendencies of wheel bearing, 3-23–24
life performance of, 3-24
low-temperature torque characteristics, 3-24–25
oil evaporation and oil bleed test, 3-25
oil separation from lubricating, 3-25–26
oxidation stability, 3-26
rust prevention characteristics, 3-26–27
samples, degraded, 2-35–36
water wash out characteristics, 3-27
wear prevention/load-carrying properties, 3-27–28
solid, 3-28–29, 8-3–4
storage, 7-7–8
using the correct, 9-1–5
Green Chemistry, 5-11
Guidelines, absolute level and trend, 4-50–51
H
Halogenated compounds, 10-4–5
Hazard analysis (HA), 4-5
Heaters, space, 10-5
Heat exchangers, 6-20
Heavy-duty diesel engines, 2-34–35
High-temperature shear stability, 8-5
Hydraulic and lubrication failures, 4-30–32
Hydraulic fluids, 2-15–16, 2-37, 3-20
addition, 4-49
change intervals, 4-49
cleanliness, 3-31–32, 4-3, 7-1–2
consumption of, 5-13–17
contamination control and, 4-2–4
debris, 4-28
dispersive qualities of, 4-49
energy-conserving properties, 8-5–6
environmental benefits of formulations for, 5-13–17
environmental implications, 5-10–13
locations of slow moving, 4-49
production, 5-11–13
synthetic, 8-3
as waste, 5-18–26, 5-27–28
working lifetimes of, 5-14–17
Hydraulic piston seal points, 6-19
Hydraulic reversing 4-way valves, 9-25–27
Hydraulic systems, relubrication of, 6-17–18
Hydrocarbons, 2-4, 2-7
Hydrochloric acid titration, 2-20–22
Hydrolytic stability, 3-8
I
Incineration of wastes, 5-24–25
Incipient failure, 4-12
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) systems, 2-10–12
Industrial burners, 10-5
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, 3-30–31
Infrared measurements, 2-14
Ingested contamination, 4-28
Injectors, quick venting single line, 9-16–19
Input-output relations, 4-8, 5-8–9, 5-10
Insolubles, pentane, 3-11–12
Instrumental analytical techniques, 2-33–34
Insuring product integrity, 7-11–14
Integrity, insuring product, 7-11–14
Interfacial tension, 2-33, 3-9
Intergenerational equity, 5-1
Internally generated contamination, 4-29
Internals causes of lubricant degradation, 2-3
Intragenerational equity, 5-1
Inventory control, 7-2–4
J
Johannesburg Summit, 5-2
Journal bearings, 6-7–15
K
Karl Fischer titration, 2-30, 3-31, 3-33
Key Process Indicator (KPI), 1-3
L
Laboratory tests for lubricant deterioration, 2-8–31
acidity and base reserve, 2-18–28
particulates and ash, 2-12–17
trace metals, 2-10–12
viscosity, 2-9–10
Landfill disposal of waste, 5-25–26
Lead, 10-5
Leakage tendencies of wheel bearing grease, 3-23–24
Lean manufacturing, 1-1–2
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), 5-4, 5-7–9, 5-10, 5-11,
10-11
Life performance of grease products, 3-24
Lincoln Ventmeter, 9-4
Load-carrying properties, 3-19–20, 3-27–28, 3-29
Loop systems, 9-29
Low-pressure volatility of lubricants, 3-9
Low-temperature torque characteristics of grease,
3-24–25
Lubricants. See also Grease; Oil(s)
acidity and base reserve, 2-18–28
antioxidant reserve, 2-4, 2-5
case studies of degraded, 2-34–38
consumption of, 5-13–17, 10-3
corrosion with degraded, 2-25, 2-33
demulsibility and interfacial tension of degraded, 2-33
direct observation of, 2-6
dispensing, 7-8–11
disposal of used, 5-25–26
energy conservation and, 5-14
environmental benefits of formulations for, 5-13–17
environmental implications, 5-10–13
extended life, 8-3
flash point of degraded, 2-32
foaming, 2-32, 3-8
friction minimization by, 1-1Index I-5
integrity, insuring, 7-11–14
laboratory tests of, 2-8–31
manufacturing and delivery, 7-1–2
monitoring, 1-7, 2-2
packaging, 7-2, 8-2–3
polluting effects of, 5-26–27
production formulations, 5-11–13
reclamation, 5-22, 10-1–2
recycling of, 5-9, 5-10, 5-21–24, 5-28–29
standards tests for, 3-1–2
storage, 7-4–8
stability and inventory control, 7-2–4
synthetic, 8-3
trace metals in, 2-3, 2-10–12
utilization and conservation, 8-3–4
viscosity, 2-6, 2-9–10
as waste, 5-18–26, 5-27–28
water content, 2-8, 2-28–29
working lifetimes of, 5-14–17
Lubrication systems. See also Relubrication programs
centralized grease, 9-5–30
design considerations, 9-11, 9-20, 9-30
dual-line, 9-22–27
metering valves, 9-23–25
modular, 9-7–11
monitoring, 9-11, 9-20–21
philosophy of, 9-1
pumping of grease and viscous materials,9-31–36
reversing 4-way valves, 9-25–27
single line parallel, 9-12–22
strengths and weaknesses, 9-12, 9-21–22, 9-30
two-line, 9-27–30
using the correct grease in, 9-1–5
M
Machines, industrial
activity sequencing, 6-25–27
bearings, 6-7–15
best practices and relubrication programs for, 6-1
contamination control in, 4-2–4
criticality and operating environment, 6-2–3
data collection
criteria, 6-5–6
strategies, 6-3–4
design role in conservation, 8-9
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and, 5-8–9, 5-10
proactive maintenance of, 1-1–5, 4-45, 4-46, 4-49–50
Maintenance generated contamination, 4-29
Manufacturing
conservation of lubricants through improved, 8-1–2
and delivery, lubricant, 7-1–2
lean, 1-1–2
Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF), 1-3
Mean Time to Repair (MTTR), 1-3
Mechanical failures, 4-11–12, 4-29–32
Mesh oscuration particles, 2-15–16
Metals
additive, 3-2
materials and lubricant degradation, 2-3
toxic, 10-5
trace, 2-10–12
in unused oils, 3-2
Metering valves, 9-23–25
Misuse failure, 4-12
Modeling, 4-7–8
Modular lubrication systems, 9-7–11
Modular valves, 9-7–11
Modulus, bulk, 8-6
Moisture control, 6-20
Monitoring, system, 9-11
single line parallel, 9-20–21
Monitoring procedures, contamination control, 4-44–54
detection, 4-49–50
diagnosis, 4-51–52
guidelines in, 4-50–51
postmortem, 4-53
prognosis, 4-52–53
results of detection, 4-51
sampling, 4-48–49
symptoms, 4-50
Multi-path systems, Dynamic Contamination Control,
4-41–43
N
National level sustainable development, 5-3
Neutralization number. See Acid number; Base number
Non-Newtonian properties, 8-5
O
Octane rating decrease (ORD), 2-17
Oil(s). See also Lubricants
additive metals in unused, 3-2
analysis requirements, 6-22–25
aniline point, 3-2–3
carbon residue, 3-4
chlorine content, 3-4
cleanliness, 3-31–32
as common contaminants, 10-4–5
condition tests, 3-30–33
copper corrosion resistance, 3-4–5
density and specific gravity, 3-5
emulsibility and demulsibility, 3-5–6
evaporation and oil bleed, 3-25
extreme-pressure properties of, 3-6–7
flash and fire points, 3-7–8
foaming, 3-8
hydrolytic stability, 3-8
interfacial tension, 3-9
low-pressure volatility of, 3-9
pentane insolubles of, 3-11–12
pour and cloud points, 3-12–13
recycling of, 5-9, 5-10, 5-23, 5-28–29, 10-1–13
refractive index, 3-14
re-refining of, 10-7, 10-9
separation from lubricating grease, 3-25–26I-6 Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery: Best Practices and Reliability
storage stability, 7-3–4
sulfur content, 3-15–16
tests, 3-2–20
uses for used, 10-5–6
using the correct, 9-2–3
viscosity, 3-17–19
wear prevention/load-carrying properties, 3-19–20
Oklahoma State University (OSU) model of
contamination, 4-35–38
One-shot containers, 7-6–7
Operating environment, machine, 6-2–3
Optical particulate measurements, 2-13–14
Organic acids, 2-18–19
Original Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), 1-3
Oxidation, 2-3–4, 8-9
stability, 3-10–11, 3-26
P
Packaging, lubricant, 7-2, 8-2–3
Particles
balance, 4-34–38
counting, 3-31–32
cycle rate, 4-49
size distribution, 2-15
Particulates. See also Ash
analyses, 2-13–17
defined, 2-13
in hydraulic fluids, 2-15–16
infrared measurements, 2-14
loss, 4-49
in lubricants, 2-6, 2-7–8, 2-12
optical measurements, 2-13–14
sampling, 4-46
Passive shields, 6-19
Pentane insolubles of lubricating oils, 3-11–12
Perchloric acid titration, 2-22
Performance Availability (PA), 1-3
Performance Efficiency (PE), 1-3
Phases of failures, 4-12
Philosophy of lubrication, 9-1
Pitting, 4-23
Plain bearings, 6-7–15
Planned availability data collection, 6-4
Planning and scheduling management, relubrication
programs, 6-28
Polishing wear, 4-28
Pollution
effects of used lubricant, 5-26–27
prevention/lifecycle assessment, 10-11
Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs), 10-4
Positive head pressure, 9-32–33
Postmortem, 4-47, 4-53
Pour and cloud point, 3-12–13
Practice type scheduling, 6-27
Precipitation number, 3-13–14
Precision of base number determinations, 2-24–25
Predictive Maintenance (PdM), 1-3–4, 4-44, 4-46
Pressure
positive head, 9-32–33
pressurized reservoir and, 9-33
primer, 9-33–36
-viscosity (PV) coefficient, 8-5
Preventive Maintenance (PM), 1-2–3
Primer, pressure, 9-33–36
Proactive maintenance of industrial machinery, 1-1–5,
4-45, 4-46, 4-49–50
Production
demand flow, 6-4
formulations lubricant and hydraulic fluid, 5-11–13
Prognosis, 4-47, 4-52–53
Progressive pitting, 4-23
Pumping of grease and viscous materials, 9-31–36
Q
Quality control (QC), 7-12–14
Quality Rate (QR), 1-3
Quick venting single line injectors, 9-16–19
R
Random failures, 4-12
Reaction rates, 2-4
Reclamation, 5-22, 10-1–2. See also Recycling
Recovery, waste, 5-21–24
Recycling, 5-9, 5-10, 5-21–24, 5-28–29, 10-11–13
common contaminants, 10-4–5
environmental regulation and, 10-10–11
pollution prevention/lifecycle assessment and, 10-11
quantifying resource in, 10-3
technologies, 10-6–9
terminology, 10-2–3
typical uses in, 10-5–6
Reduction, waste, 5-20–21
Refractive index, 3-14
Regulations, environmental, 10-10–11
Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), 1-2
Relubrication programs. See also Lubrication systems
activity sequencing, 6-25–27
best practices, 6-1
contamination control requirements, 6-18–22
data collection
criteria, 6-5–6
strategies, 6-3–4
lubricant type, quantity, frequency, application
method, and time stamp decisions in, 6-6–18
machine criticality and operating environment in,
6-2–3
oil analysis requirements, 6-22–25
planning and scheduling management, 6-28
Re-refining of oil, 10-6, 10-9
Residues from recycling, 5-23–24
Responsible care, 5-4–6
Reversing 4-way valves, 9-25–27
Road oiling, 10-6
Rotating pressure vessel oxidation test (RPVOT), 3-11
Runtime dependent tasks, 6-25
Rust prevention characteristics, 3-14–15, 3-26–27Index I-7
S
Sampling procedures, 4-46, 4-48–49
Saponification (Sap) number, 3-15
Scheduling
activity, 6-25–27
and planning management, relubrication, 6-28
Sealing methods for pumping viscous materials, 9-31–32
Semisolid grease
cone penetration test, 3-21
copper corrosion resistance, 3-21–22
dropping point of, 3-22–23
extreme-pressure properties of, 3-23
leakage tendencies of wheel bearing, 3-23–24
life performance of, 3-24
low-temperature torque characteristics, 3-24–25
oil evaporation and oil bleed test, 3-25
oil separation from lubricating, 3-25–26
oxidation stability, 3-26
rust prevention characteristics, 3-26–27
samples, degraded, 2-35–36
water wash out characteristics, 3-27
wear prevention/load-carrying properties, 3-27–28
Separation of oil from lubricating grease, 3-25–26
Sequencing, activity, 6-25–27
Series progressive system, 9-5–12
Shaft seal points, 6-19
Shear stability, high-temperature, 8-5
Simulation, contamination, 4-43–44
Single line parallel systems, 9-12–22
design considerations in, 9-20
quick venting single line injectors, 9-16–19
strengths and weaknesses, 9-21–22
system monitoring, 9-20–21
Single path model, Dynamic Contamination Control,
4-39–41
Sizes, particle, 2-15
Sludges, 2-3
Solid grease, 3-28–29, 8-3–4
Space heaters, 10-5
Specific gravity, 2-31–32, 3-5
Spectroscopy
atomic emission, 3-30
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 2-25, 2-30–31,
2-33, 3-30–31
infrared (IR), 3-30–31
spectroscopic oil analysis programs (SOAP), 2-10
x-ray fluorescence (XRF), 3-32
Stability
high-temperature shear, 8-5
hydrolytic, 3-8
lubricant storage, 7-2–4
oxidation, 3-10–11, 3-26
thermal, 3-16–17
Stewardship, environmental, 8-9
Stiction losses, 8-7
Storage, lubricant
barrels, 7-5–6
bulk tank, 7-4–5, 7-8, 7-9
grease, 7-7–8
insuring product integrity and, 7-11–14
one-shot containers, 7-6–7
stability, 7-2–4
storeroom design, 7-8
top-off containers, 7-10–11
totes, 7-5, 7-6
Storeroom design, 7-8
Sulfated ash, 2-16–17
Sulfur content, 3-15–16, 5-3–4
Sumps, 6-21–22
Surface fatigue, 4-22–23
Sustainability and sustainable development
concepts of, 5-1
Environmental Management Systems (EMS)
and, 5-4–7
at global, continental, and national levels, 5-1–4
Synthetic lubricants, 8-3
System boundaries, 5-8–9, 5-10
T
Tanks, bulk, 7-4–5, 7-8, 7-9
Tests
grease, 3-28–29
lubricating oil, 2-20
additive metals, 3-2
aniline point, 3-2–3
carbon residue, 3-4
cone penetration, 3-21
copper corrosion resistance, 3-4–5
density, 2-31–32, 3-5
emulsibility and demulsibility, 3-5–6
extreme-pressure properties, 3-6–7
flash and fire points, 3-7–8
foaming, 3-8
hydrolytic stability, 3-8
interfacial tension, 3-9
low-pressure volatility, 3-9
lubricant performance, 2-31
neutralization number, 3-9–10
oxidation stability, 3-10–11
pentane insolubles, 3-11–12
pour and cloud point, 3-12–13
precipitation number, 3-13–14
refractive index, 3-14
rust prevention, 3-14–15
saponification number, 3-15
specific gravity, 2-31–32, 3-5
standard, 3-1–2
sulfur content, 3-15–16
thermal stability, 3-16–17
viscosity, 2-6, 2-9–10, 3-17–19
wear prevention/load-carrying properties, 3-19–20
oil condition, 3-30–33, 6-22–25
atomic emission spectroscopy, 3-30
infrared (IR) spectroscopy, 3-30–31
particle counting, 3-31–32
quality control, 7-12–14
semisolid grease, 3-20–28
copper corrosion resistance, 3-21–22
dropping point of, 3-22–23I-8 Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery: Best Practices and Reliability
leakage tendencies of wheel bearing, 3-23–24
life performance, 3-24
low-temperature torque characteristics of, 3-24–25
oil evaporation and oil bleed, 3-25
oil separation from, 3-25–26
oxidation stability, 3-26
viscosity, 3-20–21
wear prevention/load-carrying properties,
3-27–28
solid grease, 3-28–29
Textile materials and lubricant degradation, 2-3
Thermal shock sensitivity of solid film lubricants, 3-29
Thermal stability, 3-16–17
Thermodynamics, 5-8–9, 5-16–17
Thermography, 1-4
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-13
Thin layer chromatography (TLC), 2-6–7
Time stamp, 6-15–18
Titration
conductimetric, 2-22–24, 2-27–28
hydrochloric acid, 2-20–22
Karl Fischer, 2-30, 3-31, 3-33
perchloric acid, 2-22
Toluene insolubles, 3-11–12
Top-off containers, 7-10–11
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), 1-3
Totes, 7-5, 7-6
Toxic metals, 10-5
Trace metals, 2-10–12
Training, contamination control, 4-53–54
Tribological analysis, 4-14–20, 5-14
Two-line lubrication systems, 9-27–30
U
Ultrasonic testing, 1-4
United Kingdo, 5-3, 5-18–20, 5-27
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment
(UNCHE), 5-2
V
Valdez Principles, 5-6–7
Valves
design considerations for, 9-11
divider, 9-7
metering, 9-23–25
modular, 9-7–11
reversing 4-way, 9-25–27
Vehicles, 5-15–17
Vent ports, 6-19
Vibration analysis, 1-3–4
Viscosity and viscosity index, 2-6, 2-9–10, 3-17–19,
7-13–14
for bearings, 6-9, 6-10–13
churning losses, 8-7
energy-conserving fluid properties, 8-5
of greases, 3-20–21
W
Wash out characteristics, water, 3-27
Wastes, lubricant and hydraulic fluids as, 5-18–26,
5-27–28
Water
contamination, 7-3, 7-14
content
by FTIR spectrophotometry, 2-30–31
in lubricants, 2-8, 2-28–29
determination by Karl Fischer distillation, 2-30,
3-31, 3-33
in petroleum products and bituminous materials by
distillation, 2-29–30
wash out characteristics, 3-27
Wear
abrasive, 4-23–26
adhesive, 4-20–22
cavitation, 4-28
combustion efficiency losses, 8-7, 8-8
conservation and, 8-6
and conservation of machines by lubricants, 5-14
corrosive, 4-27–28
cutting, 4-26, 4-26
delamination, 4-27
electro-corrosive, 4-28
erosive, 4-26–27
and load-carrying capacity of solid lubricants, 3-29
normal, 2-5–6, 10-11
polishing, 4-28
prevention/load-carrying properties, 3-19–20,
3-27–28
progression of, 4-16, 4-18
sources of, 4-16, 4-18
surface fatigue, 4-22–23
terminology, 4-19–20
tribological analysis of, 4-14–20
Wear-in failures, 4-12
Wear-out failures, 4-12
Wheel bearing grease, leakage tendencies of, 3-23–24
Whole machine scheduling, 6-26
Working lifetimes and lubricants and hydraulic fluids,
5-14–17
World Commission on Environment and Development,
5-2
World Summit on Sustainable Development, 5-2
X
X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), 2-34
X-ray diffraction (XRD/XRF), 2-33, 2-34
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, 3-32


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» كتاب Improving Machinery Reliability - Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants
» كتاب Lubrication and Reliability Handbook
» كتاب Improving Machinery Reliability (3rd Eedition)
» كتاب Practical Lubrication for Industrial Facilities - Second Edition
» كتاب Industrial Tribology - The Practical Aspects of Friction, Lubrication and Wear

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